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Headword: *)aba/skanos
Adler number: alpha,22
Translated headword: unprejudiced
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning someone/something] deceit-free, envy-free.
"He [Mithradates] became an unprejudiced witness to Caesar of the achievements of Antipater."[1]
Greek Original:
*)aba/skanos: a)yeudh\s, a)nepi/fqonos. o( de\ ma/rtus a)ba/skanos gi/netai pro\s *kai/sara tw=n *)antipa/trou katorqwma/twn.
For the etymology of the (rare) headword adjective cf. beta 167, beta 168, beta 169.
[1] Josephus, Jewish War 1.192 (see web address 1 below). For Antipater, father of Herod the Great, see OCD(4) s.v. Antipater(6), pp.107-8. 'Caesar' is Julius Caesar. Mithradates is not one of the six kings of Pontus who bore that name (cf. mu 1044) but the half-caste son of the last of them: a.k.a. M. of Pergamum.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; definition; ethics; geography; historiography; history
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:59:41.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Altered wording, added note and link.) on 29 July 2000@23:43:06.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 27 February 2003@07:58:27.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; augmented notes and keywords; raised status) on 27 August 2007@09:00:04.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 25 March 2008@00:17:46.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 19 December 2011@06:13:12.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 20 December 2011@00:53:00.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:07:55.
David Whitehead (expanded a note; tweaks and cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@09:05:10.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 2 October 2018@02:01:48.

Headword: *)abraa/m
Adler number: alpha,69
Translated headword: Abraham
Vetting Status: high
The first among patriarchs; [it was he] in whom the Hebrew people took pride at first, before they rebelled against God, became estranged from Him, and shed upon themselves the blood of His Only-Begotten Son.[1] This man came out of the land of the Chaldeans, who devoted their entire lives to the stars and heavenly bodies. Trained, therefore, as was their ancestral custom, to observe the motions of the heavenly bodies[2] he surmised that the masterwork underlying this visible creation was not to be found in such objects, but had a Creator who set them in motion, gave harmony to their paths, and ordered the entire universe. Because of the greatness and beauty of the things He had made, Abraham, as it was likely, ceased devoting himself to gazing out into the heavens nor did he squander his passion in their pursuit. Instead, by surmounting the celestial vaults and transcending all the intelligible realm beyond the cosmos, Abraham no longer stood apart from the One sought, until finally the Creator for whom he yearned manifested Himself to Abraham in likenesses[3] and forms. And in this way the Unseen and Invisible revealed Himself. And [God] sent him forth from his own land as a wanderer and settled him in the land of the Canaanites. There he dwelled, now being in about his ninety-ninth year.[4] Until this time, he was childless; then [God] made him the father of the miraculous and blessed Isaac that he might have a first-born, only-begotten son[5] -- prefiguring the mystical image of the First-Born, Only-Begotten Son.[6] This was an exceedingly singular[7] honor bestowed upon Abraham, for the Creator favored him with the titles Servant, Beloved, and Father by flesh of the Only Begotten Son of Him who fashioned the entire universe.[8] Abraham invented sacred writing and devised the language of which Hebrew children used to have a command, as they were this man's disciples and descendants. Moreover, the Greek alphabet received its impetus from this script,[9] even if Greeks amused themselves by forming the letters differently. Proof of this is in the pronunciation of the first and preeminent letter "alpha" because it derives its name from the Hebrew "aleph" by way of the Blessed, First, and Eternal Name.[10] So too, the Greeks through Abraham came to possess books on dream interpretation. Witness to this is Joseph, the truly wondrous descendant of Abraham, who interpreted Pharoah's dreams as they were going to turn out in fact. In this, Philo, the Jewish philosopher, will be my confirmation via his work Life of the Statesman.[11] About Philo it is said "Philo platonizes and Plato philonizes."[12]
The practice of idolatry extended from Serug[13] to the time of Abraham's father Tharron.[14] Thus, when Abraham was 14 years old[15] and deemed worthy of divine knowledge, he upbraided his father, "Why do you lead the people astray for harmful gain (that is, with idols)? There is no other God but the One in heaven, the Creator of the entire universe." Yet seeing the people serving earthly things, he embarked on a tireless quest, seeking out with his pious heart the Truly Existing God.[16] But seeing that the sky is sometimes light and sometimes dark, he said to himself, "That is not God." Observing similarly the sun and the moon, the one obscured and eclipsed and the other waning and occluded, he said, "Those are not gods either." True, he was trained in astronomy by his father, but Abraham all the same was puzzled by the motions of the stars and scornful of them. But God appeared to him and said, "Go out of your land and leave your kinsmen."[17] Abraham took his father's idols, smashing some and incinerating others. Then he went away with his father out of the land of the Chaldeans. And they came to Haran,[18] where his father died. He left there, obeying the Lord's word, with his wife Sarah and his nephew Lot[19] and all their possessions, and came to the promised land Canaan, which the Canaanites had seized and settled in. When a famine arose, Abraham left the land of the Canaanites and went into Egypt, where Abimelech[20] the king took his wife Sarah. God struck terror into Abimelech and paralysed his limbs, saying "Give this man back his wife, because he is a prophet and will pray for you, and you will live. But if you do not give her back, know that you and your entire household will die." When Abraham got his wife back, undefiled, he prayed, and Abimelech and his household were cured of the paralysis.[21] After this the king, honoring Abraham and devoting himself to his sayings, became a pious and expert teacher to the Egyptians. The same Abraham, upon returning from war,[22] was considered worthy of blessing by Melchisedek, king of Salem, who brought bread and wine out to him. Melchisedek was a priest of the Most High, and Abraham gave to Him a tenth of all he had. Melchisedek was without father, mother, or lineage, like the Son of God.[23]
When Abram[24] lamented to God about his childlessness, God revealed to him through a dream that his descendants would be as numerous as the stars. And he believed God, and God reckoned it to him as righteousness.[25] Now Sarah, who was barren, gave Abraham permission to father a child with her maidservant, and she bore Ismael.[26] And when Abram was 99 years old, God appeared to him and altered his name to Abraham, for until then he had been called Abram. Similarly, Sarah became Sarrah with another "r".[27] And Abraham circumcised Ismael and all his descendants. Moreover, when the Lord was being shown the hospitality of Abraham's house, He promised Abraham that Sarrah would bear him a son. But Sarrah smiled; and the one who was begotten was called Isaac, by the Hebrew name that means "laughter with delight."[28]
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] *abramiai=os: [meaning] descendant of Abraham, or towering, revered.[29]
Greek Original:
*)abraa/m: o( prw=tos e)n patria/rxais: ei)s o(\n a)pesemnu/neto dh=mos o( tw=n *(ebrai/wn to\ pro/teron, pri\n h)\ qeou= a)poskirth=sai kai\ gene/sqai tou/tou a)llo/trioi kai\ to\ tou= monogenou=s ui(ou= au)tou= ai(=ma e)f' e(autou\s e)pispa/sasqai. ou(=tos e)k me\n th=s *xaldai/wn gh=s u(ph=rxen o(rmw/menos, tw=n peri\ ta\ mete/wra kai\ tou\s a)ste/ras to\n bi/on o(/lon katanalisko/ntwn. a)skhqei\s ou)=n kata\ to\n pa/trion no/mon ta\s tw=n e)pourani/wn a)ste/rwn kinh/seis kai\ stoxasa/menos w(s ou)k e)n tou/tois i(/statai to\ megalourgo\n th=s fainome/nhs tauthsi\ kti/sews, a)ll' e)/xei tina\ to\n dhmiourgo\n to\n kai\ kinou=nta kai\ dieuqu/nonta th\n e)narmo/nion tw=n a)ste/rwn porei/an kai\ tou= ko/smou panto\s th\n kata/stasin, kai\ dia\ tou= mege/qous kai\ th=s kallonh=s tw=n ktisma/twn to\n genesiourgo\n au)tw=n, w(s e)nh=n, qewrh/sas ou)k e)/sth me/xri tou/twn, ou)de\ th\n e)/fesin ei)s tau=ta katedapa/nhsen, a)lla\ tw=n ou)rani/wn a(yi/dwn u(perarqei\s kai\ pa=san diaba\s th\n nohth/n te kai\ u(perko/smion su/mphcin ou)k a)pe/sth tou= zhtoume/nou, e(/ws ou(= o( poqou/menos e(auto\n au)tw=| e)fane/rwse tu/pois te kai\ morfw/masin, oi(=s e(auto\n e)mfani/zei o( a)fanh\s kai\ a)o/ratos. kai\ metana/sthn au)to\n e)k th=s patri/dos labw\n e)pi\ th\n *xanani=tin kate/sthse, to\n e)nenhkosto/n pou kai\ e)/naton h)/dh xro/non pare/lkonta: kai\ a)/paida me/xri to/te tugxa/nonta gennh/tora tou= qaumasi/ou kai\ ma/karos kate/- sthsen *)isaa\k, i(/n' e)/xoi monogenh= ui(o\n kai\ prwto/tokon, tou= monogenou=s kai\ prwtoto/kou mustikh\n ei)ko/na prodiagra/fonta: tou=to ge/ras au)tw=| kat' e)cai/reton xarisa/menos, to\ dou=lon kai\ fi/lon kai\ pate/ra xrhmati/sai tou= monogenou=s ui(ou= kata\ sa/rka, tou= to\n ko/smon o(/lon dhmiourgh/santos. ou(=tos eu(=re me\n i(era\ gra/mmata kai\ glw=ssan e)mhxanh/sato, h(=s *(ebrai/wn pai=des e)n e)pisth/mh| e)tu/gxanon, w(s o)/ntes tou/tou maqhtai\ kai\ a)po/gonoi. e)k tou/tou kai\ ta\ *(ellh/nwn gra/mmata ta\s a)forma\s e)/labon, ka)\n a)/llws kai\ a)/llws e(autou\s diapai/zontes a)nagra/fwsin *(/ellhnes. kai\ tou/tou martu/rion h( tou= *)/alfa fwnh\ tou= prw/tou stoixei/ou kai\ a)/rxontos, a)po\ tou= *)/alef *(ebrai/ou labo/ntos th\n e)pi/klhsin tou= makari/ou kai\ prw/tou kai\ a)qana/tou o)no/matos. e)k tou/tou kai\ ta\ o)nei/rwn bibli/a e)sfeteri/santo *(/ellhnes. kai\ ma/rtus *)iwsh\f o( panqau/mastos o( tou/tou a)po/gonos, o( tou= *faraw\ ta\ e)nu/pnia w(s e)/mellon a)pobh/sesqai dihgou/menos. tou=to/ moi kai\ *fi/lwn, e)c *(ebrai/wn filo/sofos, e)n tw=| tou= *politikou= bi/w| sunepimarturh/setai, *fi/lwn, peri\ ou(= e)rrh/qh, *fi/lwn platwni/zei, kai\ *pla/twn filwni/zei. o(/ti h)/rcato h( ei)dwlolatrei/a a)po\ *serou\x e(/ws tw=n xro/nwn *qa/rra tou= patro\s *)abraa/m. o(\s *)abraa\m u(pa/rxwn e)tw=n id# kai\ qeognwsi/as a)ciwqei\s e)nouqe/tei to\n pate/ra au)tou=, le/gwn: ti/ plana=|s tou\s a)nqrw/pous dia\ ke/rdos e)pizh/mion [toute/sti ta\ ei)/dwla]; ou)k e)/stin a)/llos qeo\s ei) mh\ o( e)n toi=s ou)ranoi=s, o( kai\ pa/nta to\n ko/smon dhmiourgh/sas. o(rw=n ga\r tou\s a)nqrw/pous ktismatolatrou=ntas dih/rxeto diaponou/menos kai\ to\n o)/ntws o)/nta qeo\n e)kzhtw=n e)k filoqe/ou kardi/as. o(rw=n de\ to\n ou)rano\n pote\ me\n lampro\n, pote\ de\ skoteino\n, e)/legen e)n e(autw=|: ou)k e)/stin ou(=tos qeo/s. o(moi/ws kai\ to\n h(/lion kai\ th\n selh/nhn, to\n me\n a)pokrupto/menon kai\ a)maurou/menon, th\n de\ fqi/nousan kai\ a)polh/gousan, e)/fhsen: ou)d' ou(=toi/ ei)si qeoi/. kai\ me/ntoi kai\ th\n tw=n a)ste/rwn ki/nhsin, e)k tou= patro\s ga\r e)paideu/eto th\n a)stronomi/an, kai\ a)porw=n e)dusxe/rainen. w)/fqh de\ au)tw=| o( qeo\s kai\ le/gei au)tw=|: e)/celqe e)k th=s gh=s sou kai\ e)k th=s suggenei/as sou. kai\ labw\n ta\ ei)/dwla tou= patro\s kai\ ta\ me\n kla/sas ta\ de\ e)mpuri/sas a)nexw/rhse meta\ tou= patro\s e)k gh=s *xaldai/wn: kai\ e)lqo/ntos ei)s *xarra\n, e)teleu/thsen o( path\r au)tou=. kai\ e)celqw\n e)kei=qen e)n lo/gw| *kuri/ou h)=lqe su\n th=| gunaiki\ *sa/rra| kai\ tw=| a)neyiw=| *lw\t meta\ pa/shs au)tw=n th=s a)poskeuh=s ei)s th\n o)feilome/nhn gh=n *xanaa\n, h(\n oi( *xananai=oi turannikw=s a)felo/menoi w)/|khsan. limou= de\ genome/nou katalipw\n th\n *xananai/wn gh=n ei)s *ai)/gupton a)ph/|ei, ou(= th\n gunai=ka *sa/rran *)abime/lex h(/rpasen o( basileu/s. tou=ton o( qeo\s e)kdeimatw/sas kai\ pa/resin tw=n melw=n e)pa/cas, a)po/dos, e)/fh, th\n gunai=ka tw=| a)nqrw/pw|, o(/ti profh/ths e)sti\ kai\ proseu/cetai peri\ sou= kai\ zh/seis. ei) de\ mh\ a)podw=|s, gnw=qi o(/ti a)poqanh=| su\ kai\ ta\ sa\ pa/nta. kai\ ou(/tws a)polabw\n th\n gunai=ka a)mi/anton kai\ proseuca/menos i)aqh=nai e)poi/hse th=s pare/sews *)abime/lex kai\ to\n oi)=kon au)tou=. e)/ktote timw=n au)to\n o( basileu\s kai\ prose/xwn toi=s u(p' au)tou= legome/nois, dida/skalos eu)sebei/as kai\ polupeiri/as *ai)gupti/ois e)ge/neto. o( au)to\s *)/abram u(postre/fwn e)k tou= pole/mou th=s eu)logi/as tou= *melxisede\k kathci/wtai, tou= basile/ws *salh\m, o(\s e)ch/negken au)tw=| a)/rtous kai\ oi)=non. h)=n de\ kai\ i(ereu\s tou= *(uyi/stou. kai\ e)/dwken au)tw=| *)/abram deka/thn a)po\ pa/ntwn. h)=n de\ o( *melxisede\k a)pa/twr, a)mh/twr, a)genealo/ghtos, a)fwmoiwme/nos tw=| ui(w=| tou= qeou=. tw=| de\ *)/abram a)tekni/an o)lofurome/nw| kaq' u(/pnous e)pidei/cas o( qeo\s tou\s a)ste/ras kata\ to\ plh=qos au)tw=n e)/sesqai/ oi( to\ spe/rma proedh/lou. o( de\ e)pi/steuse tw=| qew=|, kai\ e)logi/sqh au)tw=| ei)s dikaiosu/nhn. h( de\ *sa/rra stei=ra ou)=sa sunexw/rhsen *)/abram a)po\ th=s paidi/skhs paidopoih/sasqai: kai\ i)/sxei to\n *)ismah/l. e)nenh/konta de\ kai\ e)nne/a e)tw=n o)/nti tw=| *)/abram e)pifanei\s o( qeo\s *)abraa\m metwno/masen: *)/abram ga\r prw/hn w)noma/zeto: o(moi/ws kai\ th\n *sa/ran *sa/rran, prosqei\s kai\ e(/teron r. kai\ perie/teme to\n *)ismah\l kai\ pa/ntas tou\s e)c au)tou=. *ku/rios de\ tw=| *)abraa\m e)picenwqei\s e)phggei/lato te/cesqai *sa/rran au)tw=| pai=da. h( de\ e)meidi/ase, kai\ *)isaa\k to\ gennhqe\n proshgoreu/qh, ferwnu/mws tw=| meq' h(donh=s ge/lwti kata\ th\n *(ebrai/+da dia/lekton. kai\ *)abramiai=os: o( a)po/gonos *)abraa\m, h)\ gigantiai=os, i(eropreph/s.
This long entry is derived in part directly from George the Monk, in part indirectly from Philo of Alexandria; see further in the notes below.
[1] cf. Matthew 27:25 (web address 1).
[2] The Suda's attention to Chaldean astrology derives from Philo, On Abraham, (Colson, Philo Vol VI: XV.69-70).
[3] Use of tu/pos here is twofold: 1) To assert that God's appearance to Abraham was indirect (echoing Philo, On Abraham, XVII.79-80); 2) To impart, as if a corollary of tu/pos in Romans 5:14, that God's manifestation to Abraham was a type or prefiguration of Christ.
[4] Abraham is 100 years old at Isaac's birth (Genesis 21:5); however, the Suda follows Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.191-93 (web address 2 below) in assuming Abraham's age as 99 at the time of God's promise.
[5] The Suda here omits Ishmael, born to Abraham by the Egyptian slave Hagar when he was 86 years old (Genesis 16:1-16). The Suda's omission tacitly acknowledges a covenantal and legal distinction clearly drawn in Genesis. In Isaac, God establishes an "everlasting covenant" for his progeny, whereas God blesses Ishmael and makes him "fruitful and exceedingly numerous" (Genesis 17:19-20). Isaac's filial status is made explicit by God in identifying him as Abraham's "only son" (Genesis 22:12) through whom "offspring shall be named" for Abraham, whereas Ishmael, although destined to father a nation, is identified by God as "the son of the slave woman" (Genesis 21:12-13). Ishmael is, however, mentioned later in the entry.
[6] Christological imagery links Isaac to the personage of Jesus (Matthew 1:1-2 at web address 3 below). See also delta 94, notes 1 and 14.
[7] The Suda underscores the magnitude of the honor with a hyperbolic kat' before e)cai/reton.
[8] The statement, rooted in a paternalistic-filial model that originates in Abraham and culminates in the figure of Christ, approximates the transcendental premise: Abraham is to Joseph as Isaac is to Christ.
[9] The Suda confuses Mosaic and Abrahamic lore. The 2nd century BCE Jewish writer Eupolemus claimed for Moses the invention and propagation of writing: "Moses was the first wise man, the first who imparted the alphabet to the Jews; the Phoenicians received it from the Jews, and the Greeks from the Phoenicians." The 2nd century BCE Egyptian Jewish writer Artapanus attributed hieroglyphics to Moses. According to the 2nd century BCE Samaritan writer Ps.-Eupolemus and Artapanus, astrology and astronomy originated with Abraham, who taught these disciplines and other tools of culture to the Jews, Phoenicians, and Egyptians. They, in turn, transmitted these arts to the Greeks. Philo in On Abraham stresses Abraham's expertise as a teacher. (Encyc. Judaica, Vol 6.964-65; Gruen, 146-51, 157, 294; Grant, 77; Philo, XI.52) At sigma 295, Seth is credited with the invention of the alphabet; Greek legend named Cadmus or Linus as the one who introduced the alphabet to Greece (gamma 416, kappa 21, kappa 22, lambda 568). See also phi 787.
[10] The reference recalls א aleph as the initial letter of ʾelohīm, the most frequent generic name for God in the OT, used about 2,500 times--but a distant second to the unspoken covenant name YHWH (Yahweh), which occurs some 6,800 times (Perdue, 685-86). Cf. alpha 1445.
[11] A reference to Philo's *bi/os politikou= o(/per e)sti peri\ *)iwsh/f (Colson, Philo Vol VI, 140ff.)
[12] Adapted from Jerome's On Illustrious Men (11): h)\ *pla/twn filwni/zei h)\ *fi/lwn platwni/zei ("Either Plato philonizes or Philo platonizes.") Cf. phi 448 and Photius, Bibliotheca 86b 25.
[13] Abraham's grandfather (Genesis 11:22). Seruch in the LXX, שרוג śerūḡ in Hebrew. See also sigma 253.
[14] Abraham's father (Genesis 11:24). Tharra (*qa/rra, *qarra/) or Tharrha (*qa/r)r(a) (Hatch, Concordance, Appendix 1, 71; Brenton, 13); in Hebrew תרח Teraḥ. From the Chronicon of George the Monk, 92.11-12; cf. Malalas 55.5-6.
[15] The Midrash sets Abraham's rejection of idolatry at age 13 (Encyc. Judaica, 4.244). From here to "teacher to the Egyptians," the Suda's source is the Chronicon of George the Monk, 93.16 - 95.17.
[16] On God as "He who is," see omicron 438, omega 105.
[17] cf. Philo, On Abraham XIV.62.
[18] The call in Genesis 12:1-5 brings Abraham from Haran (חרן) to Canaan (כנען). The Suda adheres to Philo, On Abraham, XIV. 67: metani/statai...a)po\ th=s *xaldai/wn gh=s...e)is th\n *xarrai/wn gh=n.
[19] Philo shows a)delfidou=s, as at On Abraham, XXXVII.212, rather than the Suda's potentially ambiguous a)neyio/s for nephew (see LSJ s.v. at web address 4).
[20] On Abimelech, see alpha 45.
[21] The affliction cured in Genesis 20:17-18 is unspecified for Abimelech, but clearly is sterility for the female members of his house. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.208 (web address 5) relates that a "dangerous distemper" (Whiston trans.) afflicted Abimelech. For other traditions, see EncycJudaica, 2.76.
[22] Genesis 14:14-18; the Suda's source is the Chronicon of George the Monk, 100.17-26; 101.5-7.
[23] See Hebrews 7:3 (web address 6). In the Suda, see mu 544, mu 545, mu 546.
[24] The Greek mainly uses Abraam (אברהם ʾAḇraham) to this point, but here Abram (אברם), his pre-covenant name (Genesis 17:5).
[25] Genesis 15:5-6. The statement "and he believed God and God reckoned it to him as righteousness" appears also in Romans 4:3 (web address 7), Galatians 3:6 (web address 8), and James 2:23 (web address 9). A more idiomatic and semantically precise translation of the Hebrew (והאמין בה' ויחשבה לו צדקה weheʾemīn bah' wayyaḥšeḇeha lō ṣedaqah) reads: "And because he put his trust in the Lord, He reckoned it to his merit" (Plaut, 146). This version takes into interpretive account the imperfective waw consecutive (consequential) (Kautzsch, 111.l).
[26] Ismael (Ishmael) appears in the Suda at iota 644, but with a gloss that belongs to Isaak.
[27] Genesis 17:15. Also as *sa/r)r(a or Sarrha (Brenton, 18). The Hebrew covenant name change is Sarai to Sarah (both meaning Princess).
[28] Isaac (יצחק yiṣḥaq) from the Hebrew meaning "he (Abraham) laughed" in Genesis 17:17, and puns Sarah's תצחק tiṣḥaq ("she laughed") in Genesis 18:12. (Kohlenberger, Vol 1, 37, 39; Anderson, 182) In the Suda, see iota 606 (mostly taken from this entry).
[29] This adjectival derivative of Abraham's name appears in 4 Maccabees 9:21 LXX. The gloss replicates, apart from word order, one in Photius; cf. Synagoge alpha17, Hesychius alpha181.
Anderson, A.W. Understanding the Old Testament. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1966
Attridge, H.W. "The Letter to the Hebrews" in The HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Brenton, L.C.L. The Septuagint with Apocrypha. Peabody: Henrickson, 1999 (reprint of 1851 edn.)
Colson F.H., Philo (Vol VI), Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1994
Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1973
Grant, M. From Alexander to Cleopatra: The Hellenistic World. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1982
Gruen, E.S. Heritage and Hellenism: The Reinvention of Jewish Tradition. Berkeley: University of California, 1998
Hatch, E., Redpath, H.A., and Muraoka, T. A Concordance to the Septuagint. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1998
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910
Keck, L.E. "The Letter of Paul to the Romans" in The HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987
Perdue, L.G. "Names of God in the Old Testament" in Harper's Bible Dictionary. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985
Plaut, W.G. The Torah: Genesis, A Modern Commentary. New York: Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1972
Smyth, H.W. Greek Grammar. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1984
Whiston, W. The Works of Josephus. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1987 (reprint of 1736 edn.)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4,
Web address 5,
Web address 6,
Web address 7,
Web address 8,
Web address 9
Keywords: aetiology; biography; children; Christianity; chronology; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; dreams; food; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; history; law; medicine; religion; science and technology; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:54:17.
Vetted by:
Craig Miller (Under editorial review as of this date) on 6 January 2002@08:24:02.
Craig Miller (Modified translation) on 24 January 2002@19:18:31.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@00:26:38.
Craig Miller (Notes added. Additional work pending.) on 25 January 2002@00:29:41.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@01:17:54.
Craig Miller (Added bibliography, keywords; changed status) on 25 January 2002@22:21:22.
Craig Miller (Cosmetics) on 25 January 2002@22:51:36.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@22:54:34.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@23:13:26.
Craig Miller on 4 June 2002@20:45:55.
Craig Miller on 19 June 2002@19:13:42.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew words; minor cosmetics.) on 31 October 2002@10:38:39.
Raphael Finkel (More Hebrew, cosmetics.) on 18 December 2002@10:58:21.
Craig Miller (Additional cosmetics) on 17 May 2003@19:07:49.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@08:20:23.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 November 2005@07:49:08.
Jennifer Benedict (added 15 links) on 25 March 2008@11:50:57.
Catharine Roth (references, cosmetics) on 10 April 2008@16:09:00.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 10 April 2008@20:15:09.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, pruned notes, added cross-references) on 11 April 2008@12:30:02.
Catharine Roth (adjusted note numbers; more tweaks) on 11 April 2008@14:18:11.
William Hutton (augmented n. 29) on 17 July 2009@17:14:18.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 December 2011@07:16:50.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links, other tweaks) on 22 December 2011@19:00:49.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note and links) on 11 November 2013@01:26:27.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:27:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 11 August 2014@00:14:27.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:33:55.
Catharine Roth (betacode typo) on 2 October 2018@02:07:40.

Headword: *)/abrwnos bi/os
Adler number: alpha,98
Translated headword: Abron's life
Vetting Status: high
[sc. A proverbial phrase] In reference to those who live extravagantly; for Abron became rich among the Argives. Or also from the [adjective] habros ["delicate"].[1]
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] Abroneios ["Abronian"].[2]
Greek Original:
*)/abrwnos bi/os: e)pi\ tw=n polutelw=n: *)/abrwn ga\r par' *)argei/ois e)ge/neto plou/sios. h)\ kai\ a)po\ tou= a(brou=. kai\ *)abrw/neios.
[1] cf. Zenobius 1.4.
[2] Attested here only.
Keywords: aetiology; biography; daily life; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; geography; proverbs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:47:19.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added keyword, set status) on 1 February 2001@22:55:06.
David Whitehead (added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 24 April 2002@03:46:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 21 December 2011@06:44:57.

Headword: *)abudhno\n e)pifo/rhma
Adler number: alpha,100
Translated headword: Abydene dessert, Abudene dessert
Vetting Status: high
Whenever something unpleasant happens as a result of someone having shown up at the wrong time, we are accustomed to call it an "Abydene dessert." This is because the people of Abydos,[1] whenever they entertain a fellow-citizen or a foreigner, bring their children around to be admired after the ointments and the crowns. Those in attendance are disturbed by both the nurses clamoring and the children screaming. Hence it has become customary to say the foregoing.[2]
Greek Original:
*)abudhno\n e)pifo/rhma: o(/tan a)kai/rws tino\s e)pifane/ntos a)hdi/a tis h)=|, ei)w/qamen le/gein *)abudhno\n e)pifo/rhma. dia\ to\ tou\s *)abudhnou\s, o(/tan tina\ tw=n politw=n h)\ ce/nwn e(stiw=si, meta\ to\ mu/ron kai\ tou\s stefa/nous ta\ paidi/a perife/rein filhqhso/mena. tw=n te tiqhnw=n qorubousw=n tw=n te paidi/wn kekrago/twn e)noxlei=sqai tou\s paro/ntas. a)f' ou(= ei)/qistai le/gein to\ prokei/menon.
[1] A city on the Asiatic shore of the Hellespont: see alpha 101.
[2] See also Zenobius 1.4 and other paroemiographers. For a different explanation (involving taxes and harbor dues) see Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 14.641A [14.47 Kaibel], citing Aristeides, On Proverbs.
Keywords: aetiology; children; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; food; geography; imagery; proverbs; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 25 August 1998@19:00:52.
Vetted by:
Eric Nelson on 31 December 1999@22:59:16.
David Whitehead (modified translation; added note) on 11 January 2001@07:21:18.
David Whitehead (added another note) on 11 January 2001@07:58:10.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 November 2005@07:49:41.
Jennifer Benedict (title tags, cosmeticule) on 25 March 2008@23:59:40.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 21 December 2011@06:54:39.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@07:30:33.
David Whitehead (tweaked a ref) on 14 January 2015@03:15:50.

Headword: *)agaqa/
Adler number: alpha,108
Translated headword: goods, goodies
Vetting Status: high
Xenophon used the word of foodstuffs and drinks which bring enjoyment and good cheer.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] "Good Things Kilikon" - with "has" omitted. Kilikon [is] a proper name. He was wealthy.[2]
Greek Original:
*)agaqa/: e)pi\ tw=n pro\s a)po/lausin kai\ eu)wxi/an siti/wn kai\ potw=n e)xrh/sato *cenofw=n th=| le/cei. kai\ *)agaqa\ *kili/kwn, lei/pei to\ e)/xei. *kili/kwn de\ o)/noma ku/rion. eu)/poros de\ h)=n.
[1] Xenophon, Anabasis 4.4.9 (web address 1 below).
[2] This is only one possible explanation of the proverbial phrase. For another, probably better one - with another version of the name (Killikon: apparently authentic, as it derives from Aristophanes, Peace 363 [web address 2 below]) - see kappa 1610; but note also kappa 223 and pi 2040 on "Kallikon".
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: aetiology; biography; daily life; definition; economics; ethics; food; historiography; proverbs
Translated by: David Whitehead on 10 February 2001@09:14:18.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added links, set status) on 8 June 2001@01:15:16.
David Whitehead (added keywords) on 17 September 2002@05:00:27.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@00:19:27.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 27 March 2008@07:18:17.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 22 December 2011@03:59:55.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 23 December 2011@18:41:14.

Headword: *)aghsago/ras
Adler number: alpha,228
Translated headword: Agesagoras
Vetting Status: high
Proper name.
Greek Original:
*)aghsago/ras: o)/noma ku/rion.
It looks Spartan, but is not attested as such. See, rather, theta 51.
Keywords: biography; definition; geography
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg ✝ on 24 November 1998@14:09:52.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 6 February 2001@10:41:57.
David Whitehead (augmented note) on 14 April 2004@06:33:07.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@08:18:10.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 April 2015@03:15:00.

Headword: *)/agkura
Adler number: alpha,257
Translated headword: Ankyra, Ancyra, Ankara
Vetting Status: high
A city.[1] See under Galatai.[2]
Greek Original:
*)/agkura: po/lis: zh/tei e)n tw=| *gala/tai.
OCD(4) p.84.
[1] As 'Ankara', the capital of present-day Turkey. The city lies in the northwestern part of Anatolia, about 125 miles south of the Black Sea. According to Pausanias (1.4), Ankyra was founded by Midas. Stephanus of Byzantium s.v. Ankyra ( = Apollonius of Aphrodisias FGrH 740 F14) traces the name of the city to the anchors (ankyra) captured by the Galatians when they defeated the Ptolemaic navy in the Black Sea in the 260s BCE. However, since the city was called Ankyra when Alexander the Great visited it (Arrian Anabasis 2.4.1), Stephanus' report is obviously incorrect.
[2] gamma 21. ['Galatai' is Adler's own emendation of the unsatisfactory paradosis here.] See also alpha 259.
Keywords: aetiology; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; military affairs
Translated by: Roger Travis on 4 October 2000@12:00:31.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes, bibliography, keyword; cosmetics) on 6 February 2001@11:03:10.
Mehmet Fatih Yavuz (augmented notes) on 18 October 2008@17:38:51.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 19 October 2008@01:32:52.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 19 October 2008@04:01:30.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 1 August 2011@08:23:10.
David Whitehead (expanded n.2) on 28 March 2014@06:37:23.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@02:41:33.

Headword: *)ago/nwn xow=n
Adler number: alpha,297
Translated headword: [than] unfruitful drink-offerings
Vetting Status: high
It is used in two ways.[1]
The Theologian says [this]; that is, [more pious] than the offerings which are poured for the dead and are therefore unfruitful.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] a)goni/a, barrenness.[3]
"That Artemis was angered and that she attacked with sterility of the earth as punishment."[4]
Greek Original:
*)ago/nwn xow=n. diforei=tai o( *qeolo/gos fhsi/: toute/sti tw=n e)pi\ toi=s nekroi=s xeome/nwn kai\ dia\ tou=to a)go/nwn. kai\ *)agoni/a, h( a)fori/a. th\n *)/artemin mhni/sai kai\ metelqei=n dikaiou=san au)th\n gh=s a)goni/a|.
[1] This comment (a single word in the Greek; in ms A only, Adler reports) perhaps refers to the active and passive senses of the adjective ("not bearing" and "not born"): see LSJ entry at web address 1, and again at alpha 337.
[2] Scholion on Gregory of Nazianzus (PG 36.378b), who does use the headword phrase.
[3] See already alpha 295.
[4] Aelian fr. 49d Domingo-Forasté (46 Hercher); cf. delta 1079.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: aetiology; agriculture; botany; Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; religion
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 12 February 2001@11:03:29.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Raised status) on 12 February 2001@19:54:21.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@08:08:46.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; augmented note 2) on 14 April 2004@07:29:21.
David Whitehead (tweak) on 25 July 2006@07:01:45.
David Whitehead (another x-ref; more keywords; cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@09:03:04.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 4) on 29 January 2012@22:33:54.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1; cosmetics) on 9 April 2015@08:51:08.

Headword: *)adra/steia *ne/mesis
Adler number: alpha,523
Translated headword: Adrasteian Nemesis, Nemesis of Adrastos
Vetting Status: high
[sc. So called because] from her, someone could not run away [a)podra/seien].[1]
"Adrasteian Nemesis follows him, avenging haughty and unrestrained words."[2]
So Adrasteian Nemesis [is named] from Adrastos.[3] [sc. It is a proverbial phrase] in reference to those first experiencing good fortune but later bad; for of the descendants of those who campaigned against [the] Thebans, only Aigialeus son of Adrastos was killed.[4]
Greek Original:
*)adra/steia *ne/mesis: h(\n ou)k a)/n tis a)podra/seien. *)adrastei/as au)tw=| *ne/mesis timwro\s u(pero/gkwn kai\ a)xali/nwn lo/gwn h)kolou/qhsen. *)adra/steia ou)=n *ne/mesis, a)po\ *)adra/stou. e)pi\ tw=n pro/teron me\n eu)daimonhsa/ntwn, u(/steron de\ dustuxhsa/ntwn: tw=n ga\r a)pogo/nwn *qhbai/ois e)pistrateusa/ntwn, mo/nos *ai)gialeu\s a)pw/leto *)adra/stou pai=s.
See also alpha 524.
[1] Same etymology in Photius and other lexica.
[2] Aelian fr. 227 Domingo-Forasté (228 Hercher).
[3] For this and what follows cf. Zenobius 1.30 and other paroemiographers.
[4] After relating the story of Adrastus's exceptional survival during the attack on Thebes, Libanius (Narration 10 [Foerster vol. 8, pp. 40-41]) adds that "This then seemed to come about in this way as a result of divine retribution. And the Greeks immediately honor Nemesis with a temple, addressing the goddess as Adrasteia." For the temple to Adrasteia Nemesis, see Strabo 13.1.13.
On Nemesis in general, both goddess and abstract concept, see OCD(4) s.v. (p.1006)
Keywords: aetiology; daily life; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; military affairs; mythology; proverbs; religion
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 17 March 2001@00:07:36.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added notes, bibliography, keyword) on 17 March 2001@08:15:51.
Craig Gibson on 5 November 2003@17:27:33.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, keyword) on 9 June 2007@01:23:45.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 11 January 2012@09:01:33.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 2) on 3 February 2012@01:13:11.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@03:08:52.
David Whitehead on 26 April 2015@04:31:09.

Headword: *)adra/steia
Adler number: alpha,524
Translated headword: Adrasteia
Vetting Status: high
Some say she is the same thing as Nemesis, and that she took the name from a particular king, Adrastos. Alternatively from the ancient Adrastos who suffered divine wrath [nemesis] for his boasts against the Thebans, who had established a shrine of Nemesis, which after these things acquired the name Adrasteia. Demetrius of Scepsis says that Adrasteia is Artemis, [sc. in a cult] established by one Adrastos.[1] Antimachus says: "there is a certain great goddess Nemesis, who apportions out all these things to the blessed; Adrestos was the first to set up an altar for her by the flowing river [Asopus]."[2] Some, however, add that she is different from Nemesis herself: so Menander and Nicostratus.[3]
Greek Original:
*)adra/steia: oi( me\n tau)to\n th=| *neme/sei le/gousi, labei=n de\ tou)/noma para\ *)adra/stou tino\s basile/ws. h)\ a)po\ *)adra/stou tou= palaiou=, nemeshqe/ntos e)f' oi(=s tw=n *qhbai/wn kathlazoneu/sato, i(drusame/nwn i(ero\n *neme/sews, o(\ meta\ tau=ta proshgoreu/qh *)adrastei/a. *dhmh/trios de\ o( *skh/yios *)/artemi/n fhsin ei)=nai th\n *)adra/steian a)po\ *)adra/stou tino\s i(drume/nhn. o( de\ *)anti/maxos le/gei: e)/sti tis *ne/mesis mega/lh qeo\s, h(\ ta/de pa/nta pro\s maka/rwn e)/laxe, bwmo\n de\ oi( ei)/sato prw=tos *)/adrhstos potamoi=o para\ r(o/on. e)/nioi me/ntoi w(s diafe/rousan sugkatale/gousin au)th=| th=| *neme/sei, w(s *me/nandros kai\ *niko/stratos.
See already alpha 523. The present entry derives from Harpokration s.v. *a)dra/steian (sic: accusative case).
[1] Demetrius of Scepsis [on whom see generally OCD(4) s.v. Demetrius(12), p.433] fr. 18 Gaede.
[2] Antimachus of Colophon (alpha 2681) fr. 43 Wyss.
[3] Menander fr. 321 Kock, 266 Koerte, now 226 Kassel-Austin; Nicostratus fr. 37 Kock, now 35 Kassel-Austin.
Keywords: aetiology; comedy; geography; mythology; poetry; religion
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 18 March 2001@18:09:25.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes; added keywords) on 19 March 2001@05:46:17.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@05:36:04.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@03:10:49.
David Whitehead on 30 December 2014@10:46:06.

Headword: *)aeto\n ka/nqaros maieu/somai
Adler number: alpha,574
Translated headword: I a dung-beetle will hatch an eagle
Vetting Status: high
[sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to those avenging themselves on their betters, with whom the bad thing started. For it is said that the dung-beetle steals the eggs of the eagle.
Greek Original:
*)aeto\n ka/nqaros maieu/somai: e)pi\ tw=n timwroume/nwn tou\s mei/zonas prokata/rcantas kakou=. le/getai ga\r ta\ w)a\ tou= a)etou= a)fani/zein o( ka/nqaros.
Proverbial in Hesychius (alpha1818) and Photius, as well as several of the pareoemiographic collections (e.g. Mantissa Proverbiorum 1.2).
These entries stem in the most immediate sense from Aristophanes, Lysistrata 695 (ai)eto\n ti/ktona ka/nqaro/s se maieu/somai), but the Aesopic fable of the beetle avenging the loss of its young by breaking the eagle's eggs predates that: already well-known enough to be referred to in passing at Wasps 1448; see also Peace 129ff (with scholia), and Henderson [below] p.161.
Aristophanes, Lysistrata, edited with introduction and commentary by Jeffrey Henderson (Oxford 1987)
Keywords: aetiology; comedy; daily life; ethics; food; proverbs; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 16 March 2001@17:27:56.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; cosmetics) on 17 March 2001@05:55:37.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; augmented note and keywords) on 16 August 2006@07:21:13.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 12 January 2012@06:11:50.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 30 December 2014@00:15:09.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 29 April 2015@08:40:23.

Headword: *)aei/ tis e)n *ku/dwnos
Adler number: alpha,642
Translated headword: always someone at Kydon's
Vetting Status: high
[sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to those who are hospitable and ready to receive [guests]; inasmuch as Kydon the Corinthian was very hospitable.
Greek Original:
*)aei/ tis e)n *ku/dwnos: e)pi\ tw=n filoce/nwn kai\ pro\s u(podoxh\n e(toi/mwn: paro/son *ku/dwn *kori/nqios filoceno/tatos e)ge/neto.
Zenobius 2.42, etc.; again at tau 654, and see also kappa 2618.
Keywords: aetiology; biography; daily life; ethics; geography; proverbs
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 16 March 2001@22:29:33.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added note and keyword) on 17 March 2001@07:21:00.
David Whitehead (tweaked headword; augmented notes) on 15 August 2006@04:53:41.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 12 January 2012@10:37:50.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 19 January 2014@07:12:47.

Headword: *)/ai+dos kunh=
Adler number: alpha,675
Translated headword: Hades' dog-skin [helmet]
Vetting Status: high
A proverb[1] [directed] toward those concealing themselves with certain devices. For such was the dog-skin [helmet] of Hades, which Perseus used when he cut the throat of the Gorgon.[2]
Greek Original:
*)/ai+dos kunh=: paroimi/a pro\s tou\s e)pikru/ptontas e(autou\s dia/ tinwn mhxanhma/twn. toiau/th ga\r h( tou= *(/a|dou kunh=, h(=| *perseu\s xrhsa/menos th\n *gorgo/na e)deiroto/mhsen.
See also alpha 676. A "helmet" of the kind in question allegedly owed its name to being made of dogskin.
[1] Zenobius 1.41.
[2] cf. generally gamma 390.
Keywords: aetiology; clothing; daily life; mythology; proverbs; trade and manufacture; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 16 March 2001@20:55:04.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note and keywords) on 17 March 2001@06:44:15.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 17 March 2008@08:17:58.
Jennifer Benedict (tweak to notes) on 17 March 2008@10:02:52.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 13 January 2012@08:51:38.

Headword: *)aqhnai/wn dusbouli/a
Adler number: alpha,732
Translated headword: Athenians' ill-counsel
Vetting Status: high
[sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to those who prosper against expectations and undeservedly.[1]
For taking decisions badly is practiced by Athenians; Athena offers to turn that which has been decided badly to good; and this was a local saying. Also Eupolis [writes]: "better to be prosperous than to think well."[2] And Aristophanes in Clouds [writes]: "for they say that ill counsel comes to this city, but in whatever things you err, the gods will turn them for the better".[3]
The Athenians are said to be autochthonous, [as are] Arcadians and Aeginetans and Thebans, either since they were the first to work the soil [chthon], namely the earth, or on account of their not being incomers.[4]
Greek Original:
*)aqhnai/wn dusbouli/a: e)pi\ tw=n par' e)lpi/das kai\ a)naci/ws eu)tuxou/ntwn. to\ ga\r kakw=s bouleu/esqai *)aqhnai/ois h)/skhto: th\n de\ *)aqhna=n parasxei=n to\ kakw=s bouleuqe\n a)pokli=nai kalw=s: kai\ h)=n tou=to lego/menon e)pixw/rion. kai\ *eu)/polis: w(s eu)tuxei=n ma=llon h)\ kalw=s fronei=n. kai\ *)aristofa/nhs *nefe/lais: fasi\ ga\r dusbouli/an th=|de th=| po/lei prosei=nai. tau=ta me/ntoi tou\s qeou\s a(/tt' a)\n u(mei=s e)cama/rthte, e)pi\ to\ be/ltion tre/pein. o(/ti au)to/xqones oi( *)aqhnai=oi e)le/gonto kai\ *)arka/des kai\ *ai)ginh=tai kai\ *qhbai=oi, h)\ e)pei\ th\n xqo/na, h)/toi th\n gh=n, a)rgh\n ou)=san prw=toi ei)rga/santo, h)\ dia\ to\ mh\ ei)=nai au)tou\s e)ph/ludas.
[1] Mantissa Proverbiorum 1.3. (For 'ill-counsel' alone, see delta 1601.)
[2] Eupolis fr. 205 Kock, now 219 K.-A.
[3] Aristophanes, Clouds 587-9 (web address 1 below), with scholion; cf. gamma 195.
[4] This additional material, inappropriate here, comes from alpha 4536.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: aetiology; agriculture; comedy; daily life; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; geography; history; proverbs; religion
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 5 November 2000@21:07:57.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword, translation, keywords; added note; cosmetics) on 6 November 2000@04:49:26.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 9 October 2005@11:16:31.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 14 May 2006@06:38:05.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 20 January 2012@04:15:23.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 21 January 2012@01:26:43.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 30 December 2014@00:16:09.
David Whitehead on 30 December 2014@02:57:21.
David Whitehead on 31 December 2014@03:06:19.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 1 May 2015@10:14:10.

Headword: *)akadhmi/a
Adler number: alpha,774
Translated headword: Academy
Vetting Status: high
A place of exercise in Athens, a wooded suburb in which Plato used to spend his time; named after Hekademos, a hero. It was formerly called the Hecademy, [spelled] with epsilon.[1]
Aristophanes in Clouds [writes]: "but going down into the Academy, you will run crowned with pale reeds under the sacred olives with a sound-minded age-mate, smelling of bindweed and quietude and the bright falling leaves, delighting in the season of spring, when the plane tree whispers to the elm."[2]
Greek Original:
*)akadhmi/a: gumna/sion e)n *)aqh/nais, proa/steion a)lsw=des e)n w(=| die/tribe *pla/twn, a)po\ *(ekadh/mou tino\s h(/rwos o)nomasqe/n. pro/teron de\ dia\ tou= e *(ekadhmi/a e)kalei=to. *)aristofa/nhs *nefe/lais: a)ll' ei)s *(ekadhmi/an katiw\n, u(po\ tai=s mori/ais a)poqre/ceis stefanwsa/menos kala/mw| leukw=| meta\ sw/fronos h(likiw/tou, mi/lakos o)/zwn kai\ a)pragmosu/nhs kai\ leu/khs fullobolou/shs, h)=ros e)n w(/ra| xai/rwn, o(po/t' a)\n pla/tanos ptele/a| yiquri/zh|.
See also alpha 775, and generally OCD(4) pp.2 ('Academy') and 638 ('gymnasium').
[1] From Diogenes Laertius 3.7-8 (= schol. Demosth. 24.114); cf. epsilon 338. See also (e.g.) Pausanias 1.29.2, 1.30.1-3.
[2] Aristophanes, Clouds 1005-1008; cf. alpha 3682, mu 1058, mu 1248.
Baltes, Matthias. "Plato's School, the Academy," Hermathena 155 (1993) 3-26
Dancy, R.M. Two Studies in the Early Academy (SUNY Press, New York: 1991)
Dorandi, T. "Four Testimonia on the Academy," Classical Quarterly 38 (1988) 576-578
Keywords: aetiology; athletics; biography; botany; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; imagery; philosophy; religion
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 13 January 2000@00:44:18.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation, augmented notes and bibliography) on 19 September 2000@05:09:45.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 23 May 2002@05:48:43.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added italics) on 28 September 2005@18:15:54.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr) on 22 July 2009@03:35:24.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 22 January 2012@08:00:19.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@03:40:46.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 27 November 2016@22:39:55.

Headword: *)akadhmi/a
Adler number: alpha,775
Translated headword: Academy
Vetting Status: high
Three gymnasia existed [sc. in Athens]:[the] Lykeion, [the] Kynosarges, [and the] Academy.[1] [sc. The last of these] was named from Akademos who had dedicated it.
And in the neuter [it is] Akademeon. The term Akademia means the school of friends.[2]
Greek Original:
*)akadhmi/a: tri/a u(ph=rxon gumna/sia, *lu/keion, *kuno/sarges, *)akadhmi/a. e)klh/qh de\ a)po\ tou= kaqierw/santos au)to\ *)akadh/mou. kai\ ou)dete/rws *)akadh/meon. le/getai de\ *)akadhmi/a h( tw=n fi/lwn diatribh/.
See already alpha 774, inc. notes and bibliography. The present entry begins by reproducing Harpokration s.v.
[1] Again at gamma 480.
[2] T. Dorandi [see bibliography to previous entry] confirms J. Glucker's rehabilitation of Aemilius Portus' correction of 'school of philoi' to 'school of philosophers' and cites by way of confirmation a scholion on Aristophanes, Clouds 1005 (p. 195 Holwerda). A simple misunderstanding of a scribal abbreviation appears to be the cause of the error.
Keywords: aetiology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; history; mythology; philosophy; religion
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 13 January 2000@00:42:12.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; other cosmetics) on 29 September 2000@10:41:15.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 23 May 2002@05:54:00.
Tony Natoli (Added note and keyword.) on 7 March 2008@03:44:56.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 20 July 2011@06:57:17.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 3 May 2015@23:29:11.

Headword: *)akamanti/s kai\ *)aka/mas
Adler number: alpha,791
Translated headword: Akamantis and Akamas, Acamantis and Acamas
Vetting Status: high
[sc. Akamantis is] one of the ten [Athenian] tribes, [named] from Akamas the son of Theseus [1].
Greek Original:
*)akamanti/s kai\ *)aka/mas: mi/a tw=n de/ka fulw=n a)po\ *)aka/mantos tou= *qhse/ws.
Abbreviated from Harpokration s.v. Akamantis.
[1] cf. Pausanias, Description of Greece 1.5.2. For Theseus see theta 364.
OCD(4) s.v. 'Acamas' and 'eponymoi'
Keywords: aetiology; constitution; definition; mythology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 17 January 2000@05:28:33.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes and bibliography) on 19 September 2000@05:17:59.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 24 June 2011@08:55:40.
David Whitehead (updated refs) on 30 July 2014@03:42:19.

Headword: *)akkizo/menos
Adler number: alpha,878
Translated headword: acting coyly, being prudish, toying
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning one who is] dissembling, acting female, or pretending, from some stupid woman who was named Akko.[1] It also signifies the man saying something but pretending not to want to.
And Aelian [writes]: "she was judged second to none of those amazed by the songs, and given, of course, that she was not inexperienced in amatory trickery, she was flirting when the opportunity arose and leading the man naturally on to jealousy".[2]
And [there is] a proverb: a Scythian toying with the donkey. In reference to those ostensibly nauseated but in fact avid. For someone who had seen a dead donkey said to a Scythian who was present "some meal, Mr Scythian!". He was disgusted, but subsequently (?)prepared it for eating.[3]
Also [sc. attested is the related noun] a)kkismou/s ["pruderies"], [meaning] affectations.[4]
For folly [is] also [called] a)kkismo/s.
Greek Original:
*)akkizo/menos: prospoiou/menos, gunaikizo/menos, h)\ mwrai/nwn, a)po/ tinos gunaiko\s mwra=s, h(/tis e)kalei=to *)akkw/. shmai/nei de\ kai\ to\n le/gonta/ ti prospoiei=sqai mh\ e)qe/lein. kai\ *ai)liano/s: ou)deno/s te tw=n e)p' a)/|smasi qaumazome/nwn e)kri/qh deute/ra, a(/te dh\ ou)k a)/peiros e)rwtikh=s periergi/as a)kkizome/nh su\n kairw=| kai\ pro\s zhlotupi/an eu)fuw=s a)/gousa to\n a)/ndra. kai\ paroimi/a: *)akkizo/menos *sku/qhs to\n o)/non. e)pi\ tw=n bdeluttome/nwn lo/gw|, e)/rgw| de\ e)fieme/nwn. i)dw\n ga/r tis nekro\n o)/non e)/fh pro\s *sku/qhn paro/nta, dei=pno/n ti, w)= *sku/qa. o( de\ e)musa/cato me\n, u(/steron de\ e)ponei=to. kai\ *)akkismou/s, prospoih/seis. *)akkismo\s ga\r kai\ h( mwri/a.
The headword is present participle, masculine nominative singular, of a)kki/zomai, presumably extracted from the proverb mentioned later in the entry.
[1] See alpha 946.
[2] Part of Aelian fr. 126e Domingo-Forasté (123 Hercher); cf. upsilon 35.
[3] cf. delta 357, omicron 695, sigma 704, tau 764.
[4] Accusative plural, with the same or similar glossing in other lexica; evidently quoted from somewhere.
Keywords: aetiology; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; food; gender and sexuality; geography; proverbs; women; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 20 February 2000@22:45:36.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added notes and keywords) on 25 January 2001@11:37:52.
David Whitehead (added note) on 23 April 2001@10:11:58.
David Whitehead (another x-ref; further keywords; cosmetics) on 24 May 2004@10:50:50.
David Whitehead (tweaks to headword and tr; augmented notes and keywords) on 21 May 2010@04:16:49.
David Whitehead (added primary note; more keywords; cosmetics) on 26 January 2012@04:01:10.
Catharine Roth (tweaks) on 28 January 2012@13:26:16.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 2) on 5 February 2012@02:23:16.
David Whitehead on 11 May 2015@10:57:54.

Headword: *)akkw/
Adler number: alpha,946
Translated headword: Akko, Acco
Vetting Status: high
A woman lampooned for her stupidity. They say that when she was looking in a mirror once she began a conversation with her own reflection, as though it were someone else. This is the origin of the [verb] to akko-ize.[1] They say that she also knocked in a peg with a sponge.[2]
Greek Original:
*)akkw/: gunh\ e)pi\ mwri/a| diaballome/nh, h(/n fasin e)noptrizome/nhn th=| i)di/a| ei)ko/ni w(s e(te/ra| diale/gesqai. o(/qen kai\ to\ a)kki/zesqai. tau/thn fasi\ kai\ spo/ggw| pa/ttalon krou/ein.
Zenobius 1.53 and other paroemiographers.
[1] cf. alpha 878 (where in fact the principal idea is the pretence, rather than the reality, of stupidity etc.; see also LSJ s.v.).
[2] cf. sigma 953. Since pa/ttalos ('peg') is a euphemism for the membrum virile, a sexual connotation is not to be excluded, but there is no trace of it in other attestations of the phrase "pound a peg with a sponge", which is generally applied to efforts that are doomed to failure; cf. Mantissa Proverbiorum 2.88, Aristaenetus, Epistle 2.20.
Keywords: aetiology; biography; comedy; daily life; definition; proverbs; women
Translated by: William Hutton on 23 April 2001@07:23:42.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note) on 23 April 2001@10:24:59.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 27 January 2012@06:40:58.
William Hutton (augmented n. 2) on 18 March 2014@15:42:35.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 19 March 2014@03:56:38.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 13 May 2015@11:17:58.

Headword: *)akwdw/niston
Adler number: alpha,947
Translated headword: unbelled
Vetting Status: high
Meaning [something] untried, untested; for 'to bell' is to put to the test. It is derived from those who go around and use bells to test whether those who are stationed at the watchposts are awake. Some commentators say the word is derived from quails.[1]
Greek Original:
*)akwdw/niston: a)nti\ tou= a)pei/raston, a)basa/niston: kwdwni/sai ga\r to\ diapeiraqh=nai. meth=ktai de\ a)po\ tw=n peripolou/ntwn kai\ kw/dwsi diapeirwme/nwn, ei) e)grhgo/rasin oi( e)pi\ tai=s fulakai=s tetagme/noi. oi( de\ u(pomnhmatistai\ a)po\ tw=n o)rtu/gwn fasi\ meth=xqai th\n le/cin.
See also delta 907, epsilon 546, kappa 1257.
[1] The scholia to Aristophanes, Lysistrata 485 (where, uniquely, this neuter singular adjective appears) elucidate: quails that could tolerate the sound of a bell would be good fighting birds. But other explanations were proffered besides the two given here: testing horses, testing fired pottery, and (cf. Frogs 723) testing money.
Keywords: aetiology; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; military affairs; science and technology; trade and manufacture; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 23 April 2001@00:22:50.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword) on 23 April 2001@03:30:52.
David Whitehead (x-refs and more keywords; cosmetics) on 16 November 2006@06:08:21.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 27 January 2012@06:45:07.

Headword: *)/akron la/be kai\ me/son e(/ceis
Adler number: alpha,1011
Translated headword: seize the extremity and you will have the mean
Vetting Status: high
[sc. A proverbial saying] in reference to things that are mysterious and difficult to understand.
Greek Original:
*)/akron la/be kai\ me/son e(/ceis: e)pi\ tw=n dusfra/stwn kai\ dusnoh/twn.
Abridged from Zenobius 1.57, who provides an aetiological explanation (from an oracle about the foundation of Aigina [Myth, Place]: alphaiota 53).
Keywords: aetiology; daily life; geography; history; proverbs; religion
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 5 March 2000@23:34:35.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Modified translation.) on 20 April 2000@01:40:45.
Catharine Roth on 9 June 2000@01:46:57.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword) on 5 June 2002@08:02:49.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 1 February 2012@06:50:56.
David Whitehead (expanded note; more keywords) on 22 May 2015@10:25:49.

Headword: *)akth/
Adler number: alpha,1036
Translated headword: Akte, Acte
Vetting Status: high
In a particular sense a part of Attica by the sea; from where the Actite stone [sc. originates].[1] But they also used to use this name for [sc. the entirety of] Attica, some [deriving it] from a certain king Aktaion, others because most of the country is close to the sea.[2]
Greek Original:
*)akth/: i)di/ws e)piqalatti/dio/s tis moi=ra th=s *)attikh=s, o(/qen kai\ o( *)akti/ths li/qos. e)ka/loun de\ ou(/tws kai\ th\n *)attikh\n, oi( me\n a)po/ tinos *)aktai/wnos basile/ws, oi( de\ dia\ to\ th\n plei/w th=s xw/ras e)piqala/ttion ei)=nai.
Abridged from Harpokration s.v., an entry generated by Hyperides fr. 185 Jensen.
[1] From the Piraeus. See R.E. Wycherley, The Stones of Athens (Princeton 1978) 271.
[2] For the latter cf. generally alpha 1032, alpha 1035.
Keywords: aetiology; architecture; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; mythology; rhetoric
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 13 April 2000@01:04:58.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics; augmented note) on 1 October 2000@09:37:16.
David Whitehead (augemnted notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 6 June 2002@07:22:04.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 24 June 2011@09:29:03.

Headword: *)/alla me\n o( *leu/kwnos o)/nos fe/rei, a)/lla de\ *leu/kwn
Adler number: alpha,1064
Translated headword: some things Leukon's donkey carries (but) others Leukon
Vetting Status: high
[no gloss]
Greek Original:
*)/alla me\n o( *leu/kwnos o)/nos fe/rei, a)/lla de\ *leu/kwn.
The proverb appears in this form in Diogenianus 2.21, who explains it as applying to a mismatch between words and actions and adds an anecdote about an Athenian farmer of this name. (Other paroemiographers have variant versions: see e.g. Zenobius 1.74.)
Keywords: aetiology; agriculture; daily life; proverbs; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 29 March 2000@22:47:16.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords) on 10 June 2002@06:39:32.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 2 February 2012@08:32:33.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 26 May 2015@08:43:30.

Headword: *)aleua/dai
Adler number: alpha,1150
Translated headword: Aleuadai, Aleuadae, Aleuads
Vetting Status: high
The most noble men in Larissa of Thessaly, descended from a King Aleuas.
Greek Original:
*)aleua/dai: oi( e)n *lari/ssh| th=s *qessali/as eu)gene/statoi, a)po\ *)aleu/ou basile/ws to\ ge/nos e)/xontes.
Same entry in other lexica, including Timaeus' Platonic Lexicon. From the scholia to Plato, Meno 70B, where the headword occurs.
cf. under epsilon 3952 and sigma 438, and see generally OCD(4) p.55.
Keywords: aetiology; biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; geography; history; philosophy
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 3 May 2000@12:09:58.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added bibliography) on 9 October 2000@09:06:50.
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 12 June 2002@07:35:47.
David Whitehead (expanded notes; more keywords; cosmetics) on 5 February 2012@05:22:26.
David Whitehead on 5 February 2012@05:22:52.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@04:19:21.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 21 December 2014@23:29:09.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 22 December 2014@03:15:21.

Headword: *)alhqe/stera tw=n e)pi\ *sa/gra|
Adler number: alpha,1173
Translated headword: truer things than those at Sagra
Vetting Status: high
A proverb in reference to things that are true, but are not believed. For Sagra [is] a place in Lokris. Menander in Anatithemene mentions the proverb.[1] They say that the Epizephyrian Lokrians[2] were at war with the neighboring Krotoniates and asked the Lacedaemonians for an alliance. [The latter] said they had no army, but they would give them the Dioskouroi. The Lokrians, having interpreted the taunt as an omen, turned back their ship and begged the Dioskouroi to sail with them. And after they had won a victory that same day and sent word by messenger to Sparta, it was at first disbelieved; but once it had been found to be true, it was said of things that are perfectly true, but not believed.
So "truer things than those at Sagra" [is said] in reference to what is absolutely true. For it is said the word about the victory came on the same day from Italy to Sparta. Hence the story became a proverb in reference to truthful matters.[3]
Greek Original:
*)alhqe/stera tw=n e)pi\ *sa/gra|: paroimi/a e)pi\ tw=n a)lhqw=n me/n, ou) pisteuome/nwn de/. *sa/gra ga\r to/pos th=s *lokri/dos. me/mnhtai th=s paroimi/as *me/nandros e)n *)anatiqeme/nh|. *lokrou\s de/ fasi tou\s *)epizefuri/ous, po/lemon e)/xontas pro\s tou\s plhsioxw/rous *krotwnia/tas ai)th=sai summaxi/an tou\s *lakedaimoni/ous. tw=n de\ strato\n me\n ou)k e)/xein fhsa/ntwn, dido/nai de\ au)toi=s tou\s *dioskou/rous: tou\s *lokrou\s oi)wnisame/nous to\ kertomhqe\n th/n te nau=n a)postre/yai kai\ dehqh=nai tw=n *dioskou/rwn sumplei=n au)toi=s. nikhsa/ntwn de\ au)tw=n au)qhmero\n kai\ th=s fh/mhs diaggelqei/shs ei)s *spa/rthn to\ me\n prw=ton a)pisthqh=nai, e)pei\ de\ eu(re/qh a)lhqh=, e)pile/gein toi=s a)lhqesta/tois me/n, ou) pisteuome/nois de/. a)lhqe/stera ou)=n tw=n e)pi\ *sa/gra|, e)pi\ tw=n pa/nu a)lhqeuo/ntwn. le/getai ga\r th\n peri\ th=s ni/khs fh/mhn au)qhmero\n a)po\ *)itali/as e)lqei=n ei)s th\n *spa/rthn. o(/qen kai\ ei)s paroimi/an e)cenexqh=nai to\n lo/gon e)pi\ tw=n a)lhqinw=n pragma/twn.
The principal paragraph here is also in Photius, Lexicon alpha936 Theodoridis, with looser parallels elsewhere (including several of the paroemiographers).
[1] Menander fr. 34 Kock, 31 Koerte, now 32 K.-A.
[2] The qualifier makes it clear that we are dealing with Lokroi (sic) in the "toe" of Italy.
[3] cf. Zenobius 2.17.
Keywords: aetiology; comedy; daily life; geography; history; military affairs; proverbs; religion
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 9 May 2000@17:29:30.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added notes and keywords) on 28 January 2001@10:04:27.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 12 June 2002@09:38:20.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 23 February 2011@10:09:10.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 5 February 2012@08:09:30.
David Whitehead on 20 August 2013@06:21:35.
David Whitehead on 30 December 2014@10:48:38.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 10 April 2015@02:53:24.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 31 May 2015@00:34:46.


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