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Headword: *)abbakou/m
Adler number: alpha,12
Translated headword: Habakkuk, Avvakoum
Vetting Status: high
[A name meaning] father of awakening. For the [word] abba means father,[1] and koum means awakening.[2] So also in the Holy Gospel: "Talitha, koum," that is, "young girl, get up."[3] From which [it is] clear that Abbakoum must be written with double b.[4]
Greek Original:
*)abbakou/m: path\r e)ge/rsews. to\ me\n ga\r a)bba= shmai/nei path/r, to\ de\ kou\m e)/gersis: w(s kai\ para\ tw=| qei/w| eu)aggeli/w|: talhqa\, kou/m, h)/goun h( pai=s e)gei/rou. o(/qen dh=lon, o(/ti dia\ tw=n du/o bb grapte/on to\ *)abbakou/m.
An etymology for the name of the prophet Habakkuk (in the Septuagint, Ambakoum or Avvakoum), based on two Aramaic words found in the New Testament. The Suda is drawing from older onomastica; the same etymology is found in the Origenistic lexicon (see bibliography).
[1] See already alpha 10. The Hebrew/Aramaic אבּא abba means father.
[2] The Hebrew/Aramaic קום kūm means arise; it can also be used to mean awake.
[3] Mark 5:41 (web address 1); not in the other Gospels, but several times in patristic literature.
[4] The Suda is correct. The doubling of the בּ is indicated by its dot (dagesh); unlike Greek, Hebrew and Aramaic do not replicate doubled letters.
Paul de Lagarde, Onomastica Sacra, p. 200, line 14-15
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: children; Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; imagery; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:59:43.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Altered wording.) on 29 July 2000@23:23:46.
Catharine Roth (Augmented note with information supplied by Lee Fields.) on 1 May 2001@19:02:40.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; cosmetics) on 22 July 2003@10:07:42.
Raphael Finkel (Added notes 2, 4, Hebrew.) on 12 August 2004@14:47:21.
Catharine Roth (added a keyword) on 8 October 2005@00:31:59.
William Hutton (cosmetics, added keywords and link, set status) on 21 August 2007@09:59:47.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 24 March 2008@23:27:14.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 17 December 2011@00:23:06.
David Whitehead (another keyword; typo and other cosmetics) on 18 December 2011@10:27:45.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 18 December 2011@10:53:04.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 August 2013@01:12:51.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@13:38:11.
David Whitehead (expanded a note; cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@08:48:00.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@06:56:57.

Headword: *)/abaci
Adler number: alpha,16
Translated headword: planks, abacuses
Vetting Status: high
What we call a)ba/kia.[1] The Lawmaker [says] in the Martyrdom of Saint Thecla: "Tryphaina was overcome by suffering, and was seen lying like the dead on the slabs."[2] So he says.
Greek Original:
*)/abaci: toi=s par' h(mi=n legome/nois a)baki/ois. o( *logoqe/ths e)n tw=| th=s a(gi/as *qe/klhs marturi/w|: *tru/faina de\ pa/qei lhfqei=sa nekroi=s o(moi/a pro\s toi=s a)/bacin w(ra=to keime/nh. ou(/tw fhsi/n.
This entry occurs after alpha 17 in ms A (= Parisinus 2625), after alpha 9 in ms S (= Vaticanus 1296) and in the margin of ms D (Bodleianus Auct. V 52).
[1] The given form is a dative plural of a)/bac, ("abacus"), and the lexicographer explains it by reference to the diminutive a)ba/kion. The primary sense is a table topped by a slab, or the slab itself; a "calculator" is a secondary meaning.
[2] Symeon Metaphrastes (also known as the Logothete ('Lawmaker')) Patrologia Graeca 115.837c. On Thecla, cf. tau 1108.
Keywords: biography; Christianity; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; history; mathematics; religion; science and technology; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:53:59.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation and notes, added keywords, raised status) on 18 January 2001@09:46:37.
Catharine Roth (modified translation, augmented note) on 7 November 2002@15:06:33.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 7 November 2002@15:08:44.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 November 2005@09:20:27.
Catharine Roth (added keyword) on 6 September 2006@23:44:05.
William Hutton (modified headword and translation, augmented notes, set status) on 24 August 2007@09:36:45.
William Hutton on 24 August 2007@09:42:51.
Jennifer Benedict (tweaks) on 24 March 2008@23:50:31.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 18 December 2011@10:35:22.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 February 2015@23:44:46.

Headword: *)abarni/s
Adler number: alpha,19
Translated headword: Abarnis
Vetting Status: high
Name of a city.
Greek Original:
*)abarni/s: o)/noma po/lews.
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon (74), and cf. more generally the scholia to Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.932 (where the genitive case occurs), on which see further below.
Abarnis lay on the southern shore of the Propontis (Sea of Marmara), between Parion and Lampsakos; Barrington Atlas map 51 grid H4. According to Stephanus of Byzantium s.v. *)/abarnos (sic), Abarnos and Aparnis were also attested versions of its name.
A scholium to Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.932 (repeated in more legible form in Etymologicum Magnum 2.11-28) provides an etymological explanation of the origin of the name in Aphrodite's refusal (a)parnh/sasqai) to recognize her offspring Priapos, who was born in the region.
Keywords: children; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; geography; mythology; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:55:54.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified note) on 19 September 2000@03:59:17.
William Hutton (augmented note, added keywords, set status) on 24 August 2007@23:38:41.
David Whitehead (augmented and re-arranged note) on 19 December 2011@06:02:32.
Catharine Roth (coding, typo) on 5 August 2013@00:18:42.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 10 January 2015@22:46:51.

Headword: *)abime/lex
Adler number: alpha,45
Translated headword: Abimelech
Vetting Status: high
Proper name.[1]
The son of Gideon.[2] He smote his brothers, seventy sons of Gideon's wives,[3] upon a single stone, and none of them was left except Jotham the youngest son,[4] who ran away. As Abimelech was passing through with his people, Jotham went up to the top of the mountain and, raising his voice, told the following parable. "Listen to me, men of Shechem, and God will listen to you. The trees set out[5] to anoint a king over themselves. And they said to the olive, 'Rule over us.' And the olive said to them, 'Should I give up my rich oil, by which -- through me -- God[6] and men receive honor,[7] and go rule over trees?' Then the trees said to the fig, 'Come, rule over us.' And the fig said to them, 'Should I give up my sweetness, my excellent product, and go to rule over the trees?' And the trees said to the vine, 'Come, rule over us.' And the vine said to them, 'Should I give up my wine, merriment for men, and go to rule over the trees?' And all the trees said to the thornbush, 'Come, you rule over us.' And the thornbush said to the trees, 'If you are truly anointing me to rule over you, come stand under[8] my shade. But if not, may fire come from me and consume the cedars of Lebanon.' Now, if you have dealt with my father and his family truthfully and in an upright way, and have made his concubine's son Abimelech king over the men of Shechem, then may you rejoice in him and may he indeed rejoice in you. But if not, may fire issue from Abimelech and consume your leaders and their families. And may fire issue from the men of Shechem and consume Abimelech." And Jotham ran from the presence of Abimelech his brother. But Abimelech ruled over Israel for three years. Then God sent an evil spirit between[9] Abimelech and the men of Shechem. And the men of Shechem dealt treacherously[10] with the house of Abimelech so to lay at Abimelech's feet[11] the blood of Gideon's seventy sons. And so Abimilech set out to beseige the tower.[12] As he approached the tower gate to burn it, a woman threw a piece of a millstone onto his head and crushed his skull. He at once called out to his armor bearer[13], saying, "Draw your sword and kill me, so they can never say I was killed by a woman." So the young man took up his sword and ran him through. And God recompensed the wickedness Abimelech had done to his father in killing his seventy brothers. God also recompensed[14] all the wickedness of the men of Shechem, in accord with the message and parable of Jotham.
Greek Original:
*)abime/lex: o)/noma ku/rion. ui(o\s *gedew/n. ou(=tos e)pa/tace tou\s a)delfou\s au)tou= e)k tw=n e)leuqe/rwn a)/ndras e)bdomh/konta e)pi\ li/qon e(/na, e)c w(=n ou)k a)pelei/fqh plh\n *)iwa/qam tou= newte/rou diadra/ntos. o(\s kai\ paraporeuome/nou tou= *)abime/lex meta\ tou= laou= a)nh=lqen e)pi\ th\n korufh\n tou= o)/rous, kai\ e)pa/ras th\n fwnh\n au)tou= e)/fh pro\s au)tou\s parabolh\n toiau/thn. a)kou/sate/ mou, a)/ndres *siki/mwn, kai\ a)kou/sei u(mw=n o( qeo/s. poreuo/mena e)poreu/qhsan ta\ cu/la tou= xri/sai basile/a e)f' e(autw=n. kai\ ei)=pan th=| e)lai/a|: basi/leuson e)f' h(mw=n. kai\ ei)=pen au)toi=s h( e)lai/a: a)fei=sa th\n pio/thta/ mou, h(\n e)do/casen e)n e)moi\ o( qeo\s kai\ oi( a)/nqrwpoi, poreuqw= a)/rxein tw=n cu/lwn; kai\ ei)=pon ta\ cu/la th=| sukh=|: deu=ro, basi/leuson e)f' h(ma=s. kai\ ei)=pen au)toi=s h( sukh=: a)fei=sa th\n gluku/thta/ mou kai\ to\ ge/nnhma/ mou to\ a)gaqo\n poreuqw= a)/rxein tw=n cu/lwn; kai\ ei)=pon ta\ cu/la pro\s th\n a)/mpelon: deu=ro, basi/leuson e)f' h(mw=n. kai\ ei)=pen au)toi=s h( a)/mpelos: a)fei=sa to\n oi)=no/n mou kai\ th\n eu)frosu/nhn tw=n a)nqrw/pwn poreuqw= a)/rxein tw=n cu/lwn; kai\ ei)=pon pa/nta ta\ cu/la th=| r(a/mnw|: deu=ro, su\ basi/leuson e)f' h(ma=s. kai\ ei)=pen h( r(a/mnos pro\s ta\ cu/la: ei) e)n a)lhqei/a| xri/ete/ me u(mei=s tou= basileu/ein e)f' u(ma=s, deu=te, u(posth=te e)n th=| skia=| mou, kai\ ei) mh\, e)ce/lqoi pu=r a)p' e)mou= kai\ katafa/gh| ta\s ke/drous tou= *liba/nou. kai\ nu=n ei) e)n a)lhqei/a| kai\ o(sio/thti e)poih/sate meta\ tou= patro/s mou kai\ meta\ tou= oi)/kou au)tou= kai\ e)basileu/sate to\n *)abime/lex ui(o\n th=s paidi/skhs au)tou= e)pi\ tou\s a)/ndras *siki/mwn, eu)franqei/hte e)n au)tw=|, kai\ eu)franqei/h kai/ ge au)to\s e)n u(mi=n: ei) de\ mh\, e)ce/lqoi pu=r e)c *)abime/lex kai\ katafa/goi tou\s a)/rxontas u(mw=n kai\ tou\s oi)/kous au)tw=n: kai\ e)ce/lqoi pu=r e)k tw=n a)ndrw=n *siki/mwn kai\ katafa/goi to\n *)abime/lex. kai\ a)pe/dra *)iwa/qam a)po\ prosw/pou *)abime/lex a)delfou= au)tou=. o( de\ *)abime/lex h)=rcen e)pi\ to\n *)israh\l e)/th tri/a. kai\ e)cape/steilen o( qeo\s pneu=ma ponhro\n a)na\ me/son *)abime/lex kai\ a)na\ me/son a)ndrw=n *siki/mwn. kai\ h)qe/thsan oi( a)/ndres *siki/mwn e)n tw=| oi)/kw| *)abime/lex tou= e)pagagei=n a)diki/an kai\ to\ ai(=ma tw=n o# ui(w=n *gedew\n e)pi\ th\n kefalh\n *)abime/lex. kai\ ga\r a)pelqw\n polemh=sai pu/rgon kai\ proseggi/sas th=| qu/ra| tou= pu/rgou e)mprh=sai au)th\n, e)/rriye gunh\ kla/sma mu/lou e)pi\ th\n kefalh\n au)tou= kai\ sune/triye to\ kra/nion au)tou=. kai\ e)piboh/sas taxu\ ei)=pe pro\s to\n ai)/ronta au)tou= ta\ skeu/h: spa/son th\n r(omfai/an sou kai\ qana/twso/n me, mh/ pote ei)/pwsin: gunh\ au)to\n a)pe/kteine. kai\ kenth=san au)to\n to\ paida/rion a)nei=le. kai\ e)pe/streyen o( qeo\s th\n ponhri/an *)abime/lex, h(\n e)poi/hse tw=| patri\ au)tou= a)poktei/nas tou\s o# a)delfou\s au)tou=. kai\ pa=san th\n ponhri/an a)ndrw=n *siki/mwn e)pe/streyen o( qeo\s ei)s th\n kefalh\n au)tw=n kata\ to\n lo/gon kai\ th\n paroimi/an *)iwa/qam.
Source for the main paragraph (after the initial gloss): George the Monk, Chronicon 148.2-149.20.
[1] Hebrew: אבימלך "my father is king." Used derogatorily and incessantly (31 times) throughout the Abimelech episode in Judges 9 (Boling, NSRV at Judges 9:1).
[2] Literally, "by his wives." The use of e)leuqe/rwn here indicates "married women/wives" (see L-S-J). The Massoretic Text (MT) (Judges 8:30; Kohlenberger, Vol. 2, 101) shows נשים našīm, which here means "wives" (Brown, Driver, Briggs {BDB}, 61). The term is to be distinguished from that for Abimelech's mother — פלגש pilegeš "concubine" in the sense of a legitimate wife of secondary rank (Kohlenberger for the suffixed MT form; Boling, NRSV at Judges 8:31).
[3] Literally, "upon a single stone." MT: על אבן אחת ʿal ʾeḇen ʾeḥat (Judges 9:5). See Boling, Judges (Anchor), 171.5. A direct transference from the Hebrew to the LXX.
[4] (Cf. iota 478.) The Greek newte/rou, comparative understood for the superlative (Smyth §1082.a) from Hebrew הקטן haqqaton, the "young(est) one" (Judges 9:5).
[5] The Suda's poreu/omena e)poreu/qhsan parallels the MT at Judges 9:5 (but not the LXX, which singularizes the finite verb) in its fuller anthropomorphism via the plural finite verb. The participle plus finite verb mimics, but does not parallel, MT usage, which gives infinitive absolute plus finite verb (הלוך הלכו haloḵ halēḵū) (Kautzsch, 342 {113o(1)}; Boling, Judges (Anchor), 173.8). For this genre of fable, see also 2 Kings 14:9-10 and its shadow at 2 Chronicles 25:18-19. the motif bears only general resemblance to Aesop's frog fable. For related motifs, see the source summary in Brown (The New Jerome), 140; Boling, Judges (Anchor), 173.
[6] The Suda singularizes (o( qeo/s), whereas the MT contains אלהים elohīm to be interpreted as "gods" — not "God." That the translation warrants a plural is supported by the antiquity of the original motif (Boling, Judges (Anchor), 173-74.15; 175.20). The plural is the norm in modern Bible translation.
[7] The standard translation of the MT אשר-בי יכבדו אלהים ואנשים ʾašer-bī yeḵaḇdū ʾelohīm waʾanašīm (Judges 9:9) and the Suda's h(\n...a)/nqrwpoi is "by which/whereby gods and men are honored." The Hebrew syntax merits reevaluation. The Jotham parable is a poetic fable cast in prose (Boling, Judges (Anchor) 166, 172-73.8-15, 173.15; for an uncritical opposing view, see Brown (The New Jerome), 140). However, Boling (173.9) and others read the Pi'el active yeḵaḇdū ("ykbdw" in Boling) as a Niph'al passive (are honored). Boling also cites the "kbd" root as Niph'al reflexive in Exodus 14:4, perhaps intending an alternative (but unlikely) reading for Judges 9:9 as "gods and men honor themselves." This approach overlooks the fable's poetic form — a medium that allows the Pi'el to operate intransitively (Kautzsch, 142 {52k}). Relatedly, Kautzsch (Gesenius, in accord with T.K Cheyne) assigns Niph'al senses to Pi'el forms in the poetry of Isaiah 48:8 and 60:11, which just as easily may be read intransitively as "your ear has not opened (responded) [to new things]" and "your gates shall always stand open." In Judges 9:9, the intransitive result is "(by) which, through me, gods and men receive honor." The preposition "bi" (Greek: e)n e)moi\), which in Boling's syntax is left "unexplained", provides an instrumental dative (BDB, 89, III.2): "through me." Boling asserts "bi" to be "a third-person suffix" without further discussion; BDB (citing George F. Moore) suggests the third-person "bo" (by/through it) for the "bi" form. Boling does cite the LXX Vaticanus reading "by it"; however, Vaticanus works a simplified solution: e)n h(=i doca/sousi to\n qeo\n a)/ndres, "by which men shall honor God" (Brenton, 329). In a near parallel to the MT, the Suda records e)do/casen for a Hebraicized-intransitive e)do/casan (yeḵaḇdū): literally, "regarding which (oil), through my agency, God and men receive honor."
[8] The verb u(po/sthte also carries the meaning "submit"; the Hebrew at Judges 9:15 (imperative hasū) carries only the sense "take refuge" (BDB, 340).
[9] The duplicated a)na\ me/son is a Hebraism paralleling Judges 9:22 (בין אבימלך ובין בעלי שכם bēn ʾAḇimeleḵ uḇēn baʿalē šeḵem). See also the MT and LXX at Genesis 1:4. For model Greek syntax, see LXX Genesis 32:16 (Brenton, 43)— with the MT (Genesis 32:17) showing the duplicate pattern (Kohlenberger, Vol 1, 88).
[10] For a)qete/w (deal treacherously), see Lust, Pt. I, 9.
[11] Literally, "to lay upon Abimelech's head his injustice and the blood of Gideon's seventy sons."
[12] For Abimelech's ill-fated siege of the Thebez tower, see Judges 9:50-57.
[13] The term paida/rion reprises the MT נערו naʿarō (his servant or retainer) at Judges 9:54. Translations render the word as "armor bearer." Boling in his Judges (146.10; 182.54) prefers "squire."
[14] Literally, "turned about onto their head."
Boling, R.G. Judges (The Anchor Bible). New York: Doubleday, 1975.
Boling, R.G. Judges in the Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: Harper Collins, 1993.
Brenton, C.L.B. The Septuagint with Apocrypha. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1991 (reprint of 1851 ed.).
Brown, F. Driver, S.R., Briggs, C.A. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon, 1951.
Brown, R.E. The New Jerome Biblical Commentary. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1990.
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910.
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987.
Lust, J. A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint, Part I. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1992.
Smyth, H.W. Greek Grammar. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1984.
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; history; military affairs; poetry; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@13:01:24.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 27 January 2001@12:09:36.
Craig Miller (Modified translation, notes and bibliography to follow.) on 5 March 2002@09:51:09.
Craig Miller on 5 March 2002@12:40:52.
Craig Miller (Modified and expanded notes, expanded keywords. Bibliography pending.) on 5 March 2002@15:02:20.
Catharine Roth (corrected typos) on 5 March 2002@16:49:22.
Craig Miller on 5 March 2002@23:39:58.
Craig Miller (Bibliography added, cosmetics.) on 6 March 2002@07:38:16.
Craig Miller on 6 March 2002@12:49:31.
Craig Miller on 6 March 2002@14:59:18.
Craig Miller on 1 April 2002@19:33:02.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew texts.) on 31 October 2002@10:19:01.
David Whitehead (added initial note; added x-ref; cosmetics) on 9 June 2003@07:55:20.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:53:33.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 8 August 2013@16:40:29.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:15:44.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:31:59.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticules, coding) on 16 May 2022@00:44:09.

Headword: *)abisa/k
Adler number: alpha,51
Translated headword: Abisak, Abishag
Vetting Status: high
Proper name.
Greek Original:
*)abisa/k: o)/noma ku/rion.
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
Abishag the Shunammite (sigma 796 = sigma 836) took care of King David in his old age: 1 Kingdoms 1.3 (1 Kings 1.3) etc.
Keywords: biography; definition; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:04:25.
Vetted by:
William Hutton on 29 January 2001@19:16:05.
David Whitehead (added keywords) on 30 January 2001@03:43:08.
Catharine Roth (added note and keyword) on 15 September 2002@16:49:04.
David Whitehead (added x-refs) on 25 April 2003@06:43:33.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@07:38:24.
David Whitehead (another note) on 19 December 2011@07:48:10.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 8 August 2013@00:41:58.

Headword: *)ablhxrh/n
Adler number: alpha,58
Translated headword: feeble
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] weak. For what is strong [is] blhxro/n.[1]
Aelian [writes]: "so she brought her life to an end gently and with a calm and feeble death, such as even Homer seems to me to praise."[2]
Greek Original:
*)ablhxrh/n: a)sqenh=. blhxro\n ga\r to\ i)sxuro/n. *ai)liano/s: kate/streyen ou)=n to\n bi/on pra/ws te kai\ su\n galh/nh| kai\ a)blhxrw=| qana/tw|, o(/nper ou)=n e)painei=n kai\ *(/omhros dokei= moi.
The headword adjective is feminine accusative singular. It is extracted from Homer, Iliad 5.337, where it refers to Aphrodite's hand; cf. the scholia there.
[1] Same or similar glossing in other lexica (references at Photius alpha42 Theodoridis); and cf. beta 340. This seems to be an error, however: blhxro/s is well attested as meaning "weak" by itself: see web address 1 for the LSJ entry. The lexica mistake the copulative alpha in the headword for an alpha privative.
[2] Aelian fr. 182d Domingo-Forasté (179 Hercher): cf. Homer, Odyssey 11.135 (web address 2 below). The preceding fragment, quoted at tau 596, shows that the subject is a woman.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; poetry; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:09:47.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, modified translation and notes, added keywords, set status) on 30 January 2001@08:53:17.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 4 September 2001@23:32:57.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 9 June 2003@08:00:49.
David Whitehead (typo) on 17 July 2003@03:43:18.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding, cosmetics) on 24 March 2008@17:16:29.
David Whitehead (added primary note and more keywords; tweaks) on 19 December 2011@08:20:09.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link and reference) on 28 January 2012@18:52:16.
Catharine Roth (tweaks, cross-reference, keyword) on 14 October 2012@01:44:40.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:49:04.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 17 January 2014@04:03:02.

Headword: *)/abra
Adler number: alpha,68
Translated headword: favorite
Vetting Status: high
Not simply a maidservant nor even the pretty maidservant is called [favorite], but a daughter of one of the house slaves and an honored one, whether born in the house or not. Menander in False Heracles [writes]: "the mother of these two sisters is dead. A concubine of their father's, who used to be their mother's favorite slave, is bringing them up."[1] In Sikyonian: "he bought a beloved slave instead and did not hand the slave over to his wife, but kept her apart, as is appropriate for a free woman."[2] In Faithless One: "I thought if the old man got the gold, he'd get himself a favorite slave right away."[3]
Iamblichus [writes]: "since this was difficult and something of a rarity, with the [woman] housekeeper on guard and another favorite slave-woman also present, he persuades the daughter to run away without her parents' knowledge."[4]
Greek Original:
*)/abra: ou)/te a(plw=s qera/paina ou)/te h( eu)/morfos qera/paina le/getai, a)ll' oi)ko/triy gunaiko\s ko/rh kai\ e)/ntimos, ei)/te oi)kogenh\s ei)/te mh/. *me/nandros *yeudhraklei=: mh/thr te/qnhke tai=n a)delfai=n tai=n duei=n tau/tain. tre/fei de\ pallakh/ tis tou= patro\s au)ta\s, a)/bra th=s mhtro\s au)tw=n genome/nh. *sikuwni/w|: kai\ a)/bran ga\r a)ntwnou/menos e)rwme/nhn, tau/th| me\n ou) pare/dwk' e)/xein, tre/fein de\ xwri\s, w(s e)leuqe/ra| pre/pei. *)api/stw|: w)/mhn ei) to\ xrusi/on la/boi o( ge/rwn, qera/painan eu)qu\s h)gorasme/nhn a)/bran e)/sesqai. *)ia/mblixos: e)pei\ de\ tou=to xalepo\n h)=n kai\ spa/nio/n ti to\ th=s oi)kourou= fulattou/shs kai\ a)/bras tino\s a)/llhs sumparou/shs, a)napei/qei th\n ko/rhn laqou=san tou\s gonei=s a)podra=nai.
The main part of this entry is also in Photius, Lexicon alpha50 Theodoridis (where the headword is plural); similar material in other lexica.
LSJ uses the rough breathing (a(/bra) for the word it defines specifically as 'favorite slave'. See web address 1 below.
[1] Menander fr. 520 Kock, 453 K.-Th., 411 K.-A.
[2] Menander fr. 438 Kock (1 Sandbach).
[3] Menander fr. 64 Kock, 58 K.-Th., 63 K.-A.
[4] Iamblichus, Babyloniaca fr. 56 Habrich.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; economics; ethics; gender and sexuality; philosophy; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:13:15.
Vetted by:
Shannon N. Byrne on 20 May 2000@18:59:03.
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added link) on 30 January 2001@23:04:27.
David Whitehead (added keyword) on 31 January 2001@04:33:38.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 24 April 2002@03:20:49.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 15 August 2007@10:03:18.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 25 March 2008@11:26:46.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 19 December 2011@09:03:54.
David Whitehead (updated refs) on 16 August 2013@07:04:59.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 24 December 2014@03:49:04.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 24 December 2014@06:54:57.

Headword: *)abraa/m
Adler number: alpha,69

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