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Headword: *)/abaci
Adler number: alpha,16
Translated headword: planks, abacuses
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
What we call a)ba/kia.[1] The Lawmaker [says] in the Martyrdom of Saint Thecla: "Tryphaina was overcome by suffering, and was seen lying like the dead on the slabs."[2] So he says.
Greek Original:
*)/abaci: toi=s par' h(mi=n legome/nois a)baki/ois. o( *logoqe/ths e)n tw=| th=s a(gi/as *qe/klhs marturi/w|: *tru/faina de\ pa/qei lhfqei=sa nekroi=s o(moi/a pro\s toi=s a)/bacin w(ra=to keime/nh. ou(/tw fhsi/n.
Notes:
This entry occurs after alpha 17 in ms A (= Parisinus 2625), after alpha 9 in ms S (= Vaticanus 1296) and in the margin of ms D (Bodleianus Auct. V 52).
[1] The given form is a dative plural of a)/bac, ("abacus"), and the lexicographer explains it by reference to the diminutive a)ba/kion. The primary sense is a table topped by a slab, or the slab itself; a "calculator" is a secondary meaning.
[2] Symeon Metaphrastes (also known as the Logothete ('Lawmaker')) Patrologia Graeca 115.837c. On Thecla, cf. tau 1108.
Keywords: biography; Christianity; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; history; mathematics; religion; science and technology; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:53:59.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation and notes, added keywords, raised status) on 18 January 2001@09:46:37.
Catharine Roth (modified translation, augmented note) on 7 November 2002@15:06:33.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 7 November 2002@15:08:44.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 November 2005@09:20:27.
Catharine Roth (added keyword) on 6 September 2006@23:44:05.
William Hutton (modified headword and translation, augmented notes, set status) on 24 August 2007@09:36:45.
William Hutton on 24 August 2007@09:42:51.
Jennifer Benedict (tweaks) on 24 March 2008@23:50:31.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 18 December 2011@10:35:22.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 February 2015@23:44:46.

Headword: *)/abaptos
Adler number: alpha,17
Translated headword: untempered
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] most/very unsharpened.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the superlative] a)bapto/tatos.[2]
Greek Original:
*)/abaptos: a)stomw/tatos. kai\ *)abapto/tatos.
Notes:
The headword is unattested outside lexicography.
[1] Similar glossing in other lexica (references at Photius alpha28 Theodoridis), except that the original form of the gloss, in Cyril, seems simply to be a)sto/mwtos ('unsharpened'), not this superlative of a different but potentially synonymous adjective a)/stomos. Cyril's reading has been adopted in Latte's text of Hesychius and Theodoridis' of Photius.
[2] Only in ms A (= Parisinus 2625). This superlative form of the headword is attested only here.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; science and technology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:54:56.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, modified note, raised status) on 18 January 2001@09:59:20.
David Whitehead (another note; betacoding and other cosmetics) on 9 November 2005@09:22:26.
William Hutton (augmented notes, set status) on 24 August 2007@04:43:34.
William Hutton (tweaks) on 24 August 2007@04:54:57.
William Hutton (betacode fix) on 30 August 2007@04:50:05.
William Hutton (modified note) on 8 November 2007@06:44:00.
Jennifer Benedict (ms. cosmeticule) on 24 March 2008@23:52:13.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 18 December 2011@10:37:33.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:28:44.

Headword: *)abasa/nistos
Adler number: alpha,21
Translated headword: untested
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning someone/something] unexercised or unexamined, unscrutinized. The word comes from the test of the goldsmith's stone, on which they scrutinize gold.[1] Aelian in his On Providence used the word 'untested' to mean 'without pain'.[2]
Greek Original:
*)abasa/nistos: a)gu/mnastos h)\ a)nece/tastos, a)doki/mastos. ei)/rhtai de\ a)po\ th=s basa/nou th=s xrusoxoi+kh=s li/qou, e)n h(=| dokima/zousi to\ xrusi/on. e)xrh/sato de\ *ai)liano\s e)n tw=| peri\ pronoi/as tw=| a)basa/nistos a)nti\ tou= a)/neu o)du/nhs.
Notes:
= Synagoge alpha4 (Lexica Segueriana 3.14); Photius, Lexicon alpha30 Theodoridis; perhaps ultimately derived in part from Phrynichus (Praeparatio rhetorica fr. 39 de Borries); cf. Hesychius alpha89 and a cluster of related entries: alpha 2276, Hesychius alpha4899, Synagoge alpha589, Photius alpha1845.
[1] ba/sanos can mean both the touchstone itself and the testing process. See beta 139, and cf. beta 137.
[2] Aelian fr.9 Hercher (= 9 Domingo-Forasté). The version of the entry at Synagoge alpha4 includes the information that this is from the third book of the work in question.
Keywords: athletics; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; law; philosophy; rhetoric; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:58:18.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 20 January 2001@11:28:32.
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes) on 21 January 2001@05:35:01.
William Hutton (tweaked translation, expanded notes, added keywords, set status) on 27 August 2007@05:12:39.
William Hutton (Updates references in footnotes.) on 11 November 2007@07:10:05.
William Hutton (typo) on 8 February 2008@02:59:18.
Jennifer Benedict (added keyword) on 23 March 2008@00:55:08.
David Whitehead (typos) on 19 December 2011@06:11:54.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:31:43.
David Whitehead (cosmetics; another keyword) on 2 April 2015@08:51:56.

Headword: *)abolh/twr
Adler number: alpha,59
Translated headword: meeter
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Or[1] a)/bolos ["un-shedder"], a donkey that has not yet shed its teeth, from which the animal's age is known. Similarly, a young animal that does not yet have its indicators.[2] An 'indicator' is what they call a tooth that falls out, by which they verify the age. These teeth are also called 'finished,' by a metaphor from the animals themselves. The a)pognw/mones are those who have grown old and lost their indicators. Also [sc. attested is the phrase] 'unshed foals',[3] those who have not yet lost teeth.
Greek Original:
*)abolh/twr kai\ *)/abolis. h)\ *)/abolos, o)/nos o( mhde/pw beblhkw\s o)do/ntas, e)c ou(= gnwri/zetai h( h(liki/a tou= zw/|ou. e)k de\ tou/tou o( ne/os ou)de/pw gnw/mona e)/xwn. gnw/mona de\ e)/legon to\n ballo/menon o)do/nta, di' ou(= ta\s h(liki/as e)ch/tazon: to\n de\ au)to\n kai\ kathrtuko/ta e)/legon, e)k metafora=s tw=n tetrapo/dwn. kai\ a)pognw/monas tou\s a)pogeghrako/tas, oi(=s e)leloi/pei to\ gnw/risma. kai\ *)abo/lous pw/lous, tou\s mhde/pw beblhko/tas o)do/ntas.
Notes:
[1] The entry has begun with two unglossed headwords, a)bolh/twr ('one who meets': LSJ -- web address 1 below) and a)/bolis (attested only here; not in LSJ).
[2] gnw/mwn; cf. gamma 347, kappa 1061.
[3] Accusative plural, evidently quoted from somewhere.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; medicine; science and technology; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:11:01.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified headword and translation, augmented notes, added keywords, set status) on 30 January 2001@22:25:55.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 23 April 2002@09:15:27.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 18 October 2005@05:37:54.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics, betacode) on 25 March 2008@11:23:51.
David Whitehead (modified headword; augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 25 March 2008@11:38:18.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 24 August 2010@16:57:08.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 19 December 2011@08:26:52.

Headword: *)abraa/m
Adler number: alpha,69
Translated headword: Abraham
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The first among patriarchs; [it was he] in whom the Hebrew people took pride at first, before they rebelled against God, became estranged from Him, and shed upon themselves the blood of His Only-Begotten Son.[1] This man came out of the land of the Chaldeans, who devoted their entire lives to the stars and heavenly bodies. Trained, therefore, as was their ancestral custom, to observe the motions of the heavenly bodies[2] he surmised that the masterwork underlying this visible creation was not to be found in such objects, but had a Creator who set them in motion, gave harmony to their paths, and ordered the entire universe. Because of the greatness and beauty of the things He had made, Abraham, as it was likely, ceased devoting himself to gazing out into the heavens nor did he squander his passion in their pursuit. Instead, by surmounting the celestial vaults and transcending all the intelligible realm beyond the cosmos, Abraham no longer stood apart from the One sought, until finally the Creator for whom he yearned manifested Himself to Abraham in likenesses[3] and forms. And in this way the Unseen and Invisible revealed Himself. And [God] sent him forth from his own land as a wanderer and settled him in the land of the Canaanites. There he dwelled, now being in about his ninety-ninth year.[4] Until this time, he was childless; then [God] made him the father of the miraculous and blessed Isaac that he might have a first-born, only-begotten son[5] -- prefiguring the mystical image of the First-Born, Only-Begotten Son.[6] This was an exceedingly singular[7] honor bestowed upon Abraham, for the Creator favored him with the titles Servant, Beloved, and Father by flesh of the Only Begotten Son of Him who fashioned the entire universe.[8] Abraham invented sacred writing and devised the language of which Hebrew children used to have a command, as they were this man's disciples and descendants. Moreover, the Greek alphabet received its impetus from this script,[9] even if Greeks amused themselves by forming the letters differently. Proof of this is in the pronunciation of the first and preeminent letter "alpha" because it derives its name from the Hebrew "aleph" by way of the Blessed, First, and Eternal Name.[10] So too, the Greeks through Abraham came to possess books on dream interpretation. Witness to this is Joseph, the truly wondrous descendant of Abraham, who interpreted Pharoah's dreams as they were going to turn out in fact. In this, Philo, the Jewish philosopher, will be my confirmation via his work Life of the Statesman.[11] About Philo it is said "Philo platonizes and Plato philonizes."[12]
The practice of idolatry extended from Serug[13] to the time of Abraham's father Tharron.[14] Thus, when Abraham was 14 years old[15] and deemed worthy of divine knowledge, he upbraided his father, "Why do you lead the people astray for harmful gain (that is, with idols)? There is no other God but the One in heaven, the Creator of the entire universe." Yet seeing the people serving earthly things, he embarked on a tireless quest, seeking out with his pious heart the Truly Existing God.[16] But seeing that the sky is sometimes light and sometimes dark, he said to himself, "That is not God." Observing similarly the sun and the moon, the one obscured and eclipsed and the other waning and occluded, he said, "Those are not gods either." True, he was trained in astronomy by his father, but Abraham all the same was puzzled by the motions of the stars and scornful of them. But God appeared to him and said, "Go out of your land and leave your kinsmen."[17] Abraham took his father's idols, smashing some and incinerating others. Then he went away with his father out of the land of the Chaldeans. And they came to Haran,[18] where his father died. He left there, obeying the Lord's word, with his wife Sarah and his nephew Lot[19] and all their possessions, and came to the promised land Canaan, which the Canaanites had seized and settled in. When a famine arose, Abraham left the land of the Canaanites and went into Egypt, where Abimelech[20] the king took his wife Sarah. God struck terror into Abimelech and paralysed his limbs, saying "Give this man back his wife, because he is a prophet and will pray for you, and you will live. But if you do not give her back, know that you and your entire household will die." When Abraham got his wife back, undefiled, he prayed, and Abimelech and his household were cured of the paralysis.[21] After this the king, honoring Abraham and devoting himself to his sayings, became a pious and expert teacher to the Egyptians. The same Abraham, upon returning from war,[22] was considered worthy of blessing by Melchisedek, king of Salem, who brought bread and wine out to him. Melchisedek was a priest of the Most High, and Abraham gave to Him a tenth of all he had. Melchisedek was without father, mother, or lineage, like the Son of God.[23]
When Abram[24] lamented to God about his childlessness, God revealed to him through a dream that his descendants would be as numerous as the stars. And he believed God, and God reckoned it to him as righteousness.[25] Now Sarah, who was barren, gave Abraham permission to father a child with her maidservant, and she bore Ismael.[26] And when Abram was 99 years old, God appeared to him and altered his name to Abraham, for until then he had been called Abram. Similarly, Sarah became Sarrah with another "r".[27] And Abraham circumcised Ismael and all his descendants. Moreover, when the Lord was being shown the hospitality of Abraham's house, He promised Abraham that Sarrah would bear him a son. But Sarrah smiled; and the one who was begotten was called Isaac, by the Hebrew name that means "laughter with delight."[28]
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] *abramiai=os: [meaning] descendant of Abraham, or towering, revered.[29]
Greek Original:
*)abraa/m: o( prw=tos e)n patria/rxais: ei)s o(\n a)pesemnu/neto dh=mos o( tw=n *(ebrai/wn to\ pro/teron, pri\n h)\ qeou= a)poskirth=sai kai\ gene/sqai tou/tou a)llo/trioi kai\ to\ tou= monogenou=s ui(ou= au)tou= ai(=ma e)f' e(autou\s e)pispa/sasqai. ou(=tos e)k me\n th=s *xaldai/wn gh=s u(ph=rxen o(rmw/menos, tw=n peri\ ta\ mete/wra kai\ tou\s a)ste/ras to\n bi/on o(/lon katanalisko/ntwn. a)skhqei\s ou)=n kata\ to\n pa/trion no/mon ta\s tw=n e)pourani/wn a)ste/rwn kinh/seis kai\ stoxasa/menos w(s ou)k e)n tou/tois i(/statai to\ megalourgo\n th=s fainome/nhs tauthsi\ kti/sews, a)ll' e)/xei tina\ to\n dhmiourgo\n to\n kai\ kinou=nta kai\ dieuqu/nonta th\n e)narmo/nion tw=n a)ste/rwn porei/an kai\ tou= ko/smou panto\s th\n kata/stasin, kai\ dia\ tou= mege/qous kai\ th=s kallonh=s tw=n ktisma/twn to\n genesiourgo\n au)tw=n, w(s e)nh=n, qewrh/sas ou)k e)/sth me/xri tou/twn, ou)de\ th\n e)/fesin ei)s tau=ta katedapa/nhsen, a)lla\ tw=n ou)rani/wn a(yi/dwn u(perarqei\s kai\ pa=san diaba\s th\n nohth/n te kai\ u(perko/smion su/mphcin ou)k a)pe/sth tou= zhtoume/nou, e(/ws ou(= o( poqou/menos e(auto\n au)tw=| e)fane/rwse tu/pois te kai\ morfw/masin, oi(=s e(auto\n e)mfani/zei o( a)fanh\s kai\ a)o/ratos. kai\ metana/sthn au)to\n e)k th=s patri/dos labw\n e)pi\ th\n *xanani=tin kate/sthse, to\n e)nenhkosto/n pou kai\ e)/naton h)/dh xro/non pare/lkonta: kai\ a)/paida me/xri to/te tugxa/nonta gennh/tora tou= qaumasi/ou kai\ ma/karos kate/- sthsen *)isaa\k, i(/n' e)/xoi monogenh= ui(o\n kai\ prwto/tokon, tou= monogenou=s kai\ prwtoto/kou mustikh\n ei)ko/na prodiagra/fonta: tou=to ge/ras au)tw=| kat' e)cai/reton xarisa/menos, to\ dou=lon kai\ fi/lon kai\ pate/ra xrhmati/sai tou= monogenou=s ui(ou= kata\ sa/rka, tou= to\n ko/smon o(/lon dhmiourgh/santos. ou(=tos eu(=re me\n i(era\ gra/mmata kai\ glw=ssan e)mhxanh/sato, h(=s *(ebrai/wn pai=des e)n e)pisth/mh| e)tu/gxanon, w(s o)/ntes tou/tou maqhtai\ kai\ a)po/gonoi. e)k tou/tou kai\ ta\ *(ellh/nwn gra/mmata ta\s a)forma\s e)/labon, ka)\n a)/llws kai\ a)/llws e(autou\s diapai/zontes a)nagra/fwsin *(/ellhnes. kai\ tou/tou martu/rion h( tou= *)/alfa fwnh\ tou= prw/tou stoixei/ou kai\ a)/rxontos, a)po\ tou= *)/alef *(ebrai/ou labo/ntos th\n e)pi/klhsin tou= makari/ou kai\ prw/tou kai\ a)qana/tou o)no/matos. e)k tou/tou kai\ ta\ o)nei/rwn bibli/a e)sfeteri/santo *(/ellhnes. kai\ ma/rtus *)iwsh\f o( panqau/mastos o( tou/tou a)po/gonos, o( tou= *faraw\ ta\ e)nu/pnia w(s e)/mellon a)pobh/sesqai dihgou/menos. tou=to/ moi kai\ *fi/lwn, e)c *(ebrai/wn filo/sofos, e)n tw=| tou= *politikou= bi/w| sunepimarturh/setai, *fi/lwn, peri\ ou(= e)rrh/qh, *fi/lwn platwni/zei, kai\ *pla/twn filwni/zei. o(/ti h)/rcato h( ei)dwlolatrei/a a)po\ *serou\x e(/ws tw=n xro/nwn *qa/rra tou= patro\s *)abraa/m. o(\s *)abraa\m u(pa/rxwn e)tw=n id# kai\ qeognwsi/as a)ciwqei\s e)nouqe/tei to\n pate/ra au)tou=, le/gwn: ti/ plana=|s tou\s a)nqrw/pous dia\ ke/rdos e)pizh/mion [toute/sti ta\ ei)/dwla]; ou)k e)/stin a)/llos qeo\s ei) mh\ o( e)n toi=s ou)ranoi=s, o( kai\ pa/nta to\n ko/smon dhmiourgh/sas. o(rw=n ga\r tou\s a)nqrw/pous ktismatolatrou=ntas dih/rxeto diaponou/menos kai\ to\n o)/ntws o)/nta qeo\n e)kzhtw=n e)k filoqe/ou kardi/as. o(rw=n de\ to\n ou)rano\n pote\ me\n lampro\n, pote\ de\ skoteino\n, e)/legen e)n e(autw=|: ou)k e)/stin ou(=tos qeo/s. o(moi/ws kai\ to\n h(/lion kai\ th\n selh/nhn, to\n me\n a)pokrupto/menon kai\ a)maurou/menon, th\n de\ fqi/nousan kai\ a)polh/gousan, e)/fhsen: ou)d' ou(=toi/ ei)si qeoi/. kai\ me/ntoi kai\ th\n tw=n a)ste/rwn ki/nhsin, e)k tou= patro\s ga\r e)paideu/eto th\n a)stronomi/an, kai\ a)porw=n e)dusxe/rainen. w)/fqh de\ au)tw=| o( qeo\s kai\ le/gei au)tw=|: e)/celqe e)k th=s gh=s sou kai\ e)k th=s suggenei/as sou. kai\ labw\n ta\ ei)/dwla tou= patro\s kai\ ta\ me\n kla/sas ta\ de\ e)mpuri/sas a)nexw/rhse meta\ tou= patro\s e)k gh=s *xaldai/wn: kai\ e)lqo/ntos ei)s *xarra\n, e)teleu/thsen o( path\r au)tou=. kai\ e)celqw\n e)kei=qen e)n lo/gw| *kuri/ou h)=lqe su\n th=| gunaiki\ *sa/rra| kai\ tw=| a)neyiw=| *lw\t meta\ pa/shs au)tw=n th=s a)poskeuh=s ei)s th\n o)feilome/nhn gh=n *xanaa\n, h(\n oi( *xananai=oi turannikw=s a)felo/menoi w)/|khsan. limou= de\ genome/nou katalipw\n th\n *xananai/wn gh=n ei)s *ai)/gupton a)ph/|ei, ou(= th\n gunai=ka *sa/rran *)abime/lex h(/rpasen o( basileu/s. tou=ton o( qeo\s e)kdeimatw/sas kai\ pa/resin tw=n melw=n e)pa/cas, a)po/dos, e)/fh, th\n gunai=ka tw=| a)nqrw/pw|, o(/ti profh/ths e)sti\ kai\ proseu/cetai peri\ sou= kai\ zh/seis. ei) de\ mh\ a)podw=|s, gnw=qi o(/ti a)poqanh=| su\ kai\ ta\ sa\ pa/nta. kai\ ou(/tws a)polabw\n th\n gunai=ka a)mi/anton kai\ proseuca/menos i)aqh=nai e)poi/hse th=s pare/sews *)abime/lex kai\ to\n oi)=kon au)tou=. e)/ktote timw=n au)to\n o( basileu\s kai\ prose/xwn toi=s u(p' au)tou= legome/nois, dida/skalos eu)sebei/as kai\ polupeiri/as *ai)gupti/ois e)ge/neto. o( au)to\s *)/abram u(postre/fwn e)k tou= pole/mou th=s eu)logi/as tou= *melxisede\k kathci/wtai, tou= basile/ws *salh\m, o(\s e)ch/negken au)tw=| a)/rtous kai\ oi)=non. h)=n de\ kai\ i(ereu\s tou= *(uyi/stou. kai\ e)/dwken au)tw=| *)/abram deka/thn a)po\ pa/ntwn. h)=n de\ o( *melxisede\k a)pa/twr, a)mh/twr, a)genealo/ghtos, a)fwmoiwme/nos tw=| ui(w=| tou= qeou=. tw=| de\ *)/abram a)tekni/an o)lofurome/nw| kaq' u(/pnous e)pidei/cas o( qeo\s tou\s a)ste/ras kata\ to\ plh=qos au)tw=n e)/sesqai/ oi( to\ spe/rma proedh/lou. o( de\ e)pi/steuse tw=| qew=|, kai\ e)logi/sqh au)tw=| ei)s dikaiosu/nhn. h( de\ *sa/rra stei=ra ou)=sa sunexw/rhsen *)/abram a)po\ th=s paidi/skhs paidopoih/sasqai: kai\ i)/sxei to\n *)ismah/l. e)nenh/konta de\ kai\ e)nne/a e)tw=n o)/nti tw=| *)/abram e)pifanei\s o( qeo\s *)abraa\m metwno/masen: *)/abram ga\r prw/hn w)noma/zeto: o(moi/ws kai\ th\n *sa/ran *sa/rran, prosqei\s kai\ e(/teron r. kai\ perie/teme to\n *)ismah\l kai\ pa/ntas tou\s e)c au)tou=. *ku/rios de\ tw=| *)abraa\m e)picenwqei\s e)phggei/lato te/cesqai *sa/rran au)tw=| pai=da. h( de\ e)meidi/ase, kai\ *)isaa\k to\ gennhqe\n proshgoreu/qh, ferwnu/mws tw=| meq' h(donh=s ge/lwti kata\ th\n *(ebrai/+da dia/lekton. kai\ *)abramiai=os: o( a)po/gonos *)abraa\m, h)\ gigantiai=os, i(eropreph/s.
Notes:
This long entry is derived in part directly from George the Monk, in part indirectly from Philo of Alexandria; see further in the notes below.
[1] cf. Matthew 27:25 (web address 1).
[2] The Suda's attention to Chaldean astrology derives from Philo, On Abraham, (Colson, Philo Vol VI: XV.69-70).
[3] Use of tu/pos here is twofold: 1) To assert that God's appearance to Abraham was indirect (echoing Philo, On Abraham, XVII.79-80); 2) To impart, as if a corollary of tu/pos in Romans 5:14, that God's manifestation to Abraham was a type or prefiguration of Christ.
[4] Abraham is 100 years old at Isaac's birth (Genesis 21:5); however, the Suda follows Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.191-93 (web address 2 below) in assuming Abraham's age as 99 at the time of God's promise.
[5] The Suda here omits Ishmael, born to Abraham by the Egyptian slave Hagar when he was 86 years old (Genesis 16:1-16). The Suda's omission tacitly acknowledges a covenantal and legal distinction clearly drawn in Genesis. In Isaac, God establishes an "everlasting covenant" for his progeny, whereas God blesses Ishmael and makes him "fruitful and exceedingly numerous" (Genesis 17:19-20). Isaac's filial status is made explicit by God in identifying him as Abraham's "only son" (Genesis 22:12) through whom "offspring shall be named" for Abraham, whereas Ishmael, although destined to father a nation, is identified by God as "the son of the slave woman" (Genesis 21:12-13). Ishmael is, however, mentioned later in the entry.
[6] Christological imagery links Isaac to the personage of Jesus (Matthew 1:1-2 at web address 3 below). See also delta 94, notes 1 and 14.
[7] The Suda underscores the magnitude of the honor with a hyperbolic kat' before e)cai/reton.
[8] The statement, rooted in a paternalistic-filial model that originates in Abraham and culminates in the figure of Christ, approximates the transcendental premise: Abraham is to Joseph as Isaac is to Christ.
[9] The Suda confuses Mosaic and Abrahamic lore. The 2nd century BCE Jewish writer Eupolemus claimed for Moses the invention and propagation of writing: "Moses was the first wise man, the first who imparted the alphabet to the Jews; the Phoenicians received it from the Jews, and the Greeks from the Phoenicians." The 2nd century BCE Egyptian Jewish writer Artapanus attributed hieroglyphics to Moses. According to the 2nd century BCE Samaritan writer Ps.-Eupolemus and Artapanus, astrology and astronomy originated with Abraham, who taught these disciplines and other tools of culture to the Jews, Phoenicians, and Egyptians. They, in turn, transmitted these arts to the Greeks. Philo in On Abraham stresses Abraham's expertise as a teacher. (Encyc. Judaica, Vol 6.964-65; Gruen, 146-51, 157, 294; Grant, 77; Philo, XI.52) At sigma 295, Seth is credited with the invention of the alphabet; Greek legend named Cadmus or Linus as the one who introduced the alphabet to Greece (gamma 416, kappa 21, kappa 22, lambda 568). See also phi 787.
[10] The reference recalls א aleph as the initial letter of ʾelohīm, the most frequent generic name for God in the OT, used about 2,500 times--but a distant second to the unspoken covenant name YHWH (Yahweh), which occurs some 6,800 times (Perdue, 685-86). Cf. alpha 1445.
[11] A reference to Philo's *bi/os politikou= o(/per e)sti peri\ *)iwsh/f (Colson, Philo Vol VI, 140ff.)
[12] Adapted from Jerome's On Illustrious Men (11): h)\ *pla/twn filwni/zei h)\ *fi/lwn platwni/zei ("Either Plato philonizes or Philo platonizes.") Cf. phi 448 and Photius, Bibliotheca 86b 25.
[13] Abraham's grandfather (Genesis 11:22). Seruch in the LXX, שרוג śerūḡ in Hebrew. See also sigma 253.
[14] Abraham's father (Genesis 11:24). Tharra (*qa/rra, *qarra/) or Tharrha (*qa/r)r(a) (Hatch, Concordance, Appendix 1, 71; Brenton, 13); in Hebrew תרח Teraḥ. From the Chronicon of George the Monk, 92.11-12; cf. Malalas 55.5-6.
[15] The Midrash sets Abraham's rejection of idolatry at age 13 (Encyc. Judaica, 4.244). From here to "teacher to the Egyptians," the Suda's source is the Chronicon of George the Monk, 93.16 - 95.17.
[16] On God as "He who is," see omicron 438, omega 105.
[17] cf. Philo, On Abraham XIV.62.
[18] The call in Genesis 12:1-5 brings Abraham from Haran (חרן) to Canaan (כנען). The Suda adheres to Philo, On Abraham, XIV. 67: metani/statai...a)po\ th=s *xaldai/wn gh=s...e)is th\n *xarrai/wn gh=n.
[19] Philo shows a)delfidou=s, as at On Abraham, XXXVII.212, rather than the Suda's potentially ambiguous a)neyio/s for nephew (see LSJ s.v. at web address 4).
[20] On Abimelech, see alpha 45.
[21] The affliction cured in Genesis 20:17-18 is unspecified for Abimelech, but clearly is sterility for the female members of his house. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.208 (web address 5) relates that a "dangerous distemper" (Whiston trans.) afflicted Abimelech. For other traditions, see EncycJudaica, 2.76.
[22] Genesis 14:14-18; the Suda's source is the Chronicon of George the Monk, 100.17-26; 101.5-7.
[23] See Hebrews 7:3 (web address 6). In the Suda, see mu 544, mu 545, mu 546.
[24] The Greek mainly uses Abraam (אברהם ʾAḇraham) to this point, but here Abram (אברם), his pre-covenant name (Genesis 17:5).
[25] Genesis 15:5-6. The statement "and he believed God and God reckoned it to him as righteousness" appears also in Romans 4:3 (web address 7), Galatians 3:6 (web address 8), and James 2:23 (web address 9). A more idiomatic and semantically precise translation of the Hebrew (והאמין בה' ויחשבה לו צדקה weheʾemīn bah' wayyaḥšeḇeha lō ṣedaqah) reads: "And because he put his trust in the Lord, He reckoned it to his merit" (Plaut, 146). This version takes into interpretive account the imperfective waw consecutive (consequential) (Kautzsch, 111.l).
[26] Ismael (Ishmael) appears in the Suda at iota 644, but with a gloss that belongs to Isaak.
[27] Genesis 17:15. Also as *sa/r)r(a or Sarrha (Brenton, 18). The Hebrew covenant name change is Sarai to Sarah (both meaning Princess).
[28] Isaac (יצחק yiṣḥaq) from the Hebrew meaning "he (Abraham) laughed" in Genesis 17:17, and puns Sarah's תצחק tiṣḥaq ("she laughed") in Genesis 18:12. (Kohlenberger, Vol 1, 37, 39; Anderson, 182) In the Suda, see iota 606 (mostly taken from this entry).
[29] This adjectival derivative of Abraham's name appears in 4 Maccabees 9:21 LXX. The gloss replicates, apart from word order, one in Photius; cf. Synagoge alpha17, Hesychius alpha181.
References:
Anderson, A.W. Understanding the Old Testament. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1966
Attridge, H.W. "The Letter to the Hebrews" in The HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Brenton, L.C.L. The Septuagint with Apocrypha. Peabody: Henrickson, 1999 (reprint of 1851 edn.)
Colson F.H., Philo (Vol VI), Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1994
Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1973
Grant, M. From Alexander to Cleopatra: The Hellenistic World. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1982
Gruen, E.S. Heritage and Hellenism: The Reinvention of Jewish Tradition. Berkeley: University of California, 1998
Hatch, E., Redpath, H.A., and Muraoka, T. A Concordance to the Septuagint. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1998
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910
Keck, L.E. "The Letter of Paul to the Romans" in The HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987
Perdue, L.G. "Names of God in the Old Testament" in Harper's Bible Dictionary. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985
Plaut, W.G. The Torah: Genesis, A Modern Commentary. New York: Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1972
Smyth, H.W. Greek Grammar. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1984
Whiston, W. The Works of Josephus. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1987 (reprint of 1736 edn.)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4,
Web address 5,
Web address 6,
Web address 7,
Web address 8,
Web address 9
Keywords: aetiology; biography; children; Christianity; chronology; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; dreams; food; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; history; law; medicine; religion; science and technology; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:54:17.
Vetted by:
Craig Miller (Under editorial review as of this date) on 6 January 2002@08:24:02.
Craig Miller (Modified translation) on 24 January 2002@19:18:31.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@00:26:38.
Craig Miller (Notes added. Additional work pending.) on 25 January 2002@00:29:41.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@01:17:54.
Craig Miller (Added bibliography, keywords; changed status) on 25 January 2002@22:21:22.
Craig Miller (Cosmetics) on 25 January 2002@22:51:36.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@22:54:34.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@23:13:26.
Craig Miller on 4 June 2002@20:45:55.
Craig Miller on 19 June 2002@19:13:42.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew words; minor cosmetics.) on 31 October 2002@10:38:39.
Raphael Finkel (More Hebrew, cosmetics.) on 18 December 2002@10:58:21.
Craig Miller (Additional cosmetics) on 17 May 2003@19:07:49.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@08:20:23.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 November 2005@07:49:08.
Jennifer Benedict (added 15 links) on 25 March 2008@11:50:57.
Catharine Roth (references, cosmetics) on 10 April 2008@16:09:00.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 10 April 2008@20:15:09.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, pruned notes, added cross-references) on 11 April 2008@12:30:02.
Catharine Roth (adjusted note numbers; more tweaks) on 11 April 2008@14:18:11.
William Hutton (augmented n. 29) on 17 July 2009@17:14:18.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 December 2011@07:16:50.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links, other tweaks) on 22 December 2011@19:00:49.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note and links) on 11 November 2013@01:26:27.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:27:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 11 August 2014@00:14:27.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:33:55.
Catharine Roth (betacode typo) on 2 October 2018@02:07:40.

Headword: *)aga/qarxos
Adler number: alpha,109
Translated headword: Agatharkhos, Agatharchos, Agatharchus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A proper name. He was an outstanding painter from nature, the son of Eudemos, of Samian stock.
Greek Original:
*)aga/qarxos: o)/noma ku/rion. h)=n de\ zwgra/fos e)pifanh\s, *eu)dh/mou ui(o\s, to\ de\ ge/nos *sa/mios.
Notes:
After the initial gloss, this entry derives from Harpokration s.v., commenting on Demosthenes 21.147 (web address 1).
The other primary sources on A. (translated in Pollitt, below) are Plutarch, Life of Pericles 13.2 (web address 2); Plutarch, Life of Alcibiades 16.4 (web address 3); Vitruvius, On Architecture 7, praef. 1l (web address 4).
According to tradition, A. was the first painter to make a theatrical skene (for Aeschylus).
References:
OCD(4) s.v. (p.35)
J.J. Pollitt, The Art of Ancient Greece (Cambridge 1990) 145-6 (with 188)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4
Keywords: art history; biography; definition; geography; rhetoric; science and technology; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 1 October 1999@23:24:55.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headwords and note; augmented bibliography) on 9 February 2001@09:13:41.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 19 December 2003@08:05:39.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 28 September 2005@20:10:00.
Jennifer Benedict (added links) on 26 March 2008@00:23:53.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 19 July 2011@09:47:47.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links, other cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@18:47:22.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:18:59.

Headword: *)/agalma
Adler number: alpha,131
Translated headword: decoration, delight, ornament, statue
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Anything in which someone takes delight.[1]
"And he [A] gives silver, so that he [B] might complete the statue with the utmost artisanry, adding the size and prescribing the nature of the stone."[2]
Greek Original:
*)/agalma: pa=n e)f' w(=| tis a)ga/lletai. kai\ di/dwsin a)rgu/rion, i(/na e)kponh/sh| to\ a)/galma a)/kras te/xnhs, prosqei\s to\ me/geqos kai\ proseipw\n th=s li/qou th\n fu/sin.
Notes:
See also alpha 132, alpha 133, alpha 135, alpha 136.
[1] Again under alpha 133. Also in Photius, other lexica, and various scholia (e.g. to Homer, Odyssey 8.509, and Aristophanes, Wasps 303).
[2] Aelian fr. 65b Domingo-Forasté (part of 62 Hercher), on an unscrupulous (but unnamed) sculptor.
Keywords: art history; comedy; definition; economics; epic; ethics; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 June 2000@01:06:06.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@09:59:18.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 18 February 2011@06:57:00.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords; tweaks) on 23 December 2011@03:46:34.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 2) on 28 January 2012@19:11:34.

Headword: *)/aggaroi
Adler number: alpha,165
Translated headword: messengers
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] those who carry letters in relays.[1] They are also [called] 'couriers' [a)sta/ndai].[2] The words [are] Persian. Aeschylus in Agamemnon [writes]: "beacon sent beacon hither with relaying fire."[3] The word is also used for conveyors of freight and more generally of inanimate objects and slaves. Also [sc. attested is] the [verb] a)ggaroforei=n in reference to carrying burdens. And [the verb] a)ggareu/esqai means what we now speak of as being impressed to carry burdens and labor of that sort. Menander offers this example in the Sikyonios: "someone arriving by sea puts in? He is labelled an enemy. And if he has anything nice it's pressed into service [a)ggareu/etai]."[4]
Greek Original:
*)/aggaroi: oi( e)k diadoxh=s grammatofo/roi. oi( de\ au)toi\ kai\ a)sta/ndai. ta\ de\ o)no/mata *persika/. *ai)sxu/los *)agame/mnoni: frukto\s de\ frukto\n deu=ro a)p' a)gga/rou puro\s e)/pempe. ti/qetai to\ o)/noma kai\ e)pi\ tw=n forthgw=n kai\ o(/lws tw=n a)naisqh/twn kai\ a)ndrapodwdw=n. kai\ to\ *)aggaroforei=n e)pi\ tou= forti/a fe/rein. kai\ *)aggareu/esqai kalou=sin w(/sper h(mei=s nu=n to\ ei)s forthgi/an kai\ toiau/thn tina\ u(phresi/an a)/gesqai. *me/nandros kai\ tou=to e)n tw=| *sikuwni/w| pari/sthsin: o( ple/wn kath/xqh; kri/neq' ou(=tos pole/mios. e)a\n e)/xh| ti\ malako\n, a)ggareu/etai.
Notes:
Same entry in Photius, similar ones elsewhere.
LSJ entry at web address 1. See also alpha 162, alpha 163, alpha 164.
[1] cf. Herodotus 3.126 (web address 2) and esp. 8.98 (web address 3).
[2] cf. alpha 4420. The word appears also at Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 3.122A (3.94 Kaibel); Eustathius Commentaries on Homer's Odyssey vol. 2 p. 189.6; Hesychius alpha7814; Plutarch, Alexander 18 (bis); De Alex. fort. virt. 326E; 340C.
[3] Aeschylus, Agamemnon 282f. (web address 4), where the mss have a)gge/lou, an obvious gloss.
[4] Menander, Sikyonios fr.4 Sandbach [= fr 440 Kock].
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; history; military affairs; science and technology; tragedy; zoology
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 23 June 1999@13:13:42.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, modified translation, added cross-references, keywords, links, set status) on 5 July 2001@12:26:03.
William Hutton (Fixed faulty linksz) on 5 July 2001@12:31:12.
Catharine Roth (added keyword and link; cosmetic) on 5 July 2001@13:14:47.
Anne Mahoney (make the Greek beta-code) on 6 July 2001@11:37:41.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@09:14:56.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding, reordered links, cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@01:38:57.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 27 March 2008@08:32:31.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; tweaks and cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@08:14:35.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 12 August 2013@22:38:38.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 12 August 2013@23:22:50.
David Whitehead (tweaked a ref) on 14 January 2015@03:18:54.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 April 2015@23:40:43.

Headword: *)/agesta
Adler number: alpha,203
Translated headword: agesta
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. An egesta is] a military device erected from stones and logs and earth. But some call such a device agesta.[1] See also under egesta.
Greek Original:
*)/agesta: polemiko\n mhxa/nhma e)k li/qwn kai\ cu/lwn kai\ xou= e)geiro/menon. oi( de\ a)/gesta/ fasi to\ toiou=ton mhxa/nhma. kai\ zh/tei e)n tw=| e)/gesta.
Notes:
Copied from epsilon 52, egesta, q.v. for further detail (from Procopius). See also alpha 840, akessa.
[1] According to E.A. Sophocles' lexicon (s.v.), agesta comes from Latin aggestum or aggestus; cf. alpha 840.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; military affairs; science and technology
Translated by: William Hutton on 18 October 2000@16:00:45.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@10:34:23.
Catharine Roth (modified notes) on 5 June 2002@20:57:20.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 5 June 2002@20:58:56.
David Whitehead (rearranged notes; tweaks) on 30 December 2011@07:28:29.

Headword: *)/ageustos qoi/nhs
Adler number: alpha,207
Translated headword: without a taste of the feast
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning someone] living a (?)refined life.[1] Also [sc. attested is the plural] a)/geustoi, [meaning those] lacking experience.[2]
[Something] "lacking taste"[3] has four meanings: either that which is lacking flavor as yet, but capable of being given flavor, like water -- for being inert it is capable of having flavor imparted to it; or that which is subject to the other senses, like sound; or that which has a small amount of taste, like the watery kinds of porridge; or that which has a bad taste, like poisons. And [it is] clear that the sense of taste partakes of some of these things and some not. And in the case of the other senses also these four significations are recognized. They say that [the distinction between] that which is drinkable and undrinkable [are] the beginnings of tasting. For the first distinction taste makes is between these things. For it is especially in moist conditions that even the flavor arising from a mixture of dry elements is recognizable; and just as a drink becomes drinkable through the admixture of good flavor, thus also it becomes undrinkable through the admixture of undrinkable flavor. But both, that is, both the drinkable and the undrinkable, [are] tastable. And the undrinkable [is] tastable not as a fulfillment of the sense of taste but as something destructive to it because of the awfulness of the flavor. But the drinkable [is tastable] as something that preserves and fulfills that which is tastable by nature. Therefore the drinkable and the undrinkable are the beginnings of what is tastable. And since that which is drinkable [is] moist, and moistness is perceivable by the sense of touch, thus moistness is touchable and that which has such a flavor is tastable. This is something common to the senses of touch and taste: in the case of touch it is one of the specific things that it senses; in the case of taste it is the stuff and the vehicle of the tastes.
Greek Original:
*)/ageustos qoi/nhs: a)stei/ws bi/ou e)/xwn. kai\ *)/ageustoi, a)/peiroi. *)/ageuston, tetraxw=s: h)\ ga\r to\ a)xu/mwton me\n te/ws, duna/menon de\ xumwqh=nai, w(s to\ u(/dwr: a)/poion ga\r o)\n du/natai xumwqh=nai: h)\ to\ tai=s a)/llais ai)sqh/sesin u(pokei/menon, w(s o( yo/fos, h)\ to\ mikra\n e)/xon geu=sin, w(s ta\ u(dara\ tw=n r(ofhma/twn, h)\ to\ kakh\n e)/xon geu=sin, w(s ta\ dhlhth/ria. kai\ dh=lon ti/nwn tou/twn a)ntilamba/netai h( geu=sis, kai\ ti/nos mh/. kai\ e)pi\ tw=n a)/llwn de\ ai)sqh/sewn ta\ te/ssara tau=ta ginw/sketai shmaino/mena. a)rxa\s de\ tw=n geustw=n to\ poto/n fasi kai\ to\ a)/poton. ei)s tau=ta ga\r prw/tws diairei=tai to\ geusto/n. kai\ ga\r e)n tw=| u(grw=| ma/lista kai\ o( xumo\s e)k th=s e)pimici/as tw=n chrw=n prosgeno/menos: kai\ w(/sper to\ poto\n po/timon gi/netai dia\ th\n e)pimici/an tou= xrhstou= xumou=, ou(/tw kai\ to\ a)/poton dia\ th\n e)pimici/an tou= a)po/tou xumou=. a)mfo/tera de\, to/ te a)/poton kai\ to\ poto\n, geusta/. geusto\n de\ to\ a)/poton, ou)x w(s teleiwtiko\n, a)ll' w(s fqartiko\n th=s geu/sews dia\ moxqhri/an xumou=. to\ de\ poto\n w(s swstiko/n te kai\ teleiwtiko\n tou= kata\ fu/sin geustikou=. a)/rxei ou)=n tw=n geustw=n kata\ tou=ton to\n lo/gon to\ poto\n kai\ to\ a)/poton. e)pei\ de\ to\ poto\n u(gro\n, to\ de\ u(gro\n th=| a(fh=| a)ntilhpto\n, w(s me\n u(gro\n a(pto\n, w(s de\ toio/nde xumo\n e)/xon geusto/n. tou=to ou)=n koino\n a(fh=s kai\ geu/sews, th=s me\n a(fh=s w(s i)/dion au)th=s ai)sqhto\n, th=s de\ geu/sews w(s u(/lh kai\ o)/xhma tw=n geustw=n.
Notes:
The headword phrase, illustrative of an idiom noted in LSJ s.v. a)/geustos, I -- is presumably quoted from somewhere. It features also in, besides other lexica, two adjacent entries in Photius (alpha156 and alpha157 Theodoridis), and can be traced back to -- but not beyond -- two lemmata in the epitome of Phrynichus, Praeparatio sophistica (18.8 and 18.25 de Borries).
[1] This gloss does not seem very apt for the headword phrase. Adler reports no manuscript variations for the Suda iself, but, in the equivalent entry in Photius, Theodoridis obelizes a)stei/ws and notes Croenert's suggested emendation a)geu/stws.
[2] Same glossing in Photius (alpha158 Theodoridis) and other lexica; evidently quoted from somewhere.
[3] What now follows draws on John Philoponus' commentary on Aristotle's de anima 404.10-29 Hayduck. There are summary cross-references to this material at alpha 3603 and pi 2141.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; food; medicine; philosophy; science and technology
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 October 2000@13:17:10.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes; cosmetics) on 26 April 2002@03:47:27.
David Whitehead (modified translation; cosmetics) on 29 May 2002@10:07:42.
David Whitehead (modified translation) on 30 May 2002@04:01:22.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 1 January 2012@06:51:10.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@06:44:23.

Headword: *)aghlatoi/
Adler number: alpha,216
Translated headword: curse-expelling
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[A term applicable to] thunderbolts.[1]
But a)ghlatoi= [is] a verb,[2] [meaning he/she/it] leads, thunderbolts[3] or pursues.
Greek Original:
*)aghlatoi/: oi( keraunoi/. *)aghlatoi= de\ r(h=ma, a)/gei, keraunoi\ h)\ diw/kei.
Notes:
[1] The headword is masculine/feminine nominative plural of this adjective, presumably quoted from somewhere. For the sense, LSJ s.v. cite the phrase a)ghla/tw| ma/stigi (i.e. a purifying lightning-strike) in Lycophron, Alexandra 436.
[2] And differently accented, as if from a contracted verb a)ghlatou=n; but LSJ has only a)ghlatei=n.
[3] Textual corruption here: a (plural) noun amidst (singular) verbs. Perhaps it has been carelessly repeated from the first part of the entry.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry; religion; science and technology; tragedy
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 October 2000@22:22:14.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added notes and keyword) on 26 April 2002@05:38:41.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; another keyword; cosmetics) on 3 January 2012@08:41:31.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@07:01:02.

Headword: *)/agis, *)/agidos
Adler number: alpha,239
Translated headword: Agis, (genitive) Agidos
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The son of Pausanias.[1] This man, during an invasion of Mantinean territory once, besieged them and, having turned the flow of the river[2] against the wall, he weakened it; for it was of unbaked brick, which is more secure against siege-engines than baked brick or stones. For those break and jump out of their fittings, whereas unbaked brick is not affected in the same way. It is, though, destroyed by water, no less than beeswax is by the sun.
Greek Original:
*)/agis, *)/agidos. o( *pausani/ou. ou(=tos e)mbalw/n pote e)s th\n *mantineikh\n, au)tou\s me\n kate/kleise, to\n de\ pararre/onta potamo\n e)s to\ tei=xos paratre/yas pare/lusen: h)=n ga\r e)c w)mh=s pli/nqou, h(/tis pro\s me\n ta\s e(lepo/leis a)sfaleste/ra e)sti\ th=s o)pth=s kai\ tw=n li/qwn. oi( me\n ga\r kata/gnuntai kai\ e)kphdw=si tw=n a(rmoni/wn: h( de\ w)mh\ pli/nqos ou)x o(moi/ws ponei=. dialu/etai de\ u(po\ u(/datos ou)x h(=sson h)\ u(po\ h(li/ou khro/s.
Notes:
[1] This patronymic, together with the episode about to be related, makes it clear that the Suda is in error: the Spartan king in question here was Agesipolis I (reigned 395-380 BCE). The source, followed very closely, is Pausanias 8.8.7-8 (web address 1); again at pi 1777.
[2] The R.Ophis.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; history; military affairs; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg ✝ on 24 November 1998@14:16:39.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added notes) on 18 September 2000@10:33:32.
David Whitehead (added cross-reference and more keywords; cosmetics) on 23 October 2001@06:25:59.
David Whitehead on 4 January 2012@04:46:01.
Catharine Roth (added a link) on 22 November 2020@00:46:28.

Headword: *)agkw/n
Adler number: alpha,249
Translated headword: elbow
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
"In the royal palace of Gelimer was a building full of darkness, which the Carthaginians used to call [the] Elbow; therein were thrown all toward whom the tyrant was ill-disposed. There, in the time of Belisarius, happened to be confined many traders from the east about to be destroyed by the tyrant at that time, whom the guard of the prison released."[1]
"And he placed the siege-engines in the way that seemed most timely, and he hit both the wall-angles [angkones] and the trenches from both sides."[2]
Also [sc. attested is] a)gkw=nes, a certain part of the house.[3]
Another meaning of a)gkw=nes is everything that, in a dream, fixes the well-ordered aspect of life.[4]
*)agkw=nes [are] also the prominences of rivers, the ones at the banks.
"It was not possible to sail through to the stream ahead because of the size of the descending prominences which it was necessary for those dragging the ships to bend round."[5]
Also [sc. attested is] a)gkw=nes, [in the sense of] the heights of the mountains. "Some of you seek out the [western] heights, and some the eastern, going toward the evil exit of the man."[6]
And [there is] a proverbial expression: wiping one's nose with the elbow.[7]
Bion the philosopher said: "my father was a freed slave, wiping his nose with his elbow;" it indicated clearly the saltfish-importer.[8]
See another proverbial expression, 'sweet bend' [in a river, etc.].[9]
Greek Original:
*)agkw/n: e)n th=| basilikh=| au)lh=| tou= *geli/meros oi)/khma h)=n sko/tous a)na/plewn, o(\ dh\ *)agkw=na e)ka/loun oi( *karxhdo/nioi: e)/nqa e)neba/llonto a(/pantes oi(=s a)\n xalepai/noi o( tu/rannos. e)ntau=qa e)pi\ *belisari/ou polloi\ kaqeirgme/noi e)tu/gxanon tw=n e(w/|wn e)mpo/rwn, ou(\s me/llontas kat' e)kei=no kairou= a)nairei=sqai u(po\ tou= tura/nnou o( fu/lac tou= desmwthri/ou a)pe/luse. kai\ dieti/qei ta\s mhxana\s h(=| ma/lista e)do/kei kai/rion, a)gkw=nas te kai\ ta/frous e)ba/leto e(kate/rwqen. kai\ *)agkw=nes, me/ros ti th=s oi)ki/as. a)gkw=nes de\ kai\ pa/nta ta\ prosphsso/mena kat' o)/nar to\ ko/smion tou= bi/ou shmai/nei. *)agkw=nes kai\ ai( tw=n potamw=n e)coxai\, ai( para\ tai=s o)/xqais. ou) dunato\n h)=n pro\s a)nti/on to\n r(ou=n a)naplei=n dia\ to\ me/geqos tw=n prospipto/ntwn a)gkw/nwn, ou(\s e)/dei ka/mptein pare/lkontas ta\s nau=s. kai\ *)agkw=nas, ta\s a)/kras tw=n o)rw=n. oi( de\ spei/rousin a)gkw=nas, oi( d' a)nthli/ous zhtei=t' i)o/ntes t' a)ndro\s e)/codon kakh/n. kai\ paroimi/a: tw=| a)gkw=ni a)pomusso/menos. *bi/wn fhsi\n o( filo/sofos: e)mou= o( path\r me\n h)=n a)peleu/qeros, tw=| a)gkw=ni a)pomusso/menos: diedh/lou de\ to\n tarixe/mporon. zh/tei kai\ a)/llhn paroimi/an, to\ gluku\s a)gkw/n.
Notes:
[1] An abridgement of Procopius, History of the Wars of Justinian 3.20.4-7.
[2] From an unidentifiable military narrative. (For the headword in this sense see LSJ s.v., II.)
[3] For this gloss, cf. iota 552.
[4] Artemidorus 1.74; cf. omicron 349.
[5] Quotation unidentifiable.
[6] Sophocles, Ajax 805-6 (web address 1); the first adjective is garbled here.
[7] cf. Mantissa Proverbiorum 3.31 and the quotation which follows here.
[8] Diogenes Laertius 4.46.
[9] gamma 316.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: architecture; biography; chronology; daily life; dreams; economics; ethics; food; geography; historiography; history; imagery; military affairs; philosophy; proverbs; science and technology; trade and manufacture; tragedy
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg ✝ on 24 November 1998@13:57:02.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (supplied headword; added notes; augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@04:02:29.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@08:29:24.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 20 November 2005@10:40:36.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 February 2011@08:38:56.
Catharine Roth (tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 February 2011@01:08:42.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 4 January 2012@05:46:10.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 30 December 2014@00:14:19.

Headword: *)agku/lh
Adler number: alpha,251
Translated headword: thong, hook
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A kind of javelin.[1] Also [sc. attested is the related participle] h)gkuleme/nos ["armed with a javelin"], [meaning] wielding a javelin.[2] But [sc. the headword] also signifies some furnishing of the tent of Moses.[3]
Greek Original:
*)agku/lh: ei)=dos a)konti/ou. kai\ *)hgkulwme/nos, a)gku/lhn e)/xwn. shmai/nei de\ kai\ e)/rgon ti th=s skhnh=s tou= *mwu+se/os.
Notes:
For this multi-purpose feminine noun a)gku/lh see LSJ s.v. (web address 1 below).
[1] Strictly speaking, the thong or strap with which a javelin was thrown, but by extension the javelin itself; LSJ II.2 has instances from Euripides and elsewhere.
[2] This perfect participle (masculine nominative singular) occurs in Aristophanes, Birds 1180, and this is the gloss of the scholia there; cf. also the scholia to Aristophanes, Knights 262.
[3] Exodus 36.34 LXX; sense 5 in LSJ.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; military affairs; religion; science and technology; tragedy
Translated by: Roger Travis on 6 October 2000@13:21:43.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, added notes and keywords, set status) on 10 June 2001@13:34:23.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 11 June 2001@03:06:26.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 4 January 2012@08:23:10.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:47:36.

Headword: *)agku/lia
Adler number: alpha,252
Translated headword: linklets
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the loops of chains.
Greek Original:
*)agku/lia: oi( kri/koi tw=n a(lu/sewn.
Note:
Same entry in other lexica (references at Photius alpha187 Theodoridis); the headword, a neuter plural (and a diminutive of alpha 251), is presumably quoted from somewhere.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; science and technology
Translated by: Roger Travis on 4 October 2000@11:39:59.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified headword and translation, set status) on 10 June 2001@13:38:35.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 21 July 2003@06:42:10.
David Whitehead (tweaked note) on 4 January 2012@08:28:57.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@08:03:25.

Headword: *)agku/lon
Adler number: alpha,254
Translated headword: crooked
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning something] curved, bent over.
Greek Original:
*)agku/lon: kampu/lon, e)pikampe/s.
Note:
Same or similar entry in other lexica; references at Photius alpha189 Theodoridis. Perhaps generated by Homer, Iliad 6.39, where the neuter headword occurs (of a chariot), though there are other possibilities.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; military affairs; science and technology
Translated by: Roger Travis on 4 October 2000@11:42:48.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified headword, set status) on 14 June 2001@23:43:06.
David Whitehead (added note and keywords) on 21 July 2003@06:51:07.
David Whitehead (expanded note; another keyword; cosmetics) on 4 January 2012@08:46:46.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@08:06:06.

Headword: *)/agkura ploi/ou
Adler number: alpha,256
Translated headword: anchor of a ship
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
See under embryoikos.[1]
Greek Original:
*)/agkura ploi/ou: zh/tei e)n tw=| e)mbru/oikos.
Note:
[1] Lit. "seaweed-dwelling", an adjective applied to an anchor in Greek Anthology 6.90.1. This word has no entry of its own in the Suda, however; instead, it is defined in the entry for bru/xios (beta 579).
Keywords: botany; imagery; poetry; science and technology
Translated by: Roger Travis on 4 October 2000@11:55:32.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added note) on 18 June 2001@00:43:13.
William Hutton on 18 June 2001@00:45:10.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 21 July 2003@06:59:32.
William Hutton (added footnote number) on 3 April 2006@00:22:17.
David Whitehead (more keywords; raised status) on 3 April 2006@03:00:58.

Headword: *)/agkuran
Adler number: alpha,258
Translated headword: anchor
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Note] that Anacharsis the Scythian philosopher invented the anchor and the potter's wheel. He lived in the time of Croesus.
Greek Original:
*)/agkuran: o(/ti *)ana/xarsis *sku/qhs filo/sofos eu(=ren a)/gkuran kai\ to\n kerameiko\n troxo/n. h)=n de\ e)pi\ *kroi/sou.
Notes:
An extract from the main entry on Anacharsis (alpha 2130). The headword, part of it, is accusative singular.
Anacharsis is an important character in Book 4 of Herodotus' History; Croesus, tyrant of Lydia, is important throughout Herodotus. Anacharsis earns his fame by attempting to introduce Greek customs into Scythia, and eventually dies for it. The story of Anacharsis' inventions, however, is not found elsewhere.
Reference:
OCD(4) s.v. (p.77).
Keywords: biography; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Roger Travis on 4 October 2000@12:08:40.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note; added bibliography; keywords; cosmetics) on 12 February 2001@05:04:56.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, keyword, status) on 22 August 2006@22:12:29.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 23 August 2006@03:27:29.
Catharine Roth (deleted link, added keyword) on 20 October 2013@20:18:36.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@02:42:40.

Headword: *)agkurhbo/lion
Adler number: alpha,260
Translated headword: anchor-weight
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the iron [sc. weight] of the boat.
Greek Original:
*)agkurhbo/lion: to\ sidh/rion tou= ploi/ou.
Notes:
Though unambiguous, the gloss -- paralleled, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon -- is at odds with classical usage. The neuter noun a)gkurhbo/lion occurs in a fragment of Democritus quoted twice by Plutarch (Moralia 317A, 495E), and, as LSJ s.v. note, is the equivalent there of a)gkurobo/lion, "place of anchorage".
On ancient anchors see generally Lionel Casson, Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World (Baltimore & London 1995) 252-7.
Keywords: definition; science and technology
Translated by: Roger Travis on 4 October 2000@12:21:09.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, set status) on 12 June 2001@13:33:58.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 13 June 2001@03:36:54.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 4 January 2012@08:52:20.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 21 February 2015@23:48:14.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 9 April 2015@07:56:29.

Headword: *)agku/risma
Adler number: alpha,261
Translated headword: anchor-hold
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] a kind of wrestling-move. Also [sc. attested is the related participle] a)gkuri/sas, meaning [someone] wrestling down or taking down by the knee. An 'anchor-hold' is also a hunter's container of figs.[1] Aristophanes [writes]: "striking, anchoring, then turning his shoulder, you swallowed him up."[2] That is, you smote [him].
Greek Original:
*)agku/risma: ei)=dos palai/smatos. kai\ *)agkuri/sas, a)nti\ tou= katapalai/sas h)\ th=| a)gku/lh| katabalw/n. e)/sti de\ a)gku/risma kai\ skeu=os a)greutiko\n su/kwn. *)aristofa/nhs: diabalw\n, a)gkuri/sas, ei)=t' a)postre/yas to\n w)=mon, au)to\n e)kola/bhsas. toute/sti prose/krousas.
Notes:
[1] This meaning is not attested in LSJ (web address 1 below). Perhaps it stems from a misunderstanding of the Aristophanes passage about to be quoted, where in addition to applying the anchor-hold, Kleon is charged with squeezing treasury officials like ripe figs.
[2] Aristophanes, Knights 262-3 (web address 2), with comment from the scholia there.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: athletics; botany; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; food; history; imagery
Translated by: Roger Travis on 4 October 2000@12:34:39.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified headword and translation, added note and link to LSJ, added keywords, set status) on 18 June 2001@01:28:37.
David Whitehead (modified translation; added keyword; restorative and other cosmetics) on 4 May 2003@07:28:30.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 4 January 2012@09:01:44.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 9 April 2015@07:58:17.

Headword: *(agno/teros phdali/ou
Adler number: alpha,281
Translated headword: purer than a steering-oar
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to those who have lived pure lives; to the extent that the steering-oar is always in the sea.
Greek Original:
*(agno/teros phdali/ou: e)pi\ tw=n a(gnw=s bebiwko/twn: par' o(/son e)n qala/tth| dia\ panto/s e)sti to\ phda/lion.
Notes:
Diogenianus 1.11 and other paroemiographers.
Presumably this proverb's effect turns on the purificatory properties of salt.
On the steering oars -- always in pairs -- of ancient ships, see pi 1493 and pi 1494, and generally Lionel Casson, Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World (Baltimore & London 1971) 224-8.
Keywords: daily life; ethics; proverbs; science and technology
Translated by: Roger Travis on 23 October 2000@13:17:56.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note; added keywords; cosmetics) on 12 February 2001@07:10:49.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@07:24:45.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 9 April 2015@08:40:55.

Headword: *)agnu/qes
Adler number: alpha,289
Translated headword: loom-weights
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the stones of the loom.
Greek Original:
*)agnu/qes: oi( li/qoi tou= i(stou=.
Notes:
Same or similar entry in some other lexica and grammars, though with the accentuation a)gnu=qes . The word does not seem to have an Indo-European etymology, and Chantraine s.v. suggests that it may be borrowed.
LSJ entry at web address 1.
References:
OCD(4) pp.1446-7 (s.v. "textile production", by J.P. Wild)
P. Chantraine, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque, ed. 2, Paris 2009
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: clothing; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; science and technology
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 26 February 2001@00:45:26.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added bibliography and keyword) on 26 February 2001@03:10:55.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@08:09:41.
Catharine Roth (expanded note) on 5 January 2012@19:23:13.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@08:41:33.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@02:53:24.
Catharine Roth (added bibliography) on 4 August 2014@22:42:42.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 4 August 2014@22:44:38.

Headword: *)ago/mfwton
Adler number: alpha,294
Translated headword: not-bolted
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. Something] not-nailed.
Greek Original:
*)ago/mfwton: to\ a)nh/lwton.
Notes:
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon; and Hesychius has the plural a)go/mfwta glossed with a)na/rmosta ("not-fixed"). Otherwise, this adjective is attested only -- and in the singular, as here -- in [John Chrysostom], On Martha, Mary and Lazarus (PG 10.757e), where it is used of a boat.
For go/mfoi see gamma 376.
Keywords: Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; religion; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 1 February 2001@12:27:47.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@06:44:45.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@08:46:09.

Headword: *)agwgh/
Adler number: alpha,320
Translated headword: conveyance
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Transportation of anything, which is also known as 'supplying'; as one speaks of conveyance of grain or of wine.
Greek Original:
*)agwgh/: fora\ tinw=n, o(\ kai\ parakomi/zein le/getai, w(s le/getai si/tou a)gwgh\ h)\ oi)/nou.
Note:
From Alexander of Aphrodisias, Commentaries on Aristotle's Topica 423.19-20 Wallies. See also alpha 321.
Keywords: daily life; definition; food; philosophy; science and technology
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 11 June 1999@11:23:30.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Set status; minor changes to translation.) on 23 October 2000@22:14:53.
David Whitehead (added note; augmented keywords) on 9 February 2003@08:54:04.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@05:11:06.

Headword: *)agw/gion
Adler number: alpha,322
Translated headword: freight
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the load carried on a wagon. Thus Xenophon [sc. uses the word].[1]
Greek Original:
*)agw/gion: to\ a)go/menon ba/ros e)pi\ th=s a(ma/chs. ou(/tws *cenofw=n.
Notes:
Same entry in other lexica; references at Photius alpha306 Theodoridis.
[1] Xenophon, Cyropaedia 6.1.54.
Keywords: daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; science and technology
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 11 June 1999@11:28:55.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Altered headword; set status) on 24 October 2000@11:41:18.
David Whitehead (modified headword) on 29 April 2002@07:37:49.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@05:25:15.
David Whitehead on 19 August 2013@04:13:53.
David Whitehead (my typo) on 9 April 2015@09:11:05.

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