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Headword: *)/ahmai
Adler number: alpha,656
Translated headword: I swing, I hang (?)
Vetting Status: high
[sc. The word occurs] in the Epigrams: "a shield from the mortal shoulders of Timanor, I swing beneath the roof in the temple of Pallas."[1]
Meaning I am dedicated.
Greek Original:
*)/ahmai: e)n *)epigra/mmasin: a)spi\s a)po\ brote/wn w)/mwn *tima/nwros a)/hmai nhw=| u(porrofi/as *palla/dos. a)nti\ tou= a)na/keimai.
[1] Greek Anthology 6.124.1-2 (Hegesippus), the dedication of a shield to Athena; again at alpha 1281 and tau 594; cf. Gow and Page, vol. I (104) and vol. II (299); cf. a further excerpt from this epigram at kappa 1254. The verb at the end of line 1 (here appearing as the headword) is twice (here and in tau 594) given as a)/hmai. Gow and Page follow (vol. I, 104) the Anthologia Planudea in reading h(=mai "I sit, I am located" and *tima/noros with an omicron, but note that both the Suda and the Anthologia Palatina transmit the unmetrical *tima/nwros a)/hmai.
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge 1965)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge 1965)
Keywords: architecture; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; military affairs; meter and music; poetry; religion
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 16 March 2001@22:22:46.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented and modified note; added keywords; cosmetics) on 17 March 2001@07:08:14.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 13 January 2012@04:56:41.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 17 January 2012@00:58:09.
Ronald Allen (expanded n.1, added bibliography, added cross-reference) on 28 December 2018@02:52:04.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note) on 28 December 2018@12:24:06.
Catharine Roth (tweak instigated by Ron Allen) on 28 December 2018@13:06:54.
Catharine Roth (tweaked headword and note) on 28 December 2018@13:14:47.
Ronald Allen (further expanded n.1) on 30 December 2018@13:09:47.
Ronald Allen (my beta code typo and tweak n.1) on 30 December 2018@16:28:31.
Catharine Roth (further tweaks, after discussion with Ronald Allen) on 31 December 2018@00:56:40.

Headword: *)alkima/xh
Adler number: alpha,1281
Translated headword: mighty in battle
Vetting Status: high
[sc. An epithet of] Athena,[1] [meaning] she [who is] strong in wars.
"[...] under the roof of the temple of Pallas mighty in battle".[2]
Greek Original:
*)alkima/xh: h( *)aqhna=, h( e)n pole/mois krataia/. nho\n u(porrofi/as *palla/dos a)lkima/xas.
The headword is perhaps generated by the epigram quoted, though not demonstrably so; ps.-Zonaras (next note) does not have it, and in any case the epigram has a Doric-dialect version.
[1] Likewise in ps.-Zonaras.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.124.2 (Hegesippus), the dedication of a shield to Athena, quoted also at alpha 656 and tau 594; cf. Gow and Page, vol. I (104), vol. II (299), and a further excerpt from this epigram at kappa 1254. The epigram reads naw=| (dative) u(pwrofi/a. Gow and Page suggest (ibid.) that the headword, which occurs in the genitive in the epigram, might have been Athena's cult-title in this particular temple.
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge 1965)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge 1965)
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; military affairs; poetry; religion
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 18 May 2000@20:59:50.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note and keywords) on 1 February 2001@07:53:54.
Catharine Roth (added cross-references, raised status) on 20 October 2004@11:34:30.
David Whitehead on 7 February 2012@06:51:35.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, expanded note) on 27 March 2012@01:30:52.
David Whitehead (augmented notes) on 7 June 2015@10:36:13.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note) on 28 December 2018@13:10:30.
Ronald Allen (expanded n.1, added bibliography, added cross-reference, added keyword) on 30 December 2018@20:57:20.

Headword: *daidalo/xeir
Adler number: delta,108
Translated headword: Daedalus-handed
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] one who works variegated and unusual things with his hands.[1]
"Dêris the Daedalus-handed dedicated to Pallas [...] an unbending cubit-stick."[2]
And elsewhere Aelian [writes]: "there were lamps made of silver and curiously wrought items of marvellous skill."[3]
And Aristophanes [writes]: "o my golden-wrought darling, child of Cypris!"[4]
Greek Original:
*daidalo/xeir: o( poiki/la kai\ e)cai/sia tai=s xersi\n e)rgazo/menos. *dh=ris o( daidalo/xeir th=| *palla/di ph=xun a)kamph= a)/nqeto. kai\ au)=qis *ai)liano/s: h)=n de\ ta\ luxni/a a)rgu/rou pepoihme/na kai\ te/xnhs qaumasth=s dai/dala. kai\ *)aristofa/nhs: w)= xrusodai/dalton e)mo\n me/lhma, *ku/pridos e)/rnos.
The headword is presumably extracted from the quotation given.
[1] cf. generally delta 106, delta 107, delta 109, delta 110.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.204.1-4 (here abridged: other tools are listed before the verb) for which the majority of mss read "Thêris" instead of the Suda's "Dêris" (again at delta 491).
[3] Aelian fr. 138 Hercher.
[4] Aristophanes, Ecclesiazusae 971 (web address 1 below), using a related adjective with a daidal- component; see also theta 520.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: comedy; definition; imagery; mythology; poetry; religion; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 10 December 2003@16:21:26.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 11 December 2003@05:50:22.
David Whitehead (expanded n.2; cosmetics) on 4 August 2004@07:21:22.
David Whitehead on 4 August 2004@07:25:43.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 15 June 2012@13:00:10.
David Whitehead on 7 October 2015@04:41:28.

Headword: *daida/lou poih/mata
Adler number: delta,110
Translated headword: Daidalos' creations, Daedalus' creations
Vetting Status: high
[sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to those pursuing skills with exactitude.[1]
[It arose] because the old craftsmen used to make the eyes closed, but Daidalos opened them, and spread the feet. And Homer says: "[Phereklos], who knew how to fashion all daidala with his hands; for Pallas Athene loved him as a favorite, he who had built the trim ships for Paris".[2]
Greek Original:
*daida/lou poih/mata: e)pi\ tw=n a)kribou/ntwn ta\s te/xnas. e)peidh\ oi( palaioi\ dhmiourgoi\ summemuko/tas tou\s o)fqalmou\s e)poi/oun, o( de\ *dai/dalos a)nepe/tasen au)tou\s kai\ tou\s po/das die/sthse. kai\ *(/omhro/s fhsin: o(\s xersi\n h)pi/stato dai/dala pa/nta teu/xein: e)/coxa ga/r min e)fi/lato *palla\s *)aqh/nh: o(\s kai\ *)aleca/ndrw| tekth/nato nh=as e)i/+sas.
The phrase "Daidalou poiemata" occurs in Plato, Meno 97D-E, and this material derives from ancient comment on that passage. For Daidalos/Daedalus cf. already delta 106, delta 107, delta 108, delta 109; and see generally OCD(4) s.v.
For the uses and meanings of the word dai/dalon and its cognates see the comprehensive study of Frontisi-Ducroux (below) 29ff. For the sense of poi/hma as the result of inner creativity, see Snell (below) 179.
[1] cf. Zenobius 3.7.
[2] Homer, Iliad 5.60-62; cf. delta 437 (end). On the use of teu/xw see tau 435, Frontisi-Ducroux 58-59 and note 35, Snell 178.
F. Frontisi-Ducroux, Dédale, mythologie de l'artisan en Grèce ancienne (Paris 1975)
B. Snell, "Wie die Griechen lernten, was geistige Taetigkeit ist", Journal of Hellenic Studies 93 (1973) 173-184
Keywords: aetiology; art history; daily life; definition; epic; mythology; philosophy; proverbs; religion; science and technology
Translated by: David Whitehead on 19 October 2000@03:38:47.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 4 September 2002@06:30:47.
David Whitehead (added note) on 4 September 2002@06:36:22.
Robert Dyer (Added references and x-ref) on 7 February 2003@03:09:34.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 5 October 2003@06:28:27.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 15 June 2012@13:17:55.
David Whitehead on 3 August 2014@03:50:33.
David Whitehead on 7 October 2015@04:43:58.

Headword: *dedmhme/noi
Adler number: delta,155
Translated headword: conquered
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning they who have been] subdued.[1]
Also [sc. attested is] de/dmhntai ["they have been conquered"]. In the Epigrams: "these bridles all in a row and the polished double-pointed spears, longing for their horses and men alike, have been conquered [from the Lucanians] for Pallas."[2]
Greek Original:
*dedmhme/noi: dedamasme/noi. kai\ *de/dmhntai. e)n *)epigra/mmasi: oi( de\ xalinoi\ stoixhdo/n, cestoi/ t' a)mfi/boloi ka/makes de/dmhntai, poqe/ousai o(mw=s i(/ppous te kai\ a)/ndras, *palladi/ou.
[1] The headword, with the same or similar glossing in other lexica, is a perfect passive participle in the masculine nominative plural. (For the verb cf. delta 154.) It has been extracted from Homer, Iliad 6.245; see the scholia there.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.131.1-4 (Leonidas), where the text reads *Palla/di tou\s for the lexicon's *Palladi/ou.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; military affairs; poetry; religion; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 16 December 2003@17:28:46.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 17 December 2003@05:50:12.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 19 February 2004@14:26:52.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 15 December 2011@11:52:08.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1; more keywords; cosmetics) on 16 December 2011@03:03:53.
David Whitehead (typo) on 18 June 2012@04:26:35.
David Whitehead on 8 October 2015@03:30:57.
Catharine Roth (betacode) on 14 July 2016@19:44:39.

Headword: *dh=ris
Adler number: delta,491
Translated headword: Deris
Vetting Status: high
"Deris cunning of hand dedicated to Pallas [...] a rigid cubit-stick." In the Epigrams.
Greek Original:
*dh=ris, o( daidalo/xeir th=| *palla/di ph=xun a)kamph= a)/nqeto. e)n *)epigra/mmasin.
Greek Anthology 6.204.1-4 (abridged), quoted from delta 108; see the note there.
Keywords: poetry; religion; science and technology
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 4 August 2004@11:58:38.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 5 August 2004@03:04:11.

Headword: *klh=ros
Adler number: kappa,1784
Translated headword: allotment
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] a measure of land, from which also the cleruchs [are named], meaning those who possess the allotments and the measures of land.[1]
"Light-bringer, savior, take your stand by the allotments of Pallas, O Artemis."[2]
When Jacob began to count his 12 sons starting from Benjamin and found Levi the tenth, he brought him to God, tithing of his children and of everything he had, according to the promise made when he escaped: 'Of everything you give me, I will give a tithe in return to you.' For this reason putting on Levi a robe of priestly sacrifice he brought him to God in Bethel. And because of this those who preside over sacrifice and liturgy according to the Law are called Levites, but those who [preside over the liturgy] according to the priestly service of divine grace have been named clergy [klhrikoi/], because it is written, 'The Levites will not have a lot among the sons of Israel. For the Lord is their share and allotment.'[3]
But David calls the changes of conditions klh=roi, wealth and poverty, slavery and mastery, peace and war: 'in your hands are my allotments.'[4]
Greek Original:
*klh=ros: me/tron gh=s. o(/qen kai\ oi( klhrou=xoi, a)nti\ tou= oi( tou\s klh/rous kai\ ta\ me/tra th=s gh=s kate/xontes. fwsfo/ros, w)= sw/teir', e)pi\ *palla/dos e(/staqi klh/rwn, *)/artemi. o(/ti *)iakw\b tou\s ib# e)sxhkw\s ui(ou\s a)po\ tou= *beniami\n a)rca/menos a)riqmei=n kai\ eu(rw\n to\n *leui\ de/katon tw=| qew=| tou=ton prosh/gagen, a)podekatw/sas kai\ ta\ te/kna kai\ pa/nta o(/sa h)=n au)tw=| kata\ th\n u(po/sxesin e)n tw=| a)podidra/skein au)to/n: pa/nta o(/sa a)/n moi dw=|s, deka/thn a)podekatw/sw soi. dia\ tou=to e)ndu/sas to\n *leui\ stolh\n i(eratei/as qusi/as prosh/negke tw=| qew=| e)n *beqh/l. ka)nteu=qen oi( me\n th=| kata\ no/mon qusi/a| te kai\ leitourgi/a| prosedreu/ontes *leui/tai ke/klhntai, oi( de\ kata\ th\n th=s qei/as xa/ritos i(erourgi/an klhrikoi\ proshgoreu/qhsan, dia\ to\ gegra/fqai: ou)k e)/stai toi=s *leui/tais klh=ros e)n ui(oi=s *)israh/l. o( ga\r ku/rios meri\s au)tw=n kai\ klh=ros. *klh/rous de\ o( *dabi\d ta\s tw=n pragma/twn metabola\s kalei=, plou=ton kai\ peni/an, doulei/an kai\ despotei/an, ei)rh/nhn kai\ po/lemon. e)n tai=s xersi/ sou oi( klh=roi/ mou.
[1] Likewise or similarly in other lexica and scholia; see the references at Photius kappa773 Theodoridis, which combines kappa 1783 with this present material. See also kappa 1782; and for klhrou=xoi, kappa 1787, kappa 1788, kappa 1789, kappa 1790.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.267.1-2 (Diotimus): cf. sigma 874; should be "Pollis" rather than "Pallas."
[3] George the Monk, Chronicon 113.7-19, quoting Genesis 28.22 and Deuteronomy 10.9 & 18.2 LXX.
[4] Theodoret (PG 80.1081cd, 1084a) on Psalm 30.16 LXX.
Keywords: aetiology; Christianity; clothing; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; imagery; law; philosophy; poetry; religion
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 3 December 2008@02:02:37.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 3 December 2008@03:13:04.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 3 March 2013@04:45:41.
David Whitehead on 1 May 2016@09:11:35.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note) on 10 September 2019@12:19:44.
Catharine Roth (expanded note) on 10 September 2019@12:22:28.

Headword: *leiomi/tou
Adler number: lambda,371
Translated headword: warp-smoothing
Vetting Status: high
In the Epigrams: "of a warp-smoothing pole of Pallas the loom-worker".[1]
Greek Original:
*leiomi/tou: e)n *)epigra/mmasi: *palla/dos i(stopo/nou leiomi/tou ka/makos.
The unglossed headword, as transmitted, is genitive singular, and as such is putatively extracted from the quotation given; but in the poem it is accusative plural.
[1] Greek Anthology 6.247.2 (Philip).
Keywords: dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry; religion; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Nick Nicholas on 1 April 2009@08:25:59.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords; tweaks) on 1 April 2009@09:34:35.
David Whitehead on 17 April 2013@05:08:26.
Catharine Roth (coding, tweaked note) on 30 April 2020@01:39:23.

Headword: *oi( *nomofu/lakes
Adler number: omicroniota,124
Translated headword: the nomophylakes, the law-guardians
Vetting Status: high
Who? Some determined that they were the same as the thesmothetai - but it is not so: for the thesmothetai used to climb the Areiopagos garlanded in the traditional manner, whereas the nomophylakes used white headbands and, during spectacles, would sit on thrones opposite the nine archons;[1] also they used to decorate the procession for Pallas [Athena], when her cult-image needed to be taken to the sea;[2] they also compelled the officials to abide by the laws; and at the assemblies they sat with the proedroi, preventing voting on what was disadvantagous to the city, if they felt anything to be unlawful.
Greek Original:
*oi( *nomofu/lakes ti/nes: e)/doce/ tisi tou\s au)tou\s ei)=nai toi=s qesmoqe/tais: a)ll' ou)k e)/stin ou(/tws: oi( me\n ga\r qesmoqe/tai kata\ ta\ pa/tria e)stefanwme/noi e)pi\ to\n *)/areion a)ne/bainon pa/gon, oi( de\ nomo- fu/lakes strofi/ois leukoi=s e)xrw=nto kai\ e)n tai=s qe/ais e)pi\ qro/nwn e)ka/qhnto kat' a)ntikru\ tw=n e)nne/a a)rxo/ntwn: kai\ th=| *palla/di th\n pomph\n e)ko/smoun, o(/te komi/zoito to\ co/anon e)pi\ th\n qa/lassan: h)na/gkazon de\ kai\ ta\s a)rxa\s xrh=sqai toi=s no/mois: kai\ e)n tai=s e)kklhsi/ais e)ka/qhnto meta\ tw=n proe/drwn, kwlu/ontes yhfi/zein, ei)/ ti para/nomon au)toi=s ei)=nai do/ceien, a)su/mforon th=| po/lei.
The Lexicon Rhetoricum Cantabrigiense s.v. ascribes this information to Philochorus (FGrH 328 F64); see also Pollux 8.94 and Harpokration and Photius s.v. for the basic didactic/polemical point that the nomophylakes were not to be confused with the thesmothetai. The LRC also claims that they were created in 462/1 BCE, in or as an immediate consequence of the reforms of Ephialtes. For several reasons (notably their association with the proedroi, who did not exist then) this has generally been felt to be improbable. Harpokration cites two lost speeches of Dinarchus which mentioned them, and if these speeches dated from the second half of the 320s it would become more understandable that there is no mention of the nomophylakes in the Aristotelian Athenaion Politeia - whether they are an institution of the last phase of untrammelled democracy (c.327-323) or a creation of one of the alternative constitutional regimes which came later, that of Demetrius of Phaleron (317-307). See however O'Sullivan (below) for an acceptance of Philochorus.
cf. nu 488, nu 489.
[1] Who of course included the (six) thesmothetai. See theta 267.
[2] Bathing this ancient relic in seawater was one of the ceremonies in the Panathenaia festival (pi 151, pi 152).
P.J. Rhodes, A Commentary on the Aristotelian Athenaion Politeia (Oxford 1981) 315, cf. 580
R.W. Wallace, The Areopagos Council to 307 BC (Baltimore & London 1989) 202-203
M.H. Hansen, The Athenian Democracy in the Age of Demosthenes (Oxford [Blackwell] 1991) 211, 240, 243
L. O'Sullivan, "Philochorus, Pollux, and the nomophylakes of Demetrius of Phalerum", Journal of Hellenic Studies 121 (2001) 51-62
Keywords: clothing; constitution; definition; historiography; history; law; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: David Whitehead on 27 November 2001@08:17:35.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 17 August 2003@19:44:23.
David Whitehead (added x-refs and keywords; cosmetics) on 18 August 2003@02:56:44.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 27 November 2005@09:35:16.
David Whitehead on 7 August 2013@06:06:30.
David Whitehead on 4 September 2013@05:49:41.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 23 October 2014@00:17:13.

Headword: *palla/dion
Adler number: pi,34
Translated headword: Palladion, Palladium
Vetting Status: high
This was a small wooden figure, which they used to say was enchanted, guarding the kingdom of Troy; it was given to King Tros, when he was founding the city, by Asios, a certain philosopher and priest;[1] hence, no doubt, it was to honour Asios that he named Asia the territory over which he was king, previously called Epeiros. But those who wrote poems [sc. about this] said that this palladion [came] out of the sky and was taken back to Tros when he was ruling the Phrygians. Diomedes [Author, Myth] and Odysseus, when they made their embassy to Priam,[2] stole this from the temple; they had been given it beforehand by Theano, the wife of Antenor [Author, Myth],[3] who happened to be a priestess and its guardian; for they learned from an oracle and Antenor that as long as the palladion remained in Troy the kingdom of the Phrygians would be unshaken. Great dissension therefore arose between Ajax and Odysseus, [about] who would take this back to their own country, with the other kings and leaders adjudicating between them. Much discussion was generated and, as evening came on, they reached a decision to entrust the image to Diomedes until the following morning. And that is what happened; but during the night Ajax was found mysteriously murdered. The suspicion was that Odysseus had killed him by deceit. And after quarrelling with each other they sailed away.
See in the [entry] 'Diomedean compulsion'.[4]
Greek Original:
*palla/dion: tou=to h)=n zw/|dion mikro\n cu/linon, o(\ e)/legon ei)=nai tetelesme/non, fula/tton th\n basilei/an th=s *troi/as: e)do/qh de\ *trwi\+ tw=| basilei= kti/zonti th\n po/lin u(po\ *)asi/ou tino\s filoso/fou kai\ telestou=: dio\ dh\ ei)s timh\n *)asi/ou th\n u(p' au)tou= basileuome/nhn xw/ran pro/teron *)/hpeiron legome/nhn *)asi/an e)ka/lesen. oi( de\ poihtikw=s gra/yantes e)k tou= a)e/ros ei)=pon to\ palla/dion tou=to katenexqh=nai tw=| *trwi\+ basileu/onti *frugw=n. tou=to *diomh/dhs kai\ *)odusseu/s, o(/te th\n presbei/an e)poih/santo pro\s *pri/amon, e)k tou= i(erou= e)su/lhsan, prodedwkui/as au)to\ *qeanou=s th=s tou= *)anth/noros gunaiko/s, i(erei/as tugxanou/shs kai\ fulattou/shs au)to/: h)=san ga\r a)po\ xrhsmou= kai\ *)anth/noros maqo/ntes, o(/ti e(/ws ou(= menei= to\ palla/dion e)n th=| *troi/a|, a)sa/leutos e)/stai h( basilei/a tw=n *frugw=n. pollh\ toi/nun metacu\ *ai)/antos kai\ *)odusse/ws e)kinh/qh e)/ris, ti/s tou=to ei)s th\n i)di/an a)pene/gkoi patri/da, dikazo/ntwn au)toi=s tw=n a)/llwn basile/wn kai\ proma/xwn. pollw=n toi/nun metacu\ lo/gwn kinhqe/ntwn, kai\ genome/nhs o)yi/as, e)/docen au)toi=s paraqe/sqai to\ bre/tas *diomh/dei, me/xris a)\n ge/nhtai prwi/+. kai\ tou/tou genome/nou, dia\ th=s nukto\s eu(re/qh o( *ai)/as e)sfagme/nos a)dh/lws. u(peno/oun de\ do/lw| fo- neu=sai au)to\n to\n *)odusse/a. kai\ filoneikh/santes pro\s a)llh/lous a)pe/pleusan. zh/tei e)n tw=| *diomh/deios a)na/gkh.
See generally OCD4 s.v. Palladium. The present entry's material (part of which also occurs in the scholia to Homer, Iliad 6.311, on the name Pallas Athene) is paralleled in late-antique historiography: John of Antioch, John Malalas, etc.
[1] cf. alpha 4149.
[2] pi 2274.
[3] alpha 2647.
[4] delta 1164.
Keywords: aetiology; biography; botany; definition; epic; ethics; geography; historiography; mythology; philosophy; poetry; religion; trade and manufacture; women
Translated by: David Whitehead on 11 August 2010@09:58:56.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, set status) on 11 August 2010@12:12:10.
David Whitehead (more x-refs) on 12 August 2010@03:08:27.
David Whitehead on 9 August 2013@03:55:36.
David Whitehead on 10 August 2014@03:46:14.

Headword: *palla/ntion
Adler number: pi,49
Translated headword: Pallantion, Pallantium, Palatine
Vetting Status: high
After establishing the [sc. Roman] constitution Romulus also renovated the royal house, called the Pallantion after Pallas.
Greek Original:
*palla/ntion: o( *(rwmu/los meta\ to\ katasth=sai ta\ politika\ a)nene/wse kai\ to\ kalou/menon a)po\ *pa/llantos *palla/ntion, to\n basiliko\n oi)=kon.
cf. Polybius 6.11a.1 (web address 1); Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities 1.31.4; Pausanias 8.43.2; and see generally OCD4 s.v. Palatine. For Pallas cf. pi 50.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: architecture; biography; chronology; constitution; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; history; mythology
Translated by: David Whitehead on 30 December 2003@08:08:40.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added link, set status) on 30 December 2003@19:36:36.
David Whitehead (augmented note) on 31 December 2003@03:19:05.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 18 November 2005@09:56:06.
David Whitehead on 9 August 2013@06:22:02.
David Whitehead on 10 August 2014@03:48:02.

Headword: *palla/s
Adler number: pi,50
Translated headword: Pallas
Vetting Status: high
[The name of] a great virgin. It is an epithet of Athena; from brandishing [pallein] the spear, or from having killed Pallas, one of the Giants.
Greek Original:
*palla/s: parqe/nos mega/lh. e)/sti de\ e)pi/qeton *)aqhna=s: a)po\ tou= pa/llein to\ do/ru, h)\ a)po\ tou= a)nh|rhke/nai *pa/llanta, e(/na tw=n *giga/ntwn.
Same entry in Photius, Lexicon pi99 Theodoridis, and cf. the scholia to Homer, Iliad 1.200 (where the phrase *palla/d' *a)qhnai/hn occurs).
For Pallas cf. pi 49.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; gender and sexuality; military affairs; mythology; religion
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 13 June 2000@13:13:25.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 31 March 2001@03:13:01.
David Whitehead (added note) on 31 December 2003@03:19:53.
David Whitehead (another note; another keyword) on 11 May 2011@07:12:43.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 26 August 2011@05:46:16.
David Whitehead (expanded note; more keywords) on 9 August 2013@06:24:09.
David Whitehead (coding) on 21 May 2016@07:36:09.

Headword: *para/lwn
Adler number: pi,391
Translated headword: Coasters, Paraloi
Vetting Status: high
Attica was in olden times divided into 4 parts: for Pandion[1] succeeded Kekrops [sc. as king],[2] and after acquiring Megaris he apportioned the land to his sons in 4 parts -- to Aigeus the land beside the town up to Pythion, to Pallas the Coast, to Lykos the Heights, to Nisos Megaris.[3] Aristophanes [writes]: "but no woman of the Coasters is present".[4]
Greek Original:
*para/lwn: dih/|rhto ei)s d# moi/ras pa/lai h( *)attikh/: *pandi/wn ga\r diadeca/menos *ke/kropa, proskthsa/menos de\ kai\ th\n *megari/da e)/neime th\n xw/ran toi=s paisi\n ei)s d# moi/ras: *ai)gei= me\n th\n para\ to\ a)/stu me/xri *puqi/ou, *pa/llanti de\ th\n *parali/an, *lu/kw| de\ th\n *diakri/an, *ni/sw| de\ th\n *megari/da. *)aristofa/nhs: a)ll' ou)de\ *para/lwn ou)demi/a gunh\ pa/ra.
The headword, extracted from Aristophanes (below), is genitive plural.
cf. pi 390.
[1] pi 177.
[2] kappa 1272.
[3] In historical times 'Megaris' (Megara) was of course a separate polis (mu 387, etc.).
[4] Aristophanes, Lysistrata 58, with commentary derived from the scholia there.
Keywords: aetiology; biography; chronology; comedy; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; geography; history; mythology; women
Translated by: William Hutton on 23 July 2011@15:01:02.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 24 July 2011@06:00:50.
David Whitehead (another hw option; augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 5 September 2013@04:01:11.

Headword: *pa/rion
Adler number: pi,652
Translated headword: Parion
Vetting Status: high
Name of a rural place, called after Paris the [man] also [known as] Alexandros;[1] for his father Priam sent him there to be raised; previously the place was called Amandros.[2] There Alexandros spent 30 years, acquired a good nature, and was fully educated in Greek wisdom. He also issued a discourse in praise of Aphrodite, saying that she was greater than Athena and Hera; for Aphrodite, he said, was that desire out of which are born all bad things for men.[3] Hence arose the story that Paris made a judgement between Pallas and Hera and Aphrodite and gave Aphrodite the apple, i.e. the victory. He also declaimed a hymn to her, the so-called Kestos. They write that this was the cause of the war. When the 30 years were completed, his father[4] summoned him and sent him to [perform] sacrifices; and when he went to Sparta and found Helen there he abducted her.
Greek Original:
*pa/rion: o)/noma a)grou=, a)po\ *pa/ridos tou= kai\ *)aleca/ndrou klhqe/n: e)kei=se ga\r e)/pemyen au)to\n *pri/amos o( path\r tre/fesqai: topri\n de\ e)kalei=to *)/amandros o( to/pos. e)kei= te diatri/yas *)ale/candros tou\s l# e)niautou\s fu/sew/s te decia=s tetuxhkw\s pa=san e)paideu/qh sofi/an *(ellhnikh/n. e)ce/qeto de\ kai\ lo/gon ei)s e)gkw/mion th=s *)afrodi/ths, le/gwn mei/zona au)th\n ei)=nai th=s *)aqhna=s kai\ th=s *(/hras: th\n ga\r *)afrodi/thn th\n e)piqumi/an ei)=pen, e)c h(=s ti/ktetai panta\ ta\ kaka\ a)nqrw/pois. e)nteu=qen fe/retai mu=qos, o(/ti o( *pa/ris e)/krine metacu\ *palla/dos kai\ *(/hras kai\ *)afrodi/ths kai\ th=| *)afrodi/th| de/dwke to\ mh=lon, o(/ e)sti th\n ni/khn. ei)=pe de\ kai\ u(/mnon ei)s au)th/n, to\n lego/menon *kesto/n. tau/thn gra/fousi th\n ai)ti/an gene/sqai tou= pole/mou. suntelesqe/ntwn tw=n l# e)niautw=n, metasteila/menos tou=ton o( path\r e)/pemyen ei)s qusi/as. o(\s e)lqw\n e)n *spa/rth| kai\ eu(rw\n th\n *(ele/nhn h(/rpasen au)th/n.
This material is paralleled in John of Antioch, Georgius Cedrenus, et al: see Adler's note.
[1] This Parion is not the (later) polis of that name, which according to Stephanus of Byzantium had a different eponym (Parios, son of Iasion).
[2] Differently in the other sources, e.g. Mandro in Cedrenus.
[3] Jonathan Toup (1713-1785) corrected this, surely rightly, to 'all fine things', a change of just one consonant in the Greek.
[4] Priam (pi 2274).
Keywords: aetiology; biography; botany; definition; ethics; food; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; imagery; military affairs; meter and music; mythology; religion; rhetoric; women
Translated by: David Whitehead on 4 March 2010@06:34:33.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (tweak, status) on 5 March 2010@01:33:57.
David Whitehead (expanded nn.1 and 3) on 5 March 2010@03:09:29.
David Whitehead on 16 September 2013@07:38:10.

Headword: *sika/rioi
Adler number: sigma,388
Translated headword: sicarii, assassins
Vetting Status: high
A type of bandits. Romans call curved swords sicae, and those who use them used to be called sicarii.[1]
These men used to kill people they encountered during the reign of Claudius; an Egyptian bandit led them out into the desert; and Felix took vengeance on them.[2]
The Pharisees are called sicarii, as [sc. being] Zealots.[3]
Greek Original:
*sika/rioi: lh|stw=n ge/nos. si/kas de\ ta\ e)pikamph= ci/fh *(rwmai=oi kalou=sin, oi(=s oi( xrw/menoi e)le/gonto sika/rioi. ou(=toi tou\s paratugxa/nontas e)/kteinon e)pi\ *klaudi/ou de\ tou= basile/ws: ou(\s *ai)gu/ptios lh|sth\s e)pi\ th\n e)/rhmon e)ch/gagen: ou(\s e)timwrh/sato *fi/lhc. *sika/rioi de\ le/gontai oi( *farisai=oi, w(s *zhlwtai/.
The headword, here in the nominative plural, is a transliteration of the Latin word sicarius, "dagger-man," i.e., assassin.
[1] Likewise in the Synagoge (sigma75) and Photius (sigma198 Theodoridis); and cf. generally Josephus, Jewish War 2.254-263 and Jewish Antiquities 20.160-172.
[2] George the Monk, Chronicon 327.4-9; cf. Acts of the Apostles 21:38. Antonius Felix was procurator of Judaea from AD 52-ca.60, if not a few years earlier; he was the brother of Pallas, Claudius' powerful imperial freedman.
[3] On the Pharisees see phi 94, phi 95; on the Zealots, zeta 66.
Grünewald, T. Räuber, Rebellen, Rivalen, Rächer: Studien zu Latrones im römischen Reich, FAS 31, Stuttgart, 1999; = Bandits in the Roman Empire: Myth and Reality, translated by J. Drinkwater, London and New York, 2004
Hengel, Martin. The Zealots: Investigations into the Jewish Freedom Movement in the Period from Herod I until 70 A.D., translated by David Smith (from the 1976 second German edn of Die Zeloten), Edinburg, 1989
Horsley, R.A., with John S. Hanson, Bandits, Prophets and Messiahs: Popular Movements in the Time of Jesus, Minneapolis, 1985
Riess, W. Apuleius und die Räuber: Ein Beitrag zur historischen Kriminalitätsforschung, Stuttgart, 2001
Keywords: biography; Christianity; chronology; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; history; military affairs; politics; religion
Translated by: Christopher Fuhrmann on 14 February 2009@22:03:12.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified aspects of tr; augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 15 February 2009@05:03:25.
David Whitehead (tweaking; raised status) on 24 December 2013@06:04:56.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 10 November 2014@11:01:00.
David Whitehead (typo) on 11 November 2014@02:41:00.

Headword: *swth/r
Adler number: sigma,874
Translated headword: savior, protector, deliverer, preserver
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] our God.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the feminine] *sw/teira ["saviour-goddess"]. "o light-bringing savior-goddess, stay in the lands of Pallas, Artemis, and give your sweet light to a man."[2]
Greek Original:
*swth/r: o( qeo\s h(mw=n. kai\ *sw/teira. *fwsfo/ros w)= sw/teir', e)pi\ *palla/dos e(/staqi klh/rwn, *)/artemi, kai\ xa/rien fw=s e(o\n a)ndri\ di/dou.
[1] A Christian gloss; cf. under alpha 4413, sigma 481.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.267.1-2 (Diotimus); cf. kappa 1784. 'Pallas' should be Pollis.
Keywords: Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry; religion
Translated by: Kyle Heath on 16 November 2005@21:30:14.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, keywords) on 17 November 2005@01:54:12.
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented and modified notes) on 17 November 2005@03:32:41.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 10 May 2011@05:54:58.
David Whitehead on 31 December 2013@04:56:54.
David Whitehead (coding) on 26 May 2016@06:11:18.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note) on 10 September 2019@12:20:39.

Headword: *ta/laros
Adler number: tau,38
Translated headword: basket
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning a] creel, small hamper.[1]
In the Epigrams: "[...] the third [sc. sister dedicates] a basket rejoicing in wool."[2] Also [sc. attested is the diminutive] talari/skos ["little basket".[3] " Demo [sc. dedicated] a well-woven little basket."[4] "Black blood from his tough hide bubbled through his skin; and he drenched the ground in a painful gruesome death."[5]
Greek Original:
*ta/laros: kalaqi/skos, ko/finos mikro/s. e)n *)epigra/mmasi: a( tri/tata d' ei)roxarh= ta/laron. kai\ *talari/skos. *dhmw\ me\n talari/skon e)u/+plokon. me/lan de/ oi( ai(=ma taurinou= dia\ xrwto\s ce/ss': e)pi\ d' a)rgale/an bw=lon e)/deuse fo/nw|.
The headword is a masculine noun in the nominative singular; cf. tau 39, tau 129 (gloss), tau 138 (gloss); see Cunliffe p. 372, and generally LSJ s.v.
[1] The glossing substantives (the first a diminutive) are the same form as the headword; see generally LSJ s.vv. The headword is almost identically glossed -- it is the Suda compiler who adds 'small' -- in the Synagoge (tau14), Photius' Lexicon (tau23 Theodoridis), and Etymologicum Magnum 744.56 (Kallierges). Compare also e.g. Hesychius s.v. e)n tala/roisi; ps.-Zonaras 718.23; Apollonius' Homeric Lexicon 148.31-2; and the scholia (= scholia vetera) to Homer, Odyssey 4.125 (web address 1), where the headword occurs in the accusative singular, ta/laron; see Cunliffe, p. 372.
[2] From a dedication of tools for weaving and spinning, by three Samian sisters to Athena: Greek Anthology 6.39.6 (attributed, doubtfully, to Archias); Gow and Page, Garland of Philip, vol. I, pp. 404-5.
[3] This additional lemma is in the same form, but a diminutive, of the headword (e.g. Latin quasillus, diminutive of qualum); see LSJ s.v.
[4] From a dedication of three sisters to Pallas (sc. Athena): Greek Anthology 6.173.3 (attributed to Antipater of Sidon); see Gow and Page, Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, p. 13.
[5] From a dedication to a war-horse: Greek Anthology 7.208.3-4 (attributed to Anyte); see Gow and Page, Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, p. 37. [In her critical apparatus Adler reports that ms A transmits melande/ou, rimmed with black. She also notes that the Suda editio princeps and the Greek Anthology transmit talauri/nou (bearing a bull's-hide shield, tough, battle-ready), an epithet of Ares; cf. tau 47. (This probably explains why the quotation is included in the present entry, i.e. as one deemed to contain a cognate of the headword.) Adler also reports that mss GM read ce/s', while ms V transmits ze/s', and ms F omits the word with a lacuna (Adler); and that ms V reads a)rge/an and mss GM transmit a)rgure/an (silver), evidently an error.]
R.J. Cunliffe, A Lexicon of the Homeric Dialect, Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, The Greek Anthology: The Garland of Philip, vol. I, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1965
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; imagery; military affairs; poetry; religion; trade and manufacture; women; zoology
Translated by: Ronald Allen on 20 March 2012@02:16:55.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 March 2012@04:23:20.
Catharine Roth (typo, coding) on 20 March 2012@21:59:52.
David Whitehead on 6 January 2014@08:01:06.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 31 March 2015@01:11:20.

Headword: *thle/poron
Adler number: tau,490
Translated headword: far-reaching, far-travelling
Vetting Status: high
Aristophanes [writes]: "some far-travelling shout". In effect, something right and elevated. It is a beginning of a song; just like the [one that begins] "city-sacking Athena".
Greek Original:
*thle/poron: *)aristofa/nhs: thle/poro/n ti bo/hma. oi(=on o)rqo/n ti kai\ u(yhlo/n. e)/sti de\ a)rxh\ a)/|smatos: w(/sper to/, perse/polin *)aqa/nan.
From the scholia to Aristophanes, Clouds 967. In that line Aristophanes does use the phrase attributed to him here, and, before it, the phrase "terrible city-sacking Pallas". Both appear to be quotations from earlier poetry, possibly by sigma 1095; Dover (below) 215 has a long, inconclusive note.
Aristophanes, Clouds, edited with introduction and commentary by K.J. Dover (Oxford 1968)
Keywords: comedy; definition; military affairs; meter and music; mythology; poetry; religion
Translated by: David Whitehead on 27 September 2012@09:24:30.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (set status) on 1 October 2012@00:07:45.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 1 October 2012@03:17:41.
David Whitehead on 12 January 2014@08:22:28.

Headword: *trapezofo/ros
Adler number: tau,910
Translated headword: table-bearer
Vetting Status: high
Table-bearer [is] a name of a priestess-ship [sc. in Athens]; and [it is stated] that both she and the kosmo[1] jointly manage everything with the priestess of Athena.
Greek Original:
*trapezofo/ros: i(erwsu/nhs o)/noma h( trapezofo/ros: kai\ o(/ti au(/th te kai\ h( kosmw\ sundie/pousi pa/nta th=| th=s *)aqhna=s i(erei/a|: w(s *lukou=rgos e)n tw=| au)tw=| lo/gw| dedh/lwke.
Abbreviated from Harpokration s.v., glossing Lycurgus fr. 47 Conomis (and citing Istros FGrH 334 F9).
The trapezophoros was also, it seems, called the trapezo.
[1] The priestess of Pallas.
Robert Parker, Athenian Religion (Oxford 1996) 290
Keywords: definition; historiography; religion; rhetoric; women
Translated by: David Whitehead on 21 December 2000@07:52:18.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added italics, set status) on 7 November 2004@17:39:10.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 8 November 2004@03:24:43.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 14 July 2011@05:03:03.
David Whitehead on 15 January 2014@04:33:17.

Headword: *qrausa/ntuges
Adler number: theta,468
Translated headword: chariot-rail-breaking
Vetting Status: high
"O harsh spirit, o chariot-rail-breaking fates of my horses, o Pallas, how you are ruining me." Aristophanes [says this] in Clouds.
Greek Original:
*qrausa/ntuges: sklhre\ dai=mon, w)= tu/xai qrausa/ntuges i(/ppwn e)mw=n, w)= *palla/s, w(/s m' a)pw/lesas. *)aristofa/nhs *nefe/lais.
Said by a character in Aristophanes, Clouds 1264-5 (web address 1).
cf. generally alpha 2769, theta 469.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: athletics; comedy; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; religion; science and technology; trade and manufacture; zoology
Translated by: David Whitehead on 25 February 2008@06:06:59.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added link, set status) on 27 February 2008@12:16:38.
David Whitehead (x-refs) on 28 February 2008@03:18:00.
David Whitehead on 6 January 2013@05:56:14.
Catharine Roth (supplemented translation) on 12 December 2018@21:44:36.


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