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Headword: Ἄβαρις
Adler number: alpha,18
Translated headword: Abaris, Avars
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Scythian, son of Seuthes. He wrote the so-called Scythinian Oracles[1] and Marriage of the river Hebros and Purifications and a Theogony in prose and Arrival of Apollo among the Hyperboreans in meter. He came from Scythia to Greece.
The legendary arrow belongs to him, the one he flew on from Greece to Hyperborean Scythia. It was given to him by Apollo.[2]
Gregory the Theologian mentioned this man in his Epitaphios for Basil the Great.[3]
They say[4] that once, when there was a plague throughout the entire inhabited world, Apollo told the Greeks and barbarians who had come to consult his oracle that the Athenian people should make prayers on behalf of all of them. So, many peoples sent ambassadors to them, and Abaris, they say, came as ambassador of the Hyperboreans in the third Olympiad.[5]
[Note] that the Bulgarians thoroughly destroyed the Avars[6] by force.
[Note] that these Avars drove out the Sabinorians, when they themselves had been expelled by peoples living near the shore of the Ocean, who left their own land when a mist formed in the flood of the Ocean and a crowd of griffins appeared; the story was that they would not stop until they had devoured the race of men. So the people driven away by these monsters invaded their neighbors. As the invaders were stronger, the others submitted and left, just as the Saragurians, when they were driven out, went to the Akatziri Huns.[7]
The declension is Abaris, Abaridos [genitive singular], Abaridas [accusative plural], and with apocope Abaris [nominative plural].
See about these things under 'Bulgarians'.[8]
Greek Original:
Ἄβαρις: Σκύθης, Σεύθου υἱός. συνεγράψατο δὲ χρησμοὺς τοὺς καλουμένους Σκυθινοὺς καὶ Γάμον Ἕβρου τοῦ ποταμοῦ καὶ Καθαρμοὺς καὶ Θεογονίαν καταλογάδην καὶ Ἀπόλλωνος ἄφιξιν εἰς Ὑπερβορέους ἐμμέτρως. ἧκε δὲ ἐκ Σκυθῶν εἰς Ἑλλάδα. τούτου ὁ μυθολογούμενος ὀϊστὸς, τοῦ πετομένου ἀπὸ τῆς Ἑλλάδος μέχρι τῶν Ὑπερβορέων Σκυθῶν: ἐδόθη δὲ αὐτῷ παρὰ τοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος. τούτου καὶ Γρηγόριος ὁ Θεολόγος ἐν τῷ εἰς τὸν μέγαν Βασίλειον Ἐπιταφίῳ μνήμην πεποίηται. φασὶ δὲ ὅτι λοιμοῦ κατὰ πᾶσαν τὴν οἰκουμένην γεγονότος ἀνεῖλεν ὁ Ἀπόλλων μαντευομένοις Ἕλλησι καὶ βαρβάροις τὸν Ἀθηναίων δῆμον ὑπὲρ πάντων εὐχὰς ποιήσασθαι. πρεσβευομένων δὲ πολλῶν ἐθνῶν πρὸς αὐτοὺς, καὶ Ἄβαριν ἐξ Ὑπερβορέων πρεσβευτὴν ἀφικέσθαι λέγουσι κατὰ τὴν γ# Ὀλυμπιάδα. ὅτι τοὺς Ἀβάρις οἱ Βούλγαροι κατὰ κράτος ἄρδην ἠφάνισαν. ὅτι οἱ Ἀβάρις οὗτοι ἐξήλασαν Σαβίνωρας, μετανάσται γενόμενοι ὑπὸ ἐθνῶν οἰκούντων μὲν τὴν παρωκεανῖτιν ἀκτήν, τὴν δὲ χώραν ἀπολιπόντων διὰ τὸ ἐξ ἀναχύσεως τοῦ Ὠκεανοῦ ὁμιχλῶδες γινόμενον, καὶ γρυπῶν δὲ πλῆθος ἀναφανέν: ὅπερ ἦν λόγος μὴ πρότερον παύσασθαι πρὶν ἢ βορὰν ποιῆσαι τὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων γένος. διὸ δὴ ὑπὸ τῶνδε ἐλαυνόμενοι τῶν δεινῶν τοῖς πλησιοχώροις ἐνέβαλλον: καὶ τῶν ἐπιόντων δυνατωτέρων ὄντων οἱ τὴν ἔφοδον ὑφιστάμενοι μετανίσταντο, ὥσπερ καὶ οἱ Σαράγουροι ἐλαθέντες πρὸς τοῖς Ἀκατίροις Οὔννοις ἐγένοντο. κλίνεται δὲ Ἄβαρις, Ἀβάριδος, τοὺς Ἀβάριδας, καὶ κατὰ ἀποκοπὴν Ἀβάρις. ζήτει περὶ τῶν αὐτῶν ἐν τῷ Βούλγαροι.
Notes:
See generally A.H. Griffiths in OCD(4) p.1: "legendary devotee of Apollo from the far north, a shamanistic missionary and saviour-figure like Aristeas [alpha 3900]". Adler credits this part of the entry to the Epitome Onomatologi Hesychii Milesii.
[1] Or in one manuscript, 'Skythian'.
[2] Perhaps from a scholion on the passage about to be cited (so Adler). Cf. Herodotos 4.36.1 (web address 1).
[3] Gregory of Nazianzus PG 36.524b.
[4] This material is from Harpokration s.v. Ἄβαρις
[5] 768-765 BCE. Harpokration (see preceding note) cites Hippostratos (FGrH 568 F4) to this effect, but adds that there were later alternatives: the twenty-first Olympiad (696-693) or "the time of Croesus, king of Lydia" (so Pindar, fr.270 Snell-Maehler), i.e. c.560-546.
[6] The word used for the Avars here, Ἀβάρις , is a homograph for the name of the Hyperborean wise man Abaris, so this separate section on the Avars is included in this entry. There is no indication that the lexicographer sees any connection between the two topics.
[7] Priscus fr.30 FHG (4.104), still 30 Bornmann. The final part reappears at alpha 820 and sigma 111.
[8] beta 423.
References:
RE Abaris (1) I.16-17
Macartney, C.A. "On the Greek Sources for the History of the Turks in the Sixth Century." BSOAS 11 (1944): 266-275
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; Christianity; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; history; mythology; philosophy; poetry; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@17:03:41.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation and notes, added keywords, set status.) on 19 January 2001@14:57:43.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and bibliography; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@05:20:43.
David Whitehead (added note) on 14 February 2001@06:09:48.
Mihai Olteanu (The only thracian item concerning Abaris is his father's name. Everything else pledes for his sythian ('hyperborean') origin. This is why I suppose we deal here with a copist mistake, and I propose the emendation: ́Αβαρις: Σκύθης, *Σκύθου υἱός (for Σκύθης as mythological character, see for example Herodotos 4,10).) on 22 January 2002@21:55:20.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 23 January 2002@03:11:25.
David Whitehead (augmented n.6 and added a keyword) on 5 October 2004@03:21:13.
William Hutton (augmented notes, added link and keywords, set status) on 24 August 2007@11:05:00.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 25 March 2008@00:16:43.
David Whitehead (another note; cosmetics) on 28 March 2014@06:23:27.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:06:21.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 31 January 2015@09:22:24.

Headword: Ἄβας
Adler number: alpha,20
Translated headword: Abas
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A sophist, who left Historical Commentaries and an Art of Rhetoric.
Greek Original:
Ἄβας: σοφιστὴς, Ἱστορικὰ ὑπομνήματα καὶ Τέχνην ῥητορικὴν καταλιπών.
Notes:
Adler cites Epitome Onomatologi Hesychii Milesii for the entry.
See RE 1.19, Abas(11). Jacoby's Abas, FGrH 46, is a homonym, author of a Troika.
Reference:
Epitome Onomatologi Hesychii Milesii (ed. Wentzel, Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur XIII.3)
Keywords: biography; historiography; philosophy; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:57:09.
Vetted by:
Svetla Slaveva on 31 January 2000@23:27:03.
Svetla Slaveva on 1 February 2000@11:17:32.
David Whitehead (modified translation and keywords; augmented note; cosmetics) on 8 July 2003@08:27:47.
William Hutton (augmented note, set status) on 24 August 2007@23:41:32.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 19 December 2011@06:10:09.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 5 August 2013@00:50:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 1 January 2015@23:49:14.

Headword: Ἀβασάνιστος
Adler number: alpha,21
Translated headword: untested
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning someone/something] unexercised or unexamined, unscrutinized. The word comes from the test of the goldsmith's stone, on which they scrutinize gold.[1] Aelian in his On Providence used the word 'untested' to mean 'without pain'.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀβασάνιστος: ἀγύμναστος ἢ ἀνεξέταστος, ἀδοκίμαστος. εἴρηται δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς βασάνου τῆς χρυσοχοϊκῆς λίθου, ἐν ᾗ δοκιμάζουσι τὸ χρυσίον. ἐχρήσατο δὲ Αἰλιανὸς ἐν τῷ περὶ προνοίας τῷ ἀβασάνιστος ἀντὶ τοῦ ἄνευ ὀδύνης.
Notes:
= Synagoge alpha4 (Lexica Segueriana 3.14); Photius, Lexicon alpha30 Theodoridis; perhaps ultimately derived in part from Phrynichus (Praeparatio rhetorica fr. 39 de Borries); cf. Hesychius alpha89 and a cluster of related entries: alpha 2276, Hesychius alpha4899, Synagoge alpha589, Photius alpha1845.
[1] βάσανος can mean both the touchstone itself and the testing process. See beta 139, and cf. beta 137.
[2] Aelian fr.9 Hercher (= 9 Domingo-Forasté). The version of the entry at Synagoge alpha4 includes the information that this is from the third book of the work in question.
Keywords: athletics; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; law; philosophy; rhetoric; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:58:18.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 20 January 2001@11:28:32.
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes) on 21 January 2001@05:35:01.
William Hutton (tweaked translation, expanded notes, added keywords, set status) on 27 August 2007@05:12:39.
William Hutton (Updates references in footnotes.) on 11 November 2007@07:10:05.
William Hutton (typo) on 8 February 2008@02:59:18.
Jennifer Benedict (added keyword) on 23 March 2008@00:55:08.
David Whitehead (typos) on 19 December 2011@06:11:54.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:31:43.
David Whitehead (cosmetics; another keyword) on 2 April 2015@08:51:56.

Headword: Ἁβρότερον
Adler number: alpha,91
Translated headword: more delicately
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
"But they behaved more delicately than them and were full of Sybaris."
Greek Original:
Ἁβρότερον: ἀλλ' ἁβρότερον αὐτῶν εἶχον καὶ Συβάριδος μεστοὶ ἦσαν.
Notes:
Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 4.27 (here illustrating the use of the neuter adjective as adverb; cf. already alpha 70).
See also alpha 86, alpha 87, alpha 88.
For the use of the toponym Sybaris in this way cf. sigma 1271, and see generally LSJ s.v. and OCD s.v.
Keywords: dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; geography; imagery; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:42:22.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; augmented note; added keyword) on 2 February 2001@03:29:56.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 25 March 2008@11:58:23.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@03:58:52.
David Whitehead (x-refs; more keywords) on 21 December 2011@06:05:07.
Catharine Roth (deleted link) on 22 December 2011@19:21:32.

Headword: Ἄβρων
Adler number: alpha,97
Translated headword: Abron, Habron
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Phrygian or Rhodian, grammarian, student of Tryphon,[1] sophist at Rome, the offspring of slaves, according to Hermippus.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἄβρων: Φρὺξ ἢ Ῥόδιος, γραμματικὸς, μαθητὴς Τρύφωνος, σοφιστεύσας ἐν Ῥώμῃ, γεγονὼς δὲ ἐκ δούλων, ὥς φησιν Ἕρμιππος.
Notes:
Presumably Habron (the aspirated version of the name is the more authentic), RE 8.2155 #4 (and OCD(4) s.v.), author of a treatise On the Pronoun in the C1 CE.
[1] Tryphon: tau 1115.
[2] For Hermippus see epsilon 3045. This is his fr. 73 FHG (3.52).
Reference:
R. Berndt, 'Die Fragmente des Grammatikers Habron', Berliner philologioscher Wochenschrift 35 (1915) 1452-1455, 1483
Keywords: biography; daily life; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; philosophy; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:46:35.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, keywords, set status) on 1 February 2001@22:49:38.
David Whitehead (modified headword; augmented notes and bibliography) on 2 February 2001@03:41:19.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, cross-reference) on 9 December 2009@17:25:23.
David Whitehead (added bibligraphy and another keyword) on 21 December 2011@06:41:35.
David Whitehead (expanded n.2) on 17 January 2014@04:59:58.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:16:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 1 January 2015@23:50:39.

Headword: Ἀγάθαρχος
Adler number: alpha,109
Translated headword: Agatharkhos, Agatharchos, Agatharchus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A proper name. He was an outstanding painter from nature, the son of Eudemos, of Samian stock.
Greek Original:
Ἀγάθαρχος: ὄνομα κύριον. ἦν δὲ ζωγράφος ἐπιφανὴς, Εὐδήμου υἱὸς, τὸ δὲ γένος Σάμιος.
Notes:
After the initial gloss, this entry derives from Harpokration s.v., commenting on Demosthenes 21.147 (web address 1).
The other primary sources on A. (translated in Pollitt, below) are Plutarch, Life of Pericles 13.2 (web address 2); Plutarch, Life of Alcibiades 16.4 (web address 3); Vitruvius, On Architecture 7, praef. 1l (web address 4).
According to tradition, A. was the first painter to make a theatrical skene (for Aeschylus).
References:
OCD(4) s.v. (p.35)
J.J. Pollitt, The Art of Ancient Greece (Cambridge 1990) 145-6 (with 188)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4
Keywords: art history; biography; definition; geography; rhetoric; science and technology; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 1 October 1999@23:24:55.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headwords and note; augmented bibliography) on 9 February 2001@09:13:41.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 19 December 2003@08:05:39.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 28 September 2005@20:10:00.
Jennifer Benedict (added links) on 26 March 2008@00:23:53.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 19 July 2011@09:47:47.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links, other cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@18:47:22.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:18:59.

Headword: Ἀγαθῆς Τύχης νεώς
Adler number: alpha,111
Translated headword: temple of Good Fortune
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The interpretation [is] not unclear.
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθῆς Τύχης νεώς: οὐκ ἄδηλον τὸ σημαινόμενον.
Note:
According to the equivalent entry in Harpokration -- which prompted the present one, without having the present gloss (also in Photius, Lexicon alpha69 Theodoridis) -- it was mentioned by Lycurgus (fr. 23 Conomis) "and others"; probably, therefore, it was in Athens.
Keywords: architecture; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 1 October 1999@23:26:17.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword) on 29 September 2000@05:41:58.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords; cosmetics) on 19 December 2003@08:09:02.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 19 July 2011@09:52:45.
David Whitehead (expanded primary note) on 16 August 2013@07:39:00.

Headword: Ἄγαλμα
Adler number: alpha,131
Translated headword: decoration, delight, ornament, statue
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Anything in which someone takes delight.[1]
"And he [A] gives silver, so that he [B] might complete the statue with the utmost artisanry, adding the size and prescribing the nature of the stone."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἄγαλμα: πᾶν ἐφ' ᾧ τις ἀγάλλεται. καὶ δίδωσιν ἀργύριον, ἵνα ἐκπονήσῃ τὸ ἄγαλμα ἄκρας τέχνης, προσθεὶς τὸ μέγεθος καὶ προσειπὼν τῆς λίθου τὴν φύσιν.
Notes:
See also alpha 132, alpha 133, alpha 135, alpha 136.
[1] Again under alpha 133. Also in Photius, other lexica, and various scholia (e.g. to Homer, Odyssey 8.509, and Aristophanes, Wasps 303).
[2] Aelian fr. 65b Domingo-Forasté (part of 62 Hercher), on an unscrupulous (but unnamed) sculptor.
Keywords: art history; comedy; definition; economics; epic; ethics; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 June 2000@01:06:06.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@09:59:18.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 18 February 2011@06:57:00.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords; tweaks) on 23 December 2011@03:46:34.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 2) on 28 January 2012@19:11:34.

Headword: Ἀγαπᾶν
Adler number: alpha,150
Translated headword: to love, to receive favorably, to be content with.
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] to give a favorable reception [to someone/something]. To love: to be satisfied with something and to seek nothing more.
Hence also the [phrase] "I would love [it/you if]...".[1]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαπᾶν: ἀποδέχεσθαι. Ἀγαπᾶν: τὸ ἀρκεῖσθαί τινι καὶ μηδὲν πλέον ἐπιζητεῖν. ἐξ οὗ καὶ τὸ ἀγαπῴην ἄν.
Notes:
The main part of this entry is also in Photius' Lexicon (as two consecutive ones: alpha118-119 Theodoridis) and elsewhere.
[1] (A marginal addition in ms A.) An expression meaning "please...". There are classical Attic instances in Plato (Meno 75C) and Isocrates (Letters 6.6); and see generally LSJ s.v. ἀγαπάω , III.1.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; philosophy; rhetoric
Translated by: William Hutton on 1 April 2000@09:04:30.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@11:30:09.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks) on 23 December 2011@06:04:28.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@08:14:59.

Headword: Ἀγαπῶ
Adler number: alpha,161
Translated headword: I love, I am satisfied with
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The 'I am satisfied with' [sense] takes a dative: "Being satisfied with the good things that he already had." [1] But [sc. also used] with an accusative: "thou shalt love God with all thy soul."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαπῶ: τὸ ἀρκοῦμαι δοτικῇ: ἀγαπῶν τοῖς ὑπάρχουσιν αὐτῷ ἀγαθοῖς: αἰτιατικῇ δέ: ἀγαπήσεις τὸν θεὸν ἐξ ὅλης ψυχῆς.
Notes:
(A marginal addition, Adler reports, in ms A.)
See also alpha 150, alpha 159, alpha 160.
[1] ἀγαπῶν τοῖς ὑπαρχουσιν ἀγαθοῖς : Lysias 2.21 (web address 1) here omitting the crucial 'not' at the beginning of the phrase and adding an interpolated αὐτῷ .
[2] ἀγαπήσεις τὸν θεόν Deuteronomy 6:5 LXX.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 23 June 1999@12:58:02.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation and notes, added link, keywords, set status) on 26 June 2001@13:05:31.
David Whitehead (added keyword) on 3 February 2003@07:20:41.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 26 March 2008@01:29:26.
David Whitehead (another note; tweaks) on 23 December 2011@06:41:03.
Catharine Roth (corrected betacode) on 31 March 2015@01:17:24.
David Whitehead (x-refs) on 5 April 2015@10:08:02.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:37:29.

Headword: Ἀγγαρεία
Adler number: alpha,162
Translated headword: compulsory labour, corvee
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Surely "of pack mules".[1]
Also [sc. attested is] ἄγγαρος : [meaning] labourer, servant, porter; whence we speak of ἀγγαρεία [to describe] involuntary compulsion and service brought about by force.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγγαρεία: λίαν ἀγγάρων ἡμιόνων. καὶ Ἄγγαρος: ἐργάτης, ὑπηρέτης, ἀχθοφόρος: ὅθεν ἀγγαρείαν ἀνάγκην ἀκούσιον λέγομεν καὶ ἐκ βίας γινομένην ὑπηρεσίαν.
Notes:
For the (unglossed) headword, again under alpha 163, see generally LSJ s.v.; and cf. alpha 164, alpha 165 alpha 166.
[1] The force of λίαν is not self-evident here, but see generally LSJ s.v. (The remainder of the phrase might be a quotation, from Libanius, Oration 18.143.)
[2] Same or similar glossing in other lexica; references at Photius alpha94 Theodoridis.
Keywords: daily life; definition; ethics; rhetoric; zoology
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 23 June 1999@13:06:05.
Vetted by:
Shannon N. Byrne on 20 May 2000@18:26:56.
William Hutton (Cosmetics) on 28 June 2001@13:52:43.
William Hutton (Added notes) on 28 June 2001@14:04:48.
Anne Mahoney (make the Greek beta-code) on 6 July 2001@11:39:53.
David Whitehead (modified translation; cosmetics) on 11 July 2003@07:40:21.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@07:54:02.
David Whitehead (expanded n.2; tweaking) on 16 August 2013@08:28:08.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 31 March 2015@01:18:34.
Catharine Roth (betacode cosmeticule) on 5 April 2015@19:19:42.

Headword: Ἀγάσαιτο
Adler number: alpha,166
Translated headword: might be amazed
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning he/she/it] might marvel.
Also [sc. attested is] ἄγασθαι in Homer in reference to the [sense] 'to marvel at' and 'to be envious'.[1]
Greek Original:
Ἀγάσαιτο: θαυμάσειεν. καὶ Ἄγασθαι παρ' Ὁμήρῳ ἐπὶ τοῦ θαυμάζειν καὶ φθονεῖν.
Notes:
Likewise or similarly in other lexica (references at Photius alpha124 Theodoridis), and cf. generally alpha 138, alpha 141, alpha 167. The headword -- third person singular, aorist optative middle -- is taken to be quoted from Demosthenes 18.204.
[1] Homer, Odyssey 16.203 (web address 1 below).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; rhetoric
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 4 June 1999@14:08:22.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, keywords, added note, set status?) on 8 July 2001@11:59:31.
William Hutton (Added betacodeõ) on 8 July 2001@12:05:57.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 3 February 2003@07:37:31.
Jennifer Benedict (added link, betacode) on 26 March 2008@01:41:15.
David Whitehead (augmented primary note) on 27 March 2008@08:36:30.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 23 December 2011@08:21:23.
David Whitehead (augmnented notes and keywords) on 18 August 2013@05:47:42.

Headword: Ἀγασικλῆς
Adler number: alpha,169
Translated headword: Agasikles, Agasicles
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A proper name. He is said to have bribed[1] the Halimousians, and for that reason, although he was a foreigner, to have been accorded [sc. Athenian] citizenship.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγασικλῆς: ὄνομα κύριον. ὃς λέγεται Ἁλιμουσίνοις συνδικάσαι καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ξένος ὢν ἐγγραφῆναι τῇ πολιτείᾳ.
Notes:
After the initial generic gloss, this entry is abridged from Harpokration s.v.
[1] Reading συνδεκάσαι for the transmitted συνδικάσαι ("to share in judging"). See LSJ s.v. συνδεκάζω at web address 1; see also n. 1 to alpha 1231.
[2] This is RE Agasikles 2; his claim to Athenian citizenship was contested in a speech by Dinarchus.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; constitution; definition; economics; ethics; history; law; politics; rhetoric
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 7 June 1999@11:24:47.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation, with explanatory note.) on 15 September 2000@06:18:36.
David Whitehead on 15 September 2000@06:20:34.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@11:01:00.
Jennifer Benedict (betacode, added link, cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@01:51:40.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 27 March 2008@08:39:44.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 July 2011@09:57:12.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 5 April 2015@21:47:43.

Headword: Ἀγελαῖος
Adler number: alpha,187
Translated headword: ordinary
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] no-account fellow [ἰδιώτης ]. Or the lead animal in the herd.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the genitive plural] "of ἀγελαῖοι ", of no-account fellows, of rustics.
"Such-and-such is likely enough of [= in] ordinary men". Meaning common ones.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] "of ἀγελαῖοι ", of the random masses. It would be used metaphorically from animals in herds or from fish,[3] which they say feed lavishly and in schools [ἀγεληδόν ].[4]
Greek Original:
Ἀγελαῖος: ἰδιώτης. ἢ ὁ ἐν ἀγέλῃ διάγων. καὶ Ἀγελαίων, ἰδιωτῶν, ῥεμβωδῶν. τῶν ἀγελαίων ἔοικεν ἀνθρώπων εἶναι ὁ τοιοῦτος. ἀντὶ τοῦ εὐτελῶν. καὶ Ἀγελαίων, τῶν πολλῶν καὶ τυχόντων. εἴη δ' ἂν ἐκ μεταφορᾶς τῶν ἀγελαίων ζῴων ἢ ἀπὸ τῶν ἰχθύων, οὓς βόσκεσθαι ῥύδην καὶ ἀγεληδόν φασιν.
Notes:
The closest comparanda for this entry in its entirety are found in the Platonic Lexicon ascribed to Timaeus (971b.10); Synagoge (Codex B) alpha99; Photius, Lexicon alpha134 and alpha141 Theodoridis; none of these matches up precisely, however. Snippets evidently from the same source appear elsewhere, as noted below.
[1] For the distinction see already alpha 186. Thus far the entry = Synagoge alpha49; cf. Aelius Dionysius alpha17; Eudemus 3.20; Hesychius alpha424, omicron3.
[2] Julian, Oration 7 (205D), where "such-and-such" = the invention of myth. The glosses (minus the quotation) in this and the previous sentence are paralleled in Etymologicum Gudianum 4.3 and Etymologicum Magnum 7.41.
[3] cf. alpha 189.
[4] The reference is probably to Herodotus 2.93.1, where both ἰχθύες ἀγελαῖοι and the adverb ἀγεληδόν (alpha 191) appear (see web address 1). This etymological information also appears in Harpokration alpha8 Keaney (4.13 Dindorf) as well as in some of the sources cited above.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography; imagery; rhetoric; zoology
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 23 June 1999@13:23:22.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@09:44:27.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 18 October 2005@05:38:36.
Catharine Roth (betacode typos) on 12 October 2007@01:13:40.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, added betacode, augmented note, raised status) on 12 October 2007@19:46:19.
Catharine Roth (added link) on 12 October 2007@22:34:25.
William Hutton (Augmented and modified notes) on 12 November 2007@06:25:26.
William Hutton (cosmetics) on 5 August 2009@13:42:54.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 29 December 2011@06:55:10.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 29 December 2011@11:48:32.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@06:16:07.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 3 September 2014@23:37:00.

Headword: Ἀγενής
Adler number: alpha,199
Translated headword: family-less
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Isaeus [sc. uses this word] to mean ἄπαις ["childless"].
Greek Original:
Ἀγενής: Ἰσαῖος ἀντὶ τοῦ ἄπαις.
Note:
Isaeus 2.1 (web address 1), cited from Harpokration s.v. In fact the transmitted texts of Isaeus have ἄπαις ; it is therefore likely that ἀγένης is an ancient variant which dropped out of the textual tradition.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: children; daily life; definition; rhetoric
Translated by: David Whitehead on 29 September 2000@06:43:03.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added link and keywords, raised status.) on 30 October 2000@20:23:54.
Catharine Roth (Cosmetic.) on 25 January 2001@18:04:11.
David Whitehead (augmented note) on 17 September 2002@05:16:40.
Jennifer Benedict (betacode) on 26 March 2008@02:12:25.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 27 March 2008@08:48:14.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 20 July 2011@03:23:09.

Headword: Ἀγησίλαος
Adler number: alpha,229
Translated headword: Agesilaos, Agesilaus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A proper name. He was a notable and noble king of Lacedaemonians and is celebrated by many of the orators.
Greek Original:
Ἀγησίλαος: ὄνομα κύριον. ἦν δὲ Λακεδαιμονίων ἐπιφανὴς καὶ γενναῖος βασιλεὺς καὶ ᾄδεται παρὰ πολλοῖς τῶν ῥητόρων.
Note:
The phrase 'a notable and noble king of Lacedaemonians' comes from Harpokration s.v., though it is Xenophon who is cited there, and the sentence finishes quite differently ("and he overturned much of Asia using the soldiers who had gone upcountry with Cyrus").
References:
P.A. Cartledge, Agesilaos and the Crisis of Sparta (London 1987)
OCD(4) s.v. (pp.38-9)
Keywords: biography; definition; ethics; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; rhetoric
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg on 24 November 1998@14:10:32.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword, bibliography, keyword; cosmetics) on 29 September 2000@05:53:11.
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 4 May 2003@07:41:10.
David Whitehead (typo and other cosmetics; more keywords) on 20 July 2011@03:26:02.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@07:29:00.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@02:40:05.

Headword: Ἀγκιστρεύει
Adler number: alpha,247
Translated headword: angles for
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning he/she/it] entices with bait.
Greek Original:
Ἀγκιστρεύει: δελεάζει.
Note:
LSJ entry for this verb (which has figurative as well as literal applications) at web address 1. The present instance of it -- third person singular, present indicative active -- occurs also in other lexica and grammars, with the same glossing (references at Photius alpha183 Theodoridis); it must be quoted from somewhere.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; food; imagery
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg on 24 November 1998@14:02:49.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added headword translation and link (not currently functional because of an error in LSJ at Perseus).) on 4 March 2001@22:46:06.
David Whitehead (augmented note; added keyword; cosmetics) on 23 July 2003@06:57:27.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks cosmetics) on 4 January 2012@05:22:26.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@08:00:05.

Headword: Ἁγνίας
Adler number: alpha,275
Translated headword: Hagnias
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A proper name.
Greek Original:
Ἁγνίας: ὄνομα κύριον.
Notes:
The equivalent entry in Harpokration (stemming from Isaeus fr. 64 Sauppe and citing Androtion FGrH 324 F18 and Philochorus FGrH 328 F147) shows that a particular individual of this name is meant, an Athenian of the classical period.
For a dossier of evidence on Hagnias of Oion (c.445-396) see Lexicon of Greek Personal Names vol.2 (Oxford 1994) s.v. Hagnias no.15.
Reference:
J.K. Davies, Athenian Propertied Families 600-300 BC (Oxford 1971) 82-3
Keywords: biography; historiography; history; rhetoric
Translated by: Roger Travis on 6 October 2000@13:01:53.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and bibliography; modified keywords; cosmetics) on 12 October 2000@03:17:09.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 19 July 2011@09:22:54.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@05:02:43.

Headword: Ἀγνόημα
Adler number: alpha,278
Translated headword: ignorance
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
"They were ignorant to an extent of ignorance such that no-one would have been ignorant who had grasped a little dialectic and is able to understand something about it."[1]
Greek Original:
Ἀγνόημα: ἀγνόημα τοσοῦτον ἠγνοηκότας, ὅσον οὐδεὶς ἂν ἠγ- νόησεν, ὀλίγα διαλεκτικῆς ἁψάμενος καὶ ὅσον ἐπαί̈ειν ὑπὲρ αὐτῆς ἔχων.
Notes:
Entry lacking, Adler reports, in ms S.
[1] Damascius, Life of Isidore fr.356 Zintzen (223 Asmus); also quoted in part at delta 279, epsilon 1929, pi 179 and pi 833.
Keywords: biography; ethics; philosophy; rhetoric
Translated by: Roger Travis on 23 October 2000@13:06:04.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note) on 29 April 2002@06:01:11.
David Whitehead on 29 April 2002@06:03:49.
David Whitehead (typo) on 14 April 2004@07:12:17.
William Hutton (cross-references) on 3 September 2011@03:17:24.
David Whitehead on 5 January 2012@05:09:29.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords; cosmetics) on 28 March 2014@06:39:23.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr) on 9 April 2015@08:38:59.

Headword: Ἀγνούσιος
Adler number: alpha,282
Translated headword: Hagnousian, Agnousian
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[H]agnous is a deme of the [sc. Athenian] tribe Akamantis, the tribesman[1] from which [is a] [H]agnousian.
Greek Original:
Ἀγνούσιος: Ἀγνοῦς δῆμος ἐστὶ φυλῆς τῆς Ἀκαμαντίδος, ἧς ὁ φυλέτης Ἀγνούσιος.
Notes:
From Harpokration s.v. ἀΓνοῦς , commenting on the appearance of the demotikon (the present headword) in Demosthenes 18.21.
On the deme Hagnous (the aspirated form appears to be the more authentic) see generally Traill (1975) 48, with Traill (1986) 132; Whitehead (1986) index s.v.
[1] A slip (already in Harpokration) for "demesman".
References:
J.S. Traill, The Political Organization of Attica (Princeton 1975)
J.S. Traill, Demos and Trittys (Toronto 1986)
D. Whitehead, The Demes of Attica (Princeton 1986)
Keywords: constitution; definition; geography; history; rhetoric
Translated by: David Whitehead on 20 October 2000@03:33:18.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added headword, set status.) on 30 October 2000@20:31:18.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 17 September 2002@05:20:31.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 20 July 2011@03:37:16.

Headword: Ἀγνωμόνως
Adler number: alpha,284
Translated headword: senselessly
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] mindlessly, or gracelessly. The unlearned are called senseless -- without discernment -- in Plato.[1]
And Demosthenes in the Philippics [sc. uses the word] to mean ἀλογίστως ["without reason"] and ἀβούλως ["without counsel"].[2]
And the Theologian [writes]: "o [you], even more senseless than Jews."[3] Meaning "more mindless".
Greek Original:
Ἀγνωμόνως: ἀνοήτως, ἢ ἀχαρίστως. λέγονται δὲ παρὰ Πλάτωνι ἀγνώμονες, ἀσύγγνωστοι, οἱ ἀμαθεῖς. καὶ Δημοσθένης ἐν τοῖς Φιλιππικοῖς ἀντὶ τοῦ ἀλογίστως καὶ ἀβούλως. καὶ ὁ Θεολόγος: ὦ καὶ Ἰουδαίων ἀγνωμονέστερε. ἀντὶ τοῦ ἀνοητότερε.
Notes:
[1] Plato, Republic 5.450D; likewise in Photius alpha217 Theodoridis.
[2] Demosthenes 2.26. This paragraph of the entry comes from Harpokration s.v.
[3] Gregory of Nazianzus, in Oration 38 (PG 36.329.13) and again in Oration 45 (PG 36.661.7).
Keywords: Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; philosophy; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: Roger Travis on 23 October 2000@13:28:56.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 12 February 2001@07:22:37.
David Whitehead (augmented n.2; more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 July 2011@09:30:45.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@08:35:17.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 February 2015@23:46:27.

Headword: Ἀγορανομίας
Adler number: alpha,302
Translated headword: market-supervisorship, market-supervisorships
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] auditorship/s. The term is applied to those who oversee sales in the cities.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the related concrete noun] "market-supervisors" [agoranomoi]: the officials who manage the sales in the marketplace [sc. in Athens].[2]
Aristophanes in Acharnians [writes]: "as market-supervisors of the market I appoint the three who were chosen by lot, the thongs from Leprous."[3] That is, straps, whips. For in olden days the auditors of the marketplace used to beat people with whips. And "leprous" [λεπρούς ] some explain as [sc. wordplay] from the verb lepein, that is, "to beat"; others from Lepreon a small town of the Peloponnese which Callimachus also mentions in the Hymns: "citadel of Kaukones, which is called Lepreion."[4] Others still [sc. derive it] from mangy cattle, since the hides of mangy cattle are tough. Still others because the Megarians, with whom he[5] is making a treaty, have mangy bodies. But better to say that [sc. there is] a place called Leproi outside the [Athenian] town-center where the tanners' shops were. There is also a mention of this in Birds: "why then do you settle [in] Helian Lepreon."[6]
Also [sc. attested is the the verb] "I supervise markets" [ἀγορανομῶ ]; [used] with a genitive.
Greek Original:
Ἀγορανομίας: λογιστίας. εἴρηται δὲ ἐπὶ τῶν ἐπισκοπούντων τὰ τῶν πόλεων ὤνια. καὶ Ἀγορανόμοι, οἱ τὰ κατὰ τὴν ἀγορὰν ὤνια διοικοῦντες ἄρχοντες. Ἀριστοφάνης Ἀχαρνεῦσιν: ἀγορανόμους δὲ τῆς ἀγορᾶς καθίσταμαι τρεῖς τοὺς λαχόντας, τοὺς δ' ἱμάντας ἐκ λεπρῶν. τουτέστι λώρους, φραγγέλια. τὸ γὰρ παλαιὸν φραγγέλοις ἔτυπτον οἱ λογισταὶ τῆς ἀγορᾶς. λεπρῶν δὲ οἱ μὲν ἀπὸ τοῦ λέπειν, ὅ ἐστι τύπτειν: οἱ δὲ ἀπὸ Λεπρέου πολίσματος τῆς Πελοποννήσου, ἧς μέμνηται καὶ Καλλίμαχος ἐν Ὕμνοις: Καυκώνων πτολίεθρον, ὃ Λέπρειον πεφάτισται. οἱ δὲ ἐκ λεπρῶν βοῶν, διὰ τὸ τὰ ἐκ λεπρῶν βοῶν δέρματα ἰσχυρὰ εἶναι. οἱ δὲ ὅτι οἱ Μεγαρεῖς λεπροὶ τὸ σῶμα, πρὸς οὓς σπένδεται. ἄμεινον δὲ λέγειν, ὅτι τόπος ἔξω τοῦ ἄστεος Λεπροὶ καλούμενος, ἔνθα τὰ βυρσεῖα ἦν. οὗ καὶ ἐν Ὄρνισι μέμνηται: τί δ' οὖν τὸν ἥλιον Λέπρεον οἰκίζετε. καὶ Ἀγορανομῶ: γενικῇ.
Notes:
The headword -- evidently extracted from somewhere -- and primary gloss are either genitive singulars or accusative plurals.
[1] Likewise in other lexica; references at Photius alpha228 Theodoridis.
[2] From Harpokration s.v., commenting on Demosthenes 24.112 and also citing ?Aristotle, Ath.Pol. 51.1.
[3] Aristophanes, Acharnians 723-4 (web address 1), followed here by comment from the scholia there; cf. lambda 291.
[4] Callimachus, Hymn to Zeus 39.
[5] Dikaiopolis, that is, the speaker of the quotation.
[6] What seems to be a very mangled quotation from Aristophanes, Birds 150. A more correct quotation might be translated as "Why do you two not go and settle in Lepreon in Elis?" This would seem to be a reference to the Peloponnesian Lepreon and not to a Leproi outside Athens. See web address 2 below for the text of Aristophanes, and web address 3 for the location of Lepreon.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3
Keywords: clothing; comedy; constitution; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; history; law; medicine; poetry; rhetoric; trade and manufacture; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 30 October 2000@00:03:30.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics; raised status) on 30 October 2000@03:28:23.
David Whitehead (restorative cosmetics) on 22 December 2002@09:24:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@11:02:46.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@03:58:52.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 6 January 2012@01:19:18.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 18 August 2013@09:01:32.

Headword: Ἀγοράς
Adler number: alpha,303
Translated headword: gatherings, markets
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Hyperides [sc. uses the word] to mean meetings. For he says in the [speech] Against Polyeuktos: "these men often hold gatherings".[1] And the word also means other things.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγοράς: Ὑπερίδης ἀντὶ τοῦ συνόδους. λέγει γὰρ ἐν τῷ κατὰ Πολυεύκτου: οὗτοι πολλάκις ἀγορὰς ποιοῦνται. δηλοῖ δὲ καὶ ἄλλα τοὔνομα.
Notes:
From Harpokration s.v. The headword, extracted from the quotation given, is accusative plural.
[1] Hyperides fr. 150 Jensen.
[2] cf. alpha 299, alpha 301.
Keywords: daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; history; rhetoric
Translated by: David Whitehead on 29 September 2000@08:42:43.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, added keyword, set status.) on 30 October 2000@20:35:34.
David Whitehead (augmented note; cosmetics) on 17 September 2002@05:22:59.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 July 2011@09:35:26.
David Whitehead (x-refs) on 9 April 2015@08:59:45.

Headword: Ἀγοράσαι
Adler number: alpha,304
Translated headword: to buy at market
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Hyperides [sc. uses this] to mean to purchase.[1]
They say ἀγοράσω , ἀγορῶ being sub-literate;[2] there are plenty of examples everywhere, but take for instance [one] of Aristophanes, from Aiolosikon: "but hurry, there was no need to wait, since I will buy everything that you ask for all at once, madam".[3] Also [sc. attested are] agorasmata, the things that have been bought.[4]
Greek Original:
Ἀγοράσαι: Ὑπερίδης τὸ ὠνήσασθαι. Ἀγοράσω λέγουσι, τὸ δ' ἀγορῶ βάρβαρον: παραδειγμάτων δὲ μεστὰ πάντα, εἰλήφθω δ' ὅμως Ἀριστοφάνους ἐξ Αἰολοσίκωνος: ἀλλ' ἄνυσον: οὐ μέλλειν ἐχρῆν, ὡς ἀγοράσω ἁπαξάπανθ' ὅσα κελεύεις, ὦ γύναι. καὶ Ἀγοράσματα αὐτὰ τὰ ἠγορασμένα.
Notes:
[1] From Harpokration s.v., citing Hyperides fr. 70 Jensen for this aorist infinitive of ἀγοράζω (cf. alpha 300); See also ἀγοράζει in For Lykophron 2.
[2] At issue here are two forms of the 1st person singular, future indicative active. The former (for which cf. alpha 305) is proper Attic form, the latter koine.
[3] Aristophanes fr. 2 Kock and K.-A.
[4] Attested in comedy and oratory.
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; rhetoric; trade and manufacture
Translated by: William Hutton on 30 October 2000@00:36:57.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and note; added note; cosmetics) on 30 October 2000@03:37:57.
David Whitehead (restorative and other cosmetics) on 17 February 2003@06:00:38.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@11:05:29.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; another keyword; tweaks) on 20 July 2011@04:12:46.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 22 December 2014@06:07:53.

Headword: Ἀγοραίαν δίκην
Adler number: alpha,307
Translated headword: agora lawsuit, forensic lawsuit
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the (?)defense plea.
Greek Original:
Ἀγοραίαν δίκην: τὴν δικαιολογίαν.
Notes:
An opaque entry, and made the more so because it appears in other lexica in different forms. In Photius (alpha231 Theodoridis) the lemma itself is the adjective only, i.e. δίκην is lacking; the Synagoge (alpha82) has δίκην as the first part of the gloss. All that seems certain, therefore, is that ἀγοραίαν (accusative singular) is quoted from somewhere.
The glossing term dikaiologia can mean either a defense plea or a forensic speech of any kind: see LSJ s.v.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; law; rhetoric
Translated by: William Hutton on 24 October 2000@12:05:09.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note) on 29 April 2002@07:22:51.
David Whitehead (expanded note; another keyword; cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@09:55:23.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@09:07:40.
William Hutton (augmented note) on 21 August 2013@10:09:58.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 3 September 2014@23:38:06.

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