Suda On Line menu Search

Home
Search results for law in Keyword:
Greek display:    

Headword: *)abasa/nistos
Adler number: alpha,21
Translated headword: untested
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning someone/something] unexercised or unexamined, unscrutinized. The word comes from the test of the goldsmith's stone, on which they scrutinize gold.[1] Aelian in his On Providence used the word 'untested' to mean 'without pain'.[2]
Greek Original:
*)abasa/nistos: a)gu/mnastos h)\ a)nece/tastos, a)doki/mastos. ei)/rhtai de\ a)po\ th=s basa/nou th=s xrusoxoi+kh=s li/qou, e)n h(=| dokima/zousi to\ xrusi/on. e)xrh/sato de\ *ai)liano\s e)n tw=| peri\ pronoi/as tw=| a)basa/nistos a)nti\ tou= a)/neu o)du/nhs.
Notes:
= Synagoge alpha4 (Lexica Segueriana 3.14); Photius, Lexicon alpha30 Theodoridis; perhaps ultimately derived in part from Phrynichus (Praeparatio rhetorica fr. 39 de Borries); cf. Hesychius alpha89 and a cluster of related entries: alpha 2276, Hesychius alpha4899, Synagoge alpha589, Photius alpha1845.
[1] ba/sanos can mean both the touchstone itself and the testing process. See beta 139, and cf. beta 137.
[2] Aelian fr.9 Hercher (= 9 Domingo-Forasté). The version of the entry at Synagoge alpha4 includes the information that this is from the third book of the work in question.
Keywords: athletics; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; law; philosophy; rhetoric; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:58:18.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 20 January 2001@11:28:32.
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes) on 21 January 2001@05:35:01.
William Hutton (tweaked translation, expanded notes, added keywords, set status) on 27 August 2007@05:12:39.
William Hutton (Updates references in footnotes.) on 11 November 2007@07:10:05.
William Hutton (typo) on 8 February 2008@02:59:18.
Jennifer Benedict (added keyword) on 23 March 2008@00:55:08.
David Whitehead (typos) on 19 December 2011@06:11:54.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:31:43.
David Whitehead (cosmetics; another keyword) on 2 April 2015@08:51:56.

Headword: *)abraa/m
Adler number: alpha,69
Translated headword: Abraham
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The first among patriarchs; [it was he] in whom the Hebrew people took pride at first, before they rebelled against God, became estranged from Him, and shed upon themselves the blood of His Only-Begotten Son.[1] This man came out of the land of the Chaldeans, who devoted their entire lives to the stars and heavenly bodies. Trained, therefore, as was their ancestral custom, to observe the motions of the heavenly bodies[2] he surmised that the masterwork underlying this visible creation was not to be found in such objects, but had a Creator who set them in motion, gave harmony to their paths, and ordered the entire universe. Because of the greatness and beauty of the things He had made, Abraham, as it was likely, ceased devoting himself to gazing out into the heavens nor did he squander his passion in their pursuit. Instead, by surmounting the celestial vaults and transcending all the intelligible realm beyond the cosmos, Abraham no longer stood apart from the One sought, until finally the Creator for whom he yearned manifested Himself to Abraham in likenesses[3] and forms. And in this way the Unseen and Invisible revealed Himself. And [God] sent him forth from his own land as a wanderer and settled him in the land of the Canaanites. There he dwelled, now being in about his ninety-ninth year.[4] Until this time, he was childless; then [God] made him the father of the miraculous and blessed Isaac that he might have a first-born, only-begotten son[5] -- prefiguring the mystical image of the First-Born, Only-Begotten Son.[6] This was an exceedingly singular[7] honor bestowed upon Abraham, for the Creator favored him with the titles Servant, Beloved, and Father by flesh of the Only Begotten Son of Him who fashioned the entire universe.[8] Abraham invented sacred writing and devised the language of which Hebrew children used to have a command, as they were this man's disciples and descendants. Moreover, the Greek alphabet received its impetus from this script,[9] even if Greeks amused themselves by forming the letters differently. Proof of this is in the pronunciation of the first and preeminent letter "alpha" because it derives its name from the Hebrew "aleph" by way of the Blessed, First, and Eternal Name.[10] So too, the Greeks through Abraham came to possess books on dream interpretation. Witness to this is Joseph, the truly wondrous descendant of Abraham, who interpreted Pharoah's dreams as they were going to turn out in fact. In this, Philo, the Jewish philosopher, will be my confirmation via his work Life of the Statesman.[11] About Philo it is said "Philo platonizes and Plato philonizes."[12]
The practice of idolatry extended from Serug[13] to the time of Abraham's father Tharron.[14] Thus, when Abraham was 14 years old[15] and deemed worthy of divine knowledge, he upbraided his father, "Why do you lead the people astray for harmful gain (that is, with idols)? There is no other God but the One in heaven, the Creator of the entire universe." Yet seeing the people serving earthly things, he embarked on a tireless quest, seeking out with his pious heart the Truly Existing God.[16] But seeing that the sky is sometimes light and sometimes dark, he said to himself, "That is not God." Observing similarly the sun and the moon, the one obscured and eclipsed and the other waning and occluded, he said, "Those are not gods either." True, he was trained in astronomy by his father, but Abraham all the same was puzzled by the motions of the stars and scornful of them. But God appeared to him and said, "Go out of your land and leave your kinsmen."[17] Abraham took his father's idols, smashing some and incinerating others. Then he went away with his father out of the land of the Chaldeans. And they came to Haran,[18] where his father died. He left there, obeying the Lord's word, with his wife Sarah and his nephew Lot[19] and all their possessions, and came to the promised land Canaan, which the Canaanites had seized and settled in. When a famine arose, Abraham left the land of the Canaanites and went into Egypt, where Abimelech[20] the king took his wife Sarah. God struck terror into Abimelech and paralysed his limbs, saying "Give this man back his wife, because he is a prophet and will pray for you, and you will live. But if you do not give her back, know that you and your entire household will die." When Abraham got his wife back, undefiled, he prayed, and Abimelech and his household were cured of the paralysis.[21] After this the king, honoring Abraham and devoting himself to his sayings, became a pious and expert teacher to the Egyptians. The same Abraham, upon returning from war,[22] was considered worthy of blessing by Melchisedek, king of Salem, who brought bread and wine out to him. Melchisedek was a priest of the Most High, and Abraham gave to Him a tenth of all he had. Melchisedek was without father, mother, or lineage, like the Son of God.[23]
When Abram[24] lamented to God about his childlessness, God revealed to him through a dream that his descendants would be as numerous as the stars. And he believed God, and God reckoned it to him as righteousness.[25] Now Sarah, who was barren, gave Abraham permission to father a child with her maidservant, and she bore Ismael.[26] And when Abram was 99 years old, God appeared to him and altered his name to Abraham, for until then he had been called Abram. Similarly, Sarah became Sarrah with another "r".[27] And Abraham circumcised Ismael and all his descendants. Moreover, when the Lord was being shown the hospitality of Abraham's house, He promised Abraham that Sarrah would bear him a son. But Sarrah smiled; and the one who was begotten was called Isaac, by the Hebrew name that means "laughter with delight."[28]
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] *abramiai=os: [meaning] descendant of Abraham, or towering, revered.[29]
Greek Original:
*)abraa/m: o( prw=tos e)n patria/rxais: ei)s o(\n a)pesemnu/neto dh=mos o( tw=n *(ebrai/wn to\ pro/teron, pri\n h)\ qeou= a)poskirth=sai kai\ gene/sqai tou/tou a)llo/trioi kai\ to\ tou= monogenou=s ui(ou= au)tou= ai(=ma e)f' e(autou\s e)pispa/sasqai. ou(=tos e)k me\n th=s *xaldai/wn gh=s u(ph=rxen o(rmw/menos, tw=n peri\ ta\ mete/wra kai\ tou\s a)ste/ras to\n bi/on o(/lon katanalisko/ntwn. a)skhqei\s ou)=n kata\ to\n pa/trion no/mon ta\s tw=n e)pourani/wn a)ste/rwn kinh/seis kai\ stoxasa/menos w(s ou)k e)n tou/tois i(/statai to\ megalourgo\n th=s fainome/nhs tauthsi\ kti/sews, a)ll' e)/xei tina\ to\n dhmiourgo\n to\n kai\ kinou=nta kai\ dieuqu/nonta th\n e)narmo/nion tw=n a)ste/rwn porei/an kai\ tou= ko/smou panto\s th\n kata/stasin, kai\ dia\ tou= mege/qous kai\ th=s kallonh=s tw=n ktisma/twn to\n genesiourgo\n au)tw=n, w(s e)nh=n, qewrh/sas ou)k e)/sth me/xri tou/twn, ou)de\ th\n e)/fesin ei)s tau=ta katedapa/nhsen, a)lla\ tw=n ou)rani/wn a(yi/dwn u(perarqei\s kai\ pa=san diaba\s th\n nohth/n te kai\ u(perko/smion su/mphcin ou)k a)pe/sth tou= zhtoume/nou, e(/ws ou(= o( poqou/menos e(auto\n au)tw=| e)fane/rwse tu/pois te kai\ morfw/masin, oi(=s e(auto\n e)mfani/zei o( a)fanh\s kai\ a)o/ratos. kai\ metana/sthn au)to\n e)k th=s patri/dos labw\n e)pi\ th\n *xanani=tin kate/sthse, to\n e)nenhkosto/n pou kai\ e)/naton h)/dh xro/non pare/lkonta: kai\ a)/paida me/xri to/te tugxa/nonta gennh/tora tou= qaumasi/ou kai\ ma/karos kate/- sthsen *)isaa\k, i(/n' e)/xoi monogenh= ui(o\n kai\ prwto/tokon, tou= monogenou=s kai\ prwtoto/kou mustikh\n ei)ko/na prodiagra/fonta: tou=to ge/ras au)tw=| kat' e)cai/reton xarisa/menos, to\ dou=lon kai\ fi/lon kai\ pate/ra xrhmati/sai tou= monogenou=s ui(ou= kata\ sa/rka, tou= to\n ko/smon o(/lon dhmiourgh/santos. ou(=tos eu(=re me\n i(era\ gra/mmata kai\ glw=ssan e)mhxanh/sato, h(=s *(ebrai/wn pai=des e)n e)pisth/mh| e)tu/gxanon, w(s o)/ntes tou/tou maqhtai\ kai\ a)po/gonoi. e)k tou/tou kai\ ta\ *(ellh/nwn gra/mmata ta\s a)forma\s e)/labon, ka)\n a)/llws kai\ a)/llws e(autou\s diapai/zontes a)nagra/fwsin *(/ellhnes. kai\ tou/tou martu/rion h( tou= *)/alfa fwnh\ tou= prw/tou stoixei/ou kai\ a)/rxontos, a)po\ tou= *)/alef *(ebrai/ou labo/ntos th\n e)pi/klhsin tou= makari/ou kai\ prw/tou kai\ a)qana/tou o)no/matos. e)k tou/tou kai\ ta\ o)nei/rwn bibli/a e)sfeteri/santo *(/ellhnes. kai\ ma/rtus *)iwsh\f o( panqau/mastos o( tou/tou a)po/gonos, o( tou= *faraw\ ta\ e)nu/pnia w(s e)/mellon a)pobh/sesqai dihgou/menos. tou=to/ moi kai\ *fi/lwn, e)c *(ebrai/wn filo/sofos, e)n tw=| tou= *politikou= bi/w| sunepimarturh/setai, *fi/lwn, peri\ ou(= e)rrh/qh, *fi/lwn platwni/zei, kai\ *pla/twn filwni/zei. o(/ti h)/rcato h( ei)dwlolatrei/a a)po\ *serou\x e(/ws tw=n xro/nwn *qa/rra tou= patro\s *)abraa/m. o(\s *)abraa\m u(pa/rxwn e)tw=n id# kai\ qeognwsi/as a)ciwqei\s e)nouqe/tei to\n pate/ra au)tou=, le/gwn: ti/ plana=|s tou\s a)nqrw/pous dia\ ke/rdos e)pizh/mion [toute/sti ta\ ei)/dwla]; ou)k e)/stin a)/llos qeo\s ei) mh\ o( e)n toi=s ou)ranoi=s, o( kai\ pa/nta to\n ko/smon dhmiourgh/sas. o(rw=n ga\r tou\s a)nqrw/pous ktismatolatrou=ntas dih/rxeto diaponou/menos kai\ to\n o)/ntws o)/nta qeo\n e)kzhtw=n e)k filoqe/ou kardi/as. o(rw=n de\ to\n ou)rano\n pote\ me\n lampro\n, pote\ de\ skoteino\n, e)/legen e)n e(autw=|: ou)k e)/stin ou(=tos qeo/s. o(moi/ws kai\ to\n h(/lion kai\ th\n selh/nhn, to\n me\n a)pokrupto/menon kai\ a)maurou/menon, th\n de\ fqi/nousan kai\ a)polh/gousan, e)/fhsen: ou)d' ou(=toi/ ei)si qeoi/. kai\ me/ntoi kai\ th\n tw=n a)ste/rwn ki/nhsin, e)k tou= patro\s ga\r e)paideu/eto th\n a)stronomi/an, kai\ a)porw=n e)dusxe/rainen. w)/fqh de\ au)tw=| o( qeo\s kai\ le/gei au)tw=|: e)/celqe e)k th=s gh=s sou kai\ e)k th=s suggenei/as sou. kai\ labw\n ta\ ei)/dwla tou= patro\s kai\ ta\ me\n kla/sas ta\ de\ e)mpuri/sas a)nexw/rhse meta\ tou= patro\s e)k gh=s *xaldai/wn: kai\ e)lqo/ntos ei)s *xarra\n, e)teleu/thsen o( path\r au)tou=. kai\ e)celqw\n e)kei=qen e)n lo/gw| *kuri/ou h)=lqe su\n th=| gunaiki\ *sa/rra| kai\ tw=| a)neyiw=| *lw\t meta\ pa/shs au)tw=n th=s a)poskeuh=s ei)s th\n o)feilome/nhn gh=n *xanaa\n, h(\n oi( *xananai=oi turannikw=s a)felo/menoi w)/|khsan. limou= de\ genome/nou katalipw\n th\n *xananai/wn gh=n ei)s *ai)/gupton a)ph/|ei, ou(= th\n gunai=ka *sa/rran *)abime/lex h(/rpasen o( basileu/s. tou=ton o( qeo\s e)kdeimatw/sas kai\ pa/resin tw=n melw=n e)pa/cas, a)po/dos, e)/fh, th\n gunai=ka tw=| a)nqrw/pw|, o(/ti profh/ths e)sti\ kai\ proseu/cetai peri\ sou= kai\ zh/seis. ei) de\ mh\ a)podw=|s, gnw=qi o(/ti a)poqanh=| su\ kai\ ta\ sa\ pa/nta. kai\ ou(/tws a)polabw\n th\n gunai=ka a)mi/anton kai\ proseuca/menos i)aqh=nai e)poi/hse th=s pare/sews *)abime/lex kai\ to\n oi)=kon au)tou=. e)/ktote timw=n au)to\n o( basileu\s kai\ prose/xwn toi=s u(p' au)tou= legome/nois, dida/skalos eu)sebei/as kai\ polupeiri/as *ai)gupti/ois e)ge/neto. o( au)to\s *)/abram u(postre/fwn e)k tou= pole/mou th=s eu)logi/as tou= *melxisede\k kathci/wtai, tou= basile/ws *salh\m, o(\s e)ch/negken au)tw=| a)/rtous kai\ oi)=non. h)=n de\ kai\ i(ereu\s tou= *(uyi/stou. kai\ e)/dwken au)tw=| *)/abram deka/thn a)po\ pa/ntwn. h)=n de\ o( *melxisede\k a)pa/twr, a)mh/twr, a)genealo/ghtos, a)fwmoiwme/nos tw=| ui(w=| tou= qeou=. tw=| de\ *)/abram a)tekni/an o)lofurome/nw| kaq' u(/pnous e)pidei/cas o( qeo\s tou\s a)ste/ras kata\ to\ plh=qos au)tw=n e)/sesqai/ oi( to\ spe/rma proedh/lou. o( de\ e)pi/steuse tw=| qew=|, kai\ e)logi/sqh au)tw=| ei)s dikaiosu/nhn. h( de\ *sa/rra stei=ra ou)=sa sunexw/rhsen *)/abram a)po\ th=s paidi/skhs paidopoih/sasqai: kai\ i)/sxei to\n *)ismah/l. e)nenh/konta de\ kai\ e)nne/a e)tw=n o)/nti tw=| *)/abram e)pifanei\s o( qeo\s *)abraa\m metwno/masen: *)/abram ga\r prw/hn w)noma/zeto: o(moi/ws kai\ th\n *sa/ran *sa/rran, prosqei\s kai\ e(/teron r. kai\ perie/teme to\n *)ismah\l kai\ pa/ntas tou\s e)c au)tou=. *ku/rios de\ tw=| *)abraa\m e)picenwqei\s e)phggei/lato te/cesqai *sa/rran au)tw=| pai=da. h( de\ e)meidi/ase, kai\ *)isaa\k to\ gennhqe\n proshgoreu/qh, ferwnu/mws tw=| meq' h(donh=s ge/lwti kata\ th\n *(ebrai/+da dia/lekton. kai\ *)abramiai=os: o( a)po/gonos *)abraa\m, h)\ gigantiai=os, i(eropreph/s.
Notes:
This long entry is derived in part directly from George the Monk, in part indirectly from Philo of Alexandria; see further in the notes below.
[1] cf. Matthew 27:25 (web address 1).
[2] The Suda's attention to Chaldean astrology derives from Philo, On Abraham, (Colson, Philo Vol VI: XV.69-70).
[3] Use of tu/pos here is twofold: 1) To assert that God's appearance to Abraham was indirect (echoing Philo, On Abraham, XVII.79-80); 2) To impart, as if a corollary of tu/pos in Romans 5:14, that God's manifestation to Abraham was a type or prefiguration of Christ.
[4] Abraham is 100 years old at Isaac's birth (Genesis 21:5); however, the Suda follows Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.191-93 (web address 2 below) in assuming Abraham's age as 99 at the time of God's promise.
[5] The Suda here omits Ishmael, born to Abraham by the Egyptian slave Hagar when he was 86 years old (Genesis 16:1-16). The Suda's omission tacitly acknowledges a covenantal and legal distinction clearly drawn in Genesis. In Isaac, God establishes an "everlasting covenant" for his progeny, whereas God blesses Ishmael and makes him "fruitful and exceedingly numerous" (Genesis 17:19-20). Isaac's filial status is made explicit by God in identifying him as Abraham's "only son" (Genesis 22:12) through whom "offspring shall be named" for Abraham, whereas Ishmael, although destined to father a nation, is identified by God as "the son of the slave woman" (Genesis 21:12-13). Ishmael is, however, mentioned later in the entry.
[6] Christological imagery links Isaac to the personage of Jesus (Matthew 1:1-2 at web address 3 below). See also delta 94, notes 1 and 14.
[7] The Suda underscores the magnitude of the honor with a hyperbolic kat' before e)cai/reton.
[8] The statement, rooted in a paternalistic-filial model that originates in Abraham and culminates in the figure of Christ, approximates the transcendental premise: Abraham is to Joseph as Isaac is to Christ.
[9] The Suda confuses Mosaic and Abrahamic lore. The 2nd century BCE Jewish writer Eupolemus claimed for Moses the invention and propagation of writing: "Moses was the first wise man, the first who imparted the alphabet to the Jews; the Phoenicians received it from the Jews, and the Greeks from the Phoenicians." The 2nd century BCE Egyptian Jewish writer Artapanus attributed hieroglyphics to Moses. According to the 2nd century BCE Samaritan writer Ps.-Eupolemus and Artapanus, astrology and astronomy originated with Abraham, who taught these disciplines and other tools of culture to the Jews, Phoenicians, and Egyptians. They, in turn, transmitted these arts to the Greeks. Philo in On Abraham stresses Abraham's expertise as a teacher. (Encyc. Judaica, Vol 6.964-65; Gruen, 146-51, 157, 294; Grant, 77; Philo, XI.52) At sigma 295, Seth is credited with the invention of the alphabet; Greek legend named Cadmus or Linus as the one who introduced the alphabet to Greece (gamma 416, kappa 21, kappa 22, lambda 568). See also phi 787.
[10] The reference recalls א aleph as the initial letter of ʾelohīm, the most frequent generic name for God in the OT, used about 2,500 times--but a distant second to the unspoken covenant name YHWH (Yahweh), which occurs some 6,800 times (Perdue, 685-86). Cf. alpha 1445.
[11] A reference to Philo's *bi/os politikou= o(/per e)sti peri\ *)iwsh/f (Colson, Philo Vol VI, 140ff.)
[12] Adapted from Jerome's On Illustrious Men (11): h)\ *pla/twn filwni/zei h)\ *fi/lwn platwni/zei ("Either Plato philonizes or Philo platonizes.") Cf. phi 448 and Photius, Bibliotheca 86b 25.
[13] Abraham's grandfather (Genesis 11:22). Seruch in the LXX, שרוג śerūḡ in Hebrew. See also sigma 253.
[14] Abraham's father (Genesis 11:24). Tharra (*qa/rra, *qarra/) or Tharrha (*qa/r)r(a) (Hatch, Concordance, Appendix 1, 71; Brenton, 13); in Hebrew תרח Teraḥ. From the Chronicon of George the Monk, 92.11-12; cf. Malalas 55.5-6.
[15] The Midrash sets Abraham's rejection of idolatry at age 13 (Encyc. Judaica, 4.244). From here to "teacher to the Egyptians," the Suda's source is the Chronicon of George the Monk, 93.16 - 95.17.
[16] On God as "He who is," see omicron 438, omega 105.
[17] cf. Philo, On Abraham XIV.62.
[18] The call in Genesis 12:1-5 brings Abraham from Haran (חרן) to Canaan (כנען). The Suda adheres to Philo, On Abraham, XIV. 67: metani/statai...a)po\ th=s *xaldai/wn gh=s...e)is th\n *xarrai/wn gh=n.
[19] Philo shows a)delfidou=s, as at On Abraham, XXXVII.212, rather than the Suda's potentially ambiguous a)neyio/s for nephew (see LSJ s.v. at web address 4).
[20] On Abimelech, see alpha 45.
[21] The affliction cured in Genesis 20:17-18 is unspecified for Abimelech, but clearly is sterility for the female members of his house. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.208 (web address 5) relates that a "dangerous distemper" (Whiston trans.) afflicted Abimelech. For other traditions, see EncycJudaica, 2.76.
[22] Genesis 14:14-18; the Suda's source is the Chronicon of George the Monk, 100.17-26; 101.5-7.
[23] See Hebrews 7:3 (web address 6). In the Suda, see mu 544, mu 545, mu 546.
[24] The Greek mainly uses Abraam (אברהם ʾAḇraham) to this point, but here Abram (אברם), his pre-covenant name (Genesis 17:5).
[25] Genesis 15:5-6. The statement "and he believed God and God reckoned it to him as righteousness" appears also in Romans 4:3 (web address 7), Galatians 3:6 (web address 8), and James 2:23 (web address 9). A more idiomatic and semantically precise translation of the Hebrew (והאמין בה' ויחשבה לו צדקה weheʾemīn bah' wayyaḥšeḇeha lō ṣedaqah) reads: "And because he put his trust in the Lord, He reckoned it to his merit" (Plaut, 146). This version takes into interpretive account the imperfective waw consecutive (consequential) (Kautzsch, 111.l).
[26] Ismael (Ishmael) appears in the Suda at iota 644, but with a gloss that belongs to Isaak.
[27] Genesis 17:15. Also as *sa/r)r(a or Sarrha (Brenton, 18). The Hebrew covenant name change is Sarai to Sarah (both meaning Princess).
[28] Isaac (יצחק yiṣḥaq) from the Hebrew meaning "he (Abraham) laughed" in Genesis 17:17, and puns Sarah's תצחק tiṣḥaq ("she laughed") in Genesis 18:12. (Kohlenberger, Vol 1, 37, 39; Anderson, 182) In the Suda, see iota 606 (mostly taken from this entry).
[29] This adjectival derivative of Abraham's name appears in 4 Maccabees 9:21 LXX. The gloss replicates, apart from word order, one in Photius; cf. Synagoge alpha17, Hesychius alpha181.
References:
Anderson, A.W. Understanding the Old Testament. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1966
Attridge, H.W. "The Letter to the Hebrews" in The HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Brenton, L.C.L. The Septuagint with Apocrypha. Peabody: Henrickson, 1999 (reprint of 1851 edn.)
Colson F.H., Philo (Vol VI), Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1994
Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1973
Grant, M. From Alexander to Cleopatra: The Hellenistic World. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1982
Gruen, E.S. Heritage and Hellenism: The Reinvention of Jewish Tradition. Berkeley: University of California, 1998
Hatch, E., Redpath, H.A., and Muraoka, T. A Concordance to the Septuagint. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1998
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910
Keck, L.E. "The Letter of Paul to the Romans" in The HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987
Perdue, L.G. "Names of God in the Old Testament" in Harper's Bible Dictionary. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985
Plaut, W.G. The Torah: Genesis, A Modern Commentary. New York: Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1972
Smyth, H.W. Greek Grammar. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1984
Whiston, W. The Works of Josephus. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1987 (reprint of 1736 edn.)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4,
Web address 5,
Web address 6,
Web address 7,
Web address 8,
Web address 9
Keywords: aetiology; biography; children; Christianity; chronology; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; dreams; food; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; history; law; medicine; religion; science and technology; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:54:17.
Vetted by:
Craig Miller (Under editorial review as of this date) on 6 January 2002@08:24:02.
Craig Miller (Modified translation) on 24 January 2002@19:18:31.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@00:26:38.
Craig Miller (Notes added. Additional work pending.) on 25 January 2002@00:29:41.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@01:17:54.
Craig Miller (Added bibliography, keywords; changed status) on 25 January 2002@22:21:22.
Craig Miller (Cosmetics) on 25 January 2002@22:51:36.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@22:54:34.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@23:13:26.
Craig Miller on 4 June 2002@20:45:55.
Craig Miller on 19 June 2002@19:13:42.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew words; minor cosmetics.) on 31 October 2002@10:38:39.
Raphael Finkel (More Hebrew, cosmetics.) on 18 December 2002@10:58:21.
Craig Miller (Additional cosmetics) on 17 May 2003@19:07:49.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@08:20:23.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 November 2005@07:49:08.
Jennifer Benedict (added 15 links) on 25 March 2008@11:50:57.
Catharine Roth (references, cosmetics) on 10 April 2008@16:09:00.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 10 April 2008@20:15:09.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, pruned notes, added cross-references) on 11 April 2008@12:30:02.
Catharine Roth (adjusted note numbers; more tweaks) on 11 April 2008@14:18:11.
William Hutton (augmented n. 29) on 17 July 2009@17:14:18.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 December 2011@07:16:50.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links, other tweaks) on 22 December 2011@19:00:49.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note and links) on 11 November 2013@01:26:27.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:27:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 11 August 2014@00:14:27.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:33:55.
Catharine Roth (betacode typo) on 2 October 2018@02:07:40.

Headword: *)/abudos
Adler number: alpha,101
Translated headword: Abudos, Abydos, Abydus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A city.[1]
The word is applied to an informant [sukofa/nths] because of the common belief that the people of Abudos were informers.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] an adverb, *)abudo/qi, [meaning] in Abudos.[3]
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] *a)/budon fluari/an ["Abudos nonsense"], [meaning] great [nonsense].[4]
And [sc. attested is] *)abudhno\s, [meaning] he [who comes] from Abudos.[5]
Greek Original:
*)/abudos: po/lis. e)pi\ sukofa/ntou ta/ttetai h( le/cis, dia\ to\ dokei=n sukofa/ntas ei)=nai tou\s *)abudhnou/s. kai\ e)pi/rrhma, *)abudo/qi, e)n *)abu/dw|. kai\ *)/abudon fluari/an, th\n pollh/n. kai\ *)abudhno\s, o( a)po\ *)abu/dou.
Notes:
[1] = Lexicon Ambrosianum 82, according to Adler. In fact two cities of this name are known: one on the Asiatic shore of the Hellespont (Barrington Atlas map 51 grid G4; present-day Maltepe) and Abydos/Ebot in Upper Egypt (Barrington Atlas map 77 grid F4); without much doubt, the former is meant here. (In Hesychius alpha23 the gloss is fuller -- 'a Trojan city of the Hellespont'. Latte regards the entry as prompted by Homer, Iliad 2.836, accusative case, although similar wording appears in a late scholion to Iliad 17.584, where the adverbial derivative a)budo/qi appears -- see n. 3 below). See also alpha 100, sigma 465, and generally OCD(4) s.v.
[2] = the first sentence of Pausanias the Atticist alpha3 and Photius alpha63 Theodoridis; cf. also Zenobius 1.1, s.v. *)abudhno\n e)pifo/rhma (alpha 100), and Kassel-Austin, PCG III.2 p.376 on Aristophanes fr. 755. See generally sigma 1330, sigma 1331, sigma 1332.
[3] Probably from commentary to Homer, Iliad 17.584, the only literary attestation of this adverb prior to Musaeus Grammaticus (5/6 CE); cf. Apollonius Dyscolus On Adverbs 2.1.1.164.
[4] = Synagoge Codex B alpha44, but in the better mss of Photius (Lexicon alpha64 Theodoridis) the adjective (in a nominative-case entry) is a)/buqos ('bottomless'), surely correctly; cf. alpha 104. The ultimate source may be Plato, Parmenides 130D, though there too the text is uncertain: perhaps ei)/s tin' a)/buqon fluari/an (web address 1), though the alternatives include ei)/s tina bu=qon fluari/as. On the adjective a)/buqos, a synonym for a)/bussos, see the LSJ entry at web address 2.
[5] There are many literary attestations of this form of the ethnic adjective (nominative singular masculine), beginning with Herodotus 4.138. For an instance in the Suda see pi 71.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; geography; law; philosophy; proverbs
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 21 November 1998@13:59:06.
Vetted by:
Eric Nelson on 31 December 1999@21:07:09.
Ross Scaife ✝ (fixed keywords) on 2 March 2000@17:48:48.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; replaced existing note; cosmetics) on 11 January 2001@08:05:35.
Jennifer Benedict (added links, betacode fix, cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@00:03:03.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 18 April 2011@14:40:09.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 25 April 2011@04:09:51.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 December 2011@09:19:59.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1) on 1 February 2012@05:52:37.
David Whitehead (expansions to notes) on 16 August 2013@07:33:01.
William Hutton (augmented notes) on 4 July 2014@08:19:58.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:21:46.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 3 September 2014@23:35:15.
David Whitehead (expanded n.2) on 22 December 2014@09:26:49.

Headword: *)agaqi/as
Adler number: alpha,112
Translated headword: Agathias
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A lawyer,[1] of Myrina;[2] the one who wrote the History as a continuation of Procopius of Caesarea,[3] [comprising] the affairs involving Belisarius[4] and the events in Italy and Libya; that is the affairs involving Narses[5] in Italy and the events in Lazike[6] and Byzantion. He also composed other books, both in meter and in prose, including the Daphniaka[7] and the Cycle of New Epigrams, which he compiled himself from the poets of his day. He was a contemporary of Paulus Silentiarius and of the consul Macedonius and of Tribonian[8] in the time of Justinian.[9]
Greek Original:
*)agaqi/as: sxolastiko\s, *murinai=os, o( gra/yas th\n meta\ *proko/pion i(stori/an to\n *kaisare/a, ta\ kata\ *belisa/rion kai\ ta\s e)n *)itali/a| kai\ e)n *libu/h| pra/ceis, toute/sti ta\ kata\ *narsh=n e)n *)itali/a| kai\ ta\ e)n *lazikh=| kai\ *buzanti/w|. ou(=tos sune/tace kai\ e(/tera bibli/a e)/mmetra/ te kai\ kataloga/dhn, ta/ te kalou/mena *dafniaka/, kai\ to\n *ku/klon tw=n ne/wn *)epigramma/twn, o(\n au)to\s sunh=cen e)k tw=n kata\ kairo\n poihtw=n. sunh/kmase de\ *pau/lw| tw=| *selentiari/w| kai\ *makedoni/w| tw=| u(pa/tw| kai\ *tribounianw=| e)pi\ tw=n *)ioustinianou= xro/nwn.
Notes:
c.532-c.580. See generally Averil Cameron in OCD(4) s.v. (p.35).
[1] See OCD s.v.
[2] a.k.a. Sebastopolis, in Aeolis (Asia Minor): Barrington Atlas map 56 grid D4.
[3] For Procopius see pi 2479. A's own work was in turn continued by Menander Protector (mu 591).
[4] See beta 233.
[5] See nu 42.
[6] An alternative name for Colchis (kappa 1979); present-day Georgia, between the Black and Caspian Seas.
[7] Amatory hexameters.
[8] tau 956, cf. tau 951.
[9] iota 446.
Keywords: biography; chronology; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; law; poetry; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 30 March 2001@15:08:59.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 24 April 2002@04:07:08.
David Whitehead (added note) on 3 November 2003@06:05:01.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; corrected a note number) on 3 August 2006@09:47:58.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr) on 18 May 2011@08:29:09.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 22 December 2011@04:42:12.
Philip Rance (modified translation) on 23 January 2012@07:57:14.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:22:58.

Headword: *)agaqoergoi/
Adler number: alpha,115
Translated headword: agathoergoi, benefactors
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Men selected according to valor.
From the Ephors.[1]
Greek Original:
*)agaqoergoi/: ai(retoi\ kat' a)ndragaqi/an. e)k tw=n *)efo/rwn.
Notes:
This is the name for a select group of Spartan elders. According to Herodotus (1.67.5: web address 1) five were selected each year from the eldest members of the cavalry, not from the ephors.
[1] Adler called these final three words locus dubius, and capitalized, as here, the word Ephors. For a speculative argument that this phrase should actually read "from the [sc. writings] of Ephoros", see D. Whitehead, 'Ephorus(?) on the Spartan constitution', Classical Quarterly n.s. 55 (2005) 299-301. [The suggestion has been taken up in Brill's New Jacoby s.v. Ephorus, by Victor Parker. However, the evidential basis for it is illusory, according to I.C. Cunningham, CQ n.s. 61 (2011) 312-314.]
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; ethics; geography; historiography; history; law; military affairs
Translated by: William Hutton on 31 March 2001@23:24:43.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note; added keyword) on 2 April 2001@03:36:30.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 17 June 2005@09:32:07.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 25 May 2011@06:46:44.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 25 May 2011@11:04:04.
David Whitehead (expanded note; more keywords; cosmetics) on 22 December 2011@06:04:44.

Headword: *)agasiklh=s
Adler number: alpha,169
Translated headword: Agasikles, Agasicles
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A proper name. He is said to have bribed[1] the Halimousians, and for that reason, although he was a foreigner, to have been accorded [sc. Athenian] citizenship.[2]
Greek Original:
*)agasiklh=s: o)/noma ku/rion. o(\s le/getai *(alimousi/nois sundika/sai kai\ dia\ tou=to ce/nos w)\n e)ggrafh=nai th=| politei/a|.
Notes:
After the initial generic gloss, this entry is abridged from Harpokration s.v.
[1] Reading sundeka/sai for the transmitted sundika/sai ("to share in judging"). See LSJ s.v. sundeka/zw at web address 1; see also n. 1 to alpha 1231.
[2] This is RE Agasikles 2; his claim to Athenian citizenship was contested in a speech by Dinarchus.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; constitution; definition; economics; ethics; history; law; politics; rhetoric
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 7 June 1999@11:24:47.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation, with explanatory note.) on 15 September 2000@06:18:36.
David Whitehead on 15 September 2000@06:20:34.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@11:01:00.
Jennifer Benedict (betacode, added link, cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@01:51:40.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 27 March 2008@08:39:44.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 July 2011@09:57:12.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 5 April 2015@21:47:43.

Headword: *)ago/menos dia\ frate/rwn ku/wn mastigou=tai
Adler number: alpha,292
Translated headword: a dog led through phratry-members is whipped
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[no gloss]
Greek Original:
*)ago/menos dia\ frate/rwn ku/wn mastigou=tai.
Note:
For phratries see gamma 146, gamma 147, phi 692 phi 693, phi 694, and generally OCD(4) s.v. (pp.1141-2). As a proverb (cf. Macarius Chrysocephalus 1.15) the phrase presumably concerns admission to phratries and the exposure of fraudulent attempts at this.
Keywords: daily life; ethics; law; proverbs; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 16 March 2001@16:38:49.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 17 March 2001@05:25:58.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 5 January 2012@08:36:28.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@02:54:46.

Headword: *)agoranomi/as
Adler number: alpha,302
Translated headword: market-supervisorship, market-supervisorships
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] auditorship/s. The term is applied to those who oversee sales in the cities.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the related concrete noun] "market-supervisors" [agoranomoi]: the officials who manage the sales in the marketplace [sc. in Athens].[2]
Aristophanes in Acharnians [writes]: "as market-supervisors of the market I appoint the three who were chosen by lot, the thongs from Leprous."[3] That is, straps, whips. For in olden days the auditors of the marketplace used to beat people with whips. And "leprous" [leprou/s] some explain as [sc. wordplay] from the verb lepein, that is, "to beat"; others from Lepreon a small town of the Peloponnese which Callimachus also mentions in the Hymns: "citadel of Kaukones, which is called Lepreion."[4] Others still [sc. derive it] from mangy cattle, since the hides of mangy cattle are tough. Still others because the Megarians, with whom he[5] is making a treaty, have mangy bodies. But better to say that [sc. there is] a place called Leproi outside the [Athenian] town-center where the tanners' shops were. There is also a mention of this in Birds: "why then do you settle [in] Helian Lepreon."[6]
Also [sc. attested is the the verb] "I supervise markets" [a)goranomw=]; [used] with a genitive.
Greek Original:
*)agoranomi/as: logisti/as. ei)/rhtai de\ e)pi\ tw=n e)piskopou/ntwn ta\ tw=n po/lewn w)/nia. kai\ *)agorano/moi, oi( ta\ kata\ th\n a)gora\n w)/nia dioikou=ntes a)/rxontes. *)aristofa/nhs *)axarneu=sin: a)gorano/mous de\ th=s a)gora=s kaqi/stamai trei=s tou\s laxo/ntas, tou\s d' i(ma/ntas e)k leprw=n. toute/sti lw/rous, fragge/lia. to\ ga\r palaio\n fragge/lois e)/tupton oi( logistai\ th=s a)gora=s. leprw=n de\ oi( me\n a)po\ tou= le/pein, o(/ e)sti tu/ptein: oi( de\ a)po\ *lepre/ou poli/smatos th=s *peloponnh/sou, h(=s me/mnhtai kai\ *kalli/maxos e)n *(/umnois: *kaukw/nwn ptoli/eqron, o(\ *le/preion pefa/tistai. oi( de\ e)k leprw=n bow=n, dia\ to\ ta\ e)k leprw=n bow=n de/rmata i)sxura\ ei)=nai. oi( de\ o(/ti oi( *megarei=s leproi\ to\ sw=ma, pro\s ou(\s spe/ndetai. a)/meinon de\ le/gein, o(/ti to/pos e)/cw tou= a)/steos *leproi\ kalou/menos, e)/nqa ta\ bursei=a h)=n. ou(= kai\ e)n *)/ornisi me/mnhtai: ti/ d' ou)=n to\n h(/lion *le/preon oi)ki/zete. kai\ *)agoranomw=: genikh=|.
Notes:
The headword -- evidently extracted from somewhere -- and primary gloss are either genitive singulars or accusative plurals.
[1] Likewise in other lexica; references at Photius alpha228 Theodoridis.
[2] From Harpokration s.v., commenting on Demosthenes 24.112 and also citing ?Aristotle, Ath.Pol. 51.1.
[3] Aristophanes, Acharnians 723-4 (web address 1), followed here by comment from the scholia there; cf. lambda 291.
[4] Callimachus, Hymn to Zeus 39.
[5] Dikaiopolis, that is, the speaker of the quotation.
[6] What seems to be a very mangled quotation from Aristophanes, Birds 150. A more correct quotation might be translated as "Why do you two not go and settle in Lepreon in Elis?" This would seem to be a reference to the Peloponnesian Lepreon and not to a Leproi outside Athens. See web address 2 below for the text of Aristophanes (and cf. lambda 288, lambda 289).
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: clothing; comedy; constitution; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; history; law; medicine; poetry; rhetoric; trade and manufacture; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 30 October 2000@00:03:30.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics; raised status) on 30 October 2000@03:28:23.
David Whitehead (restorative cosmetics) on 22 December 2002@09:24:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@11:02:46.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@03:58:52.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 6 January 2012@01:19:18.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 18 August 2013@09:01:32.
Catharine Roth (removed a link, added cross-references) on 19 April 2020@20:16:13.

Headword: *)agorai/an di/khn
Adler number: alpha,307
Translated headword: agora lawsuit, forensic lawsuit
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the (?)defense plea.
Greek Original:
*)agorai/an di/khn: th\n dikaiologi/an.
Notes:
An opaque entry, and made the more so because it appears in other lexica in different forms. In Photius (alpha231 Theodoridis) the lemma itself is the adjective only, i.e. di/khn is lacking; the Synagoge (alpha82) has di/khn as the first part of the gloss. All that seems certain, therefore, is that a)gorai/an (accusative singular) is quoted from somewhere.
The glossing term dikaiologia can mean either a defense plea or a forensic speech of any kind: see LSJ s.v.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; law; rhetoric
Translated by: William Hutton on 24 October 2000@12:05:09.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note) on 29 April 2002@07:22:51.
David Whitehead (expanded note; another keyword; cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@09:55:23.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@09:07:40.
William Hutton (augmented note) on 21 August 2013@10:09:58.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 3 September 2014@23:38:06.

Headword: *)agorai=os nou=s
Adler number: alpha,308
Translated headword: marketplace mind
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the one altogether cheap and vulgar and not elite or thoughtful.[1]
Also [sc. attested is] Agoraios Hermes. Aristophanes [writes]: "by Hermes Agoraios, I look and I perjure myself." That is, [Hermes] who is honored in a marketplace.[2]
Greek Original:
*)agorai=os nou=s: o( paneutelh\s kai\ surfetw/dhs kai\ ou)k a)po/rrhtos ou)de\ pefrontisme/nos. kai\ *)agorai=os *(ermh=s: *)aristofa/nhs. nh\ to\n *(ermh=n to\n *)agorai=on ka)piorkw= ge ble/pwn. toute/stin o( e)n a)gora=| timw/menos.
Notes:
See generally LSJ s.v. agoraios (web address 1) for texts further illustrating both of these disparate senses (and note the comment there: "the distinction a)go/raios vulgar, a)gorai=os public speaker, drawn by Ammonius [a C1/2 grammarian] etc. is probably fictitious"); cf. alpha 309. See further D. Whitehead, Hypereides: the forensic speeches (Oxford 2000) 287.
[1] Likewise or similarly in other lexica; references at Photius alpha233 Theodoridis.
[2] Aristophanes, Knights 297-8 (web address 2: the manuscript reading is "I perjure myself before those who are looking"), with scholion. The same epithet is attested, elsewhere, of Artemis, Athena and Zeus.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; economics; ethics; law; religion
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 9 March 2001@00:09:31.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 9 March 2001@03:12:41.
Catharine Roth (Added link and cross-reference.) on 9 March 2001@11:48:55.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 15 February 2007@10:33:05.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 15 February 2007@10:56:51.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@10:02:11.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 5 January 2012@22:53:49.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@09:09:54.

Headword: *)agorai=oi
Adler number: alpha,309
Translated headword: marketplace [men]
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Has circumflex accent on the penultimate syllable; [meaning] men involved in a marketplace.[1]
Damascius [writes]: "[...] but he stood by and begged those who were defrauding, even including (?)skilled judges."[2]
But with the acute accent on the second syllable a)go/raios [is] the day on which the market is held.[3]
Greek Original:
*)agorai=oi: properispwme/nws: oi( e)n a)gora=| a)nastrefo/menoi a)/nqrwpoi. *dama/skios: o( de\ pari/stato kai\ e)ch/|tei toi=s a)posterou=si me/xri kai\ dikastw=n a)gorai/wn. proparocuto/nws de\ *)ago/raios, h( h(me/ra e)n h(=| h( a)gora\ telei=tai.
Notes:
[1] See LSJ s.v. and cf. generally alpha 308. The present nominative plural headword and substantive gloss ('men involved in a marketplace') also occur in other lexica (references at Photius alpha232 Theodoridis); Latte on Hesychius claims the headword as stemming from Acts 17.5 (genitive plural).
[2] Damascius, Life of Isidore fr. 53 Zintzen (24 Asmus). A fuller version of the fragment is given at pi 658, where Adler notes several attempts, by her predecessors, to improve its wording. With or without them, the nature and identity of these dikastai agoraioi is unclear.
[3] LSJ s.v., III 1, where the distinction of meaning between a)go/raios "vulgar" and a)gorai=os "public speaker" is said to be fictitious. Note that section 2b is deleted by the LSJ Supplement. The shift of properispomenon to proparoxytone is a regular phenomenon of the Attic dialect, known as Vendryes' Law: see Kuehner-Blass #80 (web address 1); it is still possible, however, that the properispomenon form could have been restored in the productive category, where it is more closely asssociated with a)gora/.
Reference:
J. Kuryłowicz, L'accentuation des langues indo-européennes (Wroclaw 1958) 159-161
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; Christianity; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; law; religion; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 9 March 2001@12:25:41.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note; added keyword; cosmetics) on 10 March 2001@08:43:44.
Catharine Roth (Revised grammatical note.) on 10 March 2001@11:36:25.
Catharine Roth (augmented grammatical note, added bibliography) on 4 April 2001@10:44:08.
David Whitehead (augmented Damascius ref; cosmetics) on 14 April 2004@07:40:52.
David Whitehead (tweaked translation) on 20 April 2005@08:14:54.
David Whitehead (augmented n.1; added a keyword) on 20 April 2005@09:59:36.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@11:08:03.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 9 October 2005@16:17:44.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 18 September 2010@01:21:55.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 18 September 2010@07:04:16.
Catharine Roth (tweaked links) on 5 January 2012@22:58:39.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 6 January 2012@03:24:49.
David Whitehead on 19 August 2013@03:57:45.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 19 August 2013@10:26:33.

Headword: *)agorh=qen
Adler number: alpha,311
Translated headword: from the agora
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Out of the agora.
Greek Original:
*)agorh=qen: e)k th=s a)gora=s.
Note:
Similar entry in Hesychius. From a scholion on Homer, Iliad 264 (Homeric text at web address 1); the headword -- a single word in the Greek -- occurs there, in the famous scene where the upstart Thersites (theta 257) is expelled 'from the agora' (= assembly) by his betters. See also Odyssey 12.439 (quoted by Strabo 1.2.36: a judge departs 'from the agora' for his evening meal) and Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.877.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: daily life; definition; epic; law; poetry
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 11 June 1999@10:56:09.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Set Status) on 21 October 2000@15:58:51.
Catharine Roth (Added note and link.) on 23 February 2001@20:44:50.
David Whitehead (modified translation, to differentiate it from headword; expanded note; augmented keywords) on 14 April 2004@07:51:40.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 6 January 2012@03:57:43.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 6 January 2012@12:19:48.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 10 January 2015@22:47:41.

Headword: *)agwgeu/s
Adler number: alpha,319

Timeout after 20 seconds; further results omitted.