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Headword: Ἀγαθοκλῆς
Adler number: alpha,117
Translated headword: Agathokles, Agathocles
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
This man became tyrant [of Syracuse] and, as Timaeus says, in his early youth was a common prostitute, ready [to give himself] to the most debauched, a jackdaw, a buzzard,[1] presenting his backside to all who wanted it. When he died, says [Timaeus], his wife cried out to him in lamentation, "What [did] I not [carnally do to] you? And what [did] you not [reciprocate to] me?"[2] That nature had endowed Agathokles with great advantages is clear. For escaping the wheel, the smoke[of the kiln and] the clay,[3] he came to Syracuse, at about the age of eighteen, and in a short time, starting from such beginnings, he became master of the whole of Sicily, exposed the Carthaginians to extreme dangers, and finally, having grown old in the role of dynast, ended his life with the title of king.[4]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθοκλῆς: οὗτος ἐγένετο τύραννος καὶ, ὥς φησι Τίμαιος, κατὰ τὴν πρώτην ἡλικίαν κοινὸς πόρνος, ἕτοιμος τοῖς ἀκρατεστάτοις, κολοιὸς, τριόρχης, πάντων τῶν βουλομένων τοῖς ὄπισθεν ἔμπροσθεν γεγονώς. ὃς ὅτε ἀπέθανε, τὴν γυναῖκα φησὶ κατακλαιομένην αὐτὸν οὕτω θρηνεῖν: τί δ' οὐκ ἐγὼ σέ; τί δ' οὐκ ἐμὲ σύ; ὅτι δὲ ἐκ φύσεως ἀνάγκη μεγάλα προτερήματα γεγονέναι περὶ τὸν Ἀγαθοκλέα, τοῦτο δῆλον. εἰς γὰρ τὰς Συρακούσας παρεγενήθη φεύγων τὸν τροχὸν, τὸν καπνὸν, τὸν πηλὸν, περί τε τὴν ἡλικίαν ὀκτωκαίδεκα ἔτη γεγονὼς, καὶ μετά τινα χρόνον ὁρμηθεὶς ὑπὸ τοιαύτης ὑποθέσεως, κύριος μὲν ἐγενήθη πάσης Σικελίας, μεγίστοις δὲ κινδύνοις περιέστησε Καρχηδονίους, τέλος ἐγγηράσας τῇ δυναστείᾳ, κατέστρεψε τὸν βίον βασιλεὺς προσαγορευόμενος.
Notes:
360-289 BCE; he ruled Syracuse from 317-289. See generally OCD(4) p.36, under Agathocles(1).
The entry presents a semi-verbatim and mildly abridged extract from Polybius (12.15.2-7: web address 1 below), who is in turn citing, disapprovingly, Timaeus of Tauromenium (FGrH 566 F124b).
[1] On this passage K.J. Dover, Greek Homosexuality (London 1978) p.103 writes: 'The jackdaw here probably sybolises impudence and shamelessness; the buzzard, in Greek triorkhes, having three testicles, presumably symbolises insatiable lust, which is assumed to characterise the true pornos'. Cf. tau 995, where the first part of this quotation reappears.
[2] Probably Theoxene, the daughter or stepdaughter of Ptolemy I Soter and the third wife of Agathokles. See F.W. Walbank, A historical commentary on Polybius (Oxford, 1967) v.2 p.361.
[3] His father owned a large pottery. See Diodorus 19.2.7; 20.63.4. As with equivalent figures in (e.g.) late-C5 Athens, such as Kleon, we see here the conceit that those whose wealth lay in manufacture would actually participate in (and be debased by) the actual manufacturing.
[4] Agathokles assumed the title of king in 305. See Diodorus 20.54.1.
References:
Berve, H., Die Herrschaft des Agathokles (Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1953)
Agathokles(15) in RE 1.1 748-757
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; constitution; daily life; ethics; gender and sexuality; historiography; history; politics; trade and manufacture; women; zoology
Translated by: David Whitehead on 10 February 2001@10:07:49.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 6 June 2001@00:10:30.
Tony Natoli (Modified translation, added notes and bibliography, raised status.) on 12 August 2001@02:19:21.
David Whitehead (restorative and other cosmetics) on 17 September 2002@05:10:41.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@10:59:41.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 20 November 2005@10:37:08.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 26 March 2008@00:30:36.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 22 December 2011@06:16:09.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:23:59.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 1 January 2015@23:51:52.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 17 February 2018@23:14:40.

Headword: Ἀγασικλῆς
Adler number: alpha,169
Translated headword: Agasikles, Agasicles
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A proper name. He is said to have bribed[1] the Halimousians, and for that reason, although he was a foreigner, to have been accorded [sc. Athenian] citizenship.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγασικλῆς: ὄνομα κύριον. ὃς λέγεται Ἁλιμουσίνοις συνδικάσαι καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ξένος ὢν ἐγγραφῆναι τῇ πολιτείᾳ.
Notes:
After the initial generic gloss, this entry is abridged from Harpokration s.v.
[1] Reading συνδεκάσαι for the transmitted συνδικάσαι ("to share in judging"). See LSJ s.v. συνδεκάζω at web address 1; see also n. 1 to alpha 1231.
[2] This is RE Agasikles 2; his claim to Athenian citizenship was contested in a speech by Dinarchus.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; constitution; definition; economics; ethics; history; law; politics; rhetoric
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 7 June 1999@11:24:47.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation, with explanatory note.) on 15 September 2000@06:18:36.
David Whitehead on 15 September 2000@06:20:34.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@11:01:00.
Jennifer Benedict (betacode, added link, cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@01:51:40.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 27 March 2008@08:39:44.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 July 2011@09:57:12.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 5 April 2015@21:47:43.

Headword: Ἀγένεια
Adler number: alpha,197
Translated headword: low birth
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Bad birth.
Greek Original:
Ἀγένεια: ἡ δυσγένεια.
Notes:
The headword literally means lack of birth. It is first attested in the Politics of Aristotle 6.1317b40 (web address 1 below) where ἀγένεια , πενία and βαναυσία are the defining characteristics, from a hostile standpoint, of democracy.
Similar entry in Hesychius, but in the accusative case and with the two nouns reversed.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: constitution; daily life; definition; ethics; philosophy; politics
Translated by: William Hutton on 17 October 2000@02:31:44.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword) on 25 April 2002@10:02:20.
Jennifer Benedict (added link, betacode) on 26 March 2008@02:11:08.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 27 March 2008@08:46:46.
David Whitehead (another note) on 29 December 2011@07:40:46.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 31 December 2011@18:20:24.

Headword: Ἀγνούσιος
Adler number: alpha,282
Translated headword: Hagnousian, Agnousian
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[H]agnous is a deme of the [sc. Athenian] tribe Akamantis, the tribesman[1] from which [is a] [H]agnousian.
Greek Original:
Ἀγνούσιος: Ἀγνοῦς δῆμος ἐστὶ φυλῆς τῆς Ἀκαμαντίδος, ἧς ὁ φυλέτης Ἀγνούσιος.
Notes:
From Harpokration s.v. ἀΓνοῦς , commenting on the appearance of the demotikon (the present headword) in Demosthenes 18.21.
On the deme Hagnous (the aspirated form appears to be the more authentic) see generally Traill (1975) 48, with Traill (1986) 132; Whitehead (1986) index s.v.
[1] A slip (already in Harpokration) for "demesman".
References:
J.S. Traill, The Political Organization of Attica (Princeton 1975)
J.S. Traill, Demos and Trittys (Toronto 1986)
D. Whitehead, The Demes of Attica (Princeton 1986)
Keywords: constitution; definition; geography; history; rhetoric
Translated by: David Whitehead on 20 October 2000@03:33:18.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added headword, set status.) on 30 October 2000@20:31:18.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 17 September 2002@05:20:31.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 20 July 2011@03:37:16.

Headword: Ἀγορανομίας
Adler number: alpha,302
Translated headword: market-supervisorship, market-supervisorships
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] auditorship/s. The term is applied to those who oversee sales in the cities.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the related concrete noun] "market-supervisors" [agoranomoi]: the officials who manage the sales in the marketplace [sc. in Athens].[2]
Aristophanes in Acharnians [writes]: "as market-supervisors of the market I appoint the three who were chosen by lot, the thongs from Leprous."[3] That is, straps, whips. For in olden days the auditors of the marketplace used to beat people with whips. And "leprous" [λεπρούς ] some explain as [sc. wordplay] from the verb lepein, that is, "to beat"; others from Lepreon a small town of the Peloponnese which Callimachus also mentions in the Hymns: "citadel of Kaukones, which is called Lepreion."[4] Others still [sc. derive it] from mangy cattle, since the hides of mangy cattle are tough. Still others because the Megarians, with whom he[5] is making a treaty, have mangy bodies. But better to say that [sc. there is] a place called Leproi outside the [Athenian] town-center where the tanners' shops were. There is also a mention of this in Birds: "why then do you settle [in] Helian Lepreon."[6]
Also [sc. attested is the the verb] "I supervise markets" [ἀγορανομῶ ]; [used] with a genitive.
Greek Original:
Ἀγορανομίας: λογιστίας. εἴρηται δὲ ἐπὶ τῶν ἐπισκοπούντων τὰ τῶν πόλεων ὤνια. καὶ Ἀγορανόμοι, οἱ τὰ κατὰ τὴν ἀγορὰν ὤνια διοικοῦντες ἄρχοντες. Ἀριστοφάνης Ἀχαρνεῦσιν: ἀγορανόμους δὲ τῆς ἀγορᾶς καθίσταμαι τρεῖς τοὺς λαχόντας, τοὺς δ' ἱμάντας ἐκ λεπρῶν. τουτέστι λώρους, φραγγέλια. τὸ γὰρ παλαιὸν φραγγέλοις ἔτυπτον οἱ λογισταὶ τῆς ἀγορᾶς. λεπρῶν δὲ οἱ μὲν ἀπὸ τοῦ λέπειν, ὅ ἐστι τύπτειν: οἱ δὲ ἀπὸ Λεπρέου πολίσματος τῆς Πελοποννήσου, ἧς μέμνηται καὶ Καλλίμαχος ἐν Ὕμνοις: Καυκώνων πτολίεθρον, ὃ Λέπρειον πεφάτισται. οἱ δὲ ἐκ λεπρῶν βοῶν, διὰ τὸ τὰ ἐκ λεπρῶν βοῶν δέρματα ἰσχυρὰ εἶναι. οἱ δὲ ὅτι οἱ Μεγαρεῖς λεπροὶ τὸ σῶμα, πρὸς οὓς σπένδεται. ἄμεινον δὲ λέγειν, ὅτι τόπος ἔξω τοῦ ἄστεος Λεπροὶ καλούμενος, ἔνθα τὰ βυρσεῖα ἦν. οὗ καὶ ἐν Ὄρνισι μέμνηται: τί δ' οὖν τὸν ἥλιον Λέπρεον οἰκίζετε. καὶ Ἀγορανομῶ: γενικῇ.
Notes:
The headword -- evidently extracted from somewhere -- and primary gloss are either genitive singulars or accusative plurals.
[1] Likewise in other lexica; references at Photius alpha228 Theodoridis.
[2] From Harpokration s.v., commenting on Demosthenes 24.112 and also citing ?Aristotle, Ath.Pol. 51.1.
[3] Aristophanes, Acharnians 723-4 (web address 1), followed here by comment from the scholia there; cf. lambda 291.
[4] Callimachus, Hymn to Zeus 39.
[5] Dikaiopolis, that is, the speaker of the quotation.
[6] What seems to be a very mangled quotation from Aristophanes, Birds 150. A more correct quotation might be translated as "Why do you two not go and settle in Lepreon in Elis?" This would seem to be a reference to the Peloponnesian Lepreon and not to a Leproi outside Athens. See web address 2 below for the text of Aristophanes, and web address 3 for the location of Lepreon.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3
Keywords: clothing; comedy; constitution; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; history; law; medicine; poetry; rhetoric; trade and manufacture; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 30 October 2000@00:03:30.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics; raised status) on 30 October 2000@03:28:23.
David Whitehead (restorative cosmetics) on 22 December 2002@09:24:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@11:02:46.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@03:58:52.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 6 January 2012@01:19:18.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 18 August 2013@09:01:32.

Headword: Ἀγραφίου
Adler number: alpha,343
Translated headword: de-listing
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A form of lawsuit against those in debt to the public treasury and written up for this, but erased before they paid it. So Demosthenes[1] and Dinarchus[2] and Lycurgus.[3]
Greek Original:
Ἀγραφίου: εἶδος δίκης κατὰ τῶν ὀφειλόντων μὲν τῷ δημοσίῳ καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ἐγγραφέντων, πρινὴ δὲ ἐκτίσαι ἐξαλειφθέντων. οὕτως Δημοσθένης καὶ Δείναρχος καὶ Λυκοῦργος.
Notes:
Abridged from Harpokration s.v. See also alpha 344.
[1] Demosthenes 58.51.
[2] Dinarchus fr. XVII.2 Conomis.
[3] Lycurgus fr. 7 Conomis.
Reference:
S.C. Todd, The Shape of Athenian Law (Oxford 1993) 105
Keywords: constitution; definition; economics; law; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 August 1998@18:31:04.
Vetted by:
David Mirhady on 14 December 1999@13:57:24.
David Mirhady on 17 December 1999@16:37:06.
David Whitehead (modified headword; added notes and bibliography; cosmetics) on 29 September 2000@06:51:50.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 22 November 2005@09:51:28.
David Whitehead (x-ref) on 22 November 2005@09:52:13.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 20 July 2011@04:15:29.

Headword: Ἀγραφίου δίκη
Adler number: alpha,344
Translated headword: dike agraphiou, lawsuit about erasure
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
When people owe [money] to the public treasury, as the result of a conviction, those in charge at the time about these matters write the debtors' names on notice-boards, appending how much the debt is [sc. in each case]. Whenever each one pays, the record is erased from the notice-board. So if someone is listed as owing money, but does not appear to have paid, and his name has been erased from the notice-board, any citizen who wishes may bring against him a lawsuit for erasure.
Greek Original:
Ἀγραφίου δίκη: τῶν ἐκ καταδίκης ὠφληκότων τῷ δημοσίῳ γράφουσι τὰ ὀνόματα ἐν σανίσιν οἱ κατὰ καιρὸν περὶ τούτων διοικοῦντες, προστιθέντες ἀνὰ πόσον ἐστὶ τὸ ὄφλημα. ὅταν δὲ ἀποδιδῷ ἕκαστος, ἐξαλείφεται τῆς σανίδος τὸ ἐπίγραμμα. ἐὰν οὖν τις ἀναγραφῇ μὲν ὠφληκέναι, δόξῃ δὲ μὴ ἀποδεδωκέναι, καὶ τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ ἐξηλειμμένον ᾖ ἐκ τῆς σανίδος, συγκεχώρηται τῷ βουλομένῳ τῶν ἀστῶν εἰσάγειν κατ' αὐτοῦ δίκην ἀγραφίου.
Note:
See already the more succinct alpha 343. The present entry is also in Photius.
Keywords: constitution; daily life; economics; law
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 August 1998@18:31:49.
Vetted by:
David Mirhady on 17 December 1999@17:27:12.
David Mirhady on 17 December 1999@17:29:47.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 12 February 2001@08:30:51.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 22 November 2005@09:54:25.
David Whitehead (expanded note; cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@07:33:56.

Headword: Ἀγροιλῆθεν
Adler number: alpha,379
Translated headword: from-Agroile; Agryle
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Agroile is a deme of the Erechtheid tribe [sc. in Athens]. A demesman [sc. of this deme] used once to be called Agroileus ["Agroilian"].[1]
Greek Original:
Ἀγροιλῆθεν: Ἀγροίλη δῆμός ἐστι φυλῆς τῆς Ἐρεχθεί̈δος. ὁ δὲ δημότης πάλαι ἐλέγετο Ἀγροιλεύς.
Notes:
Abridged from Harpokration s.v. Agryle (sic - the Suda, besides transmitting an odd version of the deme-name itself, changes the headword from the deme-name to the demotikon, on which see n.1 below).
Agryle was one of the six instances of Athenian demes with "upper" and "lower" population centres: see generally D. Whitehead, The Demes of Attica (Princeton 1986) 21.
[1] An illusory piece of chronological information. What Harpok. actually says is: 'the demesmen [is an] Agryleus, but the locative adverb is Agrylethen. (And in fact, the latter is the regular demotikon also.)
Keywords: chronology; constitution; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 March 1999@17:35:00.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added footnote) on 15 September 2000@06:31:55.
David Whitehead on 17 September 2000@09:42:30.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@04:32:21.

Headword: Ἀγύλαιος
Adler number: alpha,384
Translated headword: Agylaios, Agylaeus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
Ἀγύλαιος: ὄνομα κύριον.
Note:
That of a Spartan ephor mentioned in Plutarch, Cleomenes 8.
Keywords: biography; constitution; definition; geography; history
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 March 1999@17:57:27.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (supplied headword; added keyword) on 17 July 2001@09:08:18.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword) on 29 April 2002@10:26:34.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 1 August 2011@08:33:58.

Headword: Ἀδικίου
Adler number: alpha,486
Translated headword: misdemeanor
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A sort of crime. It is the name of a lawsuit. It requires single payment, if it is returned before the ninth prytany; if not, the payment is double.
Greek Original:
Ἀδικίου: οἷον ἀδικήματος. ἔστι δὲ ὄνομα δίκης. ἀποτίννυται δὲ τοῦτο ἁπλοῦν, ἐὰν πρὸ τῆς ἐνάτης πρυτανείας ἀποδοθῇ: εἰ δὲ μὴ, διπλοῦν καταβάλλεται.
Notes:
From the equivalent entry in Harpokration. Unusually, no primary source is cited there, but it is nevertheless recognizable as ?Aristotle Athenaion Politeia 54.2.
As is regular in entries of this kind, the headword is in the genitive case, implying the noun δίκη or (as in this instance) γραφή .
Reference:
P.J. Rhodes, A Commentary on the Aristotelian Athenaion Politeia (Oxford 1981) 599
Keywords: chronology; constitution; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; law
Translated by: David Mirhady on 20 May 1999@13:25:28.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added headword translation.) on 13 July 2000@23:44:19.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note and bibliography) on 29 September 2000@08:33:38.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 4 December 2005@06:45:15.
David Whitehead (another note and keyword; cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@05:26:26.
Catharine Roth (expanded abbreviations) on 27 November 2014@23:20:41.

Headword: Ἀζηνιεύς
Adler number: alpha,594
Translated headword: Azenieus, Azenia-man
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Azenia is a deme of the Hippothoontid tribe,[1] of which a tribesman[2] was called Azenieus.
They say that the people of Attica of ancient times pronounced Azenians and Erchians and Halians[3] and the like with a rough breathing: Polemon in the [writings] In response to Adaios and Antigonos[4].
Greek Original:
Ἀζηνιεύς: Ἀζηνία δῆμος ἐστὶ φυλῆς τῆς Ἱπποθοωντίδος, ἀφ' ἧς ὁ φυλέτης Ἀζηνιεύς. καὶ Ἀζηνιεῖς καὶ Ἐρχιεῖς καὶ Ἁλιεῖς καὶ πάντα τὰ ὅμοια δασέως φασὶ φθέγγεσθαι τοὺς Ἀττικοὺς τοὺς παλαιοὺς Πολέμων ἐν τοῖς πρὸς Ἀδαῖον καὶ Ἀντίγονον.
Notes:
The headword is the demotikon (deme-name) for the small Attic deme Azenia. Source for this opening paragraph: Harpokration s.v., commenting on the headword's appearance in Aeschines 3.139.
[1] For the tribal eponym Hippothoon see iota 558 (and OCD s.v.). Strabo (9.398) appears to locate this deme at the southern tip of Attica, but his text is conventionally emended from Azenieis to Ateneis (Der kleine Pauly, 1. Stuttgart 1964, s.v.); if that is correct, little evidence remains for locating Azenia (though J.S. Traill, Demos and Trittys (Toronto 1986) 137 with n.40 makes a tentative suggestion).
[2] An error (also in some other entries of this kind) for demesman.
[3] Erchia and Halai are two other demes in Attica. E. belonged to the Aegeid tribe, Halai to either Aigeis (H. Araphenides) or Kekropis (H. Aixonides). See generally J.S. Traill, The Political Organization of Attica (Princeton 1975) appendix D, at p.124.
[4] Polemon fr.65 Preller. Polemon's book of this name is a diatribe against Adaios and Antigonos, writers about art and crafts at the court of King Attalus. (For Adaios (alpha 431) of Mytilene see Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 13.606A-B (13.84 Kaibel); Der Kleine Pauly, 4, Munich 1972 s.v. Polemon(4) and Adaios(3).)
References:
E. L. von Leutsch and F.G. Schneidewin, (eds) Corpus Paroemigraphorum Graecorum. Goettingen 1839-51
C.W.J. Eliot, Coastal Demes of Attika (Toronto 1962) 125-6
D. Whitehead, The Demes of Attica (Princeton 1986) index s.v.
Keywords: constitution; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; rhetoric
Translated by: Carl Widstrand on 2 February 2000@11:38:43.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Altered wording, entered headword.) on 15 August 2000@00:53:34.
David Whitehead (modified translation and notes) on 15 September 2000@07:22:56.
David Whitehead (augmented initial note; added x-refs and keyword; cosmetics) on 10 June 2003@07:59:33.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@06:30:08.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 13 January 2015@23:45:53.
David Whitehead (tweaked a ref) on 14 January 2015@03:26:54.
David Whitehead on 29 April 2015@10:36:43.

Headword: Ἀζήτητον
Adler number: alpha,598
Translated headword: uninvestigated
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning]that which is prevented from undergoing investigation and prosecution. Thus Aeschines [sc. uses the word].
Greek Original:
Ἀζήτητον: τὸ ζήτησιν καὶ κατηγορίαν ἔχειν κεκωλυμένον. οὕτως Αἰσχίνης.
Note:
From Harpokration s.v., commenting on the appearance of this neuter singular in Aeschines 3.22: "there is nothing in all the polis which is ἀνυπεύθυνον δὲ καὶ ἀζήτητον καὶ ἀνεξέταστον ". Also in Photius.
Keywords: constitution; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; law; rhetoric
Translated by: Carl Widstrand on 12 January 2000@18:23:15.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added keyword) on 29 September 2000@10:17:02.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 16 August 2006@05:50:19.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 24 June 2011@08:31:54.
David Whitehead on 12 January 2012@07:28:33.
Catharine Roth (tweaked betacode) on 19 January 2012@01:50:14.
David Whitehead on 29 April 2015@10:40:25.

Headword: Ἀθηναία
Adler number: alpha,728
Translated headword: Athenaia, Athenaea
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[A variant term for] the goddess [Athena], but [sc. also] a woman citizen [of Athens].
Greek Original:
Ἀθηναία: ἡ θεά, ἡ δὲ γυνὴ ἀστή.
Notes:
Same entry (lacking, Adler reports, in ms M) in Hesychius and elsewhere.
For both these senses see again under alpha 729.
Keywords: constitution; definition; geography; mythology; religion; women
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 4 December 1999@15:36:56.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 25 January 2001@06:05:00.
David Whitehead (expanded note; tweaks) on 19 January 2012@07:38:21.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 28 March 2014@10:20:51.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 1 May 2015@09:47:45.

Headword: Ἀθμωνεύς
Adler number: alpha,743
Translated headword: Athmoneus, Athmonian
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Athmonia[1] is a deme of the Kekropid [sc. tribe in Athens]; the demesman from it [is] an Athmoneus.
Also [sc. attested is] Athmonis, a proper name.[2]
[See] the Peiraieus; peaks - the high ones; bowl.[3]
Greek Original:
Ἀθμωνεύς: Ἀθμωνία δῆμός ἐστι φυλῆς τῆς Κεκροπίδος, ἀφ' οὗ ὁ δημότης Ἀθμωνεύς. καὶ Ἀθμωνίς, ὄνομα κύριον. τὸν Πειραῖα κάρηνα τὰ ἄκρα τρύβλιον.
Notes:
[1] More commonly and exactly, Athmonon. (Present-day Amarousi.) See D. Whitehead, The Demes of Attica (Princeton 1986) index s.v. This part of the entry reproduces Harpokration s.v. (where however the headword is correctly Ἀθμονεύς , with omicron).
[2] Unattested outside lexicography.
[3] Respectively pi 1455, kappa 379 and tau 1089. The point of these cross-references (marginal additions in some manuscripts) is obscure.
Reference:
J.S. Traill, The Political Organization of Attica (Princeton 1975) 50
Keywords: biography; constitution; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 15 February 2000@22:09:58.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added notes and bibliography) on 19 September 2000@04:54:11.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; restorative and other cosmetics) on 22 May 2002@11:40:10.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; tweaks and cosmetics) on 18 May 2009@09:45:54.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@06:42:37.
Catharine Roth (betacode cosmetics) on 21 January 2012@12:25:17.

Headword: Ἄθροι καταρρέοντες
Adler number: alpha,762
Translated headword: (they) flowing down in a body
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Meaning [doing so] together. The noun should have proparoxytone accent and the first syllable should be aspirated in the Attic dialect. "Flowing down" [καταρρέοντες ] meaning descending suddenly. The metaphor [comes] from river currents. Homer [writes]: "the bands of foot-soldiers flowed on."[1]
Greek Original:
Ἄθροι καταρρέοντες: ἀντὶ τοῦ ὁμοῦ. προπαροξύνειν δὲ δεῖ τὸ ὄνομα καὶ δασύνειν τὴν πρώτην συλλαβὴν Ἀττικῶς. καταρρέοντες δὲ ἀντὶ τοῦ ἀθρόως κατερχόμενοι. ἡ δὲ μεταφορὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ποταμίων ῥευμάτων. Ὅμηρος: τὰ δ' ἐπέρρεεν ἔθνεα πεζῶν.
Notes:
From the scholia to Aristophanes, Acharnians 26, where the headword phrase (in the nominative masculine plural, referring to the Athenian prytaneis [pi 3000]) occurs; see web address 1 below.
See also alpha 758, alpha 759. There is testimony for the rough breathing and for the accent on the first syllable: see LSJ (web address 2).
[1] Homer, Iliad 11.724 (web address 3).
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3
Keywords: comedy; constitution; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; imagery; military affairs
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 16 February 2000@11:24:25.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Altered wording; added notes, link, and keywords.) on 5 August 2000@21:57:16.
David Whitehead (expanded opening note; added keyword; cosmetics) on 10 June 2003@09:01:29.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 18 October 2005@05:40:34.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 15 May 2006@05:12:32.
Jennifer Benedict (added links) on 19 March 2008@14:56:08.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 22 January 2012@05:55:42.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 24 January 2012@21:48:49.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 3 May 2015@00:03:11.
David Whitehead (augmented primary note; another keyword; tweaking) on 3 May 2015@03:35:04.

Headword: Ἀκαμαντίς καὶ Ἀκάμας
Adler number: alpha,791
Translated headword: Akamantis and Akamas, Acamantis and Acamas
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. Akamantis is] one of the ten [Athenian] tribes, [named] from Akamas the son of Theseus [1].
Greek Original:
Ἀκαμαντίς καὶ Ἀκάμας: μία τῶν δέκα φυλῶν ἀπὸ Ἀκάμαντος τοῦ Θησέως.
Notes:
Abbreviated from Harpokration s.v. Akamantis.
[1] cf. Pausanias, Description of Greece 1.5.2. For Theseus see theta 364.
Reference:
OCD(4) s.v. 'Acamas' and 'eponymoi'
Keywords: aetiology; constitution; definition; mythology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 17 January 2000@05:28:33.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes and bibliography) on 19 September 2000@05:17:59.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 24 June 2011@08:55:40.
David Whitehead (updated refs) on 30 July 2014@03:42:19.

Headword: Ἄκομψον
Adler number: alpha,921
Translated headword: unadorned
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning something] mean, ineffectual.
"A man [...] who had ascended the tribunals of the praetor; among Romans this office [is] not an unadorned one."[1]
Greek Original:
Ἄκομψον: εὐτελὲς, ἀπάνουργον. ἄνδρα τῶν τοῦ πραίτωρος ἐπιβάντα βημάτων: ἀρχὴ δέ τις αὕτη παρὰ Ῥωμαίοις οὐκ ἄκομψος.
Notes:
The headword is neuter singular of this adjective, evidently quoted from somewhere (other than the quotation given, where it is masculine/feminine singular). Under the same lemma Photius, Lexicon alpha791 Theodoridis, begins with the second of these glosses but then turns to different material and cites a fragment of Euripides.
[1] Theophylact Simocatta, Histories 1.4.6 (here abridged); cf. ps.-Zonaras p.110.
Keywords: biography; constitution; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography; history; tragedy
Translated by: Clayton Lehmann on 20 October 2000@14:56:03.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note; added keywords; cosmetics) on 14 February 2001@09:22:56.
David Whitehead (expanded note; added keyword; cosmetics) on 7 July 2003@08:42:59.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@09:30:27.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 26 January 2012@08:05:51.
David Whitehead on 19 August 2013@08:21:13.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 12 June 2014@11:50:56.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 13 May 2015@23:26:02.

Headword: Ἀκριβωθήσεται
Adler number: alpha,982
Translated headword: will be made precise
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. Meaning] will be thought over precisely. Aristophanes [writes]: "he/she will not even put one foot in front of the other, unless it will be made precise."[1]
Greek Original:
Ἀκριβωθήσεται: ἀκριβῶς μελετηθήσεται. Ἀριστοφάνης: οὐδ' ἂν προβαίη τὸν πόδα τὸν ἕτερον, εἰ μὴ ταῦτ' ἀκριβωθήσεται.
Notes:
[1] Aristophanes, Ecclesiazusae 162 (cf. 274), with comment from the scholia there. (Aristophanes' text actually has the first person. Praxagora says she will not be participating in the assembly unless all be arranged exactly in advance. See web address 1.)
For the verb cf. alpha 981.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: comedy; constitution; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; women
Translated by: Oliver Phillips ✝ on 10 June 2000@20:02:11.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 5 June 2002@07:08:42.
David Whitehead (x-ref; tweaks) on 31 January 2012@06:30:15.
Catharine Roth (changed link) on 28 April 2012@22:02:04.

Headword: Ἁλιμούσιος
Adler number: alpha,1231
Translated headword: Halimousian, Halimusian
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Halimous is a deme of [the Athenian tribe] Leontis. Agasikles is said to have bribed the Halimousians[1] and because of this, although a foreigner, was registered in the citizen body[2].
Greek Original:
Ἁλιμούσιος: Ἁλιμοῦς δῆμός ἐστι τῆς Λεοντίδος. λέγεται ὁ Ἀγασικλῆς τοῖς Ἁλιμουσίοις συνδικάσαι καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ξένος ὢν ἐγγραφῆναι τῇ πολιτείᾳ.
Notes:
[1] The transmitted text uses the verb συνδικάζειν (join in judging), but it should be emended, both here and in alpha 169 (and Harpokration s.v. Agasikles), to συνδεκάζειν , literally to bribe en masse (for which, as LSJ note, συνδικάζειν is a common error).
[2] This occurred at some time between 336 and 324 BC, and led to Agasikles being impeached. See generally M.H.Hansen, Eisangelia (Odense 1975) no.115; D.Whitehead, The Demes of Attica (Princeton 1986) 293,294.
Keywords: biography; constitution; definition; economics; ethics; geography; history; law
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 15 May 2000@14:22:09.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added footnotes.) on 15 September 2000@05:50:17.
David Whitehead on 15 September 2000@06:12:25.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 17 June 2002@03:37:30.
Catharine Roth (betacode) on 1 April 2012@00:14:18.
David Whitehead on 1 June 2015@11:52:53.

Headword: Ἁλισθείσης
Adler number: alpha,1249
Translated headword: having been mustered
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] having been assembled.
Greek Original:
Ἁλισθείσης: συναθροισθείσης.
Notes:
cf. generally alpha 1248; also eta 247, sigma 1432, sigma 1557.
The present headword -- similarly glossed in Hesychius (alpha3043); evidently quoted from somewhere -- is an aorist passive participle in the feminine genitive singular; the noun implicit will be something like στρατία (army), ἐκκλησία (assembly), or -- as three times in Evagrius -- synod.
Keywords: Christianity; constitution; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; politics; religion
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 11 May 2000@23:03:03.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 29 January 2001@10:30:50.
David Whitehead (augmented note; cosmetics) on 17 June 2002@04:13:33.
David Whitehead (expanded note; tweaks) on 6 February 2012@08:21:51.
David Whitehead (more x-refs) on 22 January 2014@08:47:37.
David Whitehead on 22 January 2014@08:54:18.
David Whitehead on 2 June 2015@03:58:41.

Headword: Ἀλκίμαχος
Adler number: alpha,1282
Translated headword: Alkimakhos, Alkimachos, Alcimachus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
This man is a general, from the deme Anagyrous.[1] Another is the Macedonian, whom Hyperides mentions.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀλκίμαχος: στρατηγός ἐστιν οὗτος Ἀναγυράσιος τῶν δήμων. ἕτερος δέ ἐστιν ὁ Μακεδὼν, οὗ μνημονεύει Ὑπερίδης.
Notes:
Abridged from Harpokration s.v., commenting in the first instance on Demosthenes 47.50 & 78.
[1] R. Develin, Athenian Officials 684-321 B.C. (Cambridge 1989) no.88: attested as an Athenian general (strategos) three times between 364 and 354 BCE. For the deme Anagyrous, see alpha 1842.
[2] Hyperides fr. 77 Jensen (from the lost speech Against Demades, as Harpok. shows). He became an honorary citizen of Athens in ca.336 BCE.: Tod, Greek Historical Inscriptions no.180.
Keywords: biography; constitution; geography; military affairs; rhetoric
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 19 May 2000@23:10:23.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Altered wording) on 20 May 2000@06:36:28.
David Whitehead (altered wording; added footnotes.) on 15 September 2000@05:03:23.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@07:32:44.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 26 March 2012@01:12:14.

Headword: Ἀλογίου δίκη
Adler number: alpha,1313
Translated headword: prosecution for lack of accounting
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A prosecution[1] in which the defendants are officials, (prosecuted for) not giving an account[2] of the sums of money administered during the tenure of their office.
Greek Original:
Ἀλογίου δίκη: ἣν φεύγουσιν οἱ ἄρχοντες λόγον οὐ διδόντες τῶν τῆς ἀρχῆς διοικημάτων.
Notes:
Same entry in Photius and other lexica. Latte on Hesychius s.v. suggests that the source (or prompt) might be Eupolis fr. 349 Kock, now 377 K.-A.: καὶ γὰρ αἰσχρὸν ἀλογίου 'στ' ὀφλεῖν , "for it is shameful to be convicted of lack of accounting".
[1] The word used here is dike, a general one for any kind of Athenian lawsuit. In fact the procedure was a "public" lawsuit, a graphe, which any concerned citizen could bring. See generally on the graphe alogiou A.R.W. Harrison, The Law of Athens, vol.2 (Oxford 1971, reprinted London & Indianapolis 1998) 28-30.
[2] In the technical sense: submitting income and expenditure records for scrutiny.
Keywords: constitution; definition; economics; ethics; law
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 31 May 2000@12:53:18.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added notes) on 15 September 2000@07:59:19.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 4 December 2005@07:41:04.
David Whitehead (added primary note and more keywords) on 8 February 2012@06:33:14.
David Whitehead on 23 December 2014@09:17:56.

Headword: Ἀλλ' οὐ λαχοῦσ' ἔπινες ἐν τῷ γράμματι
Adler number: alpha,1356
Translated headword: so did you not drink in your letter once you had been allotted it?
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Aristophanes [sc. writes this]. ["Drink"] meaning served as a juror. For the Athenians were allotted [to juries] by letter from the 10 tribes. For example, the first [tribe] had alpha as its symbol, the second beta, as far as kappa. For with there being 10 tribes, there were 10 jurors [sc. per cycle]. So the man drawing the alpha was the first to be a juror, and the others likewise. So perhaps you, he is saying, had [a letter] allotted but you did not act as a juror; instead, you drank.
Greek Original:
Ἀλλ' οὐ λαχοῦσ' ἔπινες ἐν τῷ γράμματι: Ἀριστοφάνης. ἀντὶ τοῦ ἐδίκαζες. οἱ γὰρ Ἀθηναῖοι κατὰ γράμμα ἐκληροῦντο ἀπὸ τῶν ι# φυλῶν. οἷον ἡ πρώτη τὸ α# εἶχε σημεῖον, ἡ δευτέρα τὸ β#, μέχρι τοῦ κ#. ι# γὰρ φυλῶν οὐσῶν ι# ἐγίνοντο δικασταί. ὁ οὖν λαχὼν τὸ α# πρῶτος ἐδίκαζε καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι ὁμοίως. τάχα οὖν σύ, φησί, λαχοῦσα οὐκ ἐδίκαζες, ἀλλ' ἔπινες.
Note:
Aristophanes, Wealth [Plutus] 972, with scholion. (The participle λαχοῦσα is feminine because Chremes is talking to, and about, a woman.)
Reference:
M.H. Hansen, Athenian Democracy (Oxford 1991) 197-199, esp. 198, drawing on ?Aristot. Ath.Pol. 63-64.
Keywords: comedy; constitution; definition; food; imagery; law; women
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 31 May 2000@11:59:25.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added bibliography; cosmetics) on 6 February 2001@05:22:13.
David Whitehead (added keywords) on 29 June 2002@08:36:09.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added italics) on 28 September 2005@20:58:24.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 4 December 2005@08:38:19.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 9 February 2012@06:56:35.
Catharine Roth (coding, keyword) on 17 March 2012@13:45:15.
David Whitehead on 12 June 2015@09:22:06.

Headword: Ἁλῶ
Adler number: alpha,1371
Translated headword: convicted
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. This verb is used] with a genitive of possession; "if someone is arrested after being convicted of maltreatment of his parents."[1]
And "if someone is convicted of making an illegal proposal or of theft."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἁλῶ: κατὰ περιποίησιν γενικῇ: ἐὰν δέ τις ἐπαχθῇ τῶν γονέων κακώσεως ἡλωκώς. καὶ ἐὰν δέ τις ἁλῶ παρανόμων ἢ κλοπῆς.
Notes:
[1] From an Athenian law quoted in Demosthenes 24.105. For the suit concerned, see generally S.C. Todd, The Shape of Athenian Law (Oxford 1993) 107-8 (and kappa 178).
[2] An inexact version of Demosthenes 24.103 (web address 1), which mentions only theft. For the suits concerned, see generally Todd 108. The aorist subjunctive of ἁλίσκομαι should be spelled with an iota subscript in the third person singular: ἁλῷ .
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: constitution; daily life; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; law; politics; rhetoric
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 1 June 2000@12:12:43.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords) on 30 June 2002@03:26:55.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 9 February 2012@08:25:01.
Catharine Roth (expanded note 2, added link) on 16 March 2012@18:48:20.

Headword: Ἀμωντιανός
Adler number: alpha,1642
Translated headword: Amontianos, Amontianus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A Roman, [who] became a senator.
Greek Original:
Ἀμωντιανός: Ῥωμαῖος, συγκλητικὸς γεγονώς.
Note:
The name, without the information, is also in ps.-Zonaras. Unidentifiable.
Keywords: biography; constitution; geography; politics
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 7 July 1999@14:47:19.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword; cosmetics) on 2 March 2001@04:35:38.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 31 December 2007@09:23:21.
David Whitehead (expanded note; another keyword) on 16 February 2012@05:16:48.

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