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Headword: Abbakoum
Adler number: alpha,12
Translated headword: Habakkuk, Avvakoum
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[A name meaning] father of awakening. For the [word] abba means father,[1] and koum means awakening.[2] So also in the Holy Gospel: "Talitha, koum," that is, "young girl, get up."[3] From which [it is] clear that Abbakoum must be written with double b.[4]
Greek Original:
Abbakoum: patêr egerseôs. to men gar abba sêmainei patêr, to de koum egersis: hôs kai para tôi theiôi euangeliôi: talêtha, koum, êgoun hê pais egeirou. hothen dêlon, hoti dia tôn duo bb grapteon to Abbakoum.
Notes:
An etymology for the name of the prophet Habakkuk (in the Septuagint, Ambakoum or Avvakoum), based on two Aramaic words found in the New Testament. The Suda is drawing from older onomastica; the same etymology is found in the Origenistic lexicon (see bibliography).
[1] See already alpha 10. The Hebrew/Aramaic אבּא abba means father.
[2] The Hebrew/Aramaic קום kūm means arise; it can also be used to mean awake.
[3] Mark 5:41 (web address 1); not in the other Gospels, but several times in patristic literature.
[4] The Suda is correct. The doubling of the בּ is indicated by its dot (dagesh); unlike Greek, Hebrew and Aramaic do not replicate doubled letters.
Reference:
Paul de Lagarde, Onomastica Sacra, p. 200, line 14-15
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: children; Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; imagery; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:59:43.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Altered wording.) on 29 July 2000@23:23:46.
Catharine Roth (Augmented note with information supplied by Lee Fields.) on 1 May 2001@19:02:40.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; cosmetics) on 22 July 2003@10:07:42.
Raphael Finkel (Added notes 2, 4, Hebrew.) on 12 August 2004@14:47:21.
Catharine Roth (added a keyword) on 8 October 2005@00:31:59.
William Hutton (cosmetics, added keywords and link, set status) on 21 August 2007@09:59:47.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 24 March 2008@23:27:14.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 17 December 2011@00:23:06.
David Whitehead (another keyword; typo and other cosmetics) on 18 December 2011@10:27:45.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 18 December 2011@10:53:04.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 August 2013@01:12:51.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@13:38:11.
David Whitehead (expanded a note; cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@08:48:00.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@06:56:57.

Headword: Abaxi
Adler number: alpha,16
Translated headword: planks, abacuses
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
What we call a)ba/kia.[1] The Lawmaker [says] in the Martyrdom of Saint Thecla: "Tryphaina was overcome by suffering, and was seen lying like the dead on the slabs."[2] So he says.
Greek Original:
Abaxi: tois par' hêmin legomenois abakiois. ho Logothetês en tôi tês hagias Theklês marturiôi: Truphaina de pathei lêphtheisa nekrois homoia pros tois abaxin hôrato keimenê. houtô phêsin.
Notes:
This entry occurs after alpha 17 in ms A (= Parisinus 2625), after alpha 9 in ms S (= Vaticanus 1296) and in the margin of ms D (Bodleianus Auct. V 52).
[1] The given form is a dative plural of a)/bac, ("abacus"), and the lexicographer explains it by reference to the diminutive a)ba/kion. The primary sense is a table topped by a slab, or the slab itself; a "calculator" is a secondary meaning.
[2] Symeon Metaphrastes (also known as the Logothete ('Lawmaker')) Patrologia Graeca 115.837c. On Thecla, cf. tau 1108.
Keywords: biography; Christianity; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; history; mathematics; religion; science and technology; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:53:59.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation and notes, added keywords, raised status) on 18 January 2001@09:46:37.
Catharine Roth (modified translation, augmented note) on 7 November 2002@15:06:33.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 7 November 2002@15:08:44.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 November 2005@09:20:27.
Catharine Roth (added keyword) on 6 September 2006@23:44:05.
William Hutton (modified headword and translation, augmented notes, set status) on 24 August 2007@09:36:45.
William Hutton on 24 August 2007@09:42:51.
Jennifer Benedict (tweaks) on 24 March 2008@23:50:31.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 18 December 2011@10:35:22.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 February 2015@23:44:46.

Headword: Abarnis
Adler number: alpha,19
Translated headword: Abarnis
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Name of a city.
Greek Original:
Abarnis: onoma poleôs.
Notes:
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon (74), and cf. more generally the scholia to Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.932 (where the genitive case occurs), on which see further below.
Abarnis lay on the southern shore of the Propontis (Sea of Marmara), between Parion and Lampsakos; Barrington Atlas map 51 grid H4. According to Stephanus of Byzantium s.v. *)/abarnos (sic), Abarnos and Aparnis were also attested versions of its name.
A scholium to Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.932 (repeated in more legible form in Etymologicum Magnum 2.11-28) provides an etymological explanation of the origin of the name in Aphrodite's refusal (a)parnh/sasqai) to recognize her offspring Priapos, who was born in the region.
Keywords: children; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; geography; mythology; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:55:54.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified note) on 19 September 2000@03:59:17.
William Hutton (augmented note, added keywords, set status) on 24 August 2007@23:38:41.
David Whitehead (augmented and re-arranged note) on 19 December 2011@06:02:32.
Catharine Roth (coding, typo) on 5 August 2013@00:18:42.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 10 January 2015@22:46:51.

Headword: Abimelech
Adler number: alpha,45
Translated headword: Abimelech
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.[1]
The son of Gideon.[2] He smote his brothers, seventy sons of Gideon's wives,[3] upon a single stone, and none of them was left except Jotham the youngest son,[4] who ran away. As Abimelech was passing through with his people, Jotham went up to the top of the mountain and, raising his voice, told the following parable. "Listen to me, men of Shechem, and God will listen to you. The trees set out[5] to anoint a king over themselves. And they said to the olive, 'Rule over us.' And the olive said to them, 'Should I give up my rich oil, by which -- through me -- God[6] and men receive honor,[7] and go rule over trees?' Then the trees said to the fig, 'Come, rule over us.' And the fig said to them, 'Should I give up my sweetness, my excellent product, and go to rule over the trees?' And the trees said to the vine, 'Come, rule over us.' And the vine said to them, 'Should I give up my wine, merriment for men, and go to rule over the trees?' And all the trees said to the thornbush, 'Come, you rule over us.' And the thornbush said to the trees, 'If you are truly anointing me to rule over you, come stand under[8] my shade. But if not, may fire come from me and consume the cedars of Lebanon.' Now, if you have dealt with my father and his family truthfully and in an upright way, and have made his concubine's son Abimelech king over the men of Shechem, then may you rejoice in him and may he indeed rejoice in you. But if not, may fire issue from Abimelech and consume your leaders and their families. And may fire issue from the men of Shechem and consume Abimelech." And Jotham ran from the presence of Abimelech his brother. But Abimelech ruled over Israel for three years. Then God sent an evil spirit between[9] Abimelech and the men of Shechem. And the men of Shechem dealt treacherously[10] with the house of Abimelech so to lay at Abimelech's feet[11] the blood of Gideon's seventy sons. And so Abimilech set out to beseige the tower.[12] As he approached the tower gate to burn it, a woman threw a piece of a millstone onto his head and crushed his skull. He at once called out to his armor bearer[13], saying, "Draw your sword and kill me, so they can never say I was killed by a woman." So the young man took up his sword and ran him through. And God recompensed the wickedness Abimelech had done to his father in killing his seventy brothers. God also recompensed[14] all the wickedness of the men of Shechem, in accord with the message and parable of Jotham.
Greek Original:
Abimelech: onoma kurion. huios Gedeôn. houtos epataxe tous adelphous autou ek tôn eleutherôn andras ebdomêkonta epi lithon hena, ex hôn ouk apeleiphthê plên Iôatham tou neôterou diadrantos. hos kai paraporeuomenou tou Abimelech meta tou laou anêlthen epi tên koruphên tou orous, kai eparas tên phônên autou ephê pros autous parabolên toiautên. akousate mou, andres Sikimôn, kai akousei humôn ho theos. poreuomena eporeuthêsan ta xula tou chrisai basilea eph' heautôn. kai eipan têi elaiai: basileuson eph' hêmôn. kai eipen autois hê elaia: apheisa tên piotêta mou, hên edoxasen en emoi ho theos kai hoi anthrôpoi, poreuthô archein tôn xulôn; kai eipon ta xula têi sukêi: deuro, basileuson eph' hêmas. kai eipen autois hê sukê: apheisa tên glukutêta mou kai to gennêma mou to agathon poreuthô archein tôn xulôn; kai eipon ta xula pros tên ampelon: deuro, basileuson eph' hêmôn. kai eipen autois hê ampelos: apheisa ton oinon mou kai tên euphrosunên tôn anthrôpôn poreuthô archein tôn xulôn; kai eipon panta ta xula têi rhamnôi: deuro, su basileuson eph' hêmas. kai eipen hê rhamnos pros ta xula: ei en alêtheiai chriete me humeis tou basileuein eph' humas, deute, hupostête en têi skiai mou, kai ei mê, exelthoi pur ap' emou kai kataphagêi tas kedrous tou Libanou. kai nun ei en alêtheiai kai hosiotêti epoiêsate meta tou patros mou kai meta tou oikou autou kai ebasileusate ton Abimelech huion tês paidiskês autou epi tous andras Sikimôn, euphrantheiête en autôi, kai euphrantheiê kai ge autos en humin: ei de mê, exelthoi pur ex Abimelech kai kataphagoi tous archontas humôn kai tous oikous autôn: kai exelthoi pur ek tôn andrôn Sikimôn kai kataphagoi ton Abimelech. kai apedra Iôatham apo prosôpou Abimelech adelphou autou. ho de Abimelech êrxen epi ton Israêl etê tria. kai exapesteilen ho theos pneuma ponêron ana meson Abimelech kai ana meson andrôn Sikimôn. kai êthetêsan hoi andres Sikimôn en tôi oikôi Abimelech tou epagagein adikian kai to haima tôn o# huiôn Gedeôn epi tên kephalên Abimelech. kai gar apelthôn polemêsai purgon kai prosengisas têi thurai tou purgou emprêsai autên, erripse gunê klasma mulou epi tên kephalên autou kai sunetripse to kranion autou. kai epiboêsas tachu eipe pros ton aironta autou ta skeuê: spason tên rhomphaian sou kai thanatôson me, mê pote eipôsin: gunê auton apekteine. kai kentêsan auton to paidarion aneile. kai epestrepsen ho theos tên ponêrian Abimelech, hên epoiêse tôi patri autou apokteinas tous o# adelphous autou. kai pasan tên ponêrian andrôn Sikimôn epestrepsen ho theos eis tên kephalên autôn kata ton logon kai tên paroimian Iôatham.
Notes:
Source for the main paragraph (after the initial gloss): George the Monk, Chronicon 148.2-149.20.
[1] Hebrew: אבימלך "my father is king." Used derogatorily and incessantly (31 times) throughout the Abimelech episode in Judges 9 (Boling, NSRV at Judges 9:1).
[2] Literally, "by his wives." The use of e)leuqe/rwn here indicates "married women/wives" (see L-S-J). The Massoretic Text (MT) (Judges 8:30; Kohlenberger, Vol. 2, 101) shows נשים našīm, which here means "wives" (Brown, Driver, Briggs {BDB}, 61). The term is to be distinguished from that for Abimelech's mother — פלגש pilegeš "concubine" in the sense of a legitimate wife of secondary rank (Kohlenberger for the suffixed MT form; Boling, NRSV at Judges 8:31).
[3] Literally, "upon a single stone." MT: על אבן אחת ʿal ʾeḇen ʾeḥat (Judges 9:5). See Boling, Judges (Anchor), 171.5. A direct transference from the Hebrew to the LXX.
[4] (Cf. iota 478.) The Greek new/terou, comparative understood for the superlative (Smyth, 1082.a) from Hebrew הקטן haqqaton, the "young(est) one" (Judges 9:5).
[5] The Suda's poreu/omena e)poreu/qhsan parallels the MT at Judges 9:5 (but not the LXX, which singularizes the finite verb) in its fuller anthropomorphism via the plural finite verb. The participle plus finite verb mimics, but does not parallel, MT usage, which gives infinitive absolute plus finite verb (הלוך הלכו haloḵ halēḵū) (Kautzsch, 342 {113o(1)}; Boling, Judges (Anchor), 173.8). For this genre of fable, see also 2 Kings 14:9-10 and its shadow at 2 Chronicles 25:18-19. the motif bears only general resemblance to Aesop's frog fable. For related motifs, see the source summary in Brown (The New Jerome), 140; Boling, Judges (Anchor), 173.
[6] The Suda singularizes (o( qeo/s), whereas the MT contains אלהים elohīm to be interpreted as "gods" — not "God." That the translation warrants a plural is supported by the antiquity of the original motif (Boling, Judges (Anchor), 173-74.15; 175.20). The plural is the norm in modern Bible translation.
[7] The standard translation of the MT אשר-בי יכבדו אלהים ואנשים ʾašer-bī yeḵaḇdū ʾelohīm waʾanašīm (Judges 9:9) and the Suda's h(\n...a)/nqrwpoi is "by which/whereby gods and men are honored." The Hebrew syntax merits reevaluation. The Jotham parable is a poetic fable cast in prose (Boling, Judges (Anchor) 166, 172-73.8-15, 173.15; for an uncritical opposing view, see Brown (The New Jerome), 140). However, Boling (173.9) and others read the Pi'el active yeḵaḇdū ("ykbdw" in Boling) as a Niph'al passive (are honored). Boling also cites the "kbd" root as Niph'al reflexive in Exodus 14:4, perhaps intending an alternative (but unlikely) reading for Judges 9:9 as "gods and men honor themselves." This approach overlooks the fable's poetic form — a medium that allows the Pi'el to operate intransitively (Kautzsch, 142 {52k}). Relatedly, Kautzsch (Gesenius, in accord with T.K Cheyne) assigns Niph'al senses to Pi'el forms in the poetry of Isaiah 48:8 and 60:11, which just as easily may be read intransitively as "your ear has not opened (responded) [to new things]" and "your gates shall always stand open." In Judges 9:9, the intransitive result is "(by) which, through me, gods and men receive honor." The preposition "bi" (Greek: e)n e)moi\), which in Boling's syntax is left "unexplained", provides an instrumental dative (BDB, 89, III.2): "through me." Boling asserts "bi" to be "a third-person suffix" without further discussion; BDB (citing George F. Moore) suggests the third-person "bo" (by/through it) for the "bi" form. Boling does cite the LXX Vaticanus reading "by it"; however, Vaticanus works a simplified solution: e)n h(=i doca/sousi to\n qeo\n a)/ndres, "by which men shall honor God" (Brenton, 329). In a near parallel to the MT, the Suda records e)do/casen for a Hebraicized-intransitive e)do/casan (yeḵaḇdū): literally, "regarding which (oil), through my agency, God and men receive honor."
[8] The verb u(po/sthte also carries the meaning "submit"; the Hebrew at Judges 9:15 (imperative hasū) carries only the sense "take refuge" (BDB, 340).
[9] The duplicated a)na\ me/son is a Hebraism paralleling Judges 9:22 (בין אבימלך ובין בעלי שכם bēn ʾAḇimeleḵ uḇēn baʿalē šeḵem). See also the MT and LXX at Genesis 1:4. For model Greek syntax, see LXX Genesis 32:16 (Brenton, 43)— with the MT (Genesis 32:17) showing the duplicate pattern (Kohlenberger, Vol 1, 88).
[10] For a)qete/w (deal treacherously), see Lust, Pt. I, 9.
[11] Literally, "to lay upon Abimelech's head his injustice and the blood of Gideon's seventy sons."
[12] For Abimelech's ill-fated siege of the Thebez tower, see Judges 9:50-57.
[13] The term paida/rion reprises the MT נערו naʿarō (his servant or retainer) at Judges 9:54. Translations render the word as "armor bearer." Boling in his Judges (146.10; 182.54) prefers "squire."
[14] Literally, "turned about onto their head."
References:
Boling, R.G. Judges (The Anchor Bible). New York: Doubleday, 1975.
Boling, R.G. Judges in the Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: Harper Collins, 1993.
Brenton, C.L.B. The Septuagint with Apocrypha. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1991 (reprint of 1851 ed.).
Brown, F. Driver, S.R., Briggs, C.A. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon, 1951.
Brown, R.E. The New Jerome Biblical Commentary. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1990.
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910.
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987.
Lust, J. A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint, Part I. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1992.
Smyth, H.W. Greek Grammar. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1984.
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; history; military affairs; poetry; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@13:01:24.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 27 January 2001@12:09:36.
Craig Miller (Modified translation, notes and bibliography to follow.) on 5 March 2002@09:51:09.
Craig Miller on 5 March 2002@12:40:52.
Craig Miller (Modified and expanded notes, expanded keywords. Bibliography pending.) on 5 March 2002@15:02:20.
Catharine Roth (corrected typos) on 5 March 2002@16:49:22.
Craig Miller on 5 March 2002@23:39:58.
Craig Miller (Bibliography added, cosmetics.) on 6 March 2002@07:38:16.
Craig Miller on 6 March 2002@12:49:31.
Craig Miller on 6 March 2002@14:59:18.
Craig Miller on 1 April 2002@19:33:02.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew texts.) on 31 October 2002@10:19:01.
David Whitehead (added initial note; added x-ref; cosmetics) on 9 June 2003@07:55:20.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:53:33.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 8 August 2013@16:40:29.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:15:44.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:31:59.

Headword: Abra
Adler number: alpha,68
Translated headword: favorite
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Not simply a maidservant nor even the pretty maidservant is called [favorite], but a daughter of one of the house slaves and an honored one, whether born in the house or not. Menander in False Heracles [writes]: "the mother of these two sisters is dead. A concubine of their father's, who used to be their mother's favorite slave, is bringing them up."[1] In Sikyonian: "he bought a beloved slave instead and did not hand the slave over to his wife, but kept her apart, as is appropriate for a free woman."[2] In Faithless One: "I thought if the old man got the gold, he'd get himself a favorite slave right away."[3]
Iamblichus [writes]: "since this was difficult and something of a rarity, with the [woman] housekeeper on guard and another favorite slave-woman also present, he persuades the daughter to run away without her parents' knowledge."[4]
Greek Original:
Abra: oute haplôs therapaina oute hê eumorphos therapaina legetai, all' oikotrips gunaikos korê kai entimos, eite oikogenês eite mê. Menandros Pseudêraklei: mêtêr tethnêke tain adelphain tain duein tautain. trephei de pallakê tis tou patros autas, abra tês mêtros autôn genomenê. Sikuôniôi: kai abran gar antônoumenos erômenên, tautêi men ou paredôk' echein, trephein de chôris, hôs eleutherai prepei. Apistôi: ômên ei to chrusion laboi ho gerôn, therapainan euthus êgorasmenên abran esesthai. Iamblichos: epei de touto chalepon ên kai spanion ti to tês oikourou phulattousês kai abras tinos allês sumparousês, anapeithei tên korên lathousan tous goneis apodranai.
Notes:
The main part of this entry is also in Photius, Lexicon alpha50 Theodoridis (where the headword is plural); similar material in other lexica.
LSJ uses the rough breathing (a(/bra) for the word it defines specifically as 'favorite slave'. See web address 1 below.
[1] Menander fr. 520 Kock, 453 K.-Th., 411 K.-A.
[2] Menander fr. 438 Kock (1 Sandbach).
[3] Menander fr. 64 Kock, 58 K.-Th., 63 K.-A.
[4] Iamblichus, Babyloniaca fr. 56 Habrich.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; economics; ethics; gender and sexuality; philosophy; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:13:15.
Vetted by:
Shannon N. Byrne on 20 May 2000@18:59:03.
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added link) on 30 January 2001@23:04:27.
David Whitehead (added keyword) on 31 January 2001@04:33:38.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 24 April 2002@03:20:49.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 15 August 2007@10:03:18.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 25 March 2008@11:26:46.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 19 December 2011@09:03:54.
David Whitehead (updated refs) on 16 August 2013@07:04:59.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 24 December 2014@03:49:04.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 24 December 2014@06:54:57.

Headword: Abraam
Adler number: alpha,69
Translated headword: Abraham
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The first among patriarchs; [it was he] in whom the Hebrew people took pride at first, before they rebelled against God, became estranged from Him, and shed upon themselves the blood of His Only-Begotten Son.[1] This man came out of the land of the Chaldeans, who devoted their entire lives to the stars and heavenly bodies. Trained, therefore, as was their ancestral custom, to observe the motions of the heavenly bodies[2] he surmised that the masterwork underlying this visible creation was not to be found in such objects, but had a Creator who set them in motion, gave harmony to their paths, and ordered the entire universe. Because of the greatness and beauty of the things He had made, Abraham, as it was likely, ceased devoting himself to gazing out into the heavens nor did he squander his passion in their pursuit. Instead, by surmounting the celestial vaults and transcending all the intelligible realm beyond the cosmos, Abraham no longer stood apart from the One sought, until finally the Creator for whom he yearned manifested Himself to Abraham in likenesses[3] and forms. And in this way the Unseen and Invisible revealed Himself. And [God] sent him forth from his own land as a wanderer and settled him in the land of the Canaanites. There he dwelled, now being in about his ninety-ninth year.[4] Until this time, he was childless; then [God] made him the father of the miraculous and blessed Isaac that he might have a first-born, only-begotten son[5] -- prefiguring the mystical image of the First-Born, Only-Begotten Son.[6] This was an exceedingly singular[7] honor bestowed upon Abraham, for the Creator favored him with the titles Servant, Beloved, and Father by flesh of the Only Begotten Son of Him who fashioned the entire universe.[8] Abraham invented sacred writing and devised the language of which Hebrew children used to have a command, as they were this man's disciples and descendants. Moreover, the Greek alphabet received its impetus from this script,[9] even if Greeks amused themselves by forming the letters differently. Proof of this is in the pronunciation of the first and preeminent letter "alpha" because it derives its name from the Hebrew "aleph" by way of the Blessed, First, and Eternal Name.[10] So too, the Greeks through Abraham came to possess books on dream interpretation. Witness to this is Joseph, the truly wondrous descendant of Abraham, who interpreted Pharoah's dreams as they were going to turn out in fact. In this, Philo, the Jewish philosopher, will be my confirmation via his work Life of the Statesman.[11] About Philo it is said "Philo platonizes and Plato philonizes."[12]
The practice of idolatry extended from Serug[13] to the time of Abraham's father Tharron.[14] Thus, when Abraham was 14 years old[15] and deemed worthy of divine knowledge, he upbraided his father, "Why do you lead the people astray for harmful gain (that is, with idols)? There is no other God but the One in heaven, the Creator of the entire universe." Yet seeing the people serving earthly things, he embarked on a tireless quest, seeking out with his pious heart the Truly Existing God.[16] But seeing that the sky is sometimes light and sometimes dark, he said to himself, "That is not God." Observing similarly the sun and the moon, the one obscured and eclipsed and the other waning and occluded, he said, "Those are not gods either." True, he was trained in astronomy by his father, but Abraham all the same was puzzled by the motions of the stars and scornful of them. But God appeared to him and said, "Go out of your land and leave your kinsmen."[17] Abraham took his father's idols, smashing some and incinerating others. Then he went away with his father out of the land of the Chaldeans. And they came to Haran,[18] where his father died. He left there, obeying the Lord's word, with his wife Sarah and his nephew Lot[19] and all their possessions, and came to the promised land Canaan, which the Canaanites had seized and settled in. When a famine arose, Abraham left the land of the Canaanites and went into Egypt, where Abimelech[20] the king took his wife Sarah. God struck terror into Abimelech and paralysed his limbs, saying "Give this man back his wife, because he is a prophet and will pray for you, and you will live. But if you do not give her back, know that you and your entire household will die." When Abraham got his wife back, undefiled, he prayed, and Abimelech and his household were cured of the paralysis.[21] After this the king, honoring Abraham and devoting himself to his sayings, became a pious and expert teacher to the Egyptians. The same Abraham, upon returning from war,[22] was considered worthy of blessing by Melchisedek, king of Salem, who brought bread and wine out to him. Melchisedek was a priest of the Most High, and Abraham gave to Him a tenth of all he had. Melchisedek was without father, mother, or lineage, like the Son of God.[23]
When Abram[24] lamented to God about his childlessness, God revealed to him through a dream that his descendants would be as numerous as the stars. And he believed God, and God reckoned it to him as righteousness.[25] Now Sarah, who was barren, gave Abraham permission to father a child with her maidservant, and she bore Ismael.[26] And when Abram was 99 years old, God appeared to him and altered his name to Abraham, for until then he had been called Abram. Similarly, Sarah became Sarrah with another "r".[27] And Abraham circumcised Ismael and all his descendants. Moreover, when the Lord was being shown the hospitality of Abraham's house, He promised Abraham that Sarrah would bear him a son. But Sarrah smiled; and the one who was begotten was called Isaac, by the Hebrew name that means "laughter with delight."[28]
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] *abramiai=os: [meaning] descendant of Abraham, or towering, revered.[29]
Greek Original:
Abraam: ho prôtos en patriarchais: eis hon apesemnuneto dêmos ho tôn Hebraiôn to proteron, prin ê theou aposkirtêsai kai genesthai toutou allotrioi kai to tou monogenous huiou autou haima eph' heautous epispasasthai. houtos ek men tês Chaldaiôn gês hupêrchen hormômenos, tôn peri ta meteôra kai tous asteras ton bion holon katanaliskontôn. askêtheis oun kata ton patrion nomon tas tôn epouraniôn asterôn kinêseis kai stochasamenos hôs ouk en toutois histatai to megalourgon tês phainomenês tautêsi ktiseôs, all' echei tina ton dêmiourgon ton kai kinounta kai dieuthunonta tên enarmonion tôn asterôn poreian kai tou kosmou pantos tên katastasin, kai dia tou megethous kai tês kallonês tôn ktismatôn ton genesiourgon autôn, hôs enên, theôrêsas ouk estê mechri toutôn, oude tên ephesin eis tauta katedapanêsen, alla tôn ouraniôn hapsidôn huperartheis kai pasan diabas tên noêtên te kai huperkosmion sumpêxin ouk apestê tou zêtoumenou, heôs hou ho pothoumenos heauton autôi ephanerôse tupois te kai morphômasin, hois heauton emphanizei ho aphanês kai aoratos. kai metanastên auton ek tês patridos labôn epi tên Chananitin katestêse, ton enenêkoston pou kai enaton êdê chronon parelkonta: kai apaida mechri tote tunchanonta gennêtora tou thaumasiou kai makaros kate- stêsen Isaak, hin' echoi monogenê huion kai prôtotokon, tou monogenous kai prôtotokou mustikên eikona prodiagraphonta: touto geras autôi kat' exaireton charisamenos, to doulon kai philon kai patera chrêmatisai tou monogenous huiou kata sarka, tou ton kosmon holon dêmiourgêsantos. houtos heure men hiera grammata kai glôssan emêchanêsato, hês Hebraiôn paides en epistêmêi etunchanon, hôs ontes toutou mathêtai kai apogonoi. ek toutou kai ta Hellênôn grammata tas aphormas elabon, kan allôs kai allôs heautous diapaizontes anagraphôsin Hellênes. kai toutou marturion hê tou Alpha phônê tou prôtou stoicheiou kai archontos, apo tou Aleph Hebraiou labontos tên epiklêsin tou makariou kai prôtou kai athanatou onomatos. ek toutou kai ta oneirôn biblia espheterisanto Hellênes. kai martus Iôsêph ho panthaumastos ho toutou apogonos, ho tou Pharaô ta enupnia hôs emellon apobêsesthai diêgoumenos. touto moi kai Philôn, ex Hebraiôn philosophos, en tôi tou Politikou biôi sunepimarturêsetai, Philôn, peri hou errêthê, Philôn platônizei, kai Platôn philônizei. hoti êrxato hê eidôlolatreia apo Serouch heôs tôn chronôn Tharra tou patros Abraam. hos Abraam huparchôn etôn id# kai theognôsias axiôtheis enouthetei ton patera autou, legôn: ti planais tous anthrôpous dia kerdos epizêmion [toutesti ta eidôla]; ouk estin allos theos ei mê ho en tois ouranois, ho kai panta ton kosmon dêmiourgêsas. horôn gar tous anthrôpous ktismatolatrountas diêrcheto diaponoumenos kai ton ontôs onta theon ekzêtôn ek philotheou kardias. horôn de ton ouranon pote men lampron, pote de skoteinon, elegen en heautôi: ouk estin houtos theos. homoiôs kai ton hêlion kai tên selênên, ton men apokruptomenon kai amauroumenon, tên de phthinousan kai apolêgousan, ephêsen: oud' houtoi eisi theoi. kai mentoi kai tên tôn asterôn kinêsin, ek tou patros gar epaideueto tên astronomian, kai aporôn eduscherainen. ôphthê de autôi ho theos kai legei autôi: exelthe ek tês gês sou kai ek tês sungeneias sou. kai labôn ta eidôla tou patros kai ta men klasas ta de empurisas anechôrêse meta tou patros ek gês Chaldaiôn: kai elthontos eis Charran, eteleutêsen ho patêr autou. kai exelthôn ekeithen en logôi Kuriou êlthe sun têi gunaiki Sarrai kai tôi anepsiôi Lôt meta pasês autôn tês aposkeuês eis tên opheilomenên gên Chanaan, hên hoi Chananaioi turannikôs aphelomenoi ôikêsan. limou de genomenou katalipôn tên Chananaiôn gên eis Aigupton apêiei, hou tên gunaika Sarran Abimelech hêrpasen ho basileus. touton ho theos ekdeimatôsas kai paresin tôn melôn epaxas, apodos, ephê, tên gunaika tôi anthrôpôi, hoti prophêtês esti kai proseuxetai peri sou kai zêseis. ei de mê apodôis, gnôthi hoti apothanêi su kai ta sa panta. kai houtôs apolabôn tên gunaika amianton kai proseuxamenos iathênai epoiêse tês pareseôs Abimelech kai ton oikon autou. ektote timôn auton ho basileus kai prosechôn tois hup' autou legomenois, didaskalos eusebeias kai polupeirias Aiguptiois egeneto. ho autos Abram hupostrephôn ek tou polemou tês eulogias tou Melchisedek katêxiôtai, tou basileôs Salêm, hos exênenken autôi artous kai oinon. ên de kai hiereus tou Hupsistou. kai edôken autôi Abram dekatên apo pantôn. ên de ho Melchisedek apatôr, amêtôr, agenealogêtos, aphômoiômenos tôi huiôi tou theou. tôi de Abram ateknian olophuromenôi kath' hupnous epideixas ho theos tous asteras kata to plêthos autôn esesthai hoi to sperma proedêlou. ho de episteuse tôi theôi, kai elogisthê autôi eis dikaiosunên. hê de Sarra steira ousa sunechôrêsen Abram apo tês paidiskês paidopoiêsasthai: kai ischei ton Ismaêl. enenêkonta de kai ennea etôn onti tôi Abram epiphaneis ho theos Abraam metônomasen: Abram gar prôên ônomazeto: homoiôs kai tên Saran Sarran, prostheis kai heteron r. kai perieteme ton Ismaêl kai pantas tous ex autou. Kurios de tôi Abraam epixenôtheis epêngeilato texesthai Sarran autôi paida. hê de emeidiase, kai Isaak to gennêthen prosêgoreuthê, pherônumôs tôi meth' hêdonês gelôti kata tên Hebraïda dialekton. kai Abramiaios: ho apogonos Abraam, ê gigantiaios, hieroprepês.
Notes:
This long entry is derived in part directly from George the Monk, in part indirectly from Philo of Alexandria; see further in the notes below.
[1] cf. Matthew 27:25 (web address 1).
[2] The Suda's attention to Chaldean astrology derives from Philo, On Abraham, (Colson, Philo Vol VI: XV.69-70).
[3] Use of tu/pos here is twofold: 1) To assert that God's appearance to Abraham was indirect (echoing Philo, On Abraham, XVII.79-80); 2) To impart, as if a corollary of tu/pos in Romans 5:14, that God's manifestation to Abraham was a type or prefiguration of Christ.
[4] Abraham is 100 years old at Isaac's birth (Genesis 21:5); however, the Suda follows Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.191-93 (web address 2 below) in assuming Abraham's age as 99 at the time of God's promise.
[5] The Suda here omits Ishmael, born to Abraham by the Egyptian slave Hagar when he was 86 years old (Genesis 16:1-16). The Suda's omission tacitly acknowledges a covenantal and legal distinction clearly drawn in Genesis. In Isaac, God establishes an "everlasting covenant" for his progeny, whereas God blesses Ishmael and makes him "fruitful and exceedingly numerous" (Genesis 17:19-20). Isaac's filial status is made explicit by God in identifying him as Abraham's "only son" (Genesis 22:12) through whom "offspring shall be named" for Abraham, whereas Ishmael, although destined to father a nation, is identified by God as "the son of the slave woman" (Genesis 21:12-13). Ishmael is, however, mentioned later in the entry.
[6] Christological imagery links Isaac to the personage of Jesus (Matthew 1:1-2 at web address 3 below). See also delta 94, notes 1 and 14.
[7] The Suda underscores the magnitude of the honor with a hyperbolic kat' before e)cai/reton.
[8] The statement, rooted in a paternalistic-filial model that originates in Abraham and culminates in the figure of Christ, approximates the transcendental premise: Abraham is to Joseph as Isaac is to Christ.
[9] The Suda confuses Mosaic and Abrahamic lore. The 2nd century BCE Jewish writer Eupolemus claimed for Moses the invention and propagation of writing: "Moses was the first wise man, the first who imparted the alphabet to the Jews; the Phoenicians received it from the Jews, and the Greeks from the Phoenicians." The 2nd century BCE Egyptian Jewish writer Artapanus attributed hieroglyphics to Moses. According to the 2nd century BCE Samaritan writer Ps.-Eupolemus and Artapanus, astrology and astronomy originated with Abraham, who taught these disciplines and other tools of culture to the Jews, Phoenicians, and Egyptians. They, in turn, transmitted these arts to the Greeks. Philo in On Abraham stresses Abraham's expertise as a teacher. (Encyc. Judaica, Vol 6.964-65; Gruen, 146-51, 157, 294; Grant, 77; Philo, XI.52) At sigma 295, Seth is credited with the invention of the alphabet; Greek legend named Cadmus or Linus as the one who introduced the alphabet to Greece (gamma 416, kappa 21, kappa 22, lambda 568). See also phi 787.
[10] The reference recalls א aleph as the initial letter of ʾelohīm, the most frequent generic name for God in the OT, used about 2,500 times--but a distant second to the unspoken covenant name YHWH (Yahweh), which occurs some 6,800 times (Perdue, 685-86). Cf. alpha 1445.
[11] A reference to Philo's *bi/os politikou= o(/per e)sti peri\ *)iwsh/f (Colson, Philo Vol VI, 140ff.)
[12] Adapted from Jerome's On Illustrious Men (11): h)\ *pla/twn filwni/zei h)\ *fi/lwn platwni/zei ("Either Plato philonizes or Philo platonizes.") Cf. phi 448 and Photius, Bibliotheca 86b 25.
[13] Abraham's grandfather (Genesis 11:22). Seruch in the LXX, שרוג śerūḡ in Hebrew. See also sigma 253.
[14] Abraham's father (Genesis 11:24). Tharra (*qa/rra, *qarra/) or Tharrha (*qa/r)r(a) (Hatch, Concordance, Appendix 1, 71; Brenton, 13); in Hebrew תרח Teraḥ. From the Chronicon of George the Monk, 92.11-12; cf. Malalas 55.5-6.
[15] The Midrash sets Abraham's rejection of idolatry at age 13 (Encyc. Judaica, 4.244). From here to "teacher to the Egyptians," the Suda's source is the Chronicon of George the Monk, 93.16 - 95.17.
[16] On God as "He who is," see omicron 438, omega 105.
[17] cf. Philo, On Abraham XIV.62.
[18] The call in Genesis 12:1-5 brings Abraham from Haran (חרן) to Canaan (כנען). The Suda adheres to Philo, On Abraham, XIV. 67: metani/statai...a)po\ th=s *xaldai/wn gh=s...e)is th\n *xarrai/wn gh=n.
[19] Philo shows a)delfidou=s, as at On Abraham, XXXVII.212, rather than the Suda's potentially ambiguous a)neyio/s for nephew (see LSJ s.v. at web address 4).
[20] On Abimelech, see alpha 45.
[21] The affliction cured in Genesis 20:17-18 is unspecified for Abimelech, but clearly is sterility for the female members of his house. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.208 (web address 5) relates that a "dangerous distemper" (Whiston trans.) afflicted Abimelech. For other traditions, see EncycJudaica, 2.76.
[22] Genesis 14:14-18; the Suda's source is the Chronicon of George the Monk, 100.17-26; 101.5-7.
[23] See Hebrews 7:3 (web address 6). In the Suda, see mu 544, mu 545, mu 546.
[24] The Greek mainly uses Abraam (אברהם ʾAḇraham) to this point, but here Abram (אברם), his pre-covenant name (Genesis 17:5).
[25] Genesis 15:5-6. The statement "and he believed God and God reckoned it to him as righteousness" appears also in Romans 4:3 (web address 7), Galatians 3:6 (web address 8), and James 2:23 (web address 9). A more idiomatic and semantically precise translation of the Hebrew (והאמין בה' ויחשבה לו צדקה weheʾemīn bah' wayyaḥšeḇeha lō ṣedaqah) reads: "And because he put his trust in the Lord, He reckoned it to his merit" (Plaut, 146). This version takes into interpretive account the imperfective waw consecutive (consequential) (Kautzsch, 111.l).
[26] Ismael (Ishmael) appears in the Suda at iota 644, but with a gloss that belongs to Isaak.
[27] Genesis 17:15. Also as *sa/r)r(a or Sarrha (Brenton, 18). The Hebrew covenant name change is Sarai to Sarah (both meaning Princess).
[28] Isaac (יצחק yiṣḥaq) from the Hebrew meaning "he (Abraham) laughed" in Genesis 17:17, and puns Sarah's תצחק tiṣḥaq ("she laughed") in Genesis 18:12. (Kohlenberger, Vol 1, 37, 39; Anderson, 182) In the Suda, see iota 606 (mostly taken from this entry).
[29] This adjectival derivative of Abraham's name appears in 4 Maccabees 9:21 LXX. The gloss replicates, apart from word order, one in Photius; cf. Synagoge alpha17, Hesychius alpha181.
References:
Anderson, A.W. Understanding the Old Testament. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1966
Attridge, H.W. "The Letter to the Hebrews" in The HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Brenton, L.C.L. The Septuagint with Apocrypha. Peabody: Henrickson, 1999 (reprint of 1851 edn.)
Colson F.H., Philo (Vol VI), Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1994
Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1973
Grant, M. From Alexander to Cleopatra: The Hellenistic World. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1982
Gruen, E.S. Heritage and Hellenism: The Reinvention of Jewish Tradition. Berkeley: University of California, 1998
Hatch, E., Redpath, H.A., and Muraoka, T. A Concordance to the Septuagint. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1998
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910
Keck, L.E. "The Letter of Paul to the Romans" in The HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987
Perdue, L.G. "Names of God in the Old Testament" in Harper's Bible Dictionary. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985
Plaut, W.G. The Torah: Genesis, A Modern Commentary. New York: Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1972
Smyth, H.W. Greek Grammar. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1984
Whiston, W. The Works of Josephus. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1987 (reprint of 1736 edn.)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4,
Web address 5,
Web address 6,
Web address 7,
Web address 8,
Web address 9
Keywords: aetiology; biography; children; Christianity; chronology; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; dreams; food; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; history; law; medicine; religion; science and technology; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:54:17.
Vetted by:
Craig Miller (Under editorial review as of this date) on 6 January 2002@08:24:02.
Craig Miller (Modified translation) on 24 January 2002@19:18:31.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@00:26:38.
Craig Miller (Notes added. Additional work pending.) on 25 January 2002@00:29:41.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@01:17:54.
Craig Miller (Added bibliography, keywords; changed status) on 25 January 2002@22:21:22.
Craig Miller (Cosmetics) on 25 January 2002@22:51:36.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@22:54:34.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@23:13:26.
Craig Miller on 4 June 2002@20:45:55.
Craig Miller on 19 June 2002@19:13:42.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew words; minor cosmetics.) on 31 October 2002@10:38:39.
Raphael Finkel (More Hebrew, cosmetics.) on 18 December 2002@10:58:21.
Craig Miller (Additional cosmetics) on 17 May 2003@19:07:49.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@08:20:23.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 November 2005@07:49:08.
Jennifer Benedict (added 15 links) on 25 March 2008@11:50:57.
Catharine Roth (references, cosmetics) on 10 April 2008@16:09:00.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 10 April 2008@20:15:09.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, pruned notes, added cross-references) on 11 April 2008@12:30:02.
Catharine Roth (adjusted note numbers; more tweaks) on 11 April 2008@14:18:11.
William Hutton (augmented n. 29) on 17 July 2009@17:14:18.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 December 2011@07:16:50.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links, other tweaks) on 22 December 2011@19:00:49.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note and links) on 11 November 2013@01:26:27.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:27:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 11 August 2014@00:14:27.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:33:55.
Catharine Roth (betacode typo) on 2 October 2018@02:07:40.

Headword: Habros
Adler number: alpha,87
Translated headword: delicate
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] bright, delicate, tender.[1]
In the Epigrams: "a cicada sat above a cithara delicately murmuring."[2]
"All the same that fellow is dainty and delicate and weakened by the softness of his body and depraved and with his hair done up like the most licentious little courtesans. And when he goes in to see the king his face and his curly hair are always delicately dripping [with perfume], and he takes as much money from the communal difficulties as would satisfy even the legendary Midas."[3]
Greek Original:
Habros: lampros, trupheros, hapalos. en Epigrammasin: habron epitruzôn kitharas huper hezeto tettix. homôs de ho trupheros ekeinos kai habros kai hupo malakias tou sômatos kateagôs kai lelugismenos kai tas te komas anadoumenos, hôsper hai tôn hetairidôn aselgesterai, kai habrostages echôn aei to metôpon kai tous bostruchous, labôn chrusion ek tôn koinôn sumphorôn, hoson hikanon ên emplêsai kai ton ek tou muthou Midan, eiserrei pros ton basilea.
Notes:
For this adjective see already alpha alpha 73 and alpha 86, and again alpha 88.
[1] Same glossing in other lexica; references at Photius alpha55 Theodoridis.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.54.7 (Paulus Silentarius).
[3] Attributed by Hemsterhuys to Eunapius; again (in part) at alpha 1860.
Keywords: biography; clothing; daily life; definition; ethics; gender and sexuality; historiography; imagery; mythology; poetry; women; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:39:27.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, augmented note, set keywords and status) on 2 February 2001@12:21:50.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@06:35:10.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 3 January 2006@10:26:40.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 December 2011@04:35:18.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 22 December 2011@19:16:16.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@07:18:56.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 17 January 2014@04:31:02.

Headword: Abudos
Adler number: alpha,101
Translated headword: Abudos, Abydos, Abydus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A city.[1]
The word is applied to an informant [sukofa/nths] because of the common belief that the people of Abudos were informers.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] an adverb, *)abudo/qi, [meaning] in Abudos.[3]
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] *a)/budon fluari/an ["Abudos nonsense"], [meaning] great [nonsense].[4]
And [sc. attested is] *)abudhno\s, [meaning] he [who comes] from Abudos.[5]
Greek Original:
Abudos: polis. epi sukophantou tattetai hê lexis, dia to dokein sukophantas einai tous Abudênous. kai epirrêma, Abudothi, en Abudôi. kai Abudon phluarian, tên pollên. kai Abudênos, ho apo Abudou.
Notes:
[1] = Lexicon Ambrosianum 82, according to Adler. In fact two cities of this name are known: one on the Asiatic shore of the Hellespont (Barrington Atlas map 51 grid G4; present-day Maltepe) and Abydos/Ebot in Upper Egypt (Barrington Atlas map 77 grid F4); without much doubt, the former is meant here. (In Hesychius alpha23 the gloss is fuller -- 'a Trojan city of the Hellespont'. Latte regards the entry as prompted by Homer, Iliad 2.836, accusative case, although similar wording appears in a late scholion to Iliad 17.584, where the adverbial derivative a)budo/qi appears -- see n. 3 below). See also alpha 100, sigma 465, and generally OCD(4) s.v.
[2] = the first sentence of Pausanias the Atticist alpha3 and Photius alpha63 Theodoridis; cf. also Zenobius 1.1, s.v. *)abudhno\n e)pifo/rhma (alpha 100), and Kassel-Austin, PCG III.2 p.376 on Aristophanes fr. 755. See generally sigma 1330, sigma 1331, sigma 1332.
[3] Probably from commentary to Homer, Iliad 17.584, the only literary attestation of this adverb prior to Musaeus Grammaticus (5/6 CE); cf. Apollonius Dyscolus On Adverbs 2.1.1.164.
[4] = Synagoge Codex B alpha44, but in the better mss of Photius (Lexicon alpha64 Theodoridis) the adjective (in a nominative-case entry) is a)/buqos ('bottomless'), surely correctly; cf. alpha 104. The ultimate source may be Plato, Parmenides 130D, though there too the text is uncertain: perhaps ei)/s tin' a)/buqon fluari/an (web address 1), though the alternatives include ei)/s tina bu=qon fluari/as. On the adjective a)/buqos, a synonym for a)/bussos, see the LSJ entry at web address 2.
[5] There are many literary attestations of this form of the ethnic adjective (nominative singular masculine), beginning with Herodotus 4.138. For an instance in the Suda see pi 71.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; geography; law; philosophy; proverbs
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 21 November 1998@13:59:06.
Vetted by:
Eric Nelson on 31 December 1999@21:07:09.
Ross Scaife ✝ (fixed keywords) on 2 March 2000@17:48:48.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; replaced existing note; cosmetics) on 11 January 2001@08:05:35.
Jennifer Benedict (added links, betacode fix, cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@00:03:03.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 18 April 2011@14:40:09.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 25 April 2011@04:09:51.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 December 2011@09:19:59.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1) on 1 February 2012@05:52:37.
David Whitehead (expansions to notes) on 16 August 2013@07:33:01.
William Hutton (augmented notes) on 4 July 2014@08:19:58.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:21:46.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 3 September 2014@23:35:15.
David Whitehead (expanded n.2) on 22 December 2014@09:26:49.

Headword: Agathias
Adler number: alpha,112
Translated headword: Agathias
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A lawyer,[1] of Myrina;[2] the one who wrote the History as a continuation of Procopius of Caesarea,[3] [comprising] the affairs involving Belisarius[4] and the events in Italy and Libya; that is the affairs involving Narses[5] in Italy and the events in Lazike[6] and Byzantion. He also composed other books, both in meter and in prose, including the Daphniaka[7] and the Cycle of New Epigrams, which he compiled himself from the poets of his day. He was a contemporary of Paulus Silentiarius and of the consul Macedonius and of Tribonian[8] in the time of Justinian.[9]
Greek Original:
Agathias: scholastikos, Murinaios, ho grapsas tên meta Prokopion historian ton Kaisarea, ta kata Belisarion kai tas en Italiai kai en Libuêi praxeis, toutesti ta kata Narsên en Italiai kai ta en Lazikêi kai Buzantiôi. houtos sunetaxe kai hetera biblia emmetra te kai katalogadên, ta te kaloumena Daphniaka, kai ton Kuklon tôn neôn Epigrammatôn, hon autos sunêxen ek tôn kata kairon poiêtôn. sunêkmase de Paulôi tôi Selentiariôi kai Makedoniôi tôi hupatôi kai Tribounianôi epi tôn Ioustinianou chronôn.
Notes:
c.532-c.580. See generally Averil Cameron in OCD(4) s.v. (p.35).
[1] See OCD s.v.
[2] a.k.a. Sebastopolis, in Aeolis (Asia Minor): Barrington Atlas map 56 grid D4.
[3] For Procopius see pi 2479. A's own work was in turn continued by Menander Protector (mu 591).
[4] See beta 233.
[5] See nu 42.
[6] An alternative name for Colchis (kappa 1979); present-day Georgia, between the Black and Caspian Seas.
[7] Amatory hexameters.
[8] tau 956, cf. tau 951.
[9] iota 446.
Keywords: biography; chronology; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; law; poetry; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 30 March 2001@15:08:59.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 24 April 2002@04:07:08.
David Whitehead (added note) on 3 November 2003@06:05:01.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; corrected a note number) on 3 August 2006@09:47:58.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr) on 18 May 2011@08:29:09.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 22 December 2011@04:42:12.
Philip Rance (modified translation) on 23 January 2012@07:57:14.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:22:58.

Headword: Agathoklês
Adler number: alpha,117
Translated headword: Agathokles, Agathocles
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
This man became tyrant [of Syracuse] and, as Timaeus says, in his early youth was a common prostitute, ready [to give himself] to the most debauched, a jackdaw, a buzzard,[1] presenting his backside to all who wanted it. When he died, says [Timaeus], his wife cried out to him in lamentation, "What [did] I not [carnally do to] you? And what [did] you not [reciprocate to] me?"[2] That nature had endowed Agathokles with great advantages is clear. For escaping the wheel, the smoke[of the kiln and] the clay,[3] he came to Syracuse, at about the age of eighteen, and in a short time, starting from such beginnings, he became master of the whole of Sicily, exposed the Carthaginians to extreme dangers, and finally, having grown old in the role of dynast, ended his life with the title of king.[4]
Greek Original:
Agathoklês: houtos egeneto turannos kai, hôs phêsi Timaios, kata tên prôtên hêlikian koinos pornos, hetoimos tois akratestatois, koloios, triorchês, pantôn tôn boulomenôn tois opisthen emprosthen gegonôs. hos hote apethane, tên gunaika phêsi kataklaiomenên auton houtô thrênein: ti d' ouk egô se; ti d' ouk eme su; hoti de ek phuseôs anankê megala proterêmata gegonenai peri ton Agathoklea, touto dêlon. eis gar tas Surakousas paregenêthê pheugôn ton trochon, ton kapnon, ton pêlon, peri te tên hêlikian oktôkaideka etê gegonôs, kai meta tina chronon hormêtheis hupo toiautês hupotheseôs, kurios men egenêthê pasês Sikelias, megistois de kindunois periestêse Karchêdonious, telos engêrasas têi dunasteiai, katestrepse ton bion basileus prosagoreuomenos.
Notes:
360-289 BCE; he ruled Syracuse from 317-289. See generally OCD(4) p.36, under Agathocles(1).
The entry presents a semi-verbatim and mildly abridged extract from Polybius (12.15.2-7: web address 1 below), who is in turn citing, disapprovingly, Timaeus of Tauromenium (FGrH 566 F124b).
[1] On this passage K.J. Dover, Greek Homosexuality (London 1978) p.103 writes: 'The jackdaw here probably sybolises impudence and shamelessness; the buzzard, in Greek triorkhes, having three testicles, presumably symbolises insatiable lust, which is assumed to characterise the true pornos'. Cf. tau 995, where the first part of this quotation reappears.
[2] Probably Theoxene, the daughter or stepdaughter of Ptolemy I Soter and the third wife of Agathokles. See F.W. Walbank, A historical commentary on Polybius (Oxford, 1967) v.2 p.361.
[3] His father owned a large pottery. See Diodorus 19.2.7; 20.63.4. As with equivalent figures in (e.g.) late-C5 Athens, such as Kleon, we see here the conceit that those whose wealth lay in manufacture would actually participate in (and be debased by) the actual manufacturing.
[4] Agathokles assumed the title of king in 305. See Diodorus 20.54.1.
References:
Berve, H., Die Herrschaft des Agathokles (Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1953)
Agathokles(15) in RE 1.1 748-757
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; constitution; daily life; ethics; gender and sexuality; historiography; history; politics; trade and manufacture; women; zoology
Translated by: David Whitehead on 10 February 2001@10:07:49.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 6 June 2001@00:10:30.
Tony Natoli (Modified translation, added notes and bibliography, raised status.) on 12 August 2001@02:19:21.
David Whitehead (restorative and other cosmetics) on 17 September 2002@05:10:41.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@10:59:41.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 20 November 2005@10:37:08.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 26 March 2008@00:30:36.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 22 December 2011@06:16:09.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:23:59.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 1 January 2015@23:51:52.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 17 February 2018@23:14:40.

Headword: Agathôn
Adler number: alpha,124
Translated headword: Agathon
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A proper name. He was a tragic poet; but he was slandered for effeminacy. Aristophanes [writes]:[1] "Where is Agathon?" -- "He's gone and left me." -- "Where on earth is the wretch?" -- "At a banquet of the blessed." This Agathon was good by nature, "missed by his friends" and brilliant at the dinner table. They say also that the Symposium of Plato was set at a dinner party of his, with many philosophers introduced all together. A comic poet [sic] of the school of Socrates. He was lampooned in comedy for womanliness.
Greek Original:
Agathôn: onoma kurion. tragikos de ên: diebeblêto de epi malakiai. Aristophanês: Agathôn de pou 'stin; apolipôn m' oichetai. poi gês ho tlêmôn; es makarôn euôchian. houtos ho Agathôn agathos ên ton tropon, potheinos tois philois kai tên trapezan lampros. phasi de hoti kai Platônos Sumposion en hestiasei autou gegraptai, pollôn hama philosophôn parachthentôn. kômôidiopoios Sôkratous didaskaleiou. ekômôideito de eis thêlutêta.
Notes:
C5 BCE; OCD(4) s.v. (pp.37-7); TrGF 39. See also under alpha 125.
[1] Aristophanes, Frogs 83-85 (web address 1), with scholion; dialogue between Herakles and Dionysos. The phrase "missed by his friends", which the lexicographer uses below, is from the same source.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; comedy; definition; ethics; food; gender and sexuality; philosophy; poetry; tragedy; women
Translated by: William Hutton on 1 April 2001@00:48:08.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note, bibliography, keyword; cosmetics) on 2 April 2001@04:32:53.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 22 December 2006@08:15:58.
Jennifer Benedict (added reference to link) on 26 March 2008@00:44:35.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 22 December 2011@07:40:05.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:26:35.

Headword: Agetai
Adler number: alpha,204
Translated headword: is marrying
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[He] is courting, is taking in marriage.
Aelian [writes]: "Iobas the Maurousian is marrying his sister".[1]
Greek Original:
Agetai: mnêsteuetai, epi gamon lambanei. Ailianos: tên de adelphên autôi Iobas ho Maurousios agetai.
Notes:
The headword, presumably extracted from the quotation given, is third person singular, present middle indicative, of a)/gw (in the sense noted by LSJ s.v., B.2).
[1] Aelian fr.60c Domingo-Forasté (57 Hercher). "Iobas the Maurousian" is more familiar to us as Juba, king of Mauretania in the second half of the C1 BCE, on whom see iota 399.
Keywords: biography; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; history; women
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 October 2000@12:23:24.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note; cosmetics) on 23 October 2000@06:10:38.
David Whitehead (x-ref; cosmetics) on 2 May 2004@05:47:33.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 30 December 2011@07:34:02.
Catharine Roth (updated reference) on 28 January 2012@19:26:37.

Headword: Agnôtas
Adler number: alpha,287
Translated headword: unknown
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning them] not being recognized.[1] "He brought a man unknown to me, who also happened to be unknown to him."[2]
"They had just left farming and entered into the danger of war, which was previously unknown to them."[3]
And elsewhere: "naming what was the price to give herself to an unknown man." Aelian says [this] in On Forethought.[4]
For agnos, [genitive] agnotos, [means] unknown [agnostos].
Greek Original:
Agnôtas: mê epiginôskomenous. agnôta de moi prosekomizen anthrôpon, hos kai heautou agnôs etunchanen ôn. hoi de arti tês geôrgias aphemenoi, es kindunon tou polemou katestêsan, agnôta sphisi ta protera onta. kai authis: phaskousa einai misthôma to heautên parabalein andri agnôti. phêsin Ailianos en tôi Peri pronoias. Agnôs gar agnôtos, ho agnôstos.
Notes:
The first part of this entry is also in Photius (alpha219 Theodoridis), the second part in other lexica.
[1] Masculine accusative plural, evidently quoted from somwhere (other than the quotation given); there are numerous possibilities.
[2] Quotation unidentifiable.
[3] Procopius, History of the Wars of Justinian 1.18.39.
[4] Aelian fr. 12b Domingo-Forasté (12 Hercher); again at mu 1123, pi 274, and pi 2648.
Keywords: agriculture; biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; gender and sexuality; historiography; history; military affairs; women
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 17 March 2001@23:31:54.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes; added keywords) on 18 March 2001@03:42:00.
David Whitehead (restorative cosmetics) on 22 December 2002@07:32:13.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@11:07:45.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 5 December 2005@08:41:06.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@07:57:28.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 4) on 28 January 2012@20:16:50.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@08:39:02.

Headword: Agonia
Adler number: alpha,295
Translated headword: sterility
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Childlessness, barrenness.[1] Aelian [writes]: "the young generation was being destroyed, and there was also sterility both of the women and of the four-footed flock."[2]
Greek Original:
Agonia: ateknia, agennêsia. Ailianos: diephtheireto hê neolaia, kai ên agonia kai mentoi kai gunaikôn kai tês agelês tês tetrapodos.
Notes:
[1] LSJ entry at web address 1. Also see alpha 332.
[2] Aelian fr. 52f Domingo-Forasté (49 Hercher), from the story of Pythagoras, tyrant of Ephesus (pi 3122); cf. nu 195, pi 2518.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; children; definition; food; gender and sexuality; geography; history; medicine; women; zoology
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 12 February 2001@01:15:50.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added keywords, raised status) on 12 February 2001@19:50:13.
David Whitehead (augmented note; added keywords) on 23 December 2002@11:40:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@08:49:23.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 7 January 2012@22:22:26.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 2) on 29 January 2012@22:13:26.

Headword: Agora Kerkôpôn
Adler number: alpha,301
Translated headword: market of Kerkopes
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
They[1] were in Ephesus. Herakles bound them on the orders of Omphale, but he shrunk from killing them since their mother begged him. The proverb is spoken in reference to ill-behaved and knavish people.
Greek Original:
Agora Kerkôpôn: houtoi en Ephesôi êsan, hous edêsen Hêraklês, Omphalês keleuousês: hous apokteinai êidesthê, tês mêtros deêtheisês. hê de paroimia eirêtai epi tôn kakoêthôn kai ponêrôn anthrôpôn.
Note:
[1] That is, the Kerkopes (for whom cf. e.g. kappa 1410); they were "a race of mischievous dwarfs connected by legend with Heracles" (LSJ s.v.). For the story see Apollodoros 2.6.3 (web address 1 below). For the phrase "market of Kerkopes" as meaning "knaves' market" see Diogenes Laertius 9.114; also Zenobius 1.5 and other paroemiographers.
Reference:
OCD(4) pp.1038-9 (s.v. Omphale)
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: daily life; definition; ethics; gender and sexuality; geography; mythology; proverbs; women; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 29 October 2000@23:02:14.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note; added bibliography) on 30 October 2000@03:13:39.
Catharine Roth (Cosmetic.) on 2 February 2001@21:35:39.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@11:04:40.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@09:24:07.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 6 January 2012@01:12:04.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@02:55:53.

Headword: Agônis
Adler number: alpha,335
Translated headword: Agonis
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A name of a courtesan.
Greek Original:
Agônis: onoma hetairas.
Note:
Alexis (alpha 1138) wrote a comedy entitled Agonis or Hippiscus: Arnott (1996) 51-70
Reference:
W.G. Arnott, Alexis: the Fragments (Cambridge 1996)
Keywords: biography; comedy; gender and sexuality; women
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 7 July 1999@11:03:35.
Vetted by:
Ross Scaife ✝ (raised status) on 6 October 2000@13:59:34.
David Whitehead (added x-ref and keyword; cosmetics) on 9 February 2003@09:05:07.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@08:30:13.

Headword: Agrios
Adler number: alpha,359
Translated headword: Agrios, Agrius
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] agrios, [meaning] unsociable, not tame.
It is also used for an excess of evil.
Aelian [writes]: "he sent away the most savage of the bodyguards, took the woman, and defiled her by force as she was calling upon the goddess and lamenting."[2]
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] "Hades, savage craftsman".[3]
Greek Original:
Agrios: onoma kurion. kai Agrios, amiktos, anêmeros. legetai de kai epi kakias huperbolêi. Ailianos: aposteilas tous agriô- tatous tôn doruphorôn exêrpase tên gunaika kai pros bian êischune potniômenên kai thrênousan. kai, ho Haidês, dêmiourgos agrios.
Notes:
See also alpha 360.
[1] e.g. that of a Giant and of a Centaur in Greek mythology.
[2] Aelian fr. 52c Domingo-Forasté (part of fr. 49 Hercher), on Pythagoras, tyrant of Ephesus.
[3] Sophocles, Ajax 1035; again under delta 436.
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; gender and sexuality; military affairs; mythology; religion; tragedy; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:42:37.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headwords, note, keywords; cosmetics) on 13 February 2001@05:15:41.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 8 January 2012@08:40:04.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 2) on 29 January 2012@22:39:47.

Headword: Agrious
Adler number: alpha,360
Translated headword: wild men
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Aeschines in the speech Against Timarchos calls men who are very agitated by the love of boys "wild men".[1] And Menander says a gambler is "wild" if he is too eager for gambling.[2]
The ancients used to call pederasts "wild" and kollopodioktes[3].
[Note] that the comic poets used to make fun of the Acharnians as wild and rough. See under drakharneu.[4]
Greek Original:
Agrious: Aischinês en tôi kata Timarchou tous sphodra eptoêmenous peri ta paidika houtôs ônomase. kai Menandros de agrion eipe kubeutên ton lian peri to kubeuein espoudakota. agrious kai kollopodiôktas ekaloun hoi palaioi tous paiderastas. hoti ekômôidounto hoi Acharneis hôs agrioi kai sklêroi: kai zêtei en tôi dracharneu.
Notes:
The first two paragraphs of this entry come from Harpokration s.v. There, as again here, the headword noun is accusative plural.
See also alpha 359.
[1] Aeschines 1.52.
[2] Menander fr. 965 Kock, 705 Koerte, now 480 Kassel-Austin.
[3] Scholia to Aristophanes, Clouds 349; the meaning of the word is otherwise unknown.
[4] delta 1515.
Keywords: children; comedy; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:43:47.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 29 September 2000@07:21:59.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; further cosmetics) on 13 February 2001@05:20:51.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 11 November 2005@06:36:51.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@04:20:14.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 8 January 2012@22:19:36.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 December 2014@10:44:14.

Headword: Agroikos ex asteos
Adler number: alpha,376
Translated headword: a rustic out of town
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
He did not make this juxtaposition idly. For he is not ashamed to call himself rustic: he insults himself as foolish and rustic in various ways; rather, first of all he is unaware that he is demonstrating his own wealth. For if he were not very rich, his wife would not have chosen him or boasted about the glory of the family and her amusements in town. We are accustomed to think badly of country-dwellers. Then he uses this antithesis that subjects him to his wife: for men always think they are masters of women. He guarantees this by the antithesis: he says he is rustic and his wife is citified. And no wonder that if a man minds his own business and lives moderately, some city girl will come along, take advantage of his rural ways, and make him her slave.
Greek Original:
Agroikos ex asteos: ouk argôs têi parathesei nun echrêsato: ou gar oneidisai boulomenos heauton agroikon kalei: anoêton gar kai agroikon pantapasi diaballein heauton: alla prôton men dia toutou lelêthotôs tên euporian paristêsi tên heautou. ou gar an, ei mê panu ên plousios, epedikasato an autou hê gunê kai têi doxêi auchousa tou genous kai têi en astei diatribêi. adoxein gar eiôthamen epi tois agroikois. epeita de kakeinên therapeuei tên antithesin to hupotetachthai auton têi gunaiki: despozein gar eiôthasin hoi andres tôn gunaikôn. ho de têi antiparathesei kai touto epistôsato, phêsas agroikon auton einai, tên de gunaika politikên. thaumaston gar ouden, ei anthrôpon idiopragmona kai metrion tous tropous dia tên epi tês agroikias diaitan gunaion hupetaxe politikon kai katedoulôsato.
Note:
From the scholia to Aristophanes, Clouds 47, where the headword phrase occurs: Strepsiades is comparing himself and his city-bred wife.
Keywords: agriculture; comedy; daily life; economics; ethics; gender and sexuality; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 March 1999@17:28:52.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (added nothing) on 26 May 2000@13:34:35.
Ross Scaife ✝ (testing) on 21 June 2001@11:05:36.
David Whitehead (modified note; augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 5 February 2003@10:04:36.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:06:19.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 4 December 2005@08:33:26.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 9 January 2012@04:09:09.

Headword: Agurrios
Adler number: alpha,385
Translated headword: Agyrrhios, Agyrrhius
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A proper name. [The man] who was slandered for weakness, that he actually breaks wind. Aristophanes in Plutus [says this]. And he was also ridiculed for over-boldness.[1]
Also [sc. attested is] Agyrrhios, an Athenian demagogue of some renown.[2]
Agyrrhios got away with having the beard of Pronomos.[3] The general Agyrrhios was effeminate.[4] He commanded in Lemnos,[5] and [he was the man] who curtailed the poets' fee.[6] But Pronomos was a piper with a great beard.[7]
Greek Original:
Agurrios: onoma kurion. hos epi malakiai diebeblêto hôs kai perdesthai auton. Aristophanês Ploutôi. ekômôideito de kai eis thrasutêta. kai Agurrios, dêmagôgos Athênaiôn ouk aphanês. Agurrios ton Pronomou pôgôn' echôn lelêthen. ho Agurrios stratêgos thêludriôdês, arxas en Lêmnôi, hos ton misthon tôn poiêtôn sunetemen. ho de Pronomos aulêtês ên megan pôgôna echôn.
Notes:
[1] From the scholia to Aristophanes, Plutus [Wealth] 176; cf. pi 1039. Aristophanes in fact writes that Agyrrhios' flatulence, and much else besides, was motivated by Wealth: *)agu/rrios d' ou)xi\ dia\ tou=ton [Wealth] pe/rdetai;
[2] Despite 'also' (which simply stems, here, from the incorporation of Harpokration s.v., commenting on Demosthenes 24.134), this is the same man, Agyrrhios of Kollytos (LGPN ii s.v. no.1). See generally Develin (1989) Index I no.44; Hansen (1989) p.34; P.J. Rhodes in OCD(4) s.v. (p.45).
[3] Aristophanes, Ecclesiazusae 102-3, with comment from the scholia there; cf. pi 2527.
[4] This adjective for effeminate derives from a word for 'hairdresser' and is also used for a type of kiss, and a type of melody. See kappa 912 (note 1), mu 134.
[5] For his generalship in 389/8 see Develin (1989) p.215. The demagogue Agyrrhios and the general here described are the same man; cf. already n.2.
[6] A measure not otherwise attested (amongst A's documented interest in fees: see the summary in Hansen (1989) p.34).
[7] For the Theban piper Pronomos see Geisau, RE XXIII, 748 (and pi 2527). He is depicted playing the double aulos on the so-called Pronomos krater (Web address 1).
References:
Develin, Robert: 1989: Athenian Officials 684-321 BC. Cambridge.
Hansen, Mogens Herman. 1989: "Rhetores and Strategoi in Fourth-Century Athens." In The Athenian Ecclesia II. Copenhagen. Pp. 25-72.
Stroud, Ronald S. 1998: The Athenian Tax Law of 374/3 B.C. Hesperia Supplement 29, Princeton NJ (American School of Classical Studies at Athens) See esp pp.18ff.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; comedy; definition; economics; gender and sexuality; history; medicine; military affairs; meter and music; poetry; politics; rhetoric
Translated by: Debra Hamel on 12 August 1999@20:03:15.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword; augmented bibliography; cosmetics) on 29 September 2000@08:02:15.
Robert Dyer (Added note 4 and reference to Pronomus in Aristophanes. Cosmetics.) on 29 January 2002@15:00:15.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 27 May 2004@04:54:54.
Catharine Roth (betacode cosmetics) on 17 August 2004@22:38:04.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@11:09:41.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 27 November 2005@09:40:38.
David Whitehead (augmented n.2; another keyword; cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@04:55:36.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@03:01:13.

Headword: Agurtês
Adler number: alpha,388
Translated headword: mendicant
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning a] beggar,[1] mountebank.
One who asks for more, greedy.[2]
Or a vulgar person. And it is also a throw with dice[3] and a Gallus[4] and a seer, as Apion [says].
In the Epigrams: "a certain beggar-priest of the Mother who had severed a genital vein".[5]
And elsewhere: "a deceitful beggar, who looked only for profit".[6]
And elsewhere: "for he was in fact a seer and enamoured of omens".[7]
Greek Original:
Agurtês: ptôchos, ochlagôgos. epaitês, philokerdês. ê surphetôdês. esti de kai bolos kubeutikos kai Gallos kai mantis, hôs Apiôn. en Epigrammasi: keiramenos gonimên tis apo phleba Mêtros agurtês. kai authis: dolion agurtên, hos en tois kerdesi monon dedorke. kai authis: ên gar autos agurtês tôi onti kai philomanteutês.
Notes:
See also alpha 389 (and cf. already alpha 387).
[1] From the scholia to Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus 388, where the accusative case of the headword occurs; quoted below.
[2] Same or similar glossing in other lexica; references at Photius alpha280 Theodoridis.
[3] cf. beta 369.
[4] A priest of Cybele (Kybele, a Phrygian goddess, equivalent to the Minoan goddess Rhea, cf. kappa 2586).
[5] Greek Anthology 6.218.1 (Alcaeus), the dedication of a eunuch priest of Cybele who escaped from a lion by beating his timbrels; cf. Gow and Page, vol. I (9) and vol. II (24-26) and further extracts from this epigram at gamma 158, theta 526, pi 952, pi 2954, tau 316, and omega 89.
[6] Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus 388-9 (Oedipus on Teiresias).
[7] 'Dam.', says Adler's note (= Damascius fr. 212 Zintzen); cf. alpha 389.
References:
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge 1965)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge 1965)
Keywords: biography; daily life; definition; economics; ethics; gender and sexuality; medicine; meter and music; poetry; religion; tragedy; women; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 March 1999@18:07:24.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; added keywords; cosmetics) on 17 July 2001@09:31:21.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 28 November 2005@08:21:22.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 7 February 2011@10:02:13.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; another keyword; tweaks) on 9 January 2012@05:11:58.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 29 June 2012@00:50:46.
David Whitehead on 19 August 2013@04:47:23.
Ronald Allen (exanded n.5, added bibliography, added keywords) on 19 November 2018@23:50:28.
Ronald Allen ((spelling) expanded n.5) on 20 November 2018@00:34:45.
Ronald Allen (expanded n.4 and n.5, added cross-references) on 6 December 2018@12:31:45.

Headword: Anchousa
Adler number: alpha,416
Translated headword: alkanet, bugloss, rouge
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A type of plant, which has a red root used by women to redden their faces. "Alkanet will harm [you] as will that white lead[1] of yours".[2]
Greek Original:
Anchousa: eidos botanês, hês hê rhiza eruthra, hêi eruthrainousi ta prosôpa hai gunaikes. hê anchous' odunêsei kai to son psimmuthion.
Notes:
Anchusa tinctoria: a)/gxousa here; Attic e)/gxousa in Aristophanes, Lysistrata 48 and elsewhere.
Besides what follows here (and in epsilon 3093) see e.g. Theophrastus, Enquiry into Plants 7.9.3.
[1] This was also used as a facial cosmetic: see psi 108.
[2] Aristophanes, Ecclesiazusae 928-9, telescoped (see web address 1). The USDA does not indicate that the plant is poisonous, but Anchusa officinalis is classified as a noxious weed in Oregon and Washington. See web address 2.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: botany; comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; gender and sexuality; medicine; science and technology; women
Translated by: William Hutton on 31 October 2000@11:54:11.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword) on 1 November 2000@03:19:17.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference and link) on 18 December 2007@20:12:30.
David Whitehead (modified headword; augmented notes and keywords) on 19 December 2007@03:20:07.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 9 January 2012@08:50:27.
Catharine Roth (tweak) on 25 November 2014@23:09:48.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 26 November 2014@02:45:12.
Catharine Roth (expanded note, added link) on 20 June 2017@19:14:27.

Headword: Anchôn
Adler number: alpha,419
Translated headword: squeezing
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning one who is] strangling, pressing.
"He, squeezing her right hand and bringing it around her, took away the sword."[1]
Greek Original:
Anchôn: perisphingôn, thlibôn. ho de anchôn tên autês dexian kai periagôn periaireitai to xiphos.
Notes:
The headword, presumably extracted from the quotation given, is present participle, masculine nominative singular, of alpha 417.
[1] Iamblichus, Babyloniaca [see generally iota 26] fr.79 Habrich.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; women
Translated by: William Hutton on 31 October 2000@12:12:57.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@11:23:12.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 9 January 2012@09:00:17.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 19 August 2013@05:16:57.

Headword: Adam
Adler number: alpha,425
Translated headword: Adam
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The first human, he who was shaped by the hand of God and formed in the image and likeness of the Creator and Founder; he was also deemed worthy of a dwelling in Paradise. He could justly be called the first wise man, since he was the first likeness created and an image wrought by God, and also because he had a full share of all the graces that exist. And all the senses of the body and the soul he possessed in a pure and unadulterated state. For rays of a certain sort, so to speak, flashed from the soul of that man, rays teeming with divine thoughts and energies, and they coursed through all nature, accurately and unerringly anticipating the particular virtue of each thing. Those who judged him were not men, who often make judgments in an erroneous fashion, but the God of everything, who makes every decision and judgment correctly, and, before his mind was stirred to action, by the soul, which labors over such things and gives birth to ideas. And as Scripture says: "God made all the domesticated and wild animals and the things that crawl and the winged things, and he brought them before Adam to see what he would call them, and whatever Adam called them, that was their name."[1] And what is more perfectly clear than this statement and this testimony? What more sublime than this wisdom and this discrimination? He gave names to nature itself, as though prescribing the essence of each animal, without practice, without prior consideration, with no preparatory effort at the things which people take pains to learn. And although many, nay, innumerable species were brought before him no one has managed to change the name even of some insignificant animal, nor did anyone manage to attain even a fraction of his great wisdom and discrimination. Instead all humans scattered across the entire earth continue following his pronouncements unaltered. And the first-born one's surpassing judgment in all things did not stop there, but also extended to the varieties of seeds and plants and the uses of roots and herbs. And whatever in the way of prevention and treatment nature assigned to each of the living things he determined and made clear. He, the first to see woman, spoke about her not as with a human mouth. As though he were echoing some divine pronouncement he uttered incisively that celebrated and awe-inspiring saying: "this now is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh. She will be called woman, because she was taken out of her man."[2] He, moreover, is the one who assesses each thing and establishes rules, precise standards, and incontestable boundaries for all. His are the crafts and letters, his are rational and non-rational sciences, his are prophethoods, priesthoods, purifications and laws both written and unwritten; his are all discoveries and doctrines and whatever needs and regimens are essential for life. He is the first representation of mankind, the image summoned from God; all image-making among men starts out from him as a model, though more and more they sink to a level inferior to his blessed and God-like image, which had no starting point upon which one who molded or painted images after him might depend; to such an extent that the Abomination, the Apostate, the deceiving Devil toppled him from his original foundation and position and caused him to be borne headfirst into pit-like and unlit places which reach all the way down to the joyless recesses of Hades. And from this point human nature became caricatured and falsified and was stamped with the shapings and designs of the Tyrant. From this source that bastard wisdom had its beginnings, for divine wisdom had made its escape and had flown up toward heaven, whence it had previously started out. Whence the Imposter expropriated the name of God and dealt it out it in many directions, giving himself different names, such as "Kronos" and "Zeus", and -- the most wicked thing of all -- the Criminal even had the gall to drag down the blessed and ineffable nature [of God] and associate it with names that were female and unworthy of respect, such as those "Rheas" and "Aphrodites" and "Athenas" and thousands of others, and into strange forms and shapes of illogical things which the Creator of Evil and the Hatcher of Heresy invented and carved out. Hence the wretched tales of the Egyptians about Osiris and Typhon and Isis, and the chicanery of the Persian Magi, and the gymnosophistry and impertinent fantasies of the Brahmans, the fabled sayings of the Skythians and the orgies of the Thracians and the flutes and Corybantes of the Phyrgians. Hence the deceitful and damaging astrology of the Chaldaeans. Hence poetry, the midwife of lies, the pretentious diction of Greek storytelling. Hence Orpheus and Homer and that portrayer of improper begettings, Hesiod. Hence the reputation of Thales and the glorious Pythagoras and Socrates the wise and Plato, the much-ballyhooed pride of the Academy of the Athenians. Hence the Parmenideses and the Protagorases and the Zenos. Hence the Stoas, and the Areopaguses and the Epicureans. Hence the dirges and breast-beatings of the tragedians and the jestings and raillery of the comics. Hence the dishonest divinations of Loxias the liar[3] and the remaining shenanigans and omen-mongering of Greek sophistication. And lest I prolong my essay by getting caught up in rotten and malodorous myths, the Imposter, having taken the burden of the entirety of creation on himself, and having taken man under his control as though he were a slave, went through all that is below heaven and patrolled the earth and kept watch over everything like a hen on her eggs, as he himself says in his lying fashion. He thought that it was necessary to set his throne above the clouds of heaven and to be equal to the Highest One. But the only begotten Son of God, the primordial Word, took pity on mankind since it had been deceived by the serpent, removed himself from the lap of the Father and became flesh by the Holy Spirit and by the Holy Virgin and Mother of God, Mary. He defeated his rival through the hallowed cross and through his suffering and went down to the lowest reaches of the earth and from there dragged back the fallen first-formed one, restoring the primordial beauty to his image and the original worth to his nature. And at that point the entire regime and conformity of the Tyrant vanished, as the light of piousness beamed more brightly than the rays of the sun on the entirety of creation. From this light the godly wisdom once again shone through and gave voice to the tongues of the fishermen and made the unwise teachers of the wise. From this came the birth of thunder, as follows: "In the beginning was the word."[4] It flashed forth from heavenly clouds and thundered and brought light to the entire inhabited world. And through this light Paul is carried to the Third Heaven and sees the unseeable and hears the unspoken sayings and speeds across the entire earth like a bird bringing the Gospel of Jesus in mid air. Thence Peter named Christ the son of the living God, and he is entrusted with the keys of the kingdom of the heavens, so that he may open the entrance to the divine palace for those who believe and lock it against those who do not. Thence flocks of martyrs cast down idols and hasten readily toward their death, displaying their wounds as crowns and their blood as robes of purple, beautiful in victory. The first-formed one should be considered the one who directs this writing, in my opinion and judgment at any rate, as a river the spring and the sea, and roots and branches and shoots, and as the one who originates all human nature, the beginning offerings and the first-fruits.
From Adam until the flood: 2242 years; from the flood until the building of the tower [sc. of Babel], 525 years; from the building of the tower until Abraham, 425. From Abraham until the Exodus of the sons of Israel from Egypt, 430. From the Exodus until the building of the Temple of Solomon, 757 years. From the building of the temple until the captivity of Israel, 425. Altogether 4880 years.[5] From the captivity until king Alexander [sc. the Great], 318. From Alexander until Christ our God, 303. Altogether 5500 years.[6] From Christ until Constantine the Great, 318. From Constantine until Michael son of Theophilos, 555. The whole span altogether 6375 years.[7] From Michael to Romanos son of Constantine Porphyrogennetos ... years.[8] From Porphyrogennetos to the death of John Tzimiskes ... years.[9]
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] Adamiaios, [meaning he who is descended] from Adam.
Greek Original:
Adam: ho prôtos anthrôpos, ho cheiri theou plastheis kai kata tên eikona kai homoiôsin morphôtheis tou dêmiourgou te kai ktisantos, ho kai timêtheis tên eis paradeison oikêsin. houtos dikaiôs an prôtos kaloito sophos hôs prôtoktiston agalma kai eikôn ousa theographos, hôs tôn charitôn holôn huparchôn anapleôs kai panta kathara kai akibdêla peripherôn ta psuchês te kai sômatos aisthêtêria. marmarugai gar tines, hôs eipein, ek tês ekeinou psuchês apastraptousai kai theiôn ennoiôn te kai energeiôn plêthousai kata pasan eisetrechon phusin eustochôs kai anamartêtôs to oikeion hekastês pleonektêma phthanousai. hos ou para anthrôpôn edokimasthê tôn tas kriseis pollakis episphalôs poioumenôn, alla para tou tôn holôn theou tou pasan gnôsin kai krisin orthôs poioumenou kai pro tou tas ennoias kinêthênai para tês ôdinousês ta toiauta psuchês kai apotiktousês noêmata. kai hêi phêsin hê graphê: epoiêsen ho theos panta ta ktênê kai ta thêria kai ta herpeta kai peteina kai êgagen auta pros ton Adam idein, ti kalesei auta. kai ho ekalesen Adam, touto onoma autôi. ti tês phônês tautês kai marturias aridêloteron; ti tês sophias tautês kai diagnôseôs hupsêloteron; ekalesen onomata tên phusin autên kai tên hupostasin hekastou zôiou hôsper hupographomenos, ou meletêsas, ou proskepsamenos, ouden ti propeponthôs tôn hosa metamanthanousin anthrôpoi. kai pollôn kai anarithmôn geneôn paradramousôn ouk ischusen oudeis hupallaxai kan tou tuchontos zôiou to onoma, oude tês ekeinou draxasthai megalonoias kai diagnôseôs. mallon men oun menousin hapantes hoi kata pasan esparmenoi tên gên anthrôpoi tois ekeinou stoichountes ametathetois thespismasi. kai oude mechri toutôn estê tou prôtogonou anthrôpou to huperballon en pasin axiôma, alla kai spermatôn kai phutôn diaphoras rhizôn te kai botanôn dunameis, kai hosa eis antilêpsin kai therapeian hê phusis hekastôi prosarmottei tôn zôiôn, diekrine te kai esaphêsen. houtos kai tên gunaika prôtos idôn ouch hôsper ek stomatos anthrôpinou peri tautês ephthenxato, all' hôs ek tinos theias omphês enêchoumenos eustochôs to poluumnêton ekeino kai thaumaston apephoibase logion: touto nun ostoun ek tôn osteôn mou kai sarx ek tês sarkos mou. hautê klêthêsetai gunê, hoti ek tou andros autês elêphthê. houtos toinun estin ho dokimasas hekasta kai pasi kanonas kai stathmas akribeis kai horous anantirrêtous enarmo- samenos. toutou technai kai grammata, toutou epistêmai logikai te kai alogoi, toutou prophêteiai, hierourgiai kai katharismoi kai nomoi graptoi te kai agraphoi, toutou panta heurêmata kai didagmata, kai hosai kata ton bion anankaiai chreiai te kai diaitai. houtos estin ho prôtos andrias, to theoklêton agalma, aph' houper apeuthunontai pasai anthrôpôn agalmatourgiai, kan pros to hêtton mallon kai mallon ekpiptôsin ekeinou tou makariou kai theoeidous apeikasmatos mêdemian echontos aphormên, hês an epilaboito ho met' ekeinon diaplattomenos ê zôigraphoumenos, heôs ho palamnaios kai apostatês kai planos diabolos touton exekulisen ek tês oikeias hidruseôs te kai staseôs kai kata tou pranous eiase pheresthai pros barathrôdeis tinas kai alampeis chôrous kai mechri tôn ameidêtôn tou haidou keuthmônôn engizontas. kanteuthen êrxato phusis hê tôn anthrôpôn paracharattesthai kai diakibdêleuesthai kai tupousthai tois tou turannou morphômasi te kai schêmasin. enteuthen hê nothos sophia tas aphormas elabe, tês theias drapeteusasês kai pros ouranon anaptasês, hothen to proteron ên aphormêsasa. hothen ho planos to tou theou spheterisamenos onoma eis polla katemerise, Kronous te kai Zênas kai Poseidônas heauton metakalôn: kai to dê pantôn anosiôtaton, eis onomata thêlea te kai asemna tên makarian kai arrêton sunkataspasai phusin ho alitêrios katetolmêsen, eis te tas Rheas ekeinas kai Aphroditas kai Athênas kai eis allas murias kai allokotous alogôn ideas te kai morphas, has ho kakias dêmiourgos kai tên apostasian nosêsas epechrôse te kai diecharaxen. enteuthen Aiguptiôn ta peri Osirin kai Tuphôna kai Isin mochthêra diêgêmata kai Persôn magika manganeumata kai Brachmanôn gumnosophistiai kai akairoi phantasiai kai hê thaumazomenê Skuthôn rhêsis kai ta Thraikôn orgia kai hoi Phrugôn auloi kai Korubantes. enteuthen hê Chaldaiôn astronomia hê sphalera te kai poluôdunos. enteuthen hê tou pseudous locheutria poiêsis, hê tôn Hellênikôn lêrêmatôn semnomuthia. enteuthen Orpheus te kai Homêros kai ho tôn athemitôn gonôn zôigraphos Hêsiodos. enteuthen hê Thalêtos doxa kai ho kleinos Puthagoras kai ho sophos Sôkratês kai Platôn, to tês Athênaiôn Akadêmias poluthrulêton semnologêma. enteuthen hoi Parmenidai kai Prôtagorai kai Zênônes. enteuthen hai Stoai kai hoi Areioi pagoi kai Epikoureioi. enteuthen hoi tragôidôn thrênoi kai kopetoi kai ta kômikôn paignia kai tôthasmata. enteuthen ta dolera tou Loxiou kai pseudêgorou thespismata kai hê loipê tôn Hellênikôn kompseumatôn ereschelia kai terateia. kai hina mê makron apoteinô ton logon eis saprous te kai odôdotas muthous enascholoumenos, pasan eis heauton tên ktisin ho planos emphortisamenos kai labôn hupo cheira ton anthrôpon hôs andrapodon kai dierchomenos tên hup' ouranon kai peripatôn tên gên kai hôs ôa panta katechôn, hôs autos pou phêsin alazoneuomenos, ôieto dein ton heautou thronon thêsein epanô tôn nephelôn tou ouranou kai esesthai homoios tôi Hupsistôi. all' ho tou theou monogenês huios kai logos ho proaiônios oikteiras ton anthrôpon hôs êpatêmenon hupo tou drakontos ek tôn tou patros kolpôn heauton ekenôse kai sarkôtheis ek pneumatos hagiou kai ek tês hagias parthenou kai theotokou Marias, kai dia tou timiou staurou kai tou pathous autou katabalôn ton antipalon kai katabas eis ta katôtata merê tês gês ekeithen heilkuse ton parapesonta prôtoplaston, apodous têi eikoni to prôton kallos kai têi phusei to archaion axiôma. kanteuthen êphanistai pasa hê tou turannou dunasteia kai summorphia tou tês eusebeias phôtos diaugasantos pasêi têi ktisei tôn hêliakôn marmarugôn têlaugesteron. ek toutou tou phôtos hê kata theon sophia palin dielampse kai glôssas halieôn estomôse kai tôn sophôn didaskalous tous asophous eirgasato enteuthen ho tês brontês gonos, to: en archêi ên ho logos, ex ouraniôn nephelôn apastrapsas ebrontêse, kai pasan tên oikoumenên elamprune. kak toutou tou phôtos Paulos eis triton ouranon anapheretai kai theatai ta atheata kai tôn arrêtôn hupakouei logiôn kai diatrechei pasan tên gên hôs ptênos kai aerios ton Iêsoun euangelizomenos. enteuthen ho Petros ton Christon huion theou tou zôntos ônomase kai tas kleis tês tôn ouranôn pisteuetai basileias, hina anoigêi men tois pistois, apokleiêi de tois apistois tôn theiôn anaktorôn tên eisodon. enteuthen agelai marturôn kataballousin eidôla kai trechousin hetoimoi pros ton thanaton, hôs stephanous tas plêgas kai hôs porphuras ta heautôn haimata peripherontes hoi kallinikoi. estô goun ho prôtoplastos archêgos toude tou grammatos, kata ge ton emon horon kai logon, hôs potamos pêgê te kai thalatta kai rhiza kai kladoi kai horpêkes kai pasês huparchôn tês anthrôpinês phuseôs aparchê kai prôtoleion. hoti apo Adam heôs tou kataklusmou etê #22bsmb#. apo de tou kataklusmou heôs tês purgopoiïas etê phke#. apo de tês purgopoiïas heôs tou Abraam uke#. apo de tou Abraam heôs tês exodou tôn huiôn Israêl ex Aiguptou ul#. apo de tês exodou heôs tês oikodomês tou Solomônteiou naou etê psnz#. apo de tês oikodomês tou naou heôs tês aichmalôsias tou Israêl uke#. homou etê #22dôp#. apo de tês aichmalôsias heôs Alexandrou basileôs tiê#. apo de Alexandrou heôs Christou tou theou hêmôn tg#. homou etê #22eph#. apo de Christou heôs tou megalou Kônstantinou tiê#. apo de Kônstantinou mechri Michaêl huiou Theophilou phne#. homou ta panta etê #22#2toe#. apo de Michaêl heôs Rhômanou huiou Kônstantinou tou Porphurogennêtou etê ... apo de tou Porphurogennêtou heôs tês teleutês Iôannou tou Tzimiskê etê ... kai Adamiaios, apo Adam.
Notes:
The great bulk of this entry -- 104 lines out of 117 in the printed edition -- is a tour de force of polemic by an unidentifiable scholar quite outside the type of neutral reticence which characterises most of the contributors to the Suda (although Küster suggests a comparison with the entry on Job at iota 471). His self-styled "essay" (logos), unparalleled in this form and content elsewhere, is a tirade on two levels: explicitly, against the great men of pagan culture(s), and also implicitly, in that its determination to enhance the significance of Adam to extraordinary levels rests in part upon an almost Pelagian exculpation of him from the taint of original sin.
[1] A paraphrase of Genesis 1.20 and 2.19.
[2] Genesis 2.23; the wordplay between "man" and "wo-man" in English, is also present in the original Hebrew איש ʾīš and אישה ʾīššah, but not in the Greek.
[3] i.e. Apollo (lambda 673).
[4] John 1.1.
[5] The actual sum of the numbers given up to this point is 4804 (dwd) instead of the 4880 (dwp) of the mss.
[6] The actual sum of all the numbers given so far is 5432; adding merely the last two numbers to the previous summation yields 5528.
[7] 6373, counting from the last summation. The actual total of all individual numbers is 6305. (Up to this point the chronology is taken from George the Monk, Chronicon 804.1-20; and cf. generally phi 45. The two time-spans which now follow are odd, in that the chronology stops being linear.)
[8] Romanus (II) died in 963.
[9] John died in 976.
Keywords: art history; biography; botany; Christianity; chronology; comedy; epic; ethics; food; gender and sexuality; historiography; imagery; law; mythology; philosophy; poetry; proverbs; religion; tragedy; women; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 23 April 2001@15:37:44.
Vetted by:
Patrick T. Rourke (Cleaned up encoding issue) on 8 April 2002@12:19:19.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 8 April 2002@14:00:09.
Catharine Roth (raised status) on 5 May 2002@12:51:12.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew words.) on 31 October 2002@10:41:09.
David Whitehead (modified last paragraph of translation; corrected error in footnote numeration; cosmetics) on 10 June 2003@04:32:32.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@07:34:57.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 9 January 2012@10:28:35.
David Whitehead on 9 January 2012@10:58:50.
David Whitehead (added primary note) on 11 January 2012@11:10:07.
David Whitehead (my typo) on 11 January 2012@11:26:30.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 6 January 2013@23:16:27.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 17 January 2014@06:41:18.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:30:26.
Catharine Roth (cross-reference) on 28 January 2019@15:16:53.

Headword: Adamastos
Adler number: alpha,428
Translated headword: unmastered
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Maiden, unyoked.[2] Sophocles [writes]: "but now Zeus' fierce-eyed maiden goddess [...] has ruined [me], planting in me a berserk illness."[2]
Greek Original:
Adamastos: parthenos, azux. Sophoklês: nun d' hê Dios gorgôpis parthenos thea esphêlen embalousa lussôdê nosôi.
Notes:
cf. generally alpha 427.
[1] For 'unyoked' see alpha 604.
[2] An abbreviated quotation of Sophocles, Ajax 450-52 (web address 1 below), with the glosses of the scholia there. Oddly, the Suda here substitutes the first of them, parqe/nos, where the headword appears in the text of Sophocles.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; gender and sexuality; imagery; medicine; mythology; religion; tragedy; women
Translated by: William Hutton on 1 November 2000@00:37:02.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note) on 30 April 2002@03:36:32.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; x-ref' keyword) on 16 August 2006@06:00:30.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1; cosmetics) on 10 January 2012@04:59:05.

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