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Headword: Ἀβασάνιστος
Adler number: alpha,21
Translated headword: untested
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning someone/something] unexercised or unexamined, unscrutinized. The word comes from the test of the goldsmith's stone, on which they scrutinize gold.[1] Aelian in his On Providence used the word 'untested' to mean 'without pain'.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀβασάνιστος: ἀγύμναστος ἢ ἀνεξέταστος, ἀδοκίμαστος. εἴρηται δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς βασάνου τῆς χρυσοχοϊκῆς λίθου, ἐν ᾗ δοκιμάζουσι τὸ χρυσίον. ἐχρήσατο δὲ Αἰλιανὸς ἐν τῷ περὶ προνοίας τῷ ἀβασάνιστος ἀντὶ τοῦ ἄνευ ὀδύνης.
Notes:
= Synagoge alpha4 (Lexica Segueriana 3.14); Photius, Lexicon alpha30 Theodoridis; perhaps ultimately derived in part from Phrynichus (Praeparatio rhetorica fr. 39 de Borries); cf. Hesychius alpha89 and a cluster of related entries: alpha 2276, Hesychius alpha4899, Synagoge alpha589, Photius alpha1845.
[1] βάσανος can mean both the touchstone itself and the testing process. See beta 139, and cf. beta 137.
[2] Aelian fr.9 Hercher (= 9 Domingo-Forasté). The version of the entry at Synagoge alpha4 includes the information that this is from the third book of the work in question.
Keywords: athletics; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; law; philosophy; rhetoric; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:58:18.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 20 January 2001@11:28:32.
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes) on 21 January 2001@05:35:01.
William Hutton (tweaked translation, expanded notes, added keywords, set status) on 27 August 2007@05:12:39.
William Hutton (Updates references in footnotes.) on 11 November 2007@07:10:05.
William Hutton (typo) on 8 February 2008@02:59:18.
Jennifer Benedict (added keyword) on 23 March 2008@00:55:08.
David Whitehead (typos) on 19 December 2011@06:11:54.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:31:43.
David Whitehead (cosmetics; another keyword) on 2 April 2015@08:51:56.

Headword: Ἀβραάμ
Adler number: alpha,69
Translated headword: Abraham
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The first among patriarchs; [it was he] in whom the Hebrew people took pride at first, before they rebelled against God, became estranged from Him, and shed upon themselves the blood of His Only-Begotten Son.[1] This man came out of the land of the Chaldeans, who devoted their entire lives to the stars and heavenly bodies. Trained, therefore, as was their ancestral custom, to observe the motions of the heavenly bodies[2] he surmised that the masterwork underlying this visible creation was not to be found in such objects, but had a Creator who set them in motion, gave harmony to their paths, and ordered the entire universe. Because of the greatness and beauty of the things He had made, Abraham, as it was likely, ceased devoting himself to gazing out into the heavens nor did he squander his passion in their pursuit. Instead, by surmounting the celestial vaults and transcending all the intelligible realm beyond the cosmos, Abraham no longer stood apart from the One sought, until finally the Creator for whom he yearned manifested Himself to Abraham in likenesses[3] and forms. And in this way the Unseen and Invisible revealed Himself. And [God] sent him forth from his own land as a wanderer and settled him in the land of the Canaanites. There he dwelled, now being in about his ninety-ninth year.[4] Until this time, he was childless; then [God] made him the father of the miraculous and blessed Isaac that he might have a first-born, only-begotten son[5] -- prefiguring the mystical image of the First-Born, Only-Begotten Son.[6] This was an exceedingly singular[7] honor bestowed upon Abraham, for the Creator favored him with the titles Servant, Beloved, and Father by flesh of the Only Begotten Son of Him who fashioned the entire universe.[8] Abraham invented sacred writing and devised the language of which Hebrew children used to have a command, as they were this man's disciples and descendants. Moreover, the Greek alphabet received its impetus from this script,[9] even if Greeks amused themselves by forming the letters differently. Proof of this is in the pronunciation of the first and preeminent letter "alpha" because it derives its name from the Hebrew "aleph" by way of the Blessed, First, and Eternal Name.[10] So too, the Greeks through Abraham came to possess books on dream interpretation. Witness to this is Joseph, the truly wondrous descendant of Abraham, who interpreted Pharoah's dreams as they were going to turn out in fact. In this, Philo, the Jewish philosopher, will be my confirmation via his work Life of the Statesman.[11] About Philo it is said "Philo platonizes and Plato philonizes."[12]
The practice of idolatry extended from Serug[13] to the time of Abraham's father Tharron.[14] Thus, when Abraham was 14 years old[15] and deemed worthy of divine knowledge, he upbraided his father, "Why do you lead the people astray for harmful gain (that is, with idols)? There is no other God but the One in heaven, the Creator of the entire universe." Yet seeing the people serving earthly things, he embarked on a tireless quest, seeking out with his pious heart the Truly Existing God.[16] But seeing that the sky is sometimes light and sometimes dark, he said to himself, "That is not God." Observing similarly the sun and the moon, the one obscured and eclipsed and the other waning and occluded, he said, "Those are not gods either." True, he was trained in astronomy by his father, but Abraham all the same was puzzled by the motions of the stars and scornful of them. But God appeared to him and said, "Go out of your land and leave your kinsmen."[17] Abraham took his father's idols, smashing some and incinerating others. Then he went away with his father out of the land of the Chaldeans. And they came to Haran,[18] where his father died. He left there, obeying the Lord's word, with his wife Sarah and his nephew Lot[19] and all their possessions, and came to the promised land Canaan, which the Canaanites had seized and settled in. When a famine arose, Abraham left the land of the Canaanites and went into Egypt, where Abimelech[20] the king took his wife Sarah. God struck terror into Abimelech and paralysed his limbs, saying "Give this man back his wife, because he is a prophet and will pray for you, and you will live. But if you do not give her back, know that you and your entire household will die." When Abraham got his wife back, undefiled, he prayed, and Abimelech and his household were cured of the paralysis.[21] After this the king, honoring Abraham and devoting himself to his sayings, became a pious and expert teacher to the Egyptians. The same Abraham, upon returning from war,[22] was considered worthy of blessing by Melchisedek, king of Salem, who brought bread and wine out to him. Melchisedek was a priest of the Most High, and Abraham gave to Him a tenth of all he had. Melchisedek was without father, mother, or lineage, like the Son of God.[23]
When Abram[24] lamented to God about his childlessness, God revealed to him through a dream that his descendants would be as numerous as the stars. And he believed God, and God reckoned it to him as righteousness.[25] Now Sarah, who was barren, gave Abraham permission to father a child with her maidservant, and she bore Ismael.[26] And when Abram was 99 years old, God appeared to him and altered his name to Abraham, for until then he had been called Abram. Similarly, Sarah became Sarrah with another "r".[27] And Abraham circumcised Ismael and all his descendants. Moreover, when the Lord was being shown the hospitality of Abraham's house, He promised Abraham that Sarrah would bear him a son. But Sarrah smiled; and the one who was begotten was called Isaac, by the Hebrew name that means "laughter with delight."[28]
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] Αβραμιαῖος : [meaning] descendant of Abraham, or towering, revered.[29]
Greek Original:
Ἀβραάμ: ὁ πρῶτος ἐν πατριάρχαις: εἰς ὃν ἀπεσεμνύνετο δῆμος ὁ τῶν Ἑβραίων τὸ πρότερον, πρὶν ἢ θεοῦ ἀποσκιρτῆσαι καὶ γενέσθαι τούτου ἀλλότριοι καὶ τὸ τοῦ μονογενοῦς υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ αἷμα ἐφ' ἑαυτοὺς ἐπισπάσασθαι. οὗτος ἐκ μὲν τῆς Χαλδαίων γῆς ὑπῆρχεν ὁρμώμενος, τῶν περὶ τὰ μετέωρα καὶ τοὺς ἀστέρας τὸν βίον ὅλον καταναλισκόντων. ἀσκηθεὶς οὖν κατὰ τὸν πάτριον νόμον τὰς τῶν ἐπουρανίων ἀστέρων κινήσεις καὶ στοχασάμενος ὡς οὐκ ἐν τούτοις ἵσταται τὸ μεγαλουργὸν τῆς φαινομένης ταυτησὶ κτίσεως, ἀλλ' ἔχει τινὰ τὸν δημιουργὸν τὸν καὶ κινοῦντα καὶ διευθύνοντα τὴν ἐναρμόνιον τῶν ἀστέρων πορείαν καὶ τοῦ κόσμου παντὸς τὴν κατάστασιν, καὶ διὰ τοῦ μεγέθους καὶ τῆς καλλονῆς τῶν κτισμάτων τὸν γενεσιουργὸν αὐτῶν, ὡς ἐνῆν, θεωρήσας οὐκ ἔστη μέχρι τούτων, οὐδὲ τὴν ἔφεσιν εἰς ταῦτα κατεδαπάνησεν, ἀλλὰ τῶν οὐρανίων ἁψίδων ὑπεραρθεὶς καὶ πᾶσαν διαβὰς τὴν νοητήν τε καὶ ὑπερκόσμιον σύμπηξιν οὐκ ἀπέστη τοῦ ζητουμένου, ἕως οὗ ὁ ποθούμενος ἑαυτὸν αὐτῷ ἐφανέρωσε τύποις τε καὶ μορφώμασιν, οἷς ἑαυτὸν ἐμφανίζει ὁ ἀφανὴς καὶ ἀόρατος. καὶ μετανάστην αὐτὸν ἐκ τῆς πατρίδος λαβὼν ἐπὶ τὴν Χανανῖτιν κατέστησε, τὸν ἐνενηκοστόν που καὶ ἔνατον ἤδη χρόνον παρέλκοντα: καὶ ἄπαιδα μέχρι τότε τυγχάνοντα γεννήτορα τοῦ θαυμασίου καὶ μάκαρος κατέ- στησεν Ἰσαὰκ, ἵν' ἔχοι μονογενῆ υἱὸν καὶ πρωτότοκον, τοῦ μονογενοῦς καὶ πρωτοτόκου μυστικὴν εἰκόνα προδιαγράφοντα: τοῦτο γέρας αὐτῷ κατ' ἐξαίρετον χαρισάμενος, τὸ δοῦλον καὶ φίλον καὶ πατέρα χρηματίσαι τοῦ μονογενοῦς υἱοῦ κατὰ σάρκα, τοῦ τὸν κόσμον ὅλον δημιουργήσαντος. οὗτος εὗρε μὲν ἱερὰ γράμματα καὶ γλῶσσαν ἐμηχανήσατο, ἧς Ἑβραίων παῖδες ἐν ἐπιστήμῃ ἐτύγχανον, ὡς ὄντες τούτου μαθηταὶ καὶ ἀπόγονοι. ἐκ τούτου καὶ τὰ Ἑλλήνων γράμματα τὰς ἀφορμὰς ἔλαβον, κἂν ἄλλως καὶ ἄλλως ἑαυτοὺς διαπαίζοντες ἀναγράφωσιν Ἕλληνες. καὶ τούτου μαρτύριον ἡ τοῦ Ἄλφα φωνὴ τοῦ πρώτου στοιχείου καὶ ἄρχοντος, ἀπὸ τοῦ Ἄλεφ Ἑβραίου λαβόντος τὴν ἐπίκλησιν τοῦ μακαρίου καὶ πρώτου καὶ ἀθανάτου ὀνόματος. ἐκ τούτου καὶ τὰ ὀνείρων βιβλία ἐσφετερίσαντο Ἕλληνες. καὶ μάρτυς Ἰωσὴφ ὁ πανθαύμαστος ὁ τούτου ἀπόγονος, ὁ τοῦ Φαραὼ τὰ ἐνύπνια ὡς ἔμελλον ἀποβήσεσθαι διηγούμενος. τοῦτό μοι καὶ Φίλων, ἐξ Ἑβραίων φιλόσοφος, ἐν τῷ τοῦ Πολιτικοῦ βίῳ συνεπιμαρτυρήσεται, Φίλων, περὶ οὗ ἐρρήθη, Φίλων πλατωνίζει, καὶ Πλάτων φιλωνίζει. ὅτι ἤρξατο ἡ εἰδωλολατρεία ἀπὸ Σεροὺχ ἕως τῶν χρόνων Θάρρα τοῦ πατρὸς Ἀβραάμ. ὃς Ἀβραὰμ ὑπάρχων ἐτῶν ιδ# καὶ θεογνωσίας ἀξιωθεὶς ἐνουθέτει τὸν πατέρα αὐτοῦ, λέγων: τί πλανᾷς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους διὰ κέρδος ἐπιζήμιον [τουτέστι τὰ εἴδωλα]; οὐκ ἔστιν ἄλλος θεὸς εἰ μὴ ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς, ὁ καὶ πάντα τὸν κόσμον δημιουργήσας. ὁρῶν γὰρ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους κτισματολατροῦντας διήρχετο διαπονούμενος καὶ τὸν ὄντως ὄντα θεὸν ἐκζητῶν ἐκ φιλοθέου καρδίας. ὁρῶν δὲ τὸν οὐρανὸν ποτὲ μὲν λαμπρὸν, ποτὲ δὲ σκοτεινὸν, ἔλεγεν ἐν ἑαυτῷ: οὐκ ἔστιν οὗτος θεός. ὁμοίως καὶ τὸν ἥλιον καὶ τὴν σελήνην, τὸν μὲν ἀποκρυπτόμενον καὶ ἀμαυρούμενον, τὴν δὲ φθίνουσαν καὶ ἀπολήγουσαν, ἔφησεν: οὐδ' οὗτοί εἰσι θεοί. καὶ μέντοι καὶ τὴν τῶν ἀστέρων κίνησιν, ἐκ τοῦ πατρὸς γὰρ ἐπαιδεύετο τὴν ἀστρονομίαν, καὶ ἀπορῶν ἐδυσχέραινεν. ὤφθη δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ θεὸς καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ: ἔξελθε ἐκ τῆς γῆς σου καὶ ἐκ τῆς συγγενείας σου. καὶ λαβὼν τὰ εἴδωλα τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ τὰ μὲν κλάσας τὰ δὲ ἐμπυρίσας ἀνεχώρησε μετὰ τοῦ πατρὸς ἐκ γῆς Χαλδαίων: καὶ ἐλθόντος εἰς Χαρρὰν, ἐτελεύτησεν ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ. καὶ ἐξελθὼν ἐκεῖθεν ἐν λόγῳ Κυρίου ἦλθε σὺν τῇ γυναικὶ Σάρρᾳ καὶ τῷ ἀνεψιῷ Λὼτ μετὰ πάσης αὐτῶν τῆς ἀποσκευῆς εἰς τὴν ὀφειλομένην γῆν Χαναὰν, ἣν οἱ Χαναναῖοι τυραννικῶς ἀφελόμενοι ᾤκησαν. λιμοῦ δὲ γενομένου καταλιπὼν τὴν Χαναναίων γῆν εἰς Αἴγυπτον ἀπῄει, οὗ τὴν γυναῖκα Σάρραν Ἀβιμέλεχ ἥρπασεν ὁ βασιλεύς. τοῦτον ὁ θεὸς ἐκδειματώσας καὶ πάρεσιν τῶν μελῶν ἐπάξας, ἀπόδος, ἔφη, τὴν γυναῖκα τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ, ὅτι προφήτης ἐστὶ καὶ προσεύξεται περὶ σοῦ καὶ ζήσεις. εἰ δὲ μὴ ἀποδῷς, γνῶθι ὅτι ἀποθανῇ σὺ καὶ τὰ σὰ πάντα. καὶ οὕτως ἀπολαβὼν τὴν γυναῖκα ἀμίαντον καὶ προσευξάμενος ἰαθῆναι ἐποίησε τῆς παρέσεως Ἀβιμέλεχ καὶ τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ. ἔκτοτε τιμῶν αὐτὸν ὁ βασιλεὺς καὶ προσέχων τοῖς ὑπ' αὐτοῦ λεγομένοις, διδάσκαλος εὐσεβείας καὶ πολυπειρίας Αἰγυπτίοις ἐγένετο. ὁ αὐτὸς Ἄβραμ ὑποστρέφων ἐκ τοῦ πολέμου τῆς εὐλογίας τοῦ Μελχισεδὲκ κατηξίωται, τοῦ βασιλέως Σαλὴμ, ὃς ἐξήνεγκεν αὐτῷ ἄρτους καὶ οἶνον. ἦν δὲ καὶ ἱερεὺς τοῦ Ὑψίστου. καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ Ἄβραμ δεκάτην ἀπὸ πάντων. ἦν δὲ ὁ Μελχισεδὲκ ἀπάτωρ, ἀμήτωρ, ἀγενεαλόγητος, ἀφωμοιωμένος τῷ υἱῷ τοῦ θεοῦ. τῷ δὲ Ἄβραμ ἀτεκνίαν ὀλοφυρομένῳ καθ' ὕπνους ἐπιδείξας ὁ θεὸς τοὺς ἀστέρας κατὰ τὸ πλῆθος αὐτῶν ἔσεσθαί οἱ τὸ σπέρμα προεδήλου. ὁ δὲ ἐπίστευσε τῷ θεῷ, καὶ ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ εἰς δικαιοσύνην. ἡ δὲ Σάρρα στεῖρα οὖσα συνεχώρησεν Ἄβραμ ἀπὸ τῆς παιδίσκης παιδοποιήσασθαι: καὶ ἴσχει τὸν Ἰσμαήλ. ἐνενήκοντα δὲ καὶ ἐννέα ἐτῶν ὄντι τῷ Ἄβραμ ἐπιφανεὶς ὁ θεὸς Ἀβραὰμ μετωνόμασεν: Ἄβραμ γὰρ πρώην ὠνομάζετο: ὁμοίως καὶ τὴν Σάραν Σάρραν, προσθεὶς καὶ ἕτερον ρ. καὶ περιέτεμε τὸν Ἰσμαὴλ καὶ πάντας τοὺς ἐξ αὐτοῦ. Κύριος δὲ τῷ Ἀβραὰμ ἐπιξενωθεὶς ἐπηγγείλατο τέξεσθαι Σάρραν αὐτῷ παῖδα. ἡ δὲ ἐμειδίασε, καὶ Ἰσαὰκ τὸ γεννηθὲν προσηγορεύθη, φερωνύμως τῷ μεθ' ἡδονῆς γέλωτι κατὰ τὴν Ἑβραί̈δα διάλεκτον. καὶ Ἀβραμιαῖος: ὁ ἀπόγονος Ἀβραὰμ, ἢ γιγαντιαῖος, ἱεροπρεπής.
Notes:
This long entry is derived in part directly from George the Monk, in part indirectly from Philo of Alexandria; see further in the notes below.
[1] cf. Matthew 27:25 (web address 1).
[2] The Suda's attention to Chaldean astrology derives from Philo, On Abraham, (Colson, Philo Vol VI: XV.69-70).
[3] Use of τύπος here is twofold: 1) To assert that God's appearance to Abraham was indirect (echoing Philo, On Abraham, XVII.79-80); 2) To impart, as if a corollary of τύπος in Romans 5:14, that God's manifestation to Abraham was a type or prefiguration of Christ.
[4] Abraham is 100 years old at Isaac's birth (Genesis 21:5); however, the Suda follows Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.191-93 (web address 2 below) in assuming Abraham's age as 99 at the time of God's promise.
[5] The Suda here omits Ishmael, born to Abraham by the Egyptian slave Hagar when he was 86 years old (Genesis 16:1-16). The Suda's omission tacitly acknowledges a covenantal and legal distinction clearly drawn in Genesis. In Isaac, God establishes an "everlasting covenant" for his progeny, whereas God blesses Ishmael and makes him "fruitful and exceedingly numerous" (Genesis 17:19-20). Isaac's filial status is made explicit by God in identifying him as Abraham's "only son" (Genesis 22:12) through whom "offspring shall be named" for Abraham, whereas Ishmael, although destined to father a nation, is identified by God as "the son of the slave woman" (Genesis 21:12-13). Ishmael is, however, mentioned later in the entry.
[6] Christological imagery links Isaac to the personage of Jesus (Matthew 1:1-2 at web address 3 below). See also delta 94, notes 1 and 14.
[7] The Suda underscores the magnitude of the honor with a hyperbolic κατ' before ἐξαίρετον .
[8] The statement, rooted in a paternalistic-filial model that originates in Abraham and culminates in the figure of Christ, approximates the transcendental premise: Abraham is to Joseph as Isaac is to Christ.
[9] The Suda confuses Mosaic and Abrahamic lore. The 2nd century BCE Jewish writer Eupolemus claimed for Moses the invention and propagation of writing: "Moses was the first wise man, the first who imparted the alphabet to the Jews; the Phoenicians received it from the Jews, and the Greeks from the Phoenicians." The 2nd century BCE Egyptian Jewish writer Artapanus attributed hieroglyphics to Moses. According to the 2nd century BCE Samaritan writer Ps.-Eupolemus and Artapanus, astrology and astronomy originated with Abraham, who taught these disciplines and other tools of culture to the Jews, Phoenicians, and Egyptians. They, in turn, transmitted these arts to the Greeks. Philo in On Abraham stresses Abraham's expertise as a teacher. (Encyc. Judaica, Vol 6.964-65; Gruen, 146-51, 157, 294; Grant, 77; Philo, XI.52) At sigma 295, Seth is credited with the invention of the alphabet; Greek legend named Cadmus or Linus as the one who introduced the alphabet to Greece (gamma 416, kappa 21, kappa 22, lambda 568). See also phi 787.
[10] The reference recalls א aleph as the initial letter of ʾelohīm, the most frequent generic name for God in the OT, used about 2,500 times--but a distant second to the unspoken covenant name YHWH (Yahweh), which occurs some 6,800 times (Perdue, 685-86). Cf. alpha 1445.
[11] A reference to Philo's Βίος πολιτικοῦ ὅπερ ἐστι περὶ Ἰωσήφ (Colson, Philo Vol VI, 140ff.)
[12] Adapted from Jerome's On Illustrious Men (11): ἢ Πλάτων φιλωνίζει ἢ Φίλων πλατωνίζει ("Either Plato philonizes or Philo platonizes.") Cf. phi 448 and Photius, Bibliotheca 86b 25.
[13] Abraham's grandfather (Genesis 11:22). Seruch in the LXX, שרוג śerūḡ in Hebrew. See also sigma 253.
[14] Abraham's father (Genesis 11:24). Tharra (Θάρρα , Θαρρά ) or Tharrha (Θάῤῥα ) (Hatch, Concordance, Appendix 1, 71; Brenton, 13); in Hebrew תרח Teraḥ. From the Chronicon of George the Monk, 92.11-12; cf. Malalas 55.5-6.
[15] The Midrash sets Abraham's rejection of idolatry at age 13 (Encyc. Judaica, 4.244). From here to "teacher to the Egyptians," the Suda's source is the Chronicon of George the Monk, 93.16 - 95.17.
[16] On God as "He who is," see omicron 438, omega 105.
[17] cf. Philo, On Abraham XIV.62.
[18] The call in Genesis 12:1-5 brings Abraham from Haran (חרן) to Canaan (כנען). The Suda adheres to Philo, On Abraham, XIV. 67: μετανίσταται...ἀπὸ τῆς Χαλδαίων γῆς...ἐις τὴν Χαρραίων γῆν .
[19] Philo shows ἀδελφιδοῦς , as at On Abraham, XXXVII.212, rather than the Suda's potentially ambiguous ἀνεψιός for nephew (see LSJ s.v. at web address 4).
[20] On Abimelech, see alpha 45.
[21] The affliction cured in Genesis 20:17-18 is unspecified for Abimelech, but clearly is sterility for the female members of his house. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.208 (web address 5) relates that a "dangerous distemper" (Whiston trans.) afflicted Abimelech. For other traditions, see EncycJudaica, 2.76.
[22] Genesis 14:14-18; the Suda's source is the Chronicon of George the Monk, 100.17-26; 101.5-7.
[23] See Hebrews 7:3 (web address 6). In the Suda, see mu 544, mu 545, mu 546.
[24] The Greek mainly uses Abraam (אברהם ʾAḇraham) to this point, but here Abram (אברם), his pre-covenant name (Genesis 17:5).
[25] Genesis 15:5-6. The statement "and he believed God and God reckoned it to him as righteousness" appears also in Romans 4:3 (web address 7), Galatians 3:6 (web address 8), and James 2:23 (web address 9). A more idiomatic and semantically precise translation of the Hebrew (והאמין בה' ויחשבה לו צדקה weheʾemīn bah' wayyaḥšeḇeha lō ṣedaqah) reads: "And because he put his trust in the Lord, He reckoned it to his merit" (Plaut, 146). This version takes into interpretive account the imperfective waw consecutive (consequential) (Kautzsch, 111.l).
[26] Ismael (Ishmael) appears in the Suda at iota 644, but with a gloss that belongs to Isaak.
[27] Genesis 17:15. Also as Σάῤῥα or Sarrha (Brenton, 18). The Hebrew covenant name change is Sarai to Sarah (both meaning Princess).
[28] Isaac (יצחק yiṣḥaq) from the Hebrew meaning "he (Abraham) laughed" in Genesis 17:17, and puns Sarah's תצחק tiṣḥaq ("she laughed") in Genesis 18:12. (Kohlenberger, Vol 1, 37, 39; Anderson, 182) In the Suda, see iota 606 (mostly taken from this entry).
[29] This adjectival derivative of Abraham's name appears in 4 Maccabees 9:21 LXX. The gloss replicates, apart from word order, one in Photius; cf. Synagoge alpha17, Hesychius alpha181.
References:
Anderson, A.W. Understanding the Old Testament. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1966
Attridge, H.W. "The Letter to the Hebrews" in The HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Brenton, L.C.L. The Septuagint with Apocrypha. Peabody: Henrickson, 1999 (reprint of 1851 edn.)
Colson F.H., Philo (Vol VI), Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1994
Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1973
Grant, M. From Alexander to Cleopatra: The Hellenistic World. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1982
Gruen, E.S. Heritage and Hellenism: The Reinvention of Jewish Tradition. Berkeley: University of California, 1998
Hatch, E., Redpath, H.A., and Muraoka, T. A Concordance to the Septuagint. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1998
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910
Keck, L.E. "The Letter of Paul to the Romans" in The HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987
Perdue, L.G. "Names of God in the Old Testament" in Harper's Bible Dictionary. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985
Plaut, W.G. The Torah: Genesis, A Modern Commentary. New York: Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1972
Smyth, H.W. Greek Grammar. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1984
Whiston, W. The Works of Josephus. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1987 (reprint of 1736 edn.)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4,
Web address 5,
Web address 6,
Web address 7,
Web address 8,
Web address 9
Keywords: aetiology; biography; children; Christianity; chronology; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; dreams; food; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; history; law; medicine; religion; science and technology; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:54:17.
Vetted by:
Craig Miller (Under editorial review as of this date) on 6 January 2002@08:24:02.
Craig Miller (Modified translation) on 24 January 2002@19:18:31.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@00:26:38.
Craig Miller (Notes added. Additional work pending.) on 25 January 2002@00:29:41.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@01:17:54.
Craig Miller (Added bibliography, keywords; changed status) on 25 January 2002@22:21:22.
Craig Miller (Cosmetics) on 25 January 2002@22:51:36.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@22:54:34.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@23:13:26.
Craig Miller on 4 June 2002@20:45:55.
Craig Miller on 19 June 2002@19:13:42.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew words; minor cosmetics.) on 31 October 2002@10:38:39.
Raphael Finkel (More Hebrew, cosmetics.) on 18 December 2002@10:58:21.
Craig Miller (Additional cosmetics) on 17 May 2003@19:07:49.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@08:20:23.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 November 2005@07:49:08.
Jennifer Benedict (added 15 links) on 25 March 2008@11:50:57.
Catharine Roth (references, cosmetics) on 10 April 2008@16:09:00.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 10 April 2008@20:15:09.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, pruned notes, added cross-references) on 11 April 2008@12:30:02.
Catharine Roth (adjusted note numbers; more tweaks) on 11 April 2008@14:18:11.
William Hutton (augmented n. 29) on 17 July 2009@17:14:18.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 December 2011@07:16:50.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links, other tweaks) on 22 December 2011@19:00:49.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note and links) on 11 November 2013@01:26:27.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:27:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 11 August 2014@00:14:27.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:33:55.
Catharine Roth (betacode typo) on 2 October 2018@02:07:40.

Headword: Ἄβυδος
Adler number: alpha,101
Translated headword: Abudos, Abydos, Abydus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A city.[1]
The word is applied to an informant [συκοφάντης ] because of the common belief that the people of Abudos were informers.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] an adverb, Ἀβυδόθι , [meaning] in Abudos.[3]
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] ἄΒυδον φλυαρίαν ["Abudos nonsense"], [meaning] great [nonsense].[4]
And [sc. attested is] Ἀβυδηνὸς , [meaning] he [who comes] from Abudos.[5]
Greek Original:
Ἄβυδος: πόλις. ἐπὶ συκοφάντου τάττεται ἡ λέξις, διὰ τὸ δοκεῖν συκοφάντας εἶναι τοὺς Ἀβυδηνούς. καὶ ἐπίρρημα, Ἀβυδόθι, ἐν Ἀβύδῳ. καὶ Ἄβυδον φλυαρίαν, τὴν πολλήν. καὶ Ἀβυδηνὸς, ὁ ἀπὸ Ἀβύδου.
Notes:
[1] = Lexicon Ambrosianum 82, according to Adler. In fact two cities of this name are known: one on the Asiatic shore of the Hellespont (Barrington Atlas map 51 grid G4; present-day Maltepe) and Abydos/Ebot in Upper Egypt (Barrington Atlas map 77 grid F4); without much doubt, the former is meant here. (In Hesychius alpha23 the gloss is fuller -- 'a Trojan city of the Hellespont'. Latte regards the entry as prompted by Homer, Iliad 2.836, accusative case, although similar wording appears in a late scholion to Iliad 17.584, where the adverbial derivative ἀβυδόθι appears -- see n. 3 below). See also alpha 100, sigma 465, and generally OCD(4) s.v.
[2] = the first sentence of Pausanias the Atticist alpha3 and Photius alpha63 Theodoridis; cf. also Zenobius 1.1, s.v. Ἀβυδηνὸν ἐπιφόρημα (alpha 100), and Kassel-Austin, PCG III.2 p.376 on Aristophanes fr. 755. See generally sigma 1330, sigma 1331, sigma 1332.
[3] Probably from commentary to Homer, Iliad 17.584, the only literary attestation of this adverb prior to Musaeus Grammaticus (5/6 CE); cf. Apollonius Dyscolus On Adverbs 2.1.1.164.
[4] = Synagoge Codex B alpha44, but in the better mss of Photius (Lexicon alpha64 Theodoridis) the adjective (in a nominative-case entry) is ἄβυθος ('bottomless'), surely correctly; cf. alpha 104. The ultimate source may be Plato, Parmenides 130D, though there too the text is uncertain: perhaps εἴς τιν' ἄβυθον φλυαρίαν (web address 1), though the alternatives include εἴς τινα βῦθον φλυαρίας . On the adjective ἄβυθος, a synonym for ἄβυσσος, see the LSJ entry at web address 2.
[5] There are many literary attestations of this form of the ethnic adjective (nominative singular masculine), beginning with Herodotus 4.138. For an instance in the Suda see pi 71.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; geography; law; philosophy; proverbs
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 21 November 1998@13:59:06.
Vetted by:
Eric Nelson on 31 December 1999@21:07:09.
Ross Scaife ✝ (fixed keywords) on 2 March 2000@17:48:48.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; replaced existing note; cosmetics) on 11 January 2001@08:05:35.
Jennifer Benedict (added links, betacode fix, cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@00:03:03.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 18 April 2011@14:40:09.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 25 April 2011@04:09:51.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 December 2011@09:19:59.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1) on 1 February 2012@05:52:37.
David Whitehead (expansions to notes) on 16 August 2013@07:33:01.
William Hutton (augmented notes) on 4 July 2014@08:19:58.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:21:46.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 3 September 2014@23:35:15.
David Whitehead (expanded n.2) on 22 December 2014@09:26:49.

Headword: Ἀγαθίας
Adler number: alpha,112
Translated headword: Agathias
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A lawyer,[1] of Myrina;[2] the one who wrote the History as a continuation of Procopius of Caesarea,[3] [comprising] the affairs involving Belisarius[4] and the events in Italy and Libya; that is the affairs involving Narses[5] in Italy and the events in Lazike[6] and Byzantion. He also composed other books, both in meter and in prose, including the Daphniaka[7] and the Cycle of New Epigrams, which he compiled himself from the poets of his day. He was a contemporary of Paulus Silentiarius and of the consul Macedonius and of Tribonian[8] in the time of Justinian.[9]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθίας: σχολαστικὸς, Μυριναῖος, ὁ γράψας τὴν μετὰ Προκόπιον ἱστορίαν τὸν Καισαρέα, τὰ κατὰ Βελισάριον καὶ τὰς ἐν Ἰταλίᾳ καὶ ἐν Λιβύῃ πράξεις, τουτέστι τὰ κατὰ Ναρσῆν ἐν Ἰταλίᾳ καὶ τὰ ἐν Λαζικῇ καὶ Βυζαντίῳ. οὗτος συνέταξε καὶ ἕτερα βιβλία ἔμμετρά τε καὶ καταλογάδην, τά τε καλούμενα Δαφνιακά, καὶ τὸν Κύκλον τῶν νέων Ἐπιγραμμάτων, ὃν αὐτὸς συνῆξεν ἐκ τῶν κατὰ καιρὸν ποιητῶν. συνήκμασε δὲ Παύλῳ τῷ Σελεντιαρίῳ καὶ Μακεδονίῳ τῷ ὑπάτῳ καὶ Τριβουνιανῷ ἐπὶ τῶν Ἰουστινιανοῦ χρόνων.
Notes:
c.532-c.580. See generally Averil Cameron in OCD(4) s.v. (p.35).
[1] See OCD s.v.
[2] a.k.a. Sebastopolis, in Aeolis (Asia Minor): Barrington Atlas map 56 grid D4.
[3] For Procopius see pi 2479. A's own work was in turn continued by Menander Protector (mu 591).
[4] See beta 233.
[5] See nu 42.
[6] An alternative name for Colchis (kappa 1979); present-day Georgia, between the Black and Caspian Seas.
[7] Amatory hexameters.
[8] tau 956, cf. tau 951.
[9] iota 446.
Keywords: biography; chronology; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; law; poetry; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 30 March 2001@15:08:59.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 24 April 2002@04:07:08.
David Whitehead (added note) on 3 November 2003@06:05:01.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; corrected a note number) on 3 August 2006@09:47:58.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr) on 18 May 2011@08:29:09.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 22 December 2011@04:42:12.
Philip Rance (modified translation) on 23 January 2012@07:57:14.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:22:58.

Headword: Ἀγαθοεργοί
Adler number: alpha,115
Translated headword: agathoergoi, benefactors
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Men selected according to valor.
From the Ephors.[1]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθοεργοί: αἱρετοὶ κατ' ἀνδραγαθίαν. ἐκ τῶν Ἐφόρων.
Notes:
This is the name for a select group of Spartan elders. According to Herodotus (1.67.5: web address 1) five were selected each year from the eldest members of the cavalry, not from the ephors.
[1] Adler called these final three words locus dubius, and capitalized, as here, the word Ephors. For a speculative argument that this phrase should actually read "from the [sc. writings] of Ephoros", see D. Whitehead, 'Ephorus(?) on the Spartan constitution', Classical Quarterly n.s. 55 (2005) 299-301. [The suggestion has been taken up in Brill's New Jacoby s.v. Ephorus, by Victor Parker. However, the evidential basis for it is illusory, according to I.C. Cunningham, CQ n.s. 61 (2011) 312-314.]
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; ethics; geography; historiography; history; law; military affairs
Translated by: William Hutton on 31 March 2001@23:24:43.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note; added keyword) on 2 April 2001@03:36:30.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 17 June 2005@09:32:07.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 25 May 2011@06:46:44.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 25 May 2011@11:04:04.
David Whitehead (expanded note; more keywords; cosmetics) on 22 December 2011@06:04:44.

Headword: Ἀγασικλῆς
Adler number: alpha,169
Translated headword: Agasikles, Agasicles
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A proper name. He is said to have bribed[1] the Halimousians, and for that reason, although he was a foreigner, to have been accorded [sc. Athenian] citizenship.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγασικλῆς: ὄνομα κύριον. ὃς λέγεται Ἁλιμουσίνοις συνδικάσαι καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ξένος ὢν ἐγγραφῆναι τῇ πολιτείᾳ.
Notes:
After the initial generic gloss, this entry is abridged from Harpokration s.v.
[1] Reading συνδεκάσαι for the transmitted συνδικάσαι ("to share in judging"). See LSJ s.v. συνδεκάζω at web address 1; see also n. 1 to alpha 1231.
[2] This is RE Agasikles 2; his claim to Athenian citizenship was contested in a speech by Dinarchus.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; constitution; definition; economics; ethics; history; law; politics; rhetoric
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 7 June 1999@11:24:47.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation, with explanatory note.) on 15 September 2000@06:18:36.
David Whitehead on 15 September 2000@06:20:34.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@11:01:00.
Jennifer Benedict (betacode, added link, cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@01:51:40.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 27 March 2008@08:39:44.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 July 2011@09:57:12.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 5 April 2015@21:47:43.

Headword: Ἀγόμενος διὰ φρατέρων κύων μαστιγοῦται
Adler number: alpha,292
Translated headword: a dog led through phratry-members is whipped
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[no gloss]
Greek Original:
Ἀγόμενος διὰ φρατέρων κύων μαστιγοῦται.
Note:
For phratries see gamma 146, gamma 147, phi 692 phi 693, phi 694, and generally OCD(4) s.v. (pp.1141-2). As a proverb (cf. Macarius Chrysocephalus 1.15) the phrase presumably concerns admission to phratries and the exposure of fraudulent attempts at this.
Keywords: daily life; ethics; law; proverbs; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 16 March 2001@16:38:49.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 17 March 2001@05:25:58.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 5 January 2012@08:36:28.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@02:54:46.

Headword: Ἀγορανομίας
Adler number: alpha,302
Translated headword: market-supervisorship, market-supervisorships
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] auditorship/s. The term is applied to those who oversee sales in the cities.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the related concrete noun] "market-supervisors" [agoranomoi]: the officials who manage the sales in the marketplace [sc. in Athens].[2]
Aristophanes in Acharnians [writes]: "as market-supervisors of the market I appoint the three who were chosen by lot, the thongs from Leprous."[3] That is, straps, whips. For in olden days the auditors of the marketplace used to beat people with whips. And "leprous" [λεπρούς ] some explain as [sc. wordplay] from the verb lepein, that is, "to beat"; others from Lepreon a small town of the Peloponnese which Callimachus also mentions in the Hymns: "citadel of Kaukones, which is called Lepreion."[4] Others still [sc. derive it] from mangy cattle, since the hides of mangy cattle are tough. Still others because the Megarians, with whom he[5] is making a treaty, have mangy bodies. But better to say that [sc. there is] a place called Leproi outside the [Athenian] town-center where the tanners' shops were. There is also a mention of this in Birds: "why then do you settle [in] Helian Lepreon."[6]
Also [sc. attested is the the verb] "I supervise markets" [ἀγορανομῶ ]; [used] with a genitive.
Greek Original:
Ἀγορανομίας: λογιστίας. εἴρηται δὲ ἐπὶ τῶν ἐπισκοπούντων τὰ τῶν πόλεων ὤνια. καὶ Ἀγορανόμοι, οἱ τὰ κατὰ τὴν ἀγορὰν ὤνια διοικοῦντες ἄρχοντες. Ἀριστοφάνης Ἀχαρνεῦσιν: ἀγορανόμους δὲ τῆς ἀγορᾶς καθίσταμαι τρεῖς τοὺς λαχόντας, τοὺς δ' ἱμάντας ἐκ λεπρῶν. τουτέστι λώρους, φραγγέλια. τὸ γὰρ παλαιὸν φραγγέλοις ἔτυπτον οἱ λογισταὶ τῆς ἀγορᾶς. λεπρῶν δὲ οἱ μὲν ἀπὸ τοῦ λέπειν, ὅ ἐστι τύπτειν: οἱ δὲ ἀπὸ Λεπρέου πολίσματος τῆς Πελοποννήσου, ἧς μέμνηται καὶ Καλλίμαχος ἐν Ὕμνοις: Καυκώνων πτολίεθρον, ὃ Λέπρειον πεφάτισται. οἱ δὲ ἐκ λεπρῶν βοῶν, διὰ τὸ τὰ ἐκ λεπρῶν βοῶν δέρματα ἰσχυρὰ εἶναι. οἱ δὲ ὅτι οἱ Μεγαρεῖς λεπροὶ τὸ σῶμα, πρὸς οὓς σπένδεται. ἄμεινον δὲ λέγειν, ὅτι τόπος ἔξω τοῦ ἄστεος Λεπροὶ καλούμενος, ἔνθα τὰ βυρσεῖα ἦν. οὗ καὶ ἐν Ὄρνισι μέμνηται: τί δ' οὖν τὸν ἥλιον Λέπρεον οἰκίζετε. καὶ Ἀγορανομῶ: γενικῇ.
Notes:
The headword -- evidently extracted from somewhere -- and primary gloss are either genitive singulars or accusative plurals.
[1] Likewise in other lexica; references at Photius alpha228 Theodoridis.
[2] From Harpokration s.v., commenting on Demosthenes 24.112 and also citing ?Aristotle, Ath.Pol. 51.1.
[3] Aristophanes, Acharnians 723-4 (web address 1), followed here by comment from the scholia there; cf. lambda 291.
[4] Callimachus, Hymn to Zeus 39.
[5] Dikaiopolis, that is, the speaker of the quotation.
[6] What seems to be a very mangled quotation from Aristophanes, Birds 150. A more correct quotation might be translated as "Why do you two not go and settle in Lepreon in Elis?" This would seem to be a reference to the Peloponnesian Lepreon and not to a Leproi outside Athens. See web address 2 below for the text of Aristophanes, and web address 3 for the location of Lepreon.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3
Keywords: clothing; comedy; constitution; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; history; law; medicine; poetry; rhetoric; trade and manufacture; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 30 October 2000@00:03:30.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics; raised status) on 30 October 2000@03:28:23.
David Whitehead (restorative cosmetics) on 22 December 2002@09:24:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@11:02:46.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@03:58:52.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 6 January 2012@01:19:18.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 18 August 2013@09:01:32.

Headword: Ἀγοραίαν δίκην
Adler number: alpha,307
Translated headword: agora lawsuit, forensic lawsuit
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the (?)defense plea.
Greek Original:
Ἀγοραίαν δίκην: τὴν δικαιολογίαν.
Notes:
An opaque entry, and made the more so because it appears in other lexica in different forms. In Photius (alpha231 Theodoridis) the lemma itself is the adjective only, i.e. δίκην is lacking; the Synagoge (alpha82) has δίκην as the first part of the gloss. All that seems certain, therefore, is that ἀγοραίαν (accusative singular) is quoted from somewhere.
The glossing term dikaiologia can mean either a defense plea or a forensic speech of any kind: see LSJ s.v.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; law; rhetoric
Translated by: William Hutton on 24 October 2000@12:05:09.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note) on 29 April 2002@07:22:51.
David Whitehead (expanded note; another keyword; cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@09:55:23.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@09:07:40.
William Hutton (augmented note) on 21 August 2013@10:09:58.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 3 September 2014@23:38:06.

Headword: Ἀγοραῖος νοῦς
Adler number: alpha,308
Translated headword: marketplace mind
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the one altogether cheap and vulgar and not elite or thoughtful.[1]
Also [sc. attested is] Agoraios Hermes. Aristophanes [writes]: "by Hermes Agoraios, I look and I perjure myself." That is, [Hermes] who is honored in a marketplace.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγοραῖος νοῦς: ὁ πανευτελὴς καὶ συρφετώδης καὶ οὐκ ἀπόρρητος οὐδὲ πεφροντισμένος. καὶ Ἀγοραῖος Ἑρμῆς: Ἀριστοφάνης. νὴ τὸν Ἑρμῆν τὸν Ἀγοραῖον κἀπιορκῶ γε βλέπων. τουτέστιν ὁ ἐν ἀγορᾷ τιμώμενος.
Notes:
See generally LSJ s.v. agoraios (web address 1) for texts further illustrating both of these disparate senses (and note the comment there: "the distinction ἀγόραιος vulgar, ἀγοραῖος public speaker, drawn by Ammonius [a C1/2 grammarian] etc. is probably fictitious"); cf. alpha 309. See further D. Whitehead, Hypereides: the forensic speeches (Oxford 2000) 287.
[1] Likewise or similarly in other lexica; references at Photius alpha233 Theodoridis.
[2] Aristophanes, Knights 297-8 (web address 2: the manuscript reading is "I perjure myself before those who are looking"), with scholion. The same epithet is attested, elsewhere, of Artemis, Athena and Zeus.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; economics; ethics; law; religion
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 9 March 2001@00:09:31.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 9 March 2001@03:12:41.
Catharine Roth (Added link and cross-reference.) on 9 March 2001@11:48:55.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 15 February 2007@10:33:05.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 15 February 2007@10:56:51.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@10:02:11.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 5 January 2012@22:53:49.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@09:09:54.

Headword: Ἀγοραῖοι
Adler number: alpha,309
Translated headword: marketplace [men]
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Has circumflex accent on the penultimate syllable; [meaning] men involved in a marketplace.[1]
Damascius [writes]: "[...] but he stood by and begged those who were defrauding, even including (?)skilled judges."[2]
But with the acute accent on the second syllable ἀγόραιος [is] the day on which the market is held.[3]
Greek Original:
Ἀγοραῖοι: προπερισπωμένως: οἱ ἐν ἀγορᾷ ἀναστρεφόμενοι ἄνθρωποι. Δαμάσκιος: ὁ δὲ παρίστατο καὶ ἐξῄτει τοῖς ἀποστεροῦσι μέχρι καὶ δικαστῶν ἀγοραίων. προπαροξυτόνως δὲ Ἀγόραιος, ἡ ἡμέρα ἐν ᾗ ἡ ἀγορὰ τελεῖται.
Notes:
[1] See LSJ s.v. and cf. generally alpha 308. The present nominative plural headword and substantive gloss ('men involved in a marketplace') also occur in other lexica (references at Photius alpha232 Theodoridis); Latte on Hesychius claims the headword as stemming from Acts 17.5 (genitive plural).
[2] Damascius, Life of Isidore fr. 53 Zintzen (24 Asmus). A fuller version of the fragment is given at pi 658, where Adler notes several attempts, by her predecessors, to improve its wording. With or without them, the nature and identity of these dikastai agoraioi is unclear.
[3] LSJ s.v., III 1, where the distinction of meaning between ἀγόραιος "vulgar" and ἀγοραῖος "public speaker" is said to be fictitious. Note that section 2b is deleted by the LSJ Supplement. The shift of properispomenon to proparoxytone is a regular phenomenon of the Attic dialect, known as Vendryes' Law: see Kuehner-Blass #80 (web address 1); it is still possible, however, that the properispomenon form could have been restored in the productive category, where it is more closely asssociated with ἀγορά .
Reference:
J. Kuryłowicz, L'accentuation des langues indo-européennes (Wroclaw 1958) 159-161
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; Christianity; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; law; religion; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 9 March 2001@12:25:41.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note; added keyword; cosmetics) on 10 March 2001@08:43:44.
Catharine Roth (Revised grammatical note.) on 10 March 2001@11:36:25.
Catharine Roth (augmented grammatical note, added bibliography) on 4 April 2001@10:44:08.
David Whitehead (augmented Damascius ref; cosmetics) on 14 April 2004@07:40:52.
David Whitehead (tweaked translation) on 20 April 2005@08:14:54.
David Whitehead (augmented n.1; added a keyword) on 20 April 2005@09:59:36.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@11:08:03.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 9 October 2005@16:17:44.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 18 September 2010@01:21:55.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 18 September 2010@07:04:16.
Catharine Roth (tweaked links) on 5 January 2012@22:58:39.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 6 January 2012@03:24:49.
David Whitehead on 19 August 2013@03:57:45.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 19 August 2013@10:26:33.

Headword: Ἀγορῆθεν
Adler number: alpha,311
Translated headword: from the agora
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Out of the agora.
Greek Original:
Ἀγορῆθεν: ἐκ τῆς ἀγορᾶς.
Note:
Similar entry in Hesychius. From a scholion on Homer, Iliad 264 (Homeric text at web address 1); the headword -- a single word in the Greek -- occurs there, in the famous scene where the upstart Thersites (theta 257) is expelled 'from the agora' (= assembly) by his betters. See also Odyssey 12.439 (quoted by Strabo 1.2.36: a judge departs 'from the agora' for his evening meal) and Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.877.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: daily life; definition; epic; law; poetry
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 11 June 1999@10:56:09.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Set Status) on 21 October 2000@15:58:51.
Catharine Roth (Added note and link.) on 23 February 2001@20:44:50.
David Whitehead (modified translation, to differentiate it from headword; expanded note; augmented keywords) on 14 April 2004@07:51:40.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 6 January 2012@03:57:43.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 6 January 2012@12:19:48.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 10 January 2015@22:47:41.

Headword: Ἀγωγεύς
Adler number: alpha,319
Translated headword: prosecutor, thong
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The person introducing the lawsuit, the prosecutor.[1] Also [sc. attested is] ἀγωγεύς [sc. in another sense], thong.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] ἀγωγεῖ ["with a thong"], [meaning] with a rein, by which horses are guided.[3]
Greek Original:
Ἀγωγεύς: ὁ ἐνάγων τὴν δίκην, ὁ διώκων. καὶ Ἀγωγεὺς, ὁ λῶρος. καὶ Ἀγωγεῖ, ἱμάντι, ᾧ ἄγεται ὁ ἵππος.
Notes:
[1] Same equivalence, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon. This sense of the headword is otherwise unattested.
[2] See further below.
[3] Same or similar material in other lexica; references at Photius alpha304 Theodoridis. The only instances of this dative outside lexica etc. occur in Xenophon, On Horsemanship 6.5 and 8.4.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; law; zoology
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 7 July 1999@10:57:45.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics; keywords, set status.) on 23 October 2000@22:10:43.
David Whitehead (betacode and other cosmetics; supplied notes) on 14 April 2004@07:59:55.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@05:06:51.
David Whitehead (expanded n.3) on 19 August 2013@04:09:49.

Headword: Ἄγραφα ἀδικήματα
Adler number: alpha,342
Translated headword: unwritten crimes
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] those about which there is no written law.
Greek Original:
Ἄγραφα ἀδικήματα: οἱονεὶ ὑπὲρ ὧν νόμος οὐ γέγραπται.
Notes:
Same or similar entry in other lexica; references at Photius alpha242 Theodoridis.
The headword phrase (neuter plural) is vague-looking, but it belongs in a particular context: the procedure for eisangelia ("impeachment") in classical Athens. Lexicographers on this subject defined as impeachable offences not only specific acts of treason or corruption but also "unwritten public crimes", ἄγραφα δημόσια ἀδικήματα . Besides the present entry see, chiefly, Pollux 8.51 and Lex. Rhet. Cant., s.v. eisangelia; and cf. Aristotle, Rhetoric 1375a15. Amongst modern scholars, Rhodes (below) accepts this while Hansen (below) 16-17 and 19-20 does not; their exchanges were continued in JHS 1979 (Rhodes) and 1980 (Hansen).
References:
P.J. Rhodes, The Athenian Boule (Oxford 1972)
M.H. Hansen, Eisangelia (Odense 1975)
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; law
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 August 1998@18:28:24.
Vetted by:
David Mirhady on 17 December 1999@16:32:41.
David Whitehead (modified note; cosmetics) on 12 February 2001@08:24:05.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@07:29:55.
David Whitehead on 19 August 2013@04:31:46.

Headword: Ἀγραφίου
Adler number: alpha,343
Translated headword: de-listing
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A form of lawsuit against those in debt to the public treasury and written up for this, but erased before they paid it. So Demosthenes[1] and Dinarchus[2] and Lycurgus.[3]
Greek Original:
Ἀγραφίου: εἶδος δίκης κατὰ τῶν ὀφειλόντων μὲν τῷ δημοσίῳ καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ἐγγραφέντων, πρινὴ δὲ ἐκτίσαι ἐξαλειφθέντων. οὕτως Δημοσθένης καὶ Δείναρχος καὶ Λυκοῦργος.
Notes:
Abridged from Harpokration s.v. See also alpha 344.
[1] Demosthenes 58.51.
[2] Dinarchus fr. XVII.2 Conomis.
[3] Lycurgus fr. 7 Conomis.
Reference:
S.C. Todd, The Shape of Athenian Law (Oxford 1993) 105
Keywords: constitution; definition; economics; law; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 August 1998@18:31:04.
Vetted by:
David Mirhady on 14 December 1999@13:57:24.
David Mirhady on 17 December 1999@16:37:06.
David Whitehead (modified headword; added notes and bibliography; cosmetics) on 29 September 2000@06:51:50.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 22 November 2005@09:51:28.
David Whitehead (x-ref) on 22 November 2005@09:52:13.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 20 July 2011@04:15:29.

Headword: Ἀγραφίου δίκη
Adler number: alpha,344
Translated headword: dike agraphiou, lawsuit about erasure
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
When people owe [money] to the public treasury, as the result of a conviction, those in charge at the time about these matters write the debtors' names on notice-boards, appending how much the debt is [sc. in each case]. Whenever each one pays, the record is erased from the notice-board. So if someone is listed as owing money, but does not appear to have paid, and his name has been erased from the notice-board, any citizen who wishes may bring against him a lawsuit for erasure.
Greek Original:
Ἀγραφίου δίκη: τῶν ἐκ καταδίκης ὠφληκότων τῷ δημοσίῳ γράφουσι τὰ ὀνόματα ἐν σανίσιν οἱ κατὰ καιρὸν περὶ τούτων διοικοῦντες, προστιθέντες ἀνὰ πόσον ἐστὶ τὸ ὄφλημα. ὅταν δὲ ἀποδιδῷ ἕκαστος, ἐξαλείφεται τῆς σανίδος τὸ ἐπίγραμμα. ἐὰν οὖν τις ἀναγραφῇ μὲν ὠφληκέναι, δόξῃ δὲ μὴ ἀποδεδωκέναι, καὶ τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ ἐξηλειμμένον ᾖ ἐκ τῆς σανίδος, συγκεχώρηται τῷ βουλομένῳ τῶν ἀστῶν εἰσάγειν κατ' αὐτοῦ δίκην ἀγραφίου.
Note:
See already the more succinct alpha 343. The present entry is also in Photius.
Keywords: constitution; daily life; economics; law
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 August 1998@18:31:49.
Vetted by:
David Mirhady on 17 December 1999@17:27:12.
David Mirhady on 17 December 1999@17:29:47.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 12 February 2001@08:30:51.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 22 November 2005@09:54:25.
David Whitehead (expanded note; cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@07:33:56.

Headword: Ἀγράφου μετάλλου δίκη
Adler number: alpha,345
Translated headword: prosecution for an unregistered mine
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
When those who worked the silver mines [sc. in Athens] wanted to begin a new working, they would notify those the people had put in charge of mines and would register a twenty-fourth part of the new mine as a tax payable to the people. So if someone appeared to be working a mine in secret, anyone who wanted could indict and expose him for not having registered.
Greek Original:
Ἀγράφου μετάλλου δίκη: οἱ τὰ ἀργύρεια μέταλλα ἐργαζόμενοι ὅπου βούλοιντο καινοῦ ἔργου ἄρξασθαι, φανερὸν ἐποιοῦντο τοῖς ἐπ' ἐκείνοις τεταγμένοις ὑπὸ τοῦ δήμου καὶ ἀπεγράφοντο τοῦ τελεῖν ἕνεκα τῷ δήμῳ εἰκοστὴν τετάρτην τοῦ καινοῦ μετάλλου. εἴ τις οὖν ἐδόκει λάθρα ἐργάζεσθαι μέταλλον, τὸν μὴ ἀπογραψάμενον ἐξῆν τῷ βουλομένῳ γράφεσθαι καὶ ἐλέγχειν.
Notes:
Same entry in Photius.
For taxation of mines see again alpha 3456; the tax mentioned here appears to be post-classical.
Keywords: chronology; definition; economics; ethics; law; science and technology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 August 1998@18:32:34.
Vetted by:
David Mirhady on 17 December 1999@16:47:19.
David Mirhady on 17 December 1999@17:31:05.
Joseph L. Rife (added keyword) on 9 September 2000@21:15:31.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note) on 29 September 2000@07:08:15.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 20 November 2005@09:01:09.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords; tweaks) on 6 January 2012@07:37:28.

Headword: Ἄγροικος ὀργήν
Adler number: alpha,377
Translated headword: boorish in anger
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Litigious, choleric, prone to anger. Aristophanes [writes]: "for we have a master who is boorish in anger."[1]
Also [sc. attested is] ἀγροίτης , [meaning] the country man.
Greek Original:
Ἄγροικος ὀργήν: φιλόδικος, ἀκρόχολος, εἰς ὀργὴν εὔκολος. Ἀριστοφάνης: νῶιν γάρ ἐστι δεσπότης ἄγροικος ὀργήν. καὶ Ἀγροίτης, ὁ ἀγρός.
Note:
[1] Aristophanes, Knights 40-41, with scholion.
Keywords: agriculture; comedy; definition; ethics; law
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 March 1999@17:30:25.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 13 February 2001@06:05:09.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:06:56.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 1 January 2006@09:43:55.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 9 January 2012@04:10:59.

Headword: Ἄγοι
Adler number: alpha,381
Translated headword: may hold
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. This verb] signifies many things. Isaeus used [it] to mean to carry and to lead in and to drag: "for Xenocles hurt me", he says, "by taking Eumathes off into freedom, when I was leading [him] into slavery."[1] But Antiphon adopted ἄγοι to mean considered/held: for he says in the On Truth "may [he] hold the laws great."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἄγοι: πολλὰ σημαίνει. Ἰσαῖος δὲ ἀντὶ τοῦ φέρειν καὶ ἐνάγειν καὶ ἕλκειν ἔλαβεν: ἔβλαψε γάρ με, φησί, Ξενοκλῆς ἀφελόμενος Εὐμάθην εἰς ἐλευθερίαν, ἄγοντος ἐμοῦ εἰς δουλείαν. Ἀντιφῶν δὲ τὸ ἄγοι ἀντὶ τοῦ ἡγεῖτο παρείληφε: φησὶ γὰρ ἐν τῷ περὶ ἀληθείας: τοὺς νόμους μεγάλους ἄγοι.
Notes:
Abridged from Harpokration s.v. The headword is present optative, third person singular, of the verb ἄγω , presumably quoted from Antiphon (see below); but other material intervenes.
[1] Isaeus fr. 67 Sauppe. On the legal procedures involved here, see in brief S.C. Todd, The Shape of Athenian Law (Oxford 1993) 186-7.
[2] Antiphon (the sophist) B87 F44A1.18 Diels/Kranz.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; law; philosophy; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 March 1999@17:50:37.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes; added keyword) on 29 September 2000@07:47:50.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 14 April 2004@09:16:56.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 July 2011@10:12:14.
David Whitehead (note tweak) on 9 April 2015@11:19:19.

Headword: Ἀγχιστεύς
Adler number: alpha,407
Translated headword: next-of-kin
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Also [sc. attested is] ἀγχιστεία ["closeness"], [meaning] kinship.[1]
Also [sc. attested is] ἀγχιστεῖς ["those who are close"], those from the siblings and cousins and uncles on the paternal and maternal sides nearest to the deceased.[2] Those beyond these [are] only "relatives" [sungeneis]. Those who by marriage are mixed in households are called "intimates" [oikeioi].
Greek Original:
Ἀγχιστεύς. καὶ Ἀγχιστεία, συγγένεια. καὶ Ἀγχιστεῖς, οἱ ἀπὸ ἀδελφῶν καὶ ἀνεψιῶν καὶ θείων κατὰ πατέρα καὶ μητέρα ἐγγυτάτω τοῦ τελευτήσαντος. οἱ δὲ ἔξω τούτων, συγγενεῖς μόνον. οἱ δὲ κατ' ἐπιγαμίαν μιχθέντες τοῖς οἴκοις οἰκεῖοι λέγονται.
Notes:
The unglossed primary headword is the concrete noun ἀγχιστεύς , literally one who is close. The entry goes on, first, to the cognate abstract noun (with a single-word gloss) and to the plural of the headword, which at last elicits a full definition: see further below.
See also alpha 408, alpha 409.
[1] Same glossing in other lexica; references at Photius alpha296 Theodoridis (which continues with the rest of this material).
[2] "The statutorily defined group of kin who had both rights and duties in default of direct heirs": S.C. Todd, The Shape of Athenian Law (Oxford 1993) 217.
Keywords: daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; law; women
Translated by: David Mirhady on 11 May 1999@12:12:00.
Vetted by:
David Mirhady on 12 May 1999@10:33:48.
David Whitehead (modified headword; added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 24 July 2001@07:36:22.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 9 January 2012@07:52:10.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1) on 19 August 2013@05:07:10.

Headword: Ἀγχιστεία
Adler number: alpha,408
Translated headword: closeness, being next of kin, right of inheritance
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The sharing of property. In Aristophanes: "let there be no anchisteia for a bastard".[1]
Also [sc. attested is] a [related] verb ἀγχιστεύω ["I am an anchisteus"]; [used] with a genitive.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγχιστεία: ἡ μετουσία τῆς οὐσίας. παρὰ Ἀριστοφάνει: νόθῳ μὴ εἶναι ἀγχιστείαν. καὶ Ἀγχιστεύω ῥῆμα, γενικῇ.
Notes:
(Entry lacking, Adler reports, in ms S.)
See also alpha 407 and alpha 409.
[1] Aristophanes, Birds 1661 (the opening of a supposedly Solonic law, which goes on "if there are legitimate sons"), with scholion.
[2] Or dative: see LSJ s.v.
Keywords: comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; law
Translated by: David Mirhady on 11 May 1999@12:16:18.
Vetted by:
Ross Scaife ✝ on 11 May 1999@13:04:06.
William Hutton on 11 May 1999@16:18:02.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 18 January 2001@06:15:44.
David Whitehead on 24 July 2001@07:37:27.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 9 January 2012@08:01:30.
David Whitehead (another note) on 28 March 2014@10:05:38.

Headword: Ἀγχιστίνδην
Adler number: alpha,409
Translated headword: by closeness, by next-of-kin
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] in accordance with closeness, like "by merit" and "by wealth."
Greek Original:
Ἀγχιστίνδην: τὸ κατὰ ἀγχιστείαν, ὡς ἀριστίνδην καὶ πλουτίνδην.
Notes:
Closely similar to Synagoge alpha105 and Photius, Lexicon alpha298 Theodoridis. For ἀγχιστεία ('closeness') see already alpha 407 and alpha 408. This single-word adverb cognate with it is used of marriages by Pollux 6.175.
The two adverbs introduced as comparanda are formed, like the headword, with the suffix -ινδην . Aristotle contrasts ἀριστίνδην ('by merit') and πλουτίνδην ('by wealth') at Politics 1273a23 (web address 1).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; law; philosophy; women
Translated by: David Mirhady on 11 May 1999@12:19:01.
Vetted by:
Ross Scaife ✝ on 11 June 1999@14:24:25.
David Whitehead (modified headword; added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 24 July 2001@07:44:41.
Catharine Roth (augmented note, added link and keyword) on 28 April 2008@15:58:58.
William Hutton (tweaked tr., augmented and rearranged notes, added keywords, raised status) on 17 July 2009@17:26:22.
William Hutton on 22 July 2009@15:23:30.
Catharine Roth (betacode cosmetics) on 23 July 2009@01:02:37.
David Whitehead on 9 January 2012@08:03:14.
David Whitehead on 19 August 2013@05:08:46.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 27 November 2014@22:49:58.

Headword: Ἀδάμ
Adler number: alpha,425
Translated headword: Adam
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The first human, he who was shaped by the hand of God and formed in the image and likeness of the Creator and Founder; he was also deemed worthy of a dwelling in Paradise. He could justly be called the first wise man, since he was the first likeness created and an image wrought by God, and also because he had a full share of all the graces that exist. And all the senses of the body and the soul he possessed in a pure and unadulterated state. For rays of a certain sort, so to speak, flashed from the soul of that man, rays teeming with divine thoughts and energies, and they coursed through all nature, accurately and unerringly anticipating the particular virtue of each thing. Those who judged him were not men, who often make judgments in an erroneous fashion, but the God of everything, who makes every decision and judgment correctly, and, before his mind was stirred to action, by the soul, which labors over such things and gives birth to ideas. And as Scripture says: "God made all the domesticated and wild animals and the things that crawl and the winged things, and he brought them before Adam to see what he would call them, and whatever Adam called them, that was their name."[1] And what is more perfectly clear than this statement and this testimony? What more sublime than this wisdom and this discrimination? He gave names to nature itself, as though prescribing the essence of each animal, without practice, without prior consideration, with no preparatory effort at the things which people take pains to learn. And although many, nay, innumerable species were brought before him no one has managed to change the name even of some insignificant animal, nor did anyone manage to attain even a fraction of his great wisdom and discrimination. Instead all humans scattered across the entire earth continue following his pronouncements unaltered. And the first-born one's surpassing judgment in all things did not stop there, but also extended to the varieties of seeds and plants and the uses of roots and herbs. And whatever in the way of prevention and treatment nature assigned to each of the living things he determined and made clear. He, the first to see woman, spoke about her not as with a human mouth. As though he were echoing some divine pronouncement he uttered incisively that celebrated and awe-inspiring saying: "this now is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh. She will be called woman, because she was taken out of her man."[2] He, moreover, is the one who assesses each thing and establishes rules, precise standards, and incontestable boundaries for all. His are the crafts and letters, his are rational and non-rational sciences, his are prophethoods, priesthoods, purifications and laws both written and unwritten; his are all discoveries and doctrines and whatever needs and regimens are essential for life. He is the first representation of mankind, the image summoned from God; all image-making among men starts out from him as a model, though more and more they sink to a level inferior to his blessed and God-like image, which had no starting point upon which one who molded or painted images after him might depend; to such an extent that the Abomination, the Apostate, the deceiving Devil toppled him from his original foundation and position and caused him to be borne headfirst into pit-like and unlit places which reach all the way down to the joyless recesses of Hades. And from this point human nature became caricatured and falsified and was stamped with the shapings and designs of the Tyrant. From this source that bastard wisdom had its beginnings, for divine wisdom had made its escape and had flown up toward heaven, whence it had previously started out. Whence the Imposter expropriated the name of God and dealt it out it in many directions, giving himself different names, such as "Kronos" and "Zeus", and -- the most wicked thing of all -- the Criminal even had the gall to drag down the blessed and ineffable nature [of God] and associate it with names that were female and unworthy of respect, such as those "Rheas" and "Aphrodites" and "Athenas" and thousands of others, and into strange forms and shapes of illogical things which the Creator of Evil and the Hatcher of Heresy invented and carved out. Hence the wretched tales of the Egyptians about Osiris and Typhon and Isis, and the chicanery of the Persian Magi, and the gymnosophistry and impertinent fantasies of the Brahmans, the fabled sayings of the Skythians and the orgies of the Thracians and the flutes and Corybantes of the Phyrgians. Hence the deceitful and damaging astrology of the Chaldaeans. Hence poetry, the midwife of lies, the pretentious diction of Greek storytelling. Hence Orpheus and Homer and that portrayer of improper begettings, Hesiod. Hence the reputation of Thales and the glorious Pythagoras and Socrates the wise and Plato, the much-ballyhooed pride of the Academy of the Athenians. Hence the Parmenideses and the Protagorases and the Zenos. Hence the Stoas, and the Areopaguses and the Epicureans. Hence the dirges and breast-beatings of the tragedians and the jestings and raillery of the comics. Hence the dishonest divinations of Loxias the liar[3] and the remaining shenanigans and omen-mongering of Greek sophistication. And lest I prolong my essay by getting caught up in rotten and malodorous myths, the Imposter, having taken the burden of the entirety of creation on himself, and having taken man under his control as though he were a slave, went through all that is below heaven and patrolled the earth and kept watch over everything like a hen on her eggs, as he himself says in his lying fashion. He thought that it was necessary to set his throne above the clouds of heaven and to be equal to the Highest One. But the only begotten Son of God, the primordial Word, took pity on mankind since it had been deceived by the serpent, removed himself from the lap of the Father and became flesh by the Holy Spirit and by the Holy Virgin and Mother of God, Mary. He defeated his rival through the hallowed cross and through his suffering and went down to the lowest reaches of the earth and from there dragged back the fallen first-formed one, restoring the primordial beauty to his image and the original worth to his nature. And at that point the entire regime and conformity of the Tyrant vanished, as the light of piousness beamed more brightly than the rays of the sun on the entirety of creation. From this light the godly wisdom once again shone through and gave voice to the tongues of the fishermen and made the unwise teachers of the wise. From this came the birth of thunder, as follows: "In the beginning was the word."[4] It flashed forth from heavenly clouds and thundered and brought light to the entire inhabited world. And through this light Paul is carried to the Third Heaven and sees the unseeable and hears the unspoken sayings and speeds across the entire earth like a bird bringing the Gospel of Jesus in mid air. Thence Peter named Christ the son of the living God, and he is entrusted with the keys of the kingdom of the heavens, so that he may open the entrance to the divine palace for those who believe and lock it against those who do not. Thence flocks of martyrs cast down idols and hasten readily toward their death, displaying their wounds as crowns and their blood as robes of purple, beautiful in victory. The first-formed one should be considered the one who directs this writing, in my opinion and judgment at any rate, as a river the spring and the sea, and roots and branches and shoots, and as the one who originates all human nature, the beginning offerings and the first-fruits.
From Adam until the flood: 2242 years; from the flood until the building of the tower [sc. of Babel], 525 years; from the building of the tower until Abraham, 425. From Abraham until the Exodus of the sons of Israel from Egypt, 430. From the Exodus until the building of the Temple of Solomon, 757 years. From the building of the temple until the captivity of Israel, 425. Altogether 4880 years.[5] From the captivity until king Alexander [sc. the Great], 318. From Alexander until Christ our God, 303. Altogether 5500 years.[6] From Christ until Constantine the Great, 318. From Constantine until Michael son of Theophilos, 555. The whole span altogether 6375 years.[7] From Michael to Romanos son of Constantine Porphyrogennetos ... years.[8] From Porphyrogennetos to the death of John Tzimiskes ... years.[9]
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] Adamiaios, [meaning he who is descended] from Adam.
Greek Original:
Ἀδάμ: ὁ πρῶτος ἄνθρωπος, ὁ χειρὶ θεοῦ πλασθεὶς καὶ κατὰ τὴν εἰκόνα καὶ ὁμοίωσιν μορφωθεὶς τοῦ δημιουργοῦ τε καὶ κτίσαντος, ὁ καὶ τιμηθεὶς τὴν εἰς παράδεισον οἴκησιν. οὗτος δικαίως ἂν πρῶτος καλοῖτο σοφὸς ὡς πρωτόκτιστον ἄγαλμα καὶ εἰκὼν οὖσα θεόγραφος, ὡς τῶν χαρίτων ὅλων ὑπάρχων ἀνάπλεως καὶ πάντα καθαρὰ καὶ ἀκίβδηλα περιφέρων τὰ ψυχῆς τε καὶ σώματος αἰσθητήρια. μαρμαρυγαὶ γάρ τινες, ὡς εἰπεῖν, ἐκ τῆς ἐκείνου ψυχῆς ἀπαστράπτουσαι καὶ θείων ἐννοιῶν τε καὶ ἐνεργειῶν πλήθουσαι κατὰ πᾶσαν εἰσέτρεχον φύσιν εὐστόχως καὶ ἀναμαρτήτως τὸ οἰκεῖον ἑκάστης πλεονέκτημα φθάνουσαι. ὃς οὐ παρὰ ἀνθρώπων ἐδοκιμάσθη τῶν τὰς κρίσεις πολλάκις ἐπισφαλῶς ποιουμένων, ἀλλὰ παρὰ τοῦ τῶν ὅλων θεοῦ τοῦ πᾶσαν γνῶσιν καὶ κρίσιν ὀρθῶς ποιουμένου καὶ πρὸ τοῦ τὰς ἐννοίας κινηθῆναι παρὰ τῆς ὠδινούσης τὰ τοιαῦτα ψυχῆς καὶ ἀποτικτούσης νοήματα. καὶ ᾗ φησιν ἡ γραφή: ἐποίησεν ὁ θεὸς πάντα τὰ κτήνη καὶ τὰ θηρία καὶ τὰ ἑρπετὰ καὶ πετεινὰ καὶ ἤγαγεν αὐτὰ πρὸς τὸν Ἀδὰμ ἰδεῖν, τί καλέσει αὐτά. καὶ ὃ ἐκάλεσεν Ἀδὰμ, τοῦτο ὄνομα αὐτῷ. τί τῆς φωνῆς ταύτης καὶ μαρτυρίας ἀριδηλότερον; τί τῆς σοφίας ταύτης καὶ διαγνώσεως ὑψηλότερον; ἐκάλεσεν ὀνόματα τὴν φύσιν αὐτὴν καὶ τὴν ὑπόστασιν ἑκάστου ζῴου ὥσπερ ὑπογραφόμενος, οὐ μελετήσας, οὐ προσκεψάμενος, οὐδέν τι προπεπονθὼς τῶν ὅσα μεταμανθάνουσιν ἄνθρωποι. καὶ πολλῶν καὶ ἀναρίθμων γενεῶν παραδραμουσῶν οὐκ ἴσχυσεν οὐδεὶς ὑπαλλάξαι κἂν τοῦ τυχόντος ζῴου τὸ ὄνομα, οὐδὲ τῆς ἐκείνου δράξασθαι μεγαλονοίας καὶ διαγνώσεως. μᾶλλον μὲν οὖν μένουσιν ἅπαντες οἱ κατὰ πᾶσαν ἐσπαρμένοι τὴν γῆν ἄνθρωποι τοῖς ἐκείνου στοιχοῦντες ἀμεταθέτοις θεσπίσμασι. καὶ οὐδὲ μέχρι τούτων ἔστη τοῦ πρωτογόνου ἀνθρώπου τὸ ὑπερβάλλον ἐν πᾶσιν ἀξίωμα, ἀλλὰ καὶ σπερμάτων καὶ φυτῶν διαφορὰς ῥιζῶν τε καὶ βοτανῶν δυνάμεις, καὶ ὅσα εἰς ἀντίληψιν καὶ θεραπείαν ἡ φύσις ἑκάστῳ προσαρμόττει τῶν ζῴων, διέκρινέ τε καὶ ἐσάφησεν. οὗτος καὶ τὴν γυναῖκα πρῶτος ἰδὼν οὐχ ὥσπερ ἐκ στόματος ἀνθρωπίνου περὶ ταύτης ἐφθέγξατο, ἀλλ' ὡς ἔκ τινος θείας ὀμφῆς ἐνηχούμενος εὐστόχως τὸ πολυύμνητον ἐκεῖνο καὶ θαυμαστὸν ἀπεφοίβασε λόγιον: τοῦτο νῦν ὀστοῦν ἐκ τῶν ὀστέων μου καὶ σὰρξ ἐκ τῆς σαρκός μου. αὕτη κληθήσεται γυνὴ, ὅτι ἐκ τοῦ ἀνδρὸς αὐτῆς ἐλήφθη. οὗτος τοίνυν ἐστὶν ὁ δοκιμάσας ἕκαστα καὶ πᾶσι κανόνας καὶ στάθμας ἀκριβεῖς καὶ ὅρους ἀναντιρρήτους ἐναρμο- σάμενος. τούτου τέχναι καὶ γράμματα, τούτου ἐπιστῆμαι λογικαί τε καὶ ἄλογοι, τούτου προφητεῖαι, ἱερουργίαι καὶ καθαρισμοὶ καὶ νόμοι γραπτοί τε καὶ ἄγραφοι, τούτου πάντα εὑρήματα καὶ διδάγματα, καὶ ὅσαι κατὰ τὸν βίον ἀναγκαῖαι χρεῖαί τε καὶ δίαιται. οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ πρῶτος ἀνδριὰς, τὸ θεόκλητον ἄγαλμα, ἀφ' οὗπερ ἀπευθύνονται πᾶσαι ἀνθρώπων ἀγαλματουργίαι, κἂν πρὸς τὸ ἧττον μᾶλλον καὶ μᾶλλον ἐκπίπτωσιν ἐκείνου τοῦ μακαρίου καὶ θεοειδοῦς ἀπεικάσματος μηδεμίαν ἔχοντος ἀφορμὴν, ἧς ἂν ἐπιλάβοιτο ὁ μετ' ἐκεῖνον διαπλαττόμενος ἢ ζῳγραφούμενος, ἕως ὁ παλαμναῖος καὶ ἀποστάτης καὶ πλάνος διάβολος τοῦτον ἐξεκύλισεν ἐκ τῆς οἰκείας ἱδρύσεώς τε καὶ στάσεως καὶ κατὰ τοῦ πρανοῦς εἴασε φέρεσθαι πρὸς βαραθρώδεις τινὰς καὶ ἀλαμπεῖς χώρους καὶ μέχρι τῶν ἀμειδήτων τοῦ ᾅδου κευθμώνων ἐγγίζοντας. κἀντεῦθεν ἤρξατο φύσις ἡ τῶν ἀνθρώπων παραχαράττεσθαι καὶ διακιβδηλεύεσθαι καὶ τυποῦσθαι τοῖς τοῦ τυράννου μορφώμασί τε καὶ σχήμασιν. ἐντεῦθεν ἡ νόθος σοφία τὰς ἀφορμὰς ἔλαβε, τῆς θείας δραπετευσάσης καὶ πρὸς οὐρανὸν ἀναπτάσης, ὅθεν τὸ πρότερον ἦν ἀφορμήσασα. ὅθεν ὁ πλάνος τὸ τοῦ θεοῦ σφετερισάμενος ὄνομα εἰς πολλὰ κατεμέρισε, Κρόνους τε καὶ Ζῆνας καὶ Ποσειδῶνας ἑαυτὸν μετακαλῶν: καὶ τὸ δὴ πάντων ἀνοσιώτατον, εἰς ὀνόματα θήλεά τε καὶ ἄσεμνα τὴν μακαρίαν καὶ ἄρρητον συγκατασπάσαι φύσιν ὁ ἀλιτήριος κατετόλμησεν, εἴς τε τὰς Ῥέας ἐκείνας καὶ Ἀφροδίτας καὶ Ἀθηνᾶς καὶ εἰς ἄλλας μυρίας καὶ ἀλλοκότους ἀλόγων ἰδέας τε καὶ μορφὰς, ἃς ὁ κακίας δημιουργὸς καὶ τὴν ἀποστασίαν νοσήσας ἐπέχρωσέ τε καὶ διεχάραξεν. ἐντεῦθεν Αἰγυπτίων τὰ περὶ Ὄσιριν καὶ Τυφῶνα καὶ Ἴσιν μοχθηρὰ διηγήματα καὶ Περσῶν μαγικὰ μαγγανεύματα καὶ Βραχμάνων γυμνοσοφιστίαι καὶ ἄκαιροι φαντασίαι καὶ ἡ θαυμαζομένη Σκυθῶν ῥῆσις καὶ τὰ Θρᾳκῶν ὄργια καὶ οἱ Φρυγῶν αὐλοὶ καὶ Κορύβαντες. ἐντεῦθεν ἡ Χαλδαίων ἀστρονομία ἡ σφαλερά τε καὶ πολυώδυνος. ἐντεῦθεν ἡ τοῦ ψεύδους λοχεύτρια ποίησις, ἡ τῶν Ἑλληνικῶν ληρημάτων σεμνομυθία. ἐντεῦθεν Ὀρφεύς τε καὶ Ὅμηρος καὶ ὁ τῶν ἀθεμίτων γονῶν ζῳγράφος Ἡσίοδος. ἐντεῦθεν ἡ Θάλητος δόξα καὶ ὁ κλεινὸς Πυθαγόρας καὶ ὁ σοφὸς Σωκράτης καὶ Πλάτων, τὸ τῆς Ἀθηναίων Ἀκαδημίας πολυθρύλητον σεμνολόγημα. ἐντεῦθεν οἱ Παρμενίδαι καὶ Πρωταγόραι καὶ Ζήνωνες. ἐντεῦθεν αἱ Στοαὶ καὶ οἱ Ἄρειοι πάγοι καὶ Ἐπικούρειοι. ἐντεῦθεν οἱ τραγῳδῶν θρῆνοι καὶ κοπετοὶ καὶ τὰ κωμικῶν παίγνια καὶ τωθάσματα. ἐντεῦθεν τὰ δολερὰ τοῦ Λοξίου καὶ ψευδηγόρου θεσπίσματα καὶ ἡ λοιπὴ τῶν Ἑλληνικῶν κομψευμάτων ἐρεσχελία καὶ τερατεία. καὶ ἵνα μὴ μακρὸν ἀποτείνω τὸν λόγον εἰς σαπρούς τε καὶ ὀδωδότας μύθους ἐνασχολούμενος, πᾶσαν εἰς ἑαυτὸν τὴν κτίσιν ὁ πλάνος ἐμφορτισάμενος καὶ λαβὼν ὑπὸ χεῖρα τὸν ἄνθρωπον ὡς ἀνδράποδον καὶ διερχόμενος τὴν ὑπ' οὐρανὸν καὶ περιπατῶν τὴν γῆν καὶ ὡς ὠὰ πάντα κατέχων, ὡς αὐτός πού φησιν ἀλαζονευόμενος, ᾤετο δεῖν τὸν ἑαυτοῦ θρόνον θήσειν ἐπάνω τῶν νεφελῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ ἔσεσθαι ὅμοιος τῷ Ὑψίστῳ. ἀλλ' ὁ τοῦ θεοῦ μονογενὴς υἱὸς καὶ λόγος ὁ προαιώνιος οἰκτείρας τὸν ἄνθρωπον ὡς ἠπατημένον ὑπὸ τοῦ δράκοντος ἐκ τῶν τοῦ πατρὸς κόλπων ἑαυτὸν ἐκένωσε καὶ σαρκωθεὶς ἐκ πνεύματος ἁγίου καὶ ἐκ τῆς ἁγίας παρθένου καὶ θεοτόκου Μαρίας, καὶ διὰ τοῦ τιμίου σταυροῦ καὶ τοῦ πάθους αὐτοῦ καταβαλὼν τὸν ἀντίπαλον καὶ καταβὰς εἰς τὰ κατώτατα μέρη τῆς γῆς ἐκεῖθεν εἵλκυσε τὸν παραπεσόντα πρωτόπλαστον, ἀποδοὺς τῇ εἰκόνι τὸ πρῶτον κάλλος καὶ τῇ φύσει τὸ ἀρχαῖον ἀξίωμα. κἀντεῦθεν ἠφάνισται πᾶσα ἡ τοῦ τυράννου δυναστεία καὶ συμμορφία τοῦ τῆς εὐσεβείας φωτὸς διαυγάσαντος πάσῃ τῇ κτίσει τῶν ἡλιακῶν μαρμαρυγῶν τηλαυγέστερον. ἐκ τούτου τοῦ φωτὸς ἡ κατὰ θεὸν σοφία πάλιν διέλαμψε καὶ γλώσσας ἁλιέων ἐστόμωσε καὶ τῶν σοφῶν διδασκάλους τοὺς ἀσόφους εἰργάσατο ἐντεῦθεν ὁ τῆς βροντῆς γόνος, τὸ: ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λόγος, ἐξ οὐρανίων νεφελῶν ἀπαστράψας ἐβρόντησε, καὶ πᾶσαν τὴν οἰκουμένην ἐλάμπρυνε. κἀκ τούτου τοῦ φωτὸς Παῦλος εἰς τρίτον οὐρανὸν ἀναφέρεται καὶ θεᾶται τὰ ἀθέατα καὶ τῶν ἀρρήτων ὑπακούει λογίων καὶ διατρέχει πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν ὡς πτηνὸς καὶ ἀέριος τὸν Ἰησοῦν εὐαγγελιζόμενος. ἐντεῦθεν ὁ Πέτρος τὸν Χριστὸν υἱὸν θεοῦ τοῦ ζῶντος ὠνόμασε καὶ τὰς κλεῖς τῆς τῶν οὐρανῶν πιστεύεται βασιλείας, ἵνα ἀνοίγῃ μὲν τοῖς πιστοῖς, ἀποκλείῃ δὲ τοῖς ἀπίστοις τῶν θείων ἀνακτόρων τὴν εἴσοδον. ἐντεῦθεν ἀγέλαι μαρτύρων καταβάλλουσιν εἴδωλα καὶ τρέχουσιν ἕτοιμοι πρὸς τὸν θάνατον, ὡς στεφάνους τὰς πληγὰς καὶ ὡς πορφύρας τὰ ἑαυτῶν αἵματα περιφέροντες οἱ καλλίνικοι. ἔστω γοῦν ὁ πρωτόπλαστος ἀρχηγὸς τοῦδε τοῦ γράμματος, κατά γε τὸν ἐμὸν ὅρον καὶ λόγον, ὡς ποταμὸς πηγή τε καὶ θάλαττα καὶ ῥίζα καὶ κλάδοι καὶ ὅρπηκες καὶ πάσης ὑπάρχων τῆς ἀνθρωπίνης φύσεως ἀπαρχὴ καὶ πρωτόλειον. ὅτι ἀπὸ Ἀδὰμ ἕως τοῦ κατακλυσμοῦ ἔτη #22βσμβ#. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ κατακλυσμοῦ ἕως τῆς πυργοποιί̈ας ἔτη φκε#. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς πυργοποιί̈ας ἕως τοῦ Ἀβραὰμ υκε#. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Ἀβραὰμ ἕως τῆς ἐξόδου τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραὴλ ἐξ Αἰγύπτου υλ#. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ἐξόδου ἕως τῆς οἰκοδομῆς τοῦ Σολομωντείου ναοῦ ἔτη ψνζ#. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς οἰκοδομῆς τοῦ ναοῦ ἕως τῆς αἰχμαλωσίας τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ υκε#. ὁμοῦ ἔτη #22δωπ#. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς αἰχμαλωσίας ἕως Ἀλεξάνδρου βασιλέως τιη#. ἀπὸ δὲ Ἀλεξάνδρου ἕως Χριστοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν τγ#. ὁμοῦ ἔτη #22εφ#. ἀπὸ δὲ Χριστοῦ ἕως τοῦ μεγάλου Κωνσταντίνου τιη#. ἀπὸ δὲ Κωνσταντίνου μέχρι Μιχαὴλ υἱοῦ Θεοφίλου φνε#. ὁμοῦ τὰ πάντα ἔτη #22#2τοε#. ἀπὸ δὲ Μιχαὴλ ἕως Ῥωμανοῦ υἱοῦ Κωνσταντίνου τοῦ Πορφυρογεννήτου ἔτη ... ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Πορφυρογεννήτου ἕως τῆς τελευτῆς Ἰωάννου τοῦ Τζιμισκῆ ἔτη ... καὶ Ἀδαμιαῖος, ἀπὸ Ἀδάμ.
Notes:
The great bulk of this entry -- 104 lines out of 117 in the printed edition -- is a tour de force of polemic by an unidentifiable scholar quite outside the type of neutral reticence which characterises most of the contributors to the Suda (although Küster suggests a comparison with the entry on Job at iota 471). His self-styled "essay" (logos), unparalleled in this form and content elsewhere, is a tirade on two levels: explicitly, against the great men of pagan culture(s), and also implicitly, in that its determination to enhance the significance of Adam to extraordinary levels rests in part upon an almost Pelagian exculpation of him from the taint of original sin.
[1] A paraphrase of Genesis 1.20 and 2.19.
[2] Genesis 2.23; the wordplay between "man" and "wo-man" in English, is also present in the original Hebrew איש ʾīš and אישה ʾīššah, but not in the Greek.
[3] i.e. Apollo (lambda 673).
[4] John 1.1.
[5] The actual sum of the numbers given up to this point is 4804 (δωδ ) instead of the 4880 (δωπ ) of the mss.
[6] The actual sum of all the numbers given so far is 5432; adding merely the last two numbers to the previous summation yields 5528.
[7] 6373, counting from the last summation. The actual total of all individual numbers is 6305. (Up to this point the chronology is taken from George the Monk, Chronicon 804.1-20; and cf. generally phi 45. The two time-spans which now follow are odd, in that the chronology stops being linear.)
[8] Romanus (II) died in 963.
[9] John died in 976.
Keywords: art history; biography; botany; Christianity; chronology; comedy; epic; ethics; food; gender and sexuality; historiography; imagery; law; mythology; philosophy; poetry; proverbs; religion; tragedy; women; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 23 April 2001@15:37:44.
Vetted by:
Patrick T. Rourke (Cleaned up encoding issue) on 8 April 2002@12:19:19.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 8 April 2002@14:00:09.
Catharine Roth (raised status) on 5 May 2002@12:51:12.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew words.) on 31 October 2002@10:41:09.
David Whitehead (modified last paragraph of translation; corrected error in footnote numeration; cosmetics) on 10 June 2003@04:32:32.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@07:34:57.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 9 January 2012@10:28:35.
David Whitehead on 9 January 2012@10:58:50.
David Whitehead (added primary note) on 11 January 2012@11:10:07.
David Whitehead (my typo) on 11 January 2012@11:26:30.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 6 January 2013@23:16:27.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 17 January 2014@06:41:18.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:30:26.
Catharine Roth (cross-reference) on 28 January 2019@15:16:53.

Headword: Ἀδεκάστως
Adler number: alpha,436
Translated headword: incorruptibly
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] impartially, justly, without taking bribes, properly.
Greek Original:
Ἀδεκάστως: ἀμερίστως, δικαίως, ἀδωροδοκήτως, ὀρθῶς.
Notes:
Same entry in Photius and elsewhere. This adverb is evidently quoted from somewhere; extant instances are all post-classical.
For its etymology cf. generally delta 173, delta 174, delta 187.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; law
Translated by: William Hutton on 6 November 2000@16:12:55.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 30 April 2002@05:17:25.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 10 January 2012@05:34:32.
David Whitehead (expanded note; more keywords; cosmetics) on 14 April 2015@11:22:59.

Headword: Ἀδεκατεύτους
Adler number: alpha,437
Translated headword: not having tithed
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Aristophanes [sc. says this for those who are in the position of] not having paid taxes; for they dedicated in the Prytaneion[1] tithes of the bellies of the sacrificial animals as their tenth share.
Greek Original:
Ἀδεκατεύτους: Ἀριστοφάνης ἀτελωνήτους: τὰς γὰρ δεκάτας τῶν κοιλιῶν τῶν θυομένων ἐδίδοσαν τὴν δεκάτην μοῖραν ἐν τῷ πρυτανείῳ.
Notes:
The headword, a masculine accusative plural, occurs in Aristophanes, Knights 301 (web address 1 below); this is a scholium on that line.
cf. generally delta 181, delta 182, delta 183, delta 184, delta 185, delta 186.
[1] See generally pi 2999.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; food; law; religion; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 6 November 2000@16:24:48.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 30 April 2002@05:23:08.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 5 December 2005@06:18:32.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 10 January 2012@05:38:52.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 14 April 2015@11:25:21.

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