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Headword: *)agaqoklh=s
Adler number: alpha,117
Translated headword: Agathokles, Agathocles
Vetting Status: high
This man became tyrant [of Syracuse] and, as Timaeus says, in his early youth was a common prostitute, ready [to give himself] to the most debauched, a jackdaw, a buzzard,[1] presenting his backside to all who wanted it. When he died, says [Timaeus], his wife cried out to him in lamentation, "What [did] I not [carnally do to] you? And what [did] you not [reciprocate to] me?"[2] That nature had endowed Agathokles with great advantages is clear. For escaping the wheel, the smoke[of the kiln and] the clay,[3] he came to Syracuse, at about the age of eighteen, and in a short time, starting from such beginnings, he became master of the whole of Sicily, exposed the Carthaginians to extreme dangers, and finally, having grown old in the role of dynast, ended his life with the title of king.[4]
Greek Original:
*)agaqoklh=s: ou(=tos e)ge/neto tu/rannos kai\, w(/s fhsi *ti/maios, kata\ th\n prw/thn h(liki/an koino\s po/rnos, e(/toimos toi=s a)kratesta/tois, koloio\s, trio/rxhs, pa/ntwn tw=n boulome/nwn toi=s o)/pisqen e)/mprosqen gegonw/s. o(\s o(/te a)pe/qane, th\n gunai=ka fhsi\ kataklaiome/nhn au)to\n ou(/tw qrhnei=n: ti/ d' ou)k e)gw\ se/; ti/ d' ou)k e)me\ su/; o(/ti de\ e)k fu/sews a)na/gkh mega/la proterh/mata gegone/nai peri\ to\n *)agaqokle/a, tou=to dh=lon. ei)s ga\r ta\s *surakou/sas paregenh/qh feu/gwn to\n troxo\n, to\n kapno\n, to\n phlo\n, peri/ te th\n h(liki/an o)ktwkai/deka e)/th gegonw\s, kai\ meta/ tina xro/non o(rmhqei\s u(po\ toiau/ths u(poqe/sews, ku/rios me\n e)genh/qh pa/shs *sikeli/as, megi/stois de\ kindu/nois perie/sthse *karxhdoni/ous, te/los e)gghra/sas th=| dunastei/a|, kate/streye to\n bi/on basileu\s prosagoreuo/menos.
360-289 BCE; he ruled Syracuse from 317-289. See generally OCD(4) p.36, under Agathocles(1).
The entry presents a semi-verbatim and mildly abridged extract from Polybius (12.15.2-7: web address 1 below), who is in turn citing, disapprovingly, Timaeus of Tauromenium (FGrH 566 F124b).
[1] On this passage K.J. Dover, Greek Homosexuality (London 1978) p.103 writes: 'The jackdaw here probably sybolises impudence and shamelessness; the buzzard, in Greek triorkhes, having three testicles, presumably symbolises insatiable lust, which is assumed to characterise the true pornos'. Cf. tau 995, where the first part of this quotation reappears.
[2] Probably Theoxene, the daughter or stepdaughter of Ptolemy I Soter and the third wife of Agathokles. See F.W. Walbank, A historical commentary on Polybius (Oxford, 1967) v.2 p.361.
[3] His father owned a large pottery. See Diodorus 19.2.7; 20.63.4. As with equivalent figures in (e.g.) late-C5 Athens, such as Kleon, we see here the conceit that those whose wealth lay in manufacture would actually participate in (and be debased by) the actual manufacturing.
[4] Agathokles assumed the title of king in 305. See Diodorus 20.54.1.
Berve, H., Die Herrschaft des Agathokles (Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1953)
Agathokles(15) in RE 1.1 748-757
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; constitution; daily life; ethics; gender and sexuality; historiography; history; politics; trade and manufacture; women; zoology
Translated by: David Whitehead on 10 February 2001@10:07:49.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 6 June 2001@00:10:30.
Tony Natoli (Modified translation, added notes and bibliography, raised status.) on 12 August 2001@02:19:21.
David Whitehead (restorative and other cosmetics) on 17 September 2002@05:10:41.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@10:59:41.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 20 November 2005@10:37:08.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 26 March 2008@00:30:36.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 22 December 2011@06:16:09.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:23:59.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 1 January 2015@23:51:52.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 17 February 2018@23:14:40.

Headword: *)agasiklh=s
Adler number: alpha,169
Translated headword: Agasikles, Agasicles
Vetting Status: high
A proper name. He is said to have bribed[1] the Halimousians, and for that reason, although he was a foreigner, to have been accorded [sc. Athenian] citizenship.[2]
Greek Original:
*)agasiklh=s: o)/noma ku/rion. o(\s le/getai *(alimousi/nois sundika/sai kai\ dia\ tou=to ce/nos w)\n e)ggrafh=nai th=| politei/a|.
After the initial generic gloss, this entry is abridged from Harpokration s.v.
[1] Reading sundeka/sai for the transmitted sundika/sai ("to share in judging"). See LSJ s.v. sundeka/zw at web address 1; see also n. 1 to alpha 1231.
[2] This is RE Agasikles 2; his claim to Athenian citizenship was contested in a speech by Dinarchus.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; constitution; definition; economics; ethics; history; law; politics; rhetoric
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 7 June 1999@11:24:47.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation, with explanatory note.) on 15 September 2000@06:18:36.
David Whitehead on 15 September 2000@06:20:34.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@11:01:00.
Jennifer Benedict (betacode, added link, cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@01:51:40.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 27 March 2008@08:39:44.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 July 2011@09:57:12.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 5 April 2015@21:47:43.

Headword: *)age/neia
Adler number: alpha,197
Translated headword: low birth
Vetting Status: high
Bad birth.
Greek Original:
*)age/neia: h( dusge/neia.
The headword literally means lack of birth. It is first attested in the Politics of Aristotle 6.1317b40 (web address 1 below) where a)ge/neia, peni/a and banausi/a are the defining characteristics, from a hostile standpoint, of democracy.
Similar entry in Hesychius, but in the accusative case and with the two nouns reversed.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: constitution; daily life; definition; ethics; philosophy; politics
Translated by: William Hutton on 17 October 2000@02:31:44.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword) on 25 April 2002@10:02:20.
Jennifer Benedict (added link, betacode) on 26 March 2008@02:11:08.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 27 March 2008@08:46:46.
David Whitehead (another note) on 29 December 2011@07:40:46.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 31 December 2011@18:20:24.

Headword: *)agnou/sios
Adler number: alpha,282
Translated headword: Hagnousian, Agnousian
Vetting Status: high
[H]agnous is a deme of the [sc. Athenian] tribe Akamantis, the tribesman[1] from which [is a] [H]agnousian.
Greek Original:
*)agnou/sios: *)agnou=s dh=mos e)sti\ fulh=s th=s *)akamanti/dos, h(=s o( fule/ths *)agnou/sios.
From Harpokration s.v. *a)gnou=s, commenting on the appearance of the demotikon (the present headword) in Demosthenes 18.21.
On the deme Hagnous (the aspirated form appears to be the more authentic) see generally Traill (1975) 48, with Traill (1986) 132; Whitehead (1986) index s.v.
[1] A slip (already in Harpokration) for "demesman".
J.S. Traill, The Political Organization of Attica (Princeton 1975)
J.S. Traill, Demos and Trittys (Toronto 1986)
D. Whitehead, The Demes of Attica (Princeton 1986)
Keywords: constitution; definition; geography; history; rhetoric
Translated by: David Whitehead on 20 October 2000@03:33:18.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added headword, set status.) on 30 October 2000@20:31:18.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 17 September 2002@05:20:31.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 20 July 2011@03:37:16.

Headword: *)agoranomi/as
Adler number: alpha,302
Translated headword: market-supervisorship, market-supervisorships
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] auditorship/s. The term is applied to those who oversee sales in the cities.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the related concrete noun] "market-supervisors" [agoranomoi]: the officials who manage the sales in the marketplace [sc. in Athens].[2]
Aristophanes in Acharnians [writes]: "as market-supervisors of the market I appoint the three who were chosen by lot, the thongs from Leprous."[3] That is, straps, whips. For in olden days the auditors of the marketplace used to beat people with whips. And "leprous" [leprou/s] some explain as [sc. wordplay] from the verb lepein, that is, "to beat"; others from Lepreon a small town of the Peloponnese which Callimachus also mentions in the Hymns: "citadel of Kaukones, which is called Lepreion."[4] Others still [sc. derive it] from mangy cattle, since the hides of mangy cattle are tough. Still others because the Megarians, with whom he[5] is making a treaty, have mangy bodies. But better to say that [sc. there is] a place called Leproi outside the [Athenian] town-center where the tanners' shops were. There is also a mention of this in Birds: "why then do you settle [in] Helian Lepreon."[6]
Also [sc. attested is the the verb] "I supervise markets" [a)goranomw=]; [used] with a genitive.
Greek Original:
*)agoranomi/as: logisti/as. ei)/rhtai de\ e)pi\ tw=n e)piskopou/ntwn ta\ tw=n po/lewn w)/nia. kai\ *)agorano/moi, oi( ta\ kata\ th\n a)gora\n w)/nia dioikou=ntes a)/rxontes. *)aristofa/nhs *)axarneu=sin: a)gorano/mous de\ th=s a)gora=s kaqi/stamai trei=s tou\s laxo/ntas, tou\s d' i(ma/ntas e)k leprw=n. toute/sti lw/rous, fragge/lia. to\ ga\r palaio\n fragge/lois e)/tupton oi( logistai\ th=s a)gora=s. leprw=n de\ oi( me\n a)po\ tou= le/pein, o(/ e)sti tu/ptein: oi( de\ a)po\ *lepre/ou poli/smatos th=s *peloponnh/sou, h(=s me/mnhtai kai\ *kalli/maxos e)n *(/umnois: *kaukw/nwn ptoli/eqron, o(\ *le/preion pefa/tistai. oi( de\ e)k leprw=n bow=n, dia\ to\ ta\ e)k leprw=n bow=n de/rmata i)sxura\ ei)=nai. oi( de\ o(/ti oi( *megarei=s leproi\ to\ sw=ma, pro\s ou(\s spe/ndetai. a)/meinon de\ le/gein, o(/ti to/pos e)/cw tou= a)/steos *leproi\ kalou/menos, e)/nqa ta\ bursei=a h)=n. ou(= kai\ e)n *)/ornisi me/mnhtai: ti/ d' ou)=n to\n h(/lion *le/preon oi)ki/zete. kai\ *)agoranomw=: genikh=|.
The headword -- evidently extracted from somewhere -- and primary gloss are either genitive singulars or accusative plurals.
[1] Likewise in other lexica; references at Photius alpha228 Theodoridis.
[2] From Harpokration s.v., commenting on Demosthenes 24.112 and also citing ?Aristotle, Ath.Pol. 51.1.
[3] Aristophanes, Acharnians 723-4 (web address 1), followed here by comment from the scholia there; cf. lambda 291.
[4] Callimachus, Hymn to Zeus 39.
[5] Dikaiopolis, that is, the speaker of the quotation.
[6] What seems to be a very mangled quotation from Aristophanes, Birds 150. A more correct quotation might be translated as "Why do you two not go and settle in Lepreon in Elis?" This would seem to be a reference to the Peloponnesian Lepreon and not to a Leproi outside Athens. See web address 2 below for the text of Aristophanes (and cf. lambda 288, lambda 289).
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: clothing; comedy; constitution; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; history; law; medicine; poetry; rhetoric; trade and manufacture; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 30 October 2000@00:03:30.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics; raised status) on 30 October 2000@03:28:23.
David Whitehead (restorative cosmetics) on 22 December 2002@09:24:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@11:02:46.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@03:58:52.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 6 January 2012@01:19:18.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 18 August 2013@09:01:32.
Catharine Roth (removed a link, added cross-references) on 19 April 2020@20:16:13.

Headword: *)agrafi/ou
Adler number: alpha,343
Translated headword: de-listing
Vetting Status: high
A form of lawsuit against those in debt to the public treasury and written up for this, but erased before they paid it. So Demosthenes[1] and Dinarchus[2] and Lycurgus.[3]
Greek Original:
*)agrafi/ou: ei)=dos di/khs kata\ tw=n o)feilo/ntwn me\n tw=| dhmosi/w| kai\ dia\ tou=to e)ggrafe/ntwn, prinh\ de\ e)kti/sai e)caleifqe/ntwn. ou(/tws *dhmosqe/nhs kai\ *dei/narxos kai\ *lukou=rgos.
Abridged from Harpokration s.v. See also alpha 344.
[1] Demosthenes 58.51.
[2] Dinarchus fr. XVII.2 Conomis.
[3] Lycurgus fr. 7 Conomis.
S.C. Todd, The Shape of Athenian Law (Oxford 1993) 105
Keywords: constitution; definition; economics; law; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 August 1998@18:31:04.
Vetted by:
David Mirhady on 14 December 1999@13:57:24.
David Mirhady on 17 December 1999@16:37:06.
David Whitehead (modified headword; added notes and bibliography; cosmetics) on 29 September 2000@06:51:50.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 22 November 2005@09:51:28.
David Whitehead (x-ref) on 22 November 2005@09:52:13.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 20 July 2011@04:15:29.

Headword: *)agrafi/ou di/kh
Adler number: alpha,344
Translated headword: dike agraphiou, lawsuit about erasure
Vetting Status: high
When people owe [money] to the public treasury, as the result of a conviction, those in charge at the time about these matters write the debtors' names on notice-boards, appending how much the debt is [sc. in each case]. Whenever each one pays, the record is erased from the notice-board. So if someone is listed as owing money, but does not appear to have paid, and his name has been erased from the notice-board, any citizen who wishes may bring against him a lawsuit for erasure.
Greek Original:
*)agrafi/ou di/kh: tw=n e)k katadi/khs w)flhko/twn tw=| dhmosi/w| gra/fousi ta\ o)no/mata e)n sani/sin oi( kata\ kairo\n peri\ tou/twn dioikou=ntes, prostiqe/ntes a)na\ po/son e)sti\ to\ o)/flhma. o(/tan de\ a)podidw=| e(/kastos, e)calei/fetai th=s sani/dos to\ e)pi/gramma. e)a\n ou)=n tis a)nagrafh=| me\n w)flhke/nai, do/ch| de\ mh\ a)podedwke/nai, kai\ to\ o)/noma au)tou= e)chleimme/non h)=| e)k th=s sani/dos, sugkexw/rhtai tw=| boulome/nw| tw=n a)stw=n ei)sa/gein kat' au)tou= di/khn a)grafi/ou.
See already the more succinct alpha 343. The present entry is also in Photius.
Keywords: constitution; daily life; economics; law
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 August 1998@18:31:49.
Vetted by:
David Mirhady on 17 December 1999@17:27:12.
David Mirhady on 17 December 1999@17:29:47.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 12 February 2001@08:30:51.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 22 November 2005@09:54:25.
David Whitehead (expanded note; cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@07:33:56.

Headword: *)agroilh=qen
Adler number: alpha,379
Translated headword: from-Agroile; Agryle
Vetting Status: high
Agroile is a deme of the Erechtheid tribe [sc. in Athens]. A demesman [sc. of this deme] used once to be called Agroileus ["Agroilian"].[1]
Greek Original:
*)agroilh=qen: *)agroi/lh dh=mo/s e)sti fulh=s th=s *)erexqei/+dos. o( de\ dhmo/ths pa/lai e)le/geto *)agroileu/s.
Abridged from Harpokration s.v. Agryle (sic - the Suda, besides transmitting an odd version of the deme-name itself, changes the headword from the deme-name to the demotikon, on which see n.1 below).
Agryle was one of the six instances of Athenian demes with "upper" and "lower" population centres: see generally D. Whitehead, The Demes of Attica (Princeton 1986) 21.
[1] An illusory piece of chronological information. What Harpok. actually says is: 'the demesmen [is an] Agryleus, but the locative adverb is Agrylethen. (And in fact, the latter is the regular demotikon also.)
Keywords: chronology; constitution; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 March 1999@17:35:00.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added footnote) on 15 September 2000@06:31:55.
David Whitehead on 17 September 2000@09:42:30.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@04:32:21.

Headword: *)agu/laios
Adler number: alpha,384
Translated headword: Agylaios, Agylaeus
Vetting Status: high
Proper name.
Greek Original:
*)agu/laios: o)/noma ku/rion.
That of a Spartan ephor mentioned in Plutarch, Cleomenes 8.
Keywords: biography; constitution; definition; geography; history
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 March 1999@17:57:27.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (supplied headword; added keyword) on 17 July 2001@09:08:18.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword) on 29 April 2002@10:26:34.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 1 August 2011@08:33:58.

Headword: *)adiki/ou
Adler number: alpha,486
Translated headword: misdemeanor
Vetting Status: high
A sort of crime. It is the name of a lawsuit. It requires single payment, if it is returned before the ninth prytany; if not, the payment is double.
Greek Original:
*)adiki/ou: oi(=on a)dikh/matos. e)/sti de\ o)/noma di/khs. a)poti/nnutai de\ tou=to a(plou=n, e)a\n pro\ th=s e)na/ths prutanei/as a)podoqh=|: ei) de\ mh\, diplou=n kataba/lletai.
From the equivalent entry in Harpokration. Unusually, no primary source is cited there, but it is nevertheless recognizable as ?Aristotle Athenaion Politeia 54.2.
As is regular in entries of this kind, the headword is in the genitive case, implying the noun di/kh or (as in this instance) grafh/.
P.J. Rhodes, A Commentary on the Aristotelian Athenaion Politeia (Oxford 1981) 599
Keywords: chronology; constitution; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; law
Translated by: David Mirhady on 20 May 1999@13:25:28.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added headword translation.) on 13 July 2000@23:44:19.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note and bibliography) on 29 September 2000@08:33:38.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 4 December 2005@06:45:15.
David Whitehead (another note and keyword; cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@05:26:26.
Catharine Roth (expanded abbreviations) on 27 November 2014@23:20:41.

Headword: *)azhnieu/s
Adler number: alpha,594
Translated headword: Azenieus, Azenia-man
Vetting Status: high
Azenia is a deme of the Hippothoontid tribe,[1] of which a tribesman[2] was called Azenieus.
They say that the people of Attica of ancient times pronounced Azenians and Erchians and Halians[3] and the like with a rough breathing: Polemon in the [writings] In response to Adaios and Antigonos[4].
Greek Original:
*)azhnieu/s: *)azhni/a dh=mos e)sti\ fulh=s th=s *(ippoqownti/dos, a)f' h(=s o( fule/ths *)azhnieu/s. kai\ *)azhniei=s kai\ *)erxiei=s kai\ *(aliei=s kai\ pa/nta ta\ o(/moia dase/ws fasi\ fqe/ggesqai tou\s *)attikou\s tou\s palaiou\s *pole/mwn e)n toi=s pro\s *)adai=on kai\ *)anti/gonon.
The headword is the demotikon (deme-name) for the small Attic deme Azenia. Source for this opening paragraph: Harpokration s.v., commenting on the headword's appearance in Aeschines 3.139.
[1] For the tribal eponym Hippothoon see iota 558 (and OCD s.v.). Strabo (9.398) appears to locate this deme at the southern tip of Attica, but his text is conventionally emended from Azenieis to Ateneis (Der kleine Pauly, 1. Stuttgart 1964, s.v.); if that is correct, little evidence remains for locating Azenia (though J.S. Traill, Demos and Trittys (Toronto 1986) 137 with n.40 makes a tentative suggestion).
[2] An error (also in some other entries of this kind) for demesman.
[3] Erchia and Halai are two other demes in Attica. E. belonged to the Aegeid tribe, Halai to either Aigeis (H. Araphenides) or Kekropis (H. Aixonides). See generally J.S. Traill, The Political Organization of Attica (Princeton 1975) appendix D, at p.124.
[4] Polemon fr.65 Preller. Polemon's book of this name is a diatribe against Adaios and Antigonos, writers about art and crafts at the court of King Attalus. (For Adaios (alpha 431) of Mytilene see Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 13.606A-B (13.84 Kaibel); Der Kleine Pauly, 4, Munich 1972 s.v. Polemon(4) and Adaios(3).)
E. L. von Leutsch and F.G. Schneidewin, (eds) Corpus Paroemigraphorum Graecorum. Goettingen 1839-51
C.W.J. Eliot, Coastal Demes of Attika (Toronto 1962) 125-6
D. Whitehead, The Demes of Attica (Princeton 1986) index s.v.
Keywords: constitution; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; rhetoric
Translated by: Carl Widstrand on 2 February 2000@11:38:43.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Altered wording, entered headword.) on 15 August 2000@00:53:34.
David Whitehead (modified translation and notes) on 15 September 2000@07:22:56.
David Whitehead (augmented initial note; added x-refs and keyword; cosmetics) on 10 June 2003@07:59:33.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@06:30:08.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 13 January 2015@23:45:53.
David Whitehead (tweaked a ref) on 14 January 2015@03:26:54.
David Whitehead on 29 April 2015@10:36:43.

Headword: *)azh/thton
Adler number: alpha,598

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