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Headword: Ἀββᾶ
Adler number: alpha,10
Translated headword: Abba, Father
Vetting Status: high
The ancients called God "Father" from a feeling of relationship. Moses said, "You have forsaken God who begot you."[1] And Malachi: "One God begot us and is our father."[2] They were in a state of grace, moved by the force of the Spirit. Just as there is the Spirit of wisdom by which fools have become wise (for this is clear from the teachings), and the Spirit of power by which they raised both the weak and the dead, and the Spirit of prophecy, and the Spirit of tongues, so also there is the Spirit of adoption.[3] And just as we know the Spirit of prophecy, through which one who has it is moved by grace to tell the future, so also the Spirit of adoption, through which one moved by the Spirit calls God "Father." One who wishes to show that this is most legitimate even used a Hebrew word. For he did not say "Father" but "Abba the Father." This is the word used especially by legitimate children for their father.[4]
Greek Original:
Ἀββᾶ: ὁ πατήρ. οἱ μὲν παλαιοὶ ἐκάλουν πατέρα τὸν θεὸν ἐξ οἰκείας διανοίας, ὡς Μωϋσῆς: θεὸν τὸν γεννήσαντά σε ἐγκατέλιπες: καὶ Μαλαχίας: ὁ θεὸς εἷς ἐγέννησεν ἡμᾶς καὶ πατήρ: οἱ δὲ ἐν χάριτι, ἀπὸ πνευματικῆς ἐνεργείας κινούμενοι. ὥσπερ πνεῦμα σοφίας εἶναι, καθ' ὃ σοφοὶ οἱ ἄσοφοι ἐγένοντο [καὶ δηλοῦται τοῦτο ἀπὸ τῆς διδασκαλίας] καὶ πνεῦμα δυνάμεως εἶναι, καθ' ὃ καὶ ἀσθενεῖς καὶ νεκροὺς ἤγειρον, καὶ πνεῦμα προφητείας, καὶ πνεῦμα γλωσσῶν, οὕτω καὶ πνεῦμα υἱοθεσίας. καὶ ὥσπερ ἴσμεν τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς προφητείας, ἀφ' ὧν ὁ ἔχων αὐτὸ λέγει τὰ μέλλοντα ὑπὸ τῆς χάριτος κινούμενος, οὕτω δὴ καὶ πνεῦμα υἱοθεσίας, ἀφ' οὗ ὁ λαβὼν πατέρα καλεῖ τὸν θεὸν, ὑπὸ πνεύματος κινούμενος. ὁ δὴ βουλόμενος δεῖξαι γνησιώτατον ὂν καὶ τῇ τῶν Ἑβραίων ἐχρήσατο γλώττῃ. οὐ γὰρ εἶπεν ὁ πατὴρ, ἀλλ' ἀββᾶ ὁ πατήρ: ὅπερ τῶν παίδων μάλιστά ἐστι τῶν γνησίων πρὸς πατέρα ῥῆμα.
A paraphrase of St. John Chrysostom, Homily on the Epistle to the Romans PG 60.527.
(Entry placed after alpha 16, Adler reports, in mss GTMB.)
[1] Deuteronomy 32:18 LXX (web address 1).
[2] Malachi 2:10 LXX (web address 2).
[3] cf. Ep.Romans 8:15 (web address 3).
[4] On "Abba," see also alpha 12.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3
Keywords: children; Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; medicine; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:57:30.
Vetted by:
Samuel Huskey (added links to Bible, changed "sonship" to "filiation") on 15 July 2000@15:01:55.
Catharine Roth (Altered wording.) on 29 July 2000@23:15:23.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 11 July 2003@08:51:36.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 6 October 2005@08:51:18.
William Hutton (tweaked translation, augmented notes, fixed broken links, added keywords, set status) on 20 August 2007@10:15:40.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 5 August 2013@01:15:24.
David Whitehead (another note; cosmetics) on 28 March 2014@06:14:49.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, added cross-reference) on 28 March 2014@12:15:01.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:24:11.

Headword: Ἀβλῆτα
Adler number: alpha,57
Translated headword: unshot, unthrown
Vetting Status: high
[Referring to] projectiles, ones that have not been dispatched with a view to wounding.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] 'unshot arrow': the one badly shot or the one not yet shot. Declines ἀβλὴς , [genitive] ἀβλῆτος .[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀβλῆτα: βέλη, τὰ μὴ πεμφθέντα εἰς τρῶσιν. καὶ ἀβλῆτα ὀϊστὸν, τὸν κακόβλητον ἢ τὸν μήπω βεβλημένον. κλίνεται δὲ ἀβλὴς, ἀβλῆτος.
[1] Here the headword adjective is glossed as if it were a neuter plural, but see next note.
[2] cf. the scholia to Homer, Iliad 4.117-118, where this accusative singular phrase occurs, albeit with other words intervening (web address 1 below).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; medicine; military affairs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:08:39.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, modified translation, keyword, raised status) on 30 January 2001@08:35:45.
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 23 April 2002@09:07:46.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding, added link) on 24 March 2008@17:14:36.
David Whitehead (augmented and modified notes; cosmetics) on 25 March 2008@05:00:13.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 19 December 2011@08:10:13.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 2 April 2015@10:27:20.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 26 May 2019@00:45:21.

Headword: Ἀβολήτωρ
Adler number: alpha,59
Translated headword: meeter
Vetting Status: high
Or[1] ἄβολος ["un-shedder"], a donkey that has not yet shed its teeth, from which the animal's age is known. Similarly, a young animal that does not yet have its indicators.[2] An 'indicator' is what they call a tooth that falls out, by which they verify the age. These teeth are also called 'finished,' by a metaphor from the animals themselves. The ἀπογνώμονες are those who have grown old and lost their indicators. Also [sc. attested is the phrase] 'unshed foals',[3] those who have not yet lost teeth.
Greek Original:
Ἀβολήτωρ καὶ Ἄβολις. ἢ Ἄβολος, ὄνος ὁ μηδέπω βεβληκὼς ὀδόντας, ἐξ οὗ γνωρίζεται ἡ ἡλικία τοῦ ζῴου. ἐκ δὲ τούτου ὁ νέος οὐδέπω γνώμονα ἔχων. γνώμονα δὲ ἔλεγον τὸν βαλλόμενον ὀδόντα, δι' οὗ τὰς ἡλικίας ἐξήταζον: τὸν δὲ αὐτὸν καὶ κατηρτυκότα ἔλεγον, ἐκ μεταφορᾶς τῶν τετραπόδων. καὶ ἀπογνώμονας τοὺς ἀπογεγηρακότας, οἷς ἐλελοίπει τὸ γνώρισμα. καὶ Ἀβόλους πώλους, τοὺς μηδέπω βεβληκότας ὀδόντας.
[1] The entry has begun with two unglossed headwords, ἀβολήτωρ ('one who meets': LSJ -- web address 1 below) and ἄβολις (attested only here; not in LSJ).
[2] γνώμων ; cf. gamma 347, kappa 1061.
[3] Accusative plural, evidently quoted from somewhere.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; medicine; science and technology; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:11:01.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified headword and translation, augmented notes, added keywords, set status) on 30 January 2001@22:25:55.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 23 April 2002@09:15:27.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 18 October 2005@05:37:54.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics, betacode) on 25 March 2008@11:23:51.
David Whitehead (modified headword; augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 25 March 2008@11:38:18.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 24 August 2010@16:57:08.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 19 December 2011@08:26:52.

Headword: Ἀβραάμ
Adler number: alpha,69
Translated headword: Abraham
Vetting Status: high
The first among patriarchs; [it was he] in whom the Hebrew people took pride at first, before they rebelled against God, became estranged from Him, and shed upon themselves the blood of His Only-Begotten Son.[1] This man came out of the land of the Chaldeans, who devoted their entire lives to the stars and heavenly bodies. Trained, therefore, as was their ancestral custom, to observe the motions of the heavenly bodies[2] he surmised that the masterwork underlying this visible creation was not to be found in such objects, but had a Creator who set them in motion, gave harmony to their paths, and ordered the entire universe. Because of the greatness and beauty of the things He had made, Abraham, as it was likely, ceased devoting himself to gazing out into the heavens nor did he squander his passion in their pursuit. Instead, by surmounting the celestial vaults and transcending all the intelligible realm beyond the cosmos, Abraham no longer stood apart from the One sought, until finally the Creator for whom he yearned manifested Himself to Abraham in likenesses[3] and forms. And in this way the Unseen and Invisible revealed Himself. And [God] sent him forth from his own land as a wanderer and settled him in the land of the Canaanites. There he dwelled, now being in about his ninety-ninth year.[4] Until this time, he was childless; then [God] made him the father of the miraculous and blessed Isaac that he might have a first-born, only-begotten son[5] -- prefiguring the mystical image of the First-Born, Only-Begotten Son.[6] This was an exceedingly singular[7] honor bestowed upon Abraham, for the Creator favored him with the titles Servant, Beloved, and Father by flesh of the Only Begotten Son of Him who fashioned the entire universe.[8] Abraham invented sacred writing and devised the language of which Hebrew children used to have a command, as they were this man's disciples and descendants. Moreover, the Greek alphabet received its impetus from this script,[9] even if Greeks amused themselves by forming the letters differently. Proof of this is in the pronunciation of the first and preeminent letter "alpha" because it derives its name from the Hebrew "aleph" by way of the Blessed, First, and Eternal Name.[10] So too, the Greeks through Abraham came to possess books on dream interpretation. Witness to this is Joseph, the truly wondrous descendant of Abraham, who interpreted Pharoah's dreams as they were going to turn out in fact. In this, Philo, the Jewish philosopher, will be my confirmation via his work Life of the Statesman.[11] About Philo it is said "Philo platonizes and Plato philonizes."[12]
The practice of idolatry extended from Serug[13] to the time of Abraham's father Tharron.[14] Thus, when Abraham was 14 years old[15] and deemed worthy of divine knowledge, he upbraided his father, "Why do you lead the people astray for harmful gain (that is, with idols)? There is no other God but the One in heaven, the Creator of the entire universe." Yet seeing the people serving earthly things, he embarked on a tireless quest, seeking out with his pious heart the Truly Existing God.[16] But seeing that the sky is sometimes light and sometimes dark, he said to himself, "That is not God." Observing similarly the sun and the moon, the one obscured and eclipsed and the other waning and occluded, he said, "Those are not gods either." True, he was trained in astronomy by his father, but Abraham all the same was puzzled by the motions of the stars and scornful of them. But God appeared to him and said, "Go out of your land and leave your kinsmen."[17] Abraham took his father's idols, smashing some and incinerating others. Then he went away with his father out of the land of the Chaldeans. And they came to Haran,[18] where his father died. He left there, obeying the Lord's word, with his wife Sarah and his nephew Lot[19] and all their possessions, and came to the promised land Canaan, which the Canaanites had seized and settled in. When a famine arose, Abraham left the land of the Canaanites and went into Egypt, where Abimelech[20] the king took his wife Sarah. God struck terror into Abimelech and paralysed his limbs, saying "Give this man back his wife, because he is a prophet and will pray for you, and you will live. But if you do not give her back, know that you and your entire household will die." When Abraham got his wife back, undefiled, he prayed, and Abimelech and his household were cured of the paralysis.[21] After this the king, honoring Abraham and devoting himself to his sayings, became a pious and expert teacher to the Egyptians. The same Abraham, upon returning from war,[22] was considered worthy of blessing by Melchisedek, king of Salem, who brought bread and wine out to him. Melchisedek was a priest of the Most High, and Abraham gave to Him a tenth of all he had. Melchisedek was without father, mother, or lineage, like the Son of God.[23]
When Abram[24] lamented to God about his childlessness, God revealed to him through a dream that his descendants would be as numerous as the stars. And he believed God, and God reckoned it to him as righteousness.[25] Now Sarah, who was barren, gave Abraham permission to father a child with her maidservant, and she bore Ismael.[26] And when Abram was 99 years old, God appeared to him and altered his name to Abraham, for until then he had been called Abram. Similarly, Sarah became Sarrah with another "r".[27] And Abraham circumcised Ismael and all his descendants. Moreover, when the Lord was being shown the hospitality of Abraham's house, He promised Abraham that Sarrah would bear him a son. But Sarrah smiled; and the one who was begotten was called Isaac, by the Hebrew name that means "laughter with delight."[28]
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] Αβραμιαῖος : [meaning] descendant of Abraham, or towering, revered.[29]
Greek Original:
Ἀβραάμ: ὁ πρῶτος ἐν πατριάρχαις: εἰς ὃν ἀπεσεμνύνετο δῆμος ὁ τῶν Ἑβραίων τὸ πρότερον, πρὶν ἢ θεοῦ ἀποσκιρτῆσαι καὶ γενέσθαι τούτου ἀλλότριοι καὶ τὸ τοῦ μονογενοῦς υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ αἷμα ἐφ' ἑαυτοὺς ἐπισπάσασθαι. οὗτος ἐκ μὲν τῆς Χαλδαίων γῆς ὑπῆρχεν ὁρμώμενος, τῶν περὶ τὰ μετέωρα καὶ τοὺς ἀστέρας τὸν βίον ὅλον καταναλισκόντων. ἀσκηθεὶς οὖν κατὰ τὸν πάτριον νόμον τὰς τῶν ἐπουρανίων ἀστέρων κινήσεις καὶ στοχασάμενος ὡς οὐκ ἐν τούτοις ἵσταται τὸ μεγαλουργὸν τῆς φαινομένης ταυτησὶ κτίσεως, ἀλλ' ἔχει τινὰ τὸν δημιουργὸν τὸν καὶ κινοῦντα καὶ διευθύνοντα τὴν ἐναρμόνιον τῶν ἀστέρων πορείαν καὶ τοῦ κόσμου παντὸς τὴν κατάστασιν, καὶ διὰ τοῦ μεγέθους καὶ τῆς καλλονῆς τῶν κτισμάτων τὸν γενεσιουργὸν αὐτῶν, ὡς ἐνῆν, θεωρήσας οὐκ ἔστη μέχρι τούτων, οὐδὲ τὴν ἔφεσιν εἰς ταῦτα κατεδαπάνησεν, ἀλλὰ τῶν οὐρανίων ἁψίδων ὑπεραρθεὶς καὶ πᾶσαν διαβὰς τὴν νοητήν τε καὶ ὑπερκόσμιον σύμπηξιν οὐκ ἀπέστη τοῦ ζητουμένου, ἕως οὗ ὁ ποθούμενος ἑαυτὸν αὐτῷ ἐφανέρωσε τύποις τε καὶ μορφώμασιν, οἷς ἑαυτὸν ἐμφανίζει ὁ ἀφανὴς καὶ ἀόρατος. καὶ μετανάστην αὐτὸν ἐκ τῆς πατρίδος λαβὼν ἐπὶ τὴν Χανανῖτιν κατέστησε, τὸν ἐνενηκοστόν που καὶ ἔνατον ἤδη χρόνον παρέλκοντα: καὶ ἄπαιδα μέχρι τότε τυγχάνοντα γεννήτορα τοῦ θαυμασίου καὶ μάκαρος κατέ- στησεν Ἰσαὰκ, ἵν' ἔχοι μονογενῆ υἱὸν καὶ πρωτότοκον, τοῦ μονογενοῦς καὶ πρωτοτόκου μυστικὴν εἰκόνα προδιαγράφοντα: τοῦτο γέρας αὐτῷ κατ' ἐξαίρετον χαρισάμενος, τὸ δοῦλον καὶ φίλον καὶ πατέρα χρηματίσαι τοῦ μονογενοῦς υἱοῦ κατὰ σάρκα, τοῦ τὸν κόσμον ὅλον δημιουργήσαντος. οὗτος εὗρε μὲν ἱερὰ γράμματα καὶ γλῶσσαν ἐμηχανήσατο, ἧς Ἑβραίων παῖδες ἐν ἐπιστήμῃ ἐτύγχανον, ὡς ὄντες τούτου μαθηταὶ καὶ ἀπόγονοι. ἐκ τούτου καὶ τὰ Ἑλλήνων γράμματα τὰς ἀφορμὰς ἔλαβον, κἂν ἄλλως καὶ ἄλλως ἑαυτοὺς διαπαίζοντες ἀναγράφωσιν Ἕλληνες. καὶ τούτου μαρτύριον ἡ τοῦ Ἄλφα φωνὴ τοῦ πρώτου στοιχείου καὶ ἄρχοντος, ἀπὸ τοῦ Ἄλεφ Ἑβραίου λαβόντος τὴν ἐπίκλησιν τοῦ μακαρίου καὶ πρώτου καὶ ἀθανάτου ὀνόματος. ἐκ τούτου καὶ τὰ ὀνείρων βιβλία ἐσφετερίσαντο Ἕλληνες. καὶ μάρτυς Ἰωσὴφ ὁ πανθαύμαστος ὁ τούτου ἀπόγονος, ὁ τοῦ Φαραὼ τὰ ἐνύπνια ὡς ἔμελλον ἀποβήσεσθαι διηγούμενος. τοῦτό μοι καὶ Φίλων, ἐξ Ἑβραίων φιλόσοφος, ἐν τῷ τοῦ Πολιτικοῦ βίῳ συνεπιμαρτυρήσεται, Φίλων, περὶ οὗ ἐρρήθη, Φίλων πλατωνίζει, καὶ Πλάτων φιλωνίζει. ὅτι ἤρξατο ἡ εἰδωλολατρεία ἀπὸ Σεροὺχ ἕως τῶν χρόνων Θάρρα τοῦ πατρὸς Ἀβραάμ. ὃς Ἀβραὰμ ὑπάρχων ἐτῶν ιδ# καὶ θεογνωσίας ἀξιωθεὶς ἐνουθέτει τὸν πατέρα αὐτοῦ, λέγων: τί πλανᾷς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους διὰ κέρδος ἐπιζήμιον [τουτέστι τὰ εἴδωλα]; οὐκ ἔστιν ἄλλος θεὸς εἰ μὴ ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς, ὁ καὶ πάντα τὸν κόσμον δημιουργήσας. ὁρῶν γὰρ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους κτισματολατροῦντας διήρχετο διαπονούμενος καὶ τὸν ὄντως ὄντα θεὸν ἐκζητῶν ἐκ φιλοθέου καρδίας. ὁρῶν δὲ τὸν οὐρανὸν ποτὲ μὲν λαμπρὸν, ποτὲ δὲ σκοτεινὸν, ἔλεγεν ἐν ἑαυτῷ: οὐκ ἔστιν οὗτος θεός. ὁμοίως καὶ τὸν ἥλιον καὶ τὴν σελήνην, τὸν μὲν ἀποκρυπτόμενον καὶ ἀμαυρούμενον, τὴν δὲ φθίνουσαν καὶ ἀπολήγουσαν, ἔφησεν: οὐδ' οὗτοί εἰσι θεοί. καὶ μέντοι καὶ τὴν τῶν ἀστέρων κίνησιν, ἐκ τοῦ πατρὸς γὰρ ἐπαιδεύετο τὴν ἀστρονομίαν, καὶ ἀπορῶν ἐδυσχέραινεν. ὤφθη δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ θεὸς καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ: ἔξελθε ἐκ τῆς γῆς σου καὶ ἐκ τῆς συγγενείας σου. καὶ λαβὼν τὰ εἴδωλα τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ τὰ μὲν κλάσας τὰ δὲ ἐμπυρίσας ἀνεχώρησε μετὰ τοῦ πατρὸς ἐκ γῆς Χαλδαίων: καὶ ἐλθόντος εἰς Χαρρὰν, ἐτελεύτησεν ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ. καὶ ἐξελθὼν ἐκεῖθεν ἐν λόγῳ Κυρίου ἦλθε σὺν τῇ γυναικὶ Σάρρᾳ καὶ τῷ ἀνεψιῷ Λὼτ μετὰ πάσης αὐτῶν τῆς ἀποσκευῆς εἰς τὴν ὀφειλομένην γῆν Χαναὰν, ἣν οἱ Χαναναῖοι τυραννικῶς ἀφελόμενοι ᾤκησαν. λιμοῦ δὲ γενομένου καταλιπὼν τὴν Χαναναίων γῆν εἰς Αἴγυπτον ἀπῄει, οὗ τὴν γυναῖκα Σάρραν Ἀβιμέλεχ ἥρπασεν ὁ βασιλεύς. τοῦτον ὁ θεὸς ἐκδειματώσας καὶ πάρεσιν τῶν μελῶν ἐπάξας, ἀπόδος, ἔφη, τὴν γυναῖκα τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ, ὅτι προφήτης ἐστὶ καὶ προσεύξεται περὶ σοῦ καὶ ζήσεις. εἰ δὲ μὴ ἀποδῷς, γνῶθι ὅτι ἀποθανῇ σὺ καὶ τὰ σὰ πάντα. καὶ οὕτως ἀπολαβὼν τὴν γυναῖκα ἀμίαντον καὶ προσευξάμενος ἰαθῆναι ἐποίησε τῆς παρέσεως Ἀβιμέλεχ καὶ τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ. ἔκτοτε τιμῶν αὐτὸν ὁ βασιλεὺς καὶ προσέχων τοῖς ὑπ' αὐτοῦ λεγομένοις, διδάσκαλος εὐσεβείας καὶ πολυπειρίας Αἰγυπτίοις ἐγένετο. ὁ αὐτὸς Ἄβραμ ὑποστρέφων ἐκ τοῦ πολέμου τῆς εὐλογίας τοῦ Μελχισεδὲκ κατηξίωται, τοῦ βασιλέως Σαλὴμ, ὃς ἐξήνεγκεν αὐτῷ ἄρτους καὶ οἶνον. ἦν δὲ καὶ ἱερεὺς τοῦ Ὑψίστου. καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ Ἄβραμ δεκάτην ἀπὸ πάντων. ἦν δὲ ὁ Μελχισεδὲκ ἀπάτωρ, ἀμήτωρ, ἀγενεαλόγητος, ἀφωμοιωμένος τῷ υἱῷ τοῦ θεοῦ. τῷ δὲ Ἄβραμ ἀτεκνίαν ὀλοφυρομένῳ καθ' ὕπνους ἐπιδείξας ὁ θεὸς τοὺς ἀστέρας κατὰ τὸ πλῆθος αὐτῶν ἔσεσθαί οἱ τὸ σπέρμα προεδήλου. ὁ δὲ ἐπίστευσε τῷ θεῷ, καὶ ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ εἰς δικαιοσύνην. ἡ δὲ Σάρρα στεῖρα οὖσα συνεχώρησεν Ἄβραμ ἀπὸ τῆς παιδίσκης παιδοποιήσασθαι: καὶ ἴσχει τὸν Ἰσμαήλ. ἐνενήκοντα δὲ καὶ ἐννέα ἐτῶν ὄντι τῷ Ἄβραμ ἐπιφανεὶς ὁ θεὸς Ἀβραὰμ μετωνόμασεν: Ἄβραμ γὰρ πρώην ὠνομάζετο: ὁμοίως καὶ τὴν Σάραν Σάρραν, προσθεὶς καὶ ἕτερον ρ. καὶ περιέτεμε τὸν Ἰσμαὴλ καὶ πάντας τοὺς ἐξ αὐτοῦ. Κύριος δὲ τῷ Ἀβραὰμ ἐπιξενωθεὶς ἐπηγγείλατο τέξεσθαι Σάρραν αὐτῷ παῖδα. ἡ δὲ ἐμειδίασε, καὶ Ἰσαὰκ τὸ γεννηθὲν προσηγορεύθη, φερωνύμως τῷ μεθ' ἡδονῆς γέλωτι κατὰ τὴν Ἑβραί̈δα διάλεκτον. καὶ Ἀβραμιαῖος: ὁ ἀπόγονος Ἀβραὰμ, ἢ γιγαντιαῖος, ἱεροπρεπής.
This long entry is derived in part directly from George the Monk, in part indirectly from Philo of Alexandria; see further in the notes below.
[1] cf. Matthew 27:25 (web address 1).
[2] The Suda's attention to Chaldean astrology derives from Philo, On Abraham, (Colson, Philo Vol VI: XV.69-70).
[3] Use of τύπος here is twofold: 1) To assert that God's appearance to Abraham was indirect (echoing Philo, On Abraham, XVII.79-80); 2) To impart, as if a corollary of τύπος in Romans 5:14, that God's manifestation to Abraham was a type or prefiguration of Christ.
[4] Abraham is 100 years old at Isaac's birth (Genesis 21:5); however, the Suda follows Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.191-93 (web address 2 below) in assuming Abraham's age as 99 at the time of God's promise.
[5] The Suda here omits Ishmael, born to Abraham by the Egyptian slave Hagar when he was 86 years old (Genesis 16:1-16). The Suda's omission tacitly acknowledges a covenantal and legal distinction clearly drawn in Genesis. In Isaac, God establishes an "everlasting covenant" for his progeny, whereas God blesses Ishmael and makes him "fruitful and exceedingly numerous" (Genesis 17:19-20). Isaac's filial status is made explicit by God in identifying him as Abraham's "only son" (Genesis 22:12) through whom "offspring shall be named" for Abraham, whereas Ishmael, although destined to father a nation, is identified by God as "the son of the slave woman" (Genesis 21:12-13). Ishmael is, however, mentioned later in the entry.
[6] Christological imagery links Isaac to the personage of Jesus (Matthew 1:1-2 at web address 3 below). See also delta 94, notes 1 and 14.
[7] The Suda underscores the magnitude of the honor with a hyperbolic κατ' before ἐξαίρετον .
[8] The statement, rooted in a paternalistic-filial model that originates in Abraham and culminates in the figure of Christ, approximates the transcendental premise: Abraham is to Joseph as Isaac is to Christ.
[9] The Suda confuses Mosaic and Abrahamic lore. The 2nd century BCE Jewish writer Eupolemus claimed for Moses the invention and propagation of writing: "Moses was the first wise man, the first who imparted the alphabet to the Jews; the Phoenicians received it from the Jews, and the Greeks from the Phoenicians." The 2nd century BCE Egyptian Jewish writer Artapanus attributed hieroglyphics to Moses. According to the 2nd century BCE Samaritan writer Ps.-Eupolemus and Artapanus, astrology and astronomy originated with Abraham, who taught these disciplines and other tools of culture to the Jews, Phoenicians, and Egyptians. They, in turn, transmitted these arts to the Greeks. Philo in On Abraham stresses Abraham's expertise as a teacher. (Encyc. Judaica, Vol 6.964-65; Gruen, 146-51, 157, 294; Grant, 77; Philo, XI.52) At sigma 295, Seth is credited with the invention of the alphabet; Greek legend named Cadmus or Linus as the one who introduced the alphabet to Greece (gamma 416, kappa 21, kappa 22, lambda 568). See also phi 787.
[10] The reference recalls א aleph as the initial letter of ʾelohīm, the most frequent generic name for God in the OT, used about 2,500 times--but a distant second to the unspoken covenant name YHWH (Yahweh), which occurs some 6,800 times (Perdue, 685-86). Cf. alpha 1445.
[11] A reference to Philo's Βίος πολιτικοῦ ὅπερ ἐστι περὶ Ἰωσήφ (Colson, Philo Vol VI, 140ff.)
[12] Adapted from Jerome's On Illustrious Men (11): ἢ Πλάτων φιλωνίζει ἢ Φίλων πλατωνίζει ("Either Plato philonizes or Philo platonizes.") Cf. phi 448 and Photius, Bibliotheca 86b 25.
[13] Abraham's grandfather (Genesis 11:22). Seruch in the LXX, שרוג śerūḡ in Hebrew. See also sigma 253.
[14] Abraham's father (Genesis 11:24). Tharra (Θάρρα , Θαρρά ) or Tharrha (Θάῤῥα ) (Hatch, Concordance, Appendix 1, 71; Brenton, 13); in Hebrew תרח Teraḥ. From the Chronicon of George the Monk, 92.11-12; cf. Malalas 55.5-6.
[15] The Midrash sets Abraham's rejection of idolatry at age 13 (Encyc. Judaica, 4.244). From here to "teacher to the Egyptians," the Suda's source is the Chronicon of George the Monk, 93.16 - 95.17.
[16] On God as "He who is," see omicron 438, omega 105.
[17] cf. Philo, On Abraham XIV.62.
[18] The call in Genesis 12:1-5 brings Abraham from Haran (חרן) to Canaan (כנען). The Suda adheres to Philo, On Abraham, XIV. 67: μετανίσταται...ἀπὸ τῆς Χαλδαίων γῆς...ἐις τὴν Χαρραίων γῆν .
[19] Philo shows ἀδελφιδοῦς , as at On Abraham, XXXVII.212, rather than the Suda's potentially ambiguous ἀνεψιός for nephew (see LSJ s.v. at web address 4).
[20] On Abimelech, see alpha 45.
[21] The affliction cured in Genesis 20:17-18 is unspecified for Abimelech, but clearly is sterility for the female members of his house. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.208 (web address 5) relates that a "dangerous distemper" (Whiston trans.) afflicted Abimelech. For other traditions, see EncycJudaica, 2.76.
[22] Genesis 14:14-18; the Suda's source is the Chronicon of George the Monk, 100.17-26; 101.5-7.
[23] See Hebrews 7:3 (web address 6). In the Suda, see mu 544, mu 545, mu 546.
[24] The Greek mainly uses Abraam (אברהם ʾAḇraham) to this point, but here Abram (אברם), his pre-covenant name (Genesis 17:5).
[25] Genesis 15:5-6. The statement "and he believed God and God reckoned it to him as righteousness" appears also in Romans 4:3 (web address 7), Galatians 3:6 (web address 8), and James 2:23 (web address 9). A more idiomatic and semantically precise translation of the Hebrew (והאמין בה' ויחשבה לו צדקה weheʾemīn bah' wayyaḥšeḇeha lō ṣedaqah) reads: "And because he put his trust in the Lord, He reckoned it to his merit" (Plaut, 146). This version takes into interpretive account the imperfective waw consecutive (consequential) (Kautzsch, 111.l).
[26] Ismael (Ishmael) appears in the Suda at iota 644, but with a gloss that belongs to Isaak.
[27] Genesis 17:15. Also as Σάῤῥα or Sarrha (Brenton, 18). The Hebrew covenant name change is Sarai to Sarah (both meaning Princess).
[28] Isaac (יצחק yiṣḥaq) from the Hebrew meaning "he (Abraham) laughed" in Genesis 17:17, and puns Sarah's תצחק tiṣḥaq ("she laughed") in Genesis 18:12. (Kohlenberger, Vol 1, 37, 39; Anderson, 182) In the Suda, see iota 606 (mostly taken from this entry).
[29] This adjectival derivative of Abraham's name appears in 4 Maccabees 9:21 LXX. The gloss replicates, apart from word order, one in Photius; cf. Synagoge alpha17, Hesychius alpha181.
Anderson, A.W. Understanding the Old Testament. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1966
Attridge, H.W. "The Letter to the Hebrews" in The HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Brenton, L.C.L. The Septuagint with Apocrypha. Peabody: Henrickson, 1999 (reprint of 1851 edn.)
Colson F.H., Philo (Vol VI), Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1994
Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1973
Grant, M. From Alexander to Cleopatra: The Hellenistic World. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1982
Gruen, E.S. Heritage and Hellenism: The Reinvention of Jewish Tradition. Berkeley: University of California, 1998
Hatch, E., Redpath, H.A., and Muraoka, T. A Concordance to the Septuagint. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1998
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910
Keck, L.E. "The Letter of Paul to the Romans" in The HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987
Perdue, L.G. "Names of God in the Old Testament" in Harper's Bible Dictionary. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985
Plaut, W.G. The Torah: Genesis, A Modern Commentary. New York: Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1972
Smyth, H.W. Greek Grammar. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1984
Whiston, W. The Works of Josephus. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1987 (reprint of 1736 edn.)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4,
Web address 5,
Web address 6,
Web address 7,
Web address 8,
Web address 9
Keywords: aetiology; biography; children; Christianity; chronology; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; dreams; food; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; history; law; medicine; religion; science and technology; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:54:17.
Vetted by:
Craig Miller (Under editorial review as of this date) on 6 January 2002@08:24:02.
Craig Miller (Modified translation) on 24 January 2002@19:18:31.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@00:26:38.
Craig Miller (Notes added. Additional work pending.) on 25 January 2002@00:29:41.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@01:17:54.
Craig Miller (Added bibliography, keywords; changed status) on 25 January 2002@22:21:22.
Craig Miller (Cosmetics) on 25 January 2002@22:51:36.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@22:54:34.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@23:13:26.
Craig Miller on 4 June 2002@20:45:55.
Craig Miller on 19 June 2002@19:13:42.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew words; minor cosmetics.) on 31 October 2002@10:38:39.
Raphael Finkel (More Hebrew, cosmetics.) on 18 December 2002@10:58:21.
Craig Miller (Additional cosmetics) on 17 May 2003@19:07:49.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@08:20:23.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 November 2005@07:49:08.
Jennifer Benedict (added 15 links) on 25 March 2008@11:50:57.
Catharine Roth (references, cosmetics) on 10 April 2008@16:09:00.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 10 April 2008@20:15:09.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, pruned notes, added cross-references) on 11 April 2008@12:30:02.
Catharine Roth (adjusted note numbers; more tweaks) on 11 April 2008@14:18:11.
William Hutton (augmented n. 29) on 17 July 2009@17:14:18.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 December 2011@07:16:50.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links, other tweaks) on 22 December 2011@19:00:49.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note and links) on 11 November 2013@01:26:27.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:27:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 11 August 2014@00:14:27.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:33:55.
Catharine Roth (betacode typo) on 2 October 2018@02:07:40.

Headword: Ἄβρικτον
Adler number: alpha,78
Translated headword: deaf
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] that which is hard of hearing.[1]
Or hearing [only] in part.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἄβρικτον: τὸ δύσκωφον. ἤτοι τὸ ἐκ μέρους ἀκοῦον.
[1] Neuter nominative/accusative singular of this adjective; same glossing in Hesychius and, according to Adler, the Ambrosian Lexicon; evidently quoted from somewhere.
LSJ defines the word as 'wakeful', from βρίζειν "be sleepy"; see web address 1 below. The two versions of the gloss reappear at delta 1651.
[2] In some mss. only.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; medicine
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:32:56.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, added note, set status) on 31 January 2001@13:18:20.
William Hutton on 31 January 2001@13:20:34.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@06:24:59.
Catharine Roth (augmented note, with cross-reference) on 4 February 2005@14:56:41.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 25 March 2008@11:54:45.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 26 March 2008@03:52:22.
David Whitehead (augmented notes) on 19 December 2011@09:44:14.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@10:42:25.

Headword: Ἀβρογάστης
Adler number: alpha,81
Translated headword: Abrogastes, Arbogast
Vetting Status: high
A Frank, who was fierce as flame from[1] strength of body and ruggedness of spirit; by happenstance second in rank to Baudo.[2] He was especially solid and complete in regard to self-control and made war on money, giving no quarter--for[3] he was no different from the common soldiers in terms of wealth at least. For this reason he seemed useful to the emperor Theodosius,[4] since he added to the manly and just manner of Valentinian[5] his own gravity, as a just and unswerving standard for the palace, not to do harm or wrong in any matters of the court.
Greek Original:
Ἀβρογάστης: Φράγγος, ὃς κατὰ ἀλκὴν σώματος καὶ θυμοῦ τραχύτητα φλογοειδὴς ἦν, δευτεραγωνιστὴς τυγχάνων Βαύδωνος. ἄλλως τε ἦν καὶ πρὸς σωφροσύνην πεπηγώς τε καὶ διηρθρωμένος καὶ πρὸς χρήματα πόλεμον πολεμῶν ἄσπονδον. διέφερε γοῦν τῶν εὐτελῶν στρατιωτῶν ὅσον γε εἰς πλοῦτον οὐδέν. καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ἐδόκει τῷ βασιλεῖ Θεοδοσίῳ χρήσιμος, ὅς γε πρὸς τὸν Οὐαλεντινιανοῦ τρόπον ἀρρενωπὸν ὄντα καὶ δίκαιον, καὶ τὸ παρ' ἑαυτοῦ βάρος ἐπετίθει, καθάπερ ὀρθὸν καὶ ἀστραβῆ τὸν κάνονα τοῖς βασιλείοις, πρὸς τὸ μηδὲν τῶν περὶ τὴν αὐλὴν παραβλάπτεσθαι ἢ ἁμαρτάνεσθαι.
This entry -- which has been tentatively identified as a fragment (no.53 FHG; Blockley, Eunapius fr. 58.[1]) of the sophist and historian Eunapius of Sardis -- concerns the Frankish general Flavius Arbogastes (died 394). (The present headword 'Abrogastes' is a rare variant of, or error for, the name.)
[1] Causal κατά (LSJ s.v. IV).
[2] His predecessor (and, allegedly, father) Flavius Bauto.
[3] "Part proof" γοῦν (Denniston, p. 451).
[4] theta 144.
[5] omicron 762.
Banchich, T.M. "Eunapius, Eustathius, and the Suda." AJP 109 (1988) 223-225
Blockley, R.C. The Fragmentary Classicising Historians of the Later Roman Empire: Eunapius, Olympiodorus, Priscus and Malchus. Vol. II. Liverpool: Francis Cairns, 1983.
Denniston, J.D. The Greek Particles. Second Edition. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1954.
Keywords: biography; economics; ethics; geography; historiography; history; medicine; military affairs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:34:42.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, modified translation, added keywords, set status) on 31 January 2001@16:29:34.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 1 February 2001@04:13:55.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 28 November 2005@08:20:03.
David Whitehead (tweaks to tr; augmented notes and keywords) on 20 December 2011@03:53:50.
Aaron Baker (Modified translation; added grammatical notes; added Blockly cite; added bibliography.) on 3 June 2015@22:23:43.
Aaron Baker (Added period after "Bauto.") on 3 June 2015@22:25:43.
Catharine Roth (coded Greek) on 3 June 2015@23:24:46.
Catharine Roth (added bibliography) on 27 January 2016@22:44:10.

Headword: Ἀβρόμιος
Adler number: alpha,84
Translated headword: Bromios-less, Bromius-less
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] without wine.
"If I escape through the wave of destructive fire, I tell you I will drink for one hundred suns from dewy streams, Bromios-less[1] and wine-less." In the Epigrams.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀβρόμιος: χωρὶς οἴνου. ἢν ὀλοοῦ διὰ κῦμα φύγω πυρὸς, εἰς ἑκατόν σοι ἠελίους δροσερᾶν πίομαι ἐκ λιβάδων, ἀβρόμιος καὶ ἄοινος. ἐν Ἐπιγράμμασιν.
The headword is presumably extracted from the epigram quoted, its only attestation outside lexicography.
[1] Bromios is a name frequently given to Dionysos (delta 1185): see beta 547.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.291.3-5 (author unknown), the vow of a wine-loving woman, should her fever break; cf. Gow and Page (vol. I, 74-77), mu 1022, and sigma 955. This epigram appears twice in the Anthologia Palatina (AP). In the first instance, it is attributed to Antipater of Thessalonica. But in the second instance (inserted after 9.164), and following redaction by the AP scribe designated C (the Corrector), it is noted to be ἀδέσποτον , anonymous (ibid. and vol. II, 100-101)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: The Garland of Philip and Some Contemporary Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge, 1968)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: The Garland of Philip and Some Contemporary Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge, 1968)
Keywords: definition; ethics; food; imagery; medicine; poetry; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:37:23.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified headword and translation, added note and keywords, set status) on 1 February 2001@09:40:10.
David Whitehead (modified headword; tweaked translation; x-refs; cosmetics) on 3 January 2005@10:37:13.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 20 December 2011@04:12:25.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 21 December 2011@01:49:18.
David Whitehead (expanded primary note; cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@11:06:04.
Ronald Allen (expanded n.2, added bibliography, added cross-references, added keywords) on 23 October 2018@18:32:39.
Ronald Allen (typo n.2 second cross-reference) on 23 October 2018@18:40:26.
Ronald Allen (corrected epigram attribution in n.2, added bibliography entry) on 29 October 2018@13:29:47.

Headword: Ἀγαθόν
Adler number: alpha,119
Translated headword: good
Vetting Status: high
The word has multiple meanings. Predicated of the good are the 10 genera, that is to say the 10 categories.[1] To produce, since some goods are understood as productive. For what is productive of the good is said to be good, such as what is productive of health, or pleasure and, in general, what is beneficial. Certainly, the good in food, insofar as it is productive of a good, is a good. And the productive is in the category of quality; indeed quality sometimes exists in the soul, for when we predicate of the soul the good and say that it is good, we are signifing that the soul has a certain quality. For instance, that it is temperate, brave, just. And the qualifications are the presence of quality. So also in the case of a human being. For when we predicate of man the good, we are signifying the fact that he has a certain quality; for example, that he is temperate, brave, just, prudent. Sometimes the good signifies "when"; for that which happens at the appropriate time is said to be good. And the good also signifies quantity, for that which is moderate, neither exceeding nor falling short, will be a quantity, insofar as it is said to be something of such a magnitude. And qua substance, what [is] the good? [Something] like a god, intellect. And the good also is said to be something relative, for "that which is in measure" is good in this way. And there is good in "being affected", such as receiving a medical treatment or being taught; and there is also some good in the domain of the "where", such as "to be in Greece", "to be in wholesame regions", "to be in calm or in peace". And there would be also a good in "being in a certain position"; for instance, when it is useful for someone to be seated, he sits, and when it is useful for someone to be lying down, he lies down: for the person who has a fever, for the sake of argument.
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθόν: ὁμώνυμός ἐστι φωνή. κατηγορεῖται δὲ τὰ ι# γένη τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ, τουτέστιν αἱ ι# κατηγορίαι. καὶ τὸ μὲν ποιεῖν, ἐπεί ἐστί τινα ἀγαθὰ ὡς ποιητικά, λέγεται γὰρ τὸ ἀγαθοῦ ποιητικὸν ἀγαθόν, οἷον τὸ ὑγιείας ποιητικὸν ἢ ἡδονῆς καὶ ὅλως ὠφέλιμον, τὸ γὰρ ἐν τῷ ἐδέσματι ἀγαθὸν ὡς ποιητικὸν ἀγαθοῦ ἀγαθόν: τὸ δὲ ποιητικὸν ὑπὸ τὴν τοῦ ποιοῦ κατηγορίαν. ποτὲ δὲ τὸ ποιὸν ἐπὶ ψυχῆς: ὅταν γὰρ κατηγορήσωμεν τὸ ἀγαθὸν ψυχῆς λέγοντες αὐτὴν ἀγαθὴν, τὸ ποιὰν αὐτὴν εἶναι σημαίνομεν, οἷον σώφρονα ἢ ἀνδρείαν ἢ δικαίαν: ποιότητος δὲ παρουσία τὰ ποιά. ὁμοίως καὶ ἀνθρώπου: ὅταν γὰρ τὸ ἀγαθὸν κατηγορήσωμεν, τὸ ποιὸν αὐτὸν εἶναι σημαίνομεν: οἷον σώφρονα, ἀνδρεῖον, δίκαιον, φρόνιμον. ἐνίοτε δὲ τὸ ἀγαθὸν τὸ ποτὲ σημαίνει: τὸ γὰρ ἐν τῷ προσήκοντι καιρῷ γενόμενον ἀγαθὸν λέγεται. σημαίνει δὲ ἀγαθὸν καὶ τὸ ποσόν: τὸ γὰρ μέτριον καὶ μὴ ὑπερβάλλον μήτε ἐνδέον εἴη ἂν ποσὸν, καθόσον τοσοῦτόν τι λέγεται. καὶ ὡς οὐσία τὶ ἀγαθόν: ὡς θεὸς, νοῦς. λέγεται δὲ καὶ ὡς πρός τι: τὸ γὰρ σύμμετρον οὕτως ἀγαθόν. καὶ ἐν τῷ πάσχειν, ὡς τὸ θεραπεύεσθαι καὶ διδάσκεσθαι. ἔστι τι τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ καὶ ἐν τῷ ποῦ, οἷον τὸ ἐν Ἑλλάδι εἶναι, τὸ ἐν ὑγιεινοῖς χωρίοις εἶναι, τὸ ἐν ἡσυχίαν ἔχουσιν ἢ εἰρήνην. εἴη δ' ἂν καὶ ἐν τῷ κεῖσθαι, ὅταν ᾧ μὲν λυσιτελὲς τὸ καθέζεσθαι, καθέζηται, ᾧ δὲ τὸ ἀνακεῖσθαι, ἀνάκειται: τῷ πυρέττοντι φέρε εἰπεῖν.
See already alpha 118, also a neuter singular.
After the two short opening sentences, the entry draws on Alexander of Aphrodisias, Commentary on Aristotle's Topics 105.25-106.14 Wallies (on Topica 107a3ff).
[1] See Aristotle, Categories 1b25-2a10.
Keywords: definition; ethics; medicine; philosophy
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 24 May 2000@16:46:08.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, added keyword, set status) on 8 June 2001@11:39:09.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, reference) on 25 April 2002@13:43:53.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 16 January 2003@05:54:20.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 12 October 2005@08:00:58.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 22 December 2011@06:49:37.
David Whitehead on 22 December 2011@06:50:01.

Headword: Ἀγανώπιδος
Adler number: alpha,148
Translated headword: mild-eyed
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] having a gentle countenance.
Greek Original:
Ἀγανώπιδος: πραέα βλεπούσης.
The headword, eviedently quoted from somewhere, is genitive singular of the adjective ἀγανῶπις . Same or similar glossing in other lexica; references at Photius alpha107 Theodoridis. (An instance of the accusative occurs in the C2 AD medical poet Marcellus Sidetes, cited by LSJ. See web address 1 for the LSJ entry.)
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; medicine; poetry
Translated by: William Hutton on 1 April 2000@08:53:26.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note; added keywords) on 9 February 2001@11:21:26.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 15 September 2004@08:53:25.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 26 March 2008@01:10:33.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@08:11:50.

Headword: Ἀγάπιος
Adler number: alpha,158
Translated headword: Agapios, Agapius
Vetting Status: high
This man was an Alexandrian by birth; raised from childhood amidst cultured discourse, he became a commentator on medical teachings and went to Byzantium where he established a very distinguished school. Relying on the magnitude of his talent and the favor of fortune, he became celebrated for his skill and amassed large amounts of money.
Greek Original:
Ἀγάπιος: οὗτος ἦν Ἀλεξανδρεὺς μὲν τὸ γένος: ἐκ παίδων δὲ λόγοις ἐντραφεὶς ἐλευθερίοις καὶ ἰατρικῶν μαθημάτων ἐξηγητὴς γεγονὼς ἀνελθὼν ἐς τὸ Βυζάντιον διατριβήν τε συνεπήξατο μάλα διαπρεπῆ, φύσεώς τε μεγέθει καὶ δεξιότητι τύχης χρησάμενος, ἔνδοξός τε ἐπὶ τῇ τέχνῃ γέγονε καὶ χρήματα μεγάλα συνείλοχεν.
Damascius, Life of Isidore fr. 330 Zintzen (298 Asmus, 107 Athanassiadi).
Keywords: biography; children; economics; ethics; geography; medicine; philosophy
Translated by: William Hutton on 9 April 2000@23:07:39.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@09:01:29.
David Whitehead (typo) on 22 October 2003@02:57:05.
Catharine Roth (augmented note, added keyword) on 22 November 2005@11:33:21.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@06:58:53.

Headword: Ἀγάστορες
Adler number: alpha,172
Translated headword: womb-mates
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] brothers, natural brothers, twins.[1]
Those from the same womb.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγάστορες: ἀδελφοὶ, ὅμαιμοι, δίδυμοι. οἱ ὁμογάστορες.
[1] Similarly in Hesychius alpha357. The headword is the nominative plural of ἀγάστωρ . This noun (LSJ entry at web address 1) is largely confined to lexica and grammars but does occur in Lycophron, Alexandra 264 (genitive plural).
[2] cf. Etymologicum Magnum 6.20.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; medicine; poetry
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 4 June 1999@14:49:51.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified headword, added links, set status) on 31 October 2001@10:14:28.
William Hutton (Merely noting that the reference to 'links' in my previous vetting comments is erroneous: this entry currently has no external links.) on 31 October 2001@17:22:16.
Catharine Roth (inserted link) on 1 November 2001@17:11:02.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 3 February 2003@07:46:23.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; another keyword; tweaks) on 23 December 2011@08:59:09.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@05:59:01.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 April 2015@21:59:05.

Headword: Ἄγευστος θοίνης
Adler number: alpha,207
Translated headword: without a taste of the feast
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning someone] living a (?)refined life.[1] Also [sc. attested is the plural] ἄγευστοι , [meaning those] lacking experience.[2]
[Something] "lacking taste"[3] has four meanings: either that which is lacking flavor as yet, but capable of being given flavor, like water -- for being inert it is capable of having flavor imparted to it; or that which is subject to the other senses, like sound; or that which has a small amount of taste, like the watery kinds of porridge; or that which has a bad taste, like poisons. And [it is] clear that the sense of taste partakes of some of these things and some not. And in the case of the other senses also these four significations are recognized. They say that [the distinction between] that which is drinkable and undrinkable [are] the beginnings of tasting. For the first distinction taste makes is between these things. For it is especially in moist conditions that even the flavor arising from a mixture of dry elements is recognizable; and just as a drink becomes drinkable through the admixture of good flavor, thus also it becomes undrinkable through the admixture of undrinkable flavor. But both, that is, both the drinkable and the undrinkable, [are] tastable. And the undrinkable [is] tastable not as a fulfillment of the sense of taste but as something destructive to it because of the awfulness of the flavor. But the drinkable [is tastable] as something that preserves and fulfills that which is tastable by nature. Therefore the drinkable and the undrinkable are the beginnings of what is tastable. And since that which is drinkable [is] moist, and moistness is perceivable by the sense of touch, thus moistness is touchable and that which has such a flavor is tastable. This is something common to the senses of touch and taste: in the case of touch it is one of the specific things that it senses; in the case of taste it is the stuff and the vehicle of the tastes.
Greek Original:
Ἄγευστος θοίνης: ἀστείως βίου ἔχων. καὶ Ἄγευστοι, ἄπειροι. Ἄγευστον, τετραχῶς: ἢ γὰρ τὸ ἀχύμωτον μὲν τέως, δυνάμενον δὲ χυμωθῆναι, ὡς τὸ ὕδωρ: ἄποιον γὰρ ὂν δύναται χυμωθῆναι: ἢ τὸ ταῖς ἄλλαις αἰσθήσεσιν ὑποκείμενον, ὡς ὁ ψόφος, ἢ τὸ μικρὰν ἔχον γεῦσιν, ὡς τὰ ὑδαρὰ τῶν ῥοφημάτων, ἢ τὸ κακὴν ἔχον γεῦσιν, ὡς τὰ δηλητήρια. καὶ δῆλον τίνων τούτων ἀντιλαμβάνεται ἡ γεῦσις, καὶ τίνος μή. καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ἄλλων δὲ αἰσθήσεων τὰ τέσσαρα ταῦτα γινώσκεται σημαινόμενα. ἀρχὰς δὲ τῶν γευστῶν τὸ ποτόν φασι καὶ τὸ ἄποτον. εἰς ταῦτα γὰρ πρώτως διαιρεῖται τὸ γευστόν. καὶ γὰρ ἐν τῷ ὑγρῷ μάλιστα καὶ ὁ χυμὸς ἐκ τῆς ἐπιμιξίας τῶν ξηρῶν προσγενόμενος: καὶ ὥσπερ τὸ ποτὸν πότιμον γίνεται διὰ τὴν ἐπιμιξίαν τοῦ χρηστοῦ χυμοῦ, οὕτω καὶ τὸ ἄποτον διὰ τὴν ἐπιμιξίαν τοῦ ἀπότου χυμοῦ. ἀμφότερα δὲ, τό τε ἄποτον καὶ τὸ ποτὸν, γευστά. γευστὸν δὲ τὸ ἄποτον, οὐχ ὡς τελειωτικὸν, ἀλλ' ὡς φθαρτικὸν τῆς γεύσεως διὰ μοχθηρίαν χυμοῦ. τὸ δὲ ποτὸν ὡς σωστικόν τε καὶ τελειωτικὸν τοῦ κατὰ φύσιν γευστικοῦ. ἄρχει οὖν τῶν γευστῶν κατὰ τοῦτον τὸν λόγον τὸ ποτὸν καὶ τὸ ἄποτον. ἐπεὶ δὲ τὸ ποτὸν ὑγρὸν, τὸ δὲ ὑγρὸν τῇ ἁφῇ ἀντιληπτὸν, ὡς μὲν ὑγρὸν ἁπτὸν, ὡς δὲ τοιόνδε χυμὸν ἔχον γευστόν. τοῦτο οὖν κοινὸν ἁφῆς καὶ γεύσεως, τῆς μὲν ἁφῆς ὡς ἴδιον αὐτῆς αἰσθητὸν, τῆς δὲ γεύσεως ὡς ὕλη καὶ ὄχημα τῶν γευστῶν.
The headword phrase, illustrative of an idiom noted in LSJ s.v. ἄγευστος , I -- is presumably quoted from somewhere. It features also in, besides other lexica, two adjacent entries in Photius (alpha156 and alpha157 Theodoridis), and can be traced back to -- but not beyond -- two lemmata in the epitome of Phrynichus, Praeparatio sophistica (18.8 and 18.25 de Borries).
[1] This gloss does not seem very apt for the headword phrase. Adler reports no manuscript variations for the Suda iself, but, in the equivalent entry in Photius, Theodoridis obelizes ἀστείως and notes Croenert's suggested emendation ἀγεύστως .
[2] Same glossing in Photius (alpha158 Theodoridis) and other lexica; evidently quoted from somewhere.
[3] What now follows draws on John Philoponus' commentary on Aristotle's de anima 404.10-29 Hayduck. There are summary cross-references to this material at alpha 3603 and pi 2141.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; food; medicine; philosophy; science and technology
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 October 2000@13:17:10.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes; cosmetics) on 26 April 2002@03:47:27.
David Whitehead (modified translation; cosmetics) on 29 May 2002@10:07:42.
David Whitehead (modified translation) on 30 May 2002@04:01:22.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 1 January 2012@06:51:10.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@06:44:23.

Headword: Ἀγγείδιον
Adler number: alpha,208
Translated headword: potlet
Vetting Status: high
A little pot.
Greek Original:
Ἀγγείδιον: τὸ μικρὸν ἀγγεῖον.
Adler cites a comparable ('cf.') entry in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
Not a common diminutive, but see e.g. Theophrastus, Enquiry into Plants 9.6.4.
LSJ also notes an instance of this word meaning gall-bladder.
Keywords: daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; medicine
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 October 2000@13:18:21.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead on 26 April 2002@05:08:25.
David Whitehead (added notes and more keywords) on 27 March 2006@04:48:54.
David Whitehead (another note) on 1 January 2012@06:53:15.
Catharine Roth (tweak) on 25 November 2014@23:08:47.

Headword: Ἀγείρει
Adler number: alpha,211
Translated headword: collects
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning he/she/it] gathers.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the participle] "those who collect".[2] "For their manner was sacred and nothing like those who collect [alms?]."[3]
And elsewhere: "wishing to go undetected, he shaves his head and his beard and puts on an Egyptian mantle, the sort that the attendants of Isis wear, and shaking a sistrum and going from one city to the next, and collecting [alms] in the name of the goddess and gratefully accepting necessary sustenance, as a drug against hunger".[4]
Greek Original:
Ἀγείρει: συνάγει. καὶ Ἀγείρουσιν. ὁ γὰρ τρόπος ἱερὸς ἦν καὶ οὐδὲν ἐοικὼς τοῖς ἀγείρουσιν. καὶ αὖθις: ὁ δὲ λαθεῖν θέλων ξυρεῖται τὴν κεφαλὴν καὶ τὸ γένειον, καὶ στολὴν Αἰγυπτίαν ἀναλαβὼν, ἣν οἱ τῆς Ἴσιδος θεραπευτῆρες ἤσθηνται, καὶ σεῖστρον ἐπισείων καὶ πόλιν ἐκ πόλεως ἀμείβων, καὶ τῇ θεῷ ἀγείρων καὶ ἀναγκαίας τροφὰς, λιμοῦ φάρμακα, ἀγαπητῶς λαμβάνων.
[1] Same or similar entry in other lexica; references at Photius alpha140 Theodoridis. The headword must be quoted from somewhere.
[2] Dative plural ἀγείρουσιν , from the quotation which follows.
[3] Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 4.39.
[4] Aelian fr.124c Domingo-Forasté (121 Hercher); see also pi 2900, sigma 293.
Keywords: biography; clothing; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; food; geography; history; medicine; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 October 2000@13:45:00.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes; cosmetics) on 23 October 2000@06:33:06.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 6 July 2003@08:27:20.
David Whitehead (x-refs) on 2 May 2004@06:06:23.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 7 February 2011@09:53:06.
David Whitehead on 2 January 2012@09:46:30.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 4) on 28 January 2012@19:31:10.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@06:49:31.

Headword: Ἄγημα
Adler number: alpha,219
Translated headword: division, guard, force, troop
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] the king's advancing force of elephants and horses and infantry. But some [sc. say that this term means] the best part of the Macedonian battle array;[1] strong in weaponry and in the conditioning of their bodies.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἄγημα: τὸ προϊὸν τοῦ βασιλέως τάγμα ἐλεφάντων καὶ ἵππων καὶ πεζῶν. οἱ δὲ τὸ ἄριστον τῆς Μακεδονικῆς συντάξεως: κραταιὸν ὁπλίσει καὶ σωμάτων εὐεξίᾳ.
See also alpha 220.
[1] Same or similar material in other lexica; references at Photius alpha165 Theodoridis.
[2] This last clause (not in the other lexica) is perhaps a quotation; if so, it is unidentifiable.
Keywords: definition; history; medicine; military affairs; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 October 2000@23:07:28.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes; cosmetics) on 26 April 2002@05:51:00.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 3 January 2012@09:14:08.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@07:11:41.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 April 2015@03:11:13.

Headword: Ἀγκαλίδα
Adler number: alpha,243
Translated headword: arm
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning a] part.
Greek Original:
Ἀγκαλίδα: μερίδα.
Same or similar entry in other lexica; references at Photius alpha180 Theodoridis. The headword (LSJ entry at web address 1) is in the accusative case, so evidently quoted from somewhere -- perhaps Job 24:19 LXX.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; religion
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg on 24 November 1998@14:19:08.
Vetted by:
Eric Nelson on 30 December 1999@01:13:50.
Catharine Roth (Added headword translation and link.) on 3 March 2001@14:33:52.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 28 February 2003@10:22:15.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; another keyword) on 4 January 2012@04:59:08.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@07:57:23.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:46:46.

Headword: Ἀγκάσασθαι
Adler number: alpha,244
Translated headword: to arm up
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] to lift up in the arms.
Greek Original:
Ἀγκάσασθαι: ταῖς ἀγκάλαις βαστάσαι.
The headword is an epic/poetic verb (ἀγκάζομαι : LSJ entry at web address 1), here in the aorist infinitive.
From the scholia to Callimachus, Hecale fr. 236 Pfeiffer, where the phrase λίθον ἀγκάσσασθαι (sic) occurs.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; poetry
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg on 24 November 1998@14:05:23.
Vetted by:
Eric Nelson on 30 December 1999@00:59:25.
Catharine Roth (Added headword translation, link, keywords.) on 3 March 2001@14:37:59.
David Whitehead (added note) on 28 February 2003@10:09:54.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords; tweaks) on 4 January 2012@05:04:57.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 9 April 2015@07:37:33.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 6 April 2016@18:19:32.

Headword: Ἀγκυλοχείλης καὶ Ἀγκυλόχειλος
Adler number: alpha,255
Translated headword: crooked-beaked
Vetting Status: high
Bent-beaked, an epithet of the eagle, which has curved talons.[1] But in reference to Cleon [it means] having crooked hands for theft and seizure.
Greek Original:
Ἀγκυλοχείλης καὶ Ἀγκυλόχειλος: σκολιόχειλος, ἐπίθετον τοῦ ἀετοῦ, ἐπικαμπεῖς τὰς χηλὰς ἔχων. ἐπὶ δὲ Κλέωνος, ἀγκύλας τὰς χεῖρας ἔχων πρὸς τὸ κλέπτειν καὶ ἁρπάζειν.
The headword actually presents two words (related to chi 225) that differ only in having different adjectival endings: ἀγκυλοχείλης and ἀγκυλόχειλος ; LSJ only documents the existence of the former.
[1] From the scholia to Aristophanes, Knights 197 (web address 1 below), where an adjective variously transmitted as ἀγκυλοχείλης or ἀγκυλοχήλης ('crooked clawed', from chi 276) is applied to Cleon (kappa 1731). The latter is what modern editors rightly print, but note that in late Greek the two words would have been homophones. See LSJ at ἀγκυλοχήλης (web address 2).
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; imagery; medicine; politics; zoology
Translated by: Roger Travis on 4 October 2000@11:53:19.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified headword and translation, augmented notes and added links, added keywords, set status) on 15 June 2001@09:32:39.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; restorative cosmetics) on 10 February 2003@09:16:21.
David Whitehead (tweaked notes; more keywords; cosmetics) on 1 June 2009@04:19:34.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 4 January 2012@08:56:26.

Headword: Ἀγλωττία
Adler number: alpha,271
Translated headword: tonguelessness
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] quiet, silence.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the related adjective] tongueless, [meaning] voiceless, speechless.
"Now having fallen to the earth, tongueless and voiceless, I lie, refusing emulous ambition."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγλωττία: ἡσυχία, σιωπή. καὶ Ἄγλωσσος, ὁ ἄναυδος, ὁ ἄφωνος. νῦν εἰς γᾶν ἄγλωσσος, ἀναύδητός τε πεσοῦσα, κεῖμαι, μιμητὴν ζῆλον ἀνηναμένη.
LSJ entry at web address 1.
[1] Same glossing in other lexica; references at Photius alpha202 Theodoridis.
[2] Greek Anthology 7.191.5-6 (Archias), epitaph for a jay; cf. Gow and Page (412-413); more fully at alpha 2757, cf. alpha 2742 and kappa 1422. For other applications of the adjective, including the literal (Aristotle on the crocodile), see LSJ s.v. (web address 2).
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: The Garland of Philip and Some Contemporary Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge, 1968)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; medicine; poetry; zoology
Translated by: Roger Travis on 6 October 2000@12:53:45.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, set status) on 18 June 2001@01:53:38.
David Whitehead (augmented note; cosmetics) on 18 June 2001@03:12:08.
David Whitehead on 18 June 2001@03:13:41.
Catharine Roth (added links) on 19 June 2001@21:31:08.
Catharine Roth (restored punctuation) on 12 February 2007@14:11:59.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; raised status) on 13 February 2007@03:07:33.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@04:52:54.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@08:17:33.
Ronald Allen (expanded n.2, added bibliography, added cross-references) on 5 November 2018@20:48:25.

Headword: Ἀγονία
Adler number: alpha,295
Translated headword: sterility
Vetting Status: high
Childlessness, barrenness.[1] Aelian [writes]: "the young generation was being destroyed, and there was also sterility both of the women and of the four-footed flock."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγονία: ἀτεκνία, ἀγεννησία. Αἰλιανός: διεφθείρετο ἡ νεολαία, καὶ ἦν ἀγονία καὶ μέντοι καὶ γυναικῶν καὶ τῆς ἀγέλης τῆς τετράποδος.
[1] LSJ entry at web address 1. Also see alpha 332.
[2] Aelian fr. 52f Domingo-Forasté (49 Hercher), from the story of Pythagoras, tyrant of Ephesus (pi 3122); cf. nu 195, pi 2518.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; children; definition; food; gender and sexuality; geography; history; medicine; women; zoology
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 12 February 2001@01:15:50.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added keywords, raised status) on 12 February 2001@19:50:13.
David Whitehead (augmented note; added keywords) on 23 December 2002@11:40:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@08:49:23.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 7 January 2012@22:22:26.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 2) on 29 January 2012@22:13:26.

Headword: Ἀγορανομίας
Adler number: alpha,302
Translated headword: market-supervisorship, market-supervisorships
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] auditorship/s. The term is applied to those who oversee sales in the cities.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the related concrete noun] "market-supervisors" [agoranomoi]: the officials who manage the sales in the marketplace [sc. in Athens].[2]
Aristophanes in Acharnians [writes]: "as market-supervisors of the market I appoint the three who were chosen by lot, the thongs from Leprous."[3] That is, straps, whips. For in olden days the auditors of the marketplace used to beat people with whips. And "leprous" [λεπρούς ] some explain as [sc. wordplay] from the verb lepein, that is, "to beat"; others from Lepreon a small town of the Peloponnese which Callimachus also mentions in the Hymns: "citadel of Kaukones, which is called Lepreion."[4] Others still [sc. derive it] from mangy cattle, since the hides of mangy cattle are tough. Still others because the Megarians, with whom he[5] is making a treaty, have mangy bodies. But better to say that [sc. there is] a place called Leproi outside the [Athenian] town-center where the tanners' shops were. There is also a mention of this in Birds: "why then do you settle [in] Helian Lepreon."[6]
Also [sc. attested is the the verb] "I supervise markets" [ἀγορανομῶ ]; [used] with a genitive.
Greek Original:
Ἀγορανομίας: λογιστίας. εἴρηται δὲ ἐπὶ τῶν ἐπισκοπούντων τὰ τῶν πόλεων ὤνια. καὶ Ἀγορανόμοι, οἱ τὰ κατὰ τὴν ἀγορὰν ὤνια διοικοῦντες ἄρχοντες. Ἀριστοφάνης Ἀχαρνεῦσιν: ἀγορανόμους δὲ τῆς ἀγορᾶς καθίσταμαι τρεῖς τοὺς λαχόντας, τοὺς δ' ἱμάντας ἐκ λεπρῶν. τουτέστι λώρους, φραγγέλια. τὸ γὰρ παλαιὸν φραγγέλοις ἔτυπτον οἱ λογισταὶ τῆς ἀγορᾶς. λεπρῶν δὲ οἱ μὲν ἀπὸ τοῦ λέπειν, ὅ ἐστι τύπτειν: οἱ δὲ ἀπὸ Λεπρέου πολίσματος τῆς Πελοποννήσου, ἧς μέμνηται καὶ Καλλίμαχος ἐν Ὕμνοις: Καυκώνων πτολίεθρον, ὃ Λέπρειον πεφάτισται. οἱ δὲ ἐκ λεπρῶν βοῶν, διὰ τὸ τὰ ἐκ λεπρῶν βοῶν δέρματα ἰσχυρὰ εἶναι. οἱ δὲ ὅτι οἱ Μεγαρεῖς λεπροὶ τὸ σῶμα, πρὸς οὓς σπένδεται. ἄμεινον δὲ λέγειν, ὅτι τόπος ἔξω τοῦ ἄστεος Λεπροὶ καλούμενος, ἔνθα τὰ βυρσεῖα ἦν. οὗ καὶ ἐν Ὄρνισι μέμνηται: τί δ' οὖν τὸν ἥλιον Λέπρεον οἰκίζετε. καὶ Ἀγορανομῶ: γενικῇ.
The headword -- evidently extracted from somewhere -- and primary gloss are either genitive singulars or accusative plurals.
[1] Likewise in other lexica; references at Photius alpha228 Theodoridis.
[2] From Harpokration s.v., commenting on Demosthenes 24.112 and also citing ?Aristotle, Ath.Pol. 51.1.
[3] Aristophanes, Acharnians 723-4 (web address 1), followed here by comment from the scholia there; cf. lambda 291.
[4] Callimachus, Hymn to Zeus 39.
[5] Dikaiopolis, that is, the speaker of the quotation.
[6] What seems to be a very mangled quotation from Aristophanes, Birds 150. A more correct quotation might be translated as "Why do you two not go and settle in Lepreon in Elis?" This would seem to be a reference to the Peloponnesian Lepreon and not to a Leproi outside Athens. See web address 2 below for the text of Aristophanes, and web address 3 for the location of Lepreon.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3
Keywords: clothing; comedy; constitution; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; history; law; medicine; poetry; rhetoric; trade and manufacture; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 30 October 2000@00:03:30.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics; raised status) on 30 October 2000@03:28:23.
David Whitehead (restorative cosmetics) on 22 December 2002@09:24:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@11:02:46.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@03:58:52.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 6 January 2012@01:19:18.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 18 August 2013@09:01:32.

Headword: Ἀγύρριος
Adler number: alpha,385
Translated headword: Agyrrhios, Agyrrhius
Vetting Status: high
A proper name. [The man] who was slandered for weakness, that he actually breaks wind. Aristophanes in Plutus [says this]. And he was also ridiculed for over-boldness.[1]
Also [sc. attested is] Agyrrhios, an Athenian demagogue of some renown.[2]
Agyrrhios got away with having the beard of Pronomos.[3] The general Agyrrhios was effeminate.[4] He commanded in Lemnos,[5] and [he was the man] who curtailed the poets' fee.[6] But Pronomos was a piper with a great beard.[7]
Greek Original:
Ἀγύρριος: ὄνομα κύριον. ὃς ἐπὶ μαλακίᾳ διεβέβλητο ὡς καὶ πέρδεσθαι αὐτόν. Ἀριστοφάνης Πλούτῳ. ἐκωμῳδεῖτο δὲ καὶ εἰς θρασύτητα. καὶ Ἀγύρριος, δημαγωγὸς Ἀθηναίων οὐκ ἀφανής. Ἀγύρριος τὸν Προνόμου πώγων' ἔχων λέληθεν. ὁ Ἀγύρριος στρατηγὸς θηλυδριώδης, ἄρξας ἐν Λήμνῳ, ὃς τὸν μισθὸν τῶν ποιητῶν συνέτεμεν. ὁ δὲ Πρόνομος αὐλητὴς ἦν μέγαν πώγωνα ἔχων.
[1] From the scholia to Aristophanes, Plutus [Wealth] 176; cf. pi 1039. Aristophanes in fact writes that Agyrrhios' flatulence, and much else besides, was motivated by Wealth: Ἀγύρριος δ' οὐχὶ διὰ τοῦτον [Wealth] πέρδεται ;
[2] Despite 'also' (which simply stems, here, from the incorporation of Harpokration s.v., commenting on Demosthenes 24.134), this is the same man, Agyrrhios of Kollytos (LGPN ii s.v. no.1). See generally Develin (1989) Index I no.44; Hansen (1989) p.34; P.J. Rhodes in OCD(4) s.v. (p.45).
[3] Aristophanes, Ecclesiazusae 102-3, with comment from the scholia there; cf. pi 2527.
[4] This adjective for effeminate derives from a word for 'hairdresser' and is also used for a type of kiss, and a type of melody. See kappa 912 (note 1), mu 134.
[5] For his generalship in 389/8 see Develin (1989) p.215. The demagogue Agyrrhios and the general here described are the same man; cf. already n.2.
[6] A measure not otherwise attested (amongst A's documented interest in fees: see the summary in Hansen (1989) p.34).
[7] For the Theban piper Pronomos see Geisau, RE XXIII, 748 (and pi 2527). He is depicted playing the double aulos on the so-called Pronomos krater (Web address 1).
Develin, Robert: 1989: Athenian Officials 684-321 BC. Cambridge.
Hansen, Mogens Herman. 1989: "Rhetores and Strategoi in Fourth-Century Athens." In The Athenian Ecclesia II. Copenhagen. Pp. 25-72.
Stroud, Ronald S. 1998: The Athenian Tax Law of 374/3 B.C. Hesperia Supplement 29, Princeton NJ (American School of Classical Studies at Athens) See esp pp.18ff.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; comedy; definition; economics; gender and sexuality; history; medicine; military affairs; meter and music; poetry; politics; rhetoric
Translated by: Debra Hamel on 12 August 1999@20:03:15.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword; augmented bibliography; cosmetics) on 29 September 2000@08:02:15.
Robert Dyer (Added note 4 and reference to Pronomus in Aristophanes. Cosmetics.) on 29 January 2002@15:00:15.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 27 May 2004@04:54:54.
Catharine Roth (betacode cosmetics) on 17 August 2004@22:38:04.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@11:09:41.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 27 November 2005@09:40:38.
David Whitehead (augmented n.2; another keyword; cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@04:55:36.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@03:01:13.

Headword: Ἀγύρτης
Adler number: alpha,388
Translated headword: mendicant
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning a] beggar,[1] mountebank.
One who asks for more, greedy.[2]
Or a vulgar person. And it is also a throw with dice[3] and a Gallus[4] and a seer, as Apion [says].
In the Epigrams: "a certain beggar-priest of the Mother who had severed a genital vein".[5]
And elsewhere: "a deceitful beggar, who looked only for profit".[6]
And elsewhere: "for he was in fact a seer and enamoured of omens".[7]
Greek Original:
Ἀγύρτης: πτωχὸς, ὀχλαγωγός. ἐπαίτης, φιλοκερδής. ἢ συρφετώδης. ἔστι δὲ καὶ βόλος κυβευτικὸς καὶ Γάλλος καὶ μάντις, ὡς Ἀπίων. ἐν Ἐπιγράμμασι: κειράμενος γονίμην τις ἀπὸ φλέβα Μητρὸς ἀγύρτης. καὶ αὖθις: δόλιον ἀγύρτην, ὃς ἐν τοῖς κέρδεσι μόνον δέδορκε. καὶ αὖθις: ἦν γὰρ αὐτὸς ἀγύρτης τῷ ὄντι καὶ φιλομαντευτής.
See also alpha 389 (and cf. already alpha 387).
[1] From the scholia to Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus 388, where the accusative case of the headword occurs; quoted below.
[2] Same or similar glossing in other lexica; references at Photius alpha280 Theodoridis.
[3] cf. beta 369.
[4] A priest of Cybele (Kybele, a Phrygian goddess, equivalent to the Minoan goddess Rhea, cf. kappa 2586).
[5] Greek Anthology 6.218.1 (Alcaeus), the dedication of a eunuch priest of Cybele who escaped from a lion by beating his timbrels; cf. Gow and Page, vol. I (9) and vol. II (24-26) and further extracts from this epigram at gamma 158, theta 526, pi 952, pi 2954, tau 316, and omega 89.
[6] Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus 388-9 (Oedipus on Teiresias).
[7] 'Dam.', says Adler's note (= Damascius fr. 212 Zintzen); cf. alpha 389.
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge 1965)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge 1965)
Keywords: biography; daily life; definition; economics; ethics; gender and sexuality; medicine; meter and music; poetry; religion; tragedy; women; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 March 1999@18:07:24.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; added keywords; cosmetics) on 17 July 2001@09:31:21.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 28 November 2005@08:21:22.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 7 February 2011@10:02:13.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; another keyword; tweaks) on 9 January 2012@05:11:58.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 29 June 2012@00:50:46.
David Whitehead on 19 August 2013@04:47:23.
Ronald Allen (exanded n.5, added bibliography, added keywords) on 19 November 2018@23:50:28.
Ronald Allen ((spelling) expanded n.5) on 20 November 2018@00:34:45.
Ronald Allen (expanded n.4 and n.5, added cross-references) on 6 December 2018@12:31:45.

Headword: Ἄγχουσα
Adler number: alpha,416
Translated headword: alkanet, bugloss, rouge
Vetting Status: high
A type of plant, which has a red root used by women to redden their faces. "Alkanet will harm [you] as will that white lead[1] of yours".[2]
Greek Original:
Ἄγχουσα: εἶδος βοτάνης, ἧς ἡ ῥίζα ἐρυθρὰ, ᾗ ἐρυθραίνουσι τὰ πρόσωπα αἱ γυναῖκες. ἡ ἄγχουσ' ὀδυνήσει καὶ τὸ σὸν ψιμμύθιον.
Anchusa tinctoria: ἄγχουσα here; Attic ἔγχουσα in Aristophanes, Lysistrata 48 and elsewhere.
Besides what follows here (and in epsilon 3093) see e.g. Theophrastus, Enquiry into Plants 7.9.3.
[1] This was also used as a facial cosmetic: see psi 108.
[2] Aristophanes, Ecclesiazusae 928-9, telescoped (see web address 1). The USDA does not indicate that the plant is poisonous, but Anchusa officinalis is classified as a noxious weed in Oregon and Washington. See web address 2.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: botany; comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; gender and sexuality; medicine; science and technology; women
Translated by: William Hutton on 31 October 2000@11:54:11.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword) on 1 November 2000@03:19:17.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference and link) on 18 December 2007@20:12:30.
David Whitehead (modified headword; augmented notes and keywords) on 19 December 2007@03:20:07.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 9 January 2012@08:50:27.
Catharine Roth (tweak) on 25 November 2014@23:09:48.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 26 November 2014@02:45:12.
Catharine Roth (expanded note, added link) on 20 June 2017@19:14:27.

Headword: Ἀδάμαστος
Adler number: alpha,428
Translated headword: unmastered
Vetting Status: high
Maiden, unyoked.[2] Sophocles [writes]: "but now Zeus' fierce-eyed maiden goddess [...] has ruined [me], planting in me a berserk illness."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀδάμαστος: παρθένος, ἄζυξ. Σοφοκλῆς: νῦν δ' ἡ Διὸς γοργῶπις παρθένος θεὰ ἔσφηλεν ἐμβαλοῦσα λυσσώδη νόσῳ.
cf. generally alpha 427.
[1] For 'unyoked' see alpha 604.
[2] An abbreviated quotation of Sophocles, Ajax 450-52 (web address 1 below), with the glosses of the scholia there. Oddly, the Suda here substitutes the first of them, παρθένος , where the headword appears in the text of Sophocles.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; gender and sexuality; imagery; medicine; mythology; religion; tragedy; women
Translated by: William Hutton on 1 November 2000@00:37:02.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note) on 30 April 2002@03:36:32.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; x-ref' keyword) on 16 August 2006@06:00:30.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1; cosmetics) on 10 January 2012@04:59:05.


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