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Headword: *)\a a)/
Adler number: alpha,1
Translated headword: ah! ah!
Vetting Status: high
In Aristophanes an adverb accompanying surprise and command. "Ah! ah! Don't get that torch near me!"[1]
'Ah! ah!' must be read separately, not elided; and they both have smooth breathing.[2]. For if they were read together as one word, there would be no need of two accent marks.[3] "Ah" marks surprise, but "ha ha" is for awe, as Agathias says in the Epigrams: "ha, a very daring wax it was that formed..."[4]
Greek Original:
[1] Aristophanes, Plutus [Wealth] 1052 (web address 1). The first sentence is derived from scholia to this passage, and this may also be true of the rest of the entry.
[2] That is, it is "ah! ah!", not "ha! ha!" A difference registered in Greek by the orientation of a small breathing mark that is easily reversed in transcription, especially since by the time the Suda was compiled the initial 'h' had ceased to be pronounced.
[3] i.e. a)\ a)/ is two words, a)a/ would be one.
[4] Greek Anthology 1.34.2; again (with slight variations) at mu 389 and sigma 664.
[5] This gloss-less addendum is actually a separate entry that occurs only in ms S. (In Adler's numbering system this is designated alpha 1b, while the main entry is alpha 1a.) Apparently this is a reference to the Hebrew month of Av, attested with this Greek spelling only in Joannes Lydus, De mensibus 3.22.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: chronology; comedy; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 9 November 1999@09:47:43.
Vetted by:
Ross Scaife ✝ (raised vetting status) on 26 September 2000@14:01:40.
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@04:21:58.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 9 April 2007@04:35:29.
William Hutton (modified translation, rearranged layout, added note and link, set status) on 19 August 2007@10:41:27.
Jennifer Benedict (typo) on 22 March 2008@17:08:15.
Catharine Roth (coding, typo) on 22 March 2008@19:48:38.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 16 December 2011@05:43:10.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 5 August 2013@01:21:19.

Headword: *)abaxqanh=
Adler number: alpha,24
Translated headword: abakhthani
Vetting Status: high
A Hebrew expression.
Greek Original:
*)abaxqanh=: le/cis *(ebrai+kh/.
Strictly speaking the headword is a truncated Aramaic, rather than Hebrew, term. Its proper form in Greek transliteration is sabaxqa/ni and translates "you have forsaken me." The term occurs at Matthew 27:46 and Mark 15:34, where Jesus on the cross quotes Psalm 21:2 LXX (22:2 MT): "God, my God, ... why have you forsaken me?" (see eta 210). For the Hebrew, see Kohlenberger, 3.367. In Aramaic, "why have you forsaken me" is למא שבקתני lama šaḇaqtani. The Suda has carelessly disassociated the sigma, creating in effect "lamas aḇaqtani or a)baxqanh--a clear signal that the compiler was unfamiliar with Aramaic. The Psalmic Hebrew original is עזבתני 'azaḇtani, from עזב ʿazaḇ "forsake, forget". For the triliteral root citation, see Brown, Driver, and Briggs, 736ff. For šaḇaqtani (from שבק šeḇaq), see Perschbacher, 364; Danker, 909.
The Suda item has a circumflex accent on the final syllable. In the Hebrew עזבתני ʿazaḇtani, the accent falls on the penultimate syllable (-ta-), consistent with perfects suffixed with a first person singular pronoun; for this, see Kelley, 154.A; Gesenius, 155(58.1). So in the Aramaic, the accent falls on the penultimate syllable (-ta-). That said, the accent in Greek transliteration is inconsistent. Perschbacher places it over the final iota (sabaxqani/) in the headword; however, his citation from The Greek New Testament According to the Majority Text (1982) places the accent over the penultimate (sabaxqa/ni). In addition, Perschbacher offers the transliteration sabaxqanei/ from The New Testament in the Original Greek (1881). Danker places the accent over the penultimate syllable.
Phonologically, the Aramaic shin (ש š /ʃ/) cannot be accommodated by Greek, which must substitute sigma. For a parallel instance, see omega 182 (note 47). Both chi (for Aramaic ק qaf) and theta (for Aramaic ת taw) function as aspirated plosives (equivalent to English "kit" and "top"). See Allen, 16-17. The theta is noteworthy insofar as its sound value parallels that of the taw (ת) in šaḇaqtani, hardened by silent shewa and dagesh lene. Moreover, the Aramaic in Greek transliteration bolsters the linguistic argument for the compound "chi-theta" as successive aspirated plosives. See Allen, 24-27. Aramaic taw, like its Hebrew counterpart, otherwise has a "th" (as in "both") value. See "Aramaic" in Encyclopaedia Judaica, 3.263; a modern descriptive approach is found in "Aramaic" (Kaufman). For theta as a fricative in Hebrew transliteration, see omega 182 (note 47).
That the Suda terminates the headword with eta rather than iota (paralleling the Aramaic khireq-yod or long "i") showcases a phonological shift in Greek. By the 3rd century CE, the Greek letters eta, and the digraph epsilon-iota (note the -ei alternative in Perschbacher) were sounded as long iota. See Allen, 74. The Suda compiler viewed eta as the more elegant solution. This feature bears directly on the Suda's own taxonomy: the homophones epsilon-iota, eta, and iota follow zeta in the Suda's "alphabetical" scheme. See "Suidas" in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, XXVI.51.
Allen, W.S. Vox Graeca. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1968
"Aramaic" in Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1973
Brown, F., Driver, S.R., and Briggs, C.A. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon, 1951
Danker, F.W. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2000
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910
Kelley, P.H. Biblical Hebrew: An Introductory Grammar. Grand Rapids: William B. Erdmans, 1992
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987
Kaufman, S.A. "Aramaic" in Hetzron, R. The Semitic Languages. New York: Routledge, 1997
Perschbacher, W.J. The New Analytical Greek Lexicon. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1996
"Suidas" in Encyclopaedia Britannica. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1910
Keywords: Christianity; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 4 December 1999@16:23:20.
Vetted by:
Raphael Finkel on 9 December 1999@11:17:30.
Elizabeth Vandiver on 14 December 1999@16:17:44.
Craig Miller on 27 May 2002@01:29:46.
Craig Miller (Reformatted translation; modified/expanded notes; added bibliography; expanded keywords. Cosmetics pending by editor.) on 27 May 2002@01:58:58.
Craig Miller (Cosmetics) on 27 May 2002@15:48:11.
Craig Miller on 27 May 2002@16:11:44.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 4 October 2002@00:55:00.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew and Aramaic characters.) on 31 October 2002@10:06:56.
Raphael Finkel (Minor fixes.) on 31 October 2002@12:39:23.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added italics; cosmetics) on 12 February 2005@21:58:54.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 1 March 2006@01:08:11.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 December 2011@06:21:33.
Catharine Roth (coding, typo) on 5 August 2013@00:57:53.
Raphael Finkel (Fixed translation of LXX; changed to ISO 259 Romanization of Hebrew and Aramaic.) on 7 August 2014@13:30:23.
Raphael Finkel (Standardized Romanization fonts.) on 7 August 2014@13:46:48.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:25:56.

Headword: *)abraa/m
Adler number: alpha,69
Translated headword: Abraham
Vetting Status: high
The first among patriarchs; [it was he] in whom the Hebrew people took pride at first, before they rebelled against God, became estranged from Him, and shed upon themselves the blood of His Only-Begotten Son.[1] This man came out of the land of the Chaldeans, who devoted their entire lives to the stars and heavenly bodies. Trained, therefore, as was their ancestral custom, to observe the motions of the heavenly bodies[2] he surmised that the masterwork underlying this visible creation was not to be found in such objects, but had a Creator who set them in motion, gave harmony to their paths, and ordered the entire universe. Because of the greatness and beauty of the things He had made, Abraham, as it was likely, ceased devoting himself to gazing out into the heavens nor did he squander his passion in their pursuit. Instead, by surmounting the celestial vaults and transcending all the intelligible realm beyond the cosmos, Abraham no longer stood apart from the One sought, until finally the Creator for whom he yearned manifested Himself to Abraham in likenesses[3] and forms. And in this way the Unseen and Invisible revealed Himself. And [God] sent him forth from his own land as a wanderer and settled him in the land of the Canaanites. There he dwelled, now being in about his ninety-ninth year.[4] Until this time, he was childless; then [God] made him the father of the miraculous and blessed Isaac that he might have a first-born, only-begotten son[5] -- prefiguring the mystical image of the First-Born, Only-Begotten Son.[6] This was an exceedingly singular[7] honor bestowed upon Abraham, for the Creator favored him with the titles Servant, Beloved, and Father by flesh of the Only Begotten Son of Him who fashioned the entire universe.[8] Abraham invented sacred writing and devised the language of which Hebrew children used to have a command, as they were this man's disciples and descendants. Moreover, the Greek alphabet received its impetus from this script,[9] even if Greeks amused themselves by forming the letters differently. Proof of this is in the pronunciation of the first and preeminent letter "alpha" because it derives its name from the Hebrew "aleph" by way of the Blessed, First, and Eternal Name.[10] So too, the Greeks through Abraham came to possess books on dream interpretation. Witness to this is Joseph, the truly wondrous descendant of Abraham, who interpreted Pharoah's dreams as they were going to turn out in fact. In this, Philo, the Jewish philosopher, will be my confirmation via his work Life of the Statesman.[11] About Philo it is said "Philo platonizes and Plato philonizes."[12]
The practice of idolatry extended from Serug[13] to the time of Abraham's father Tharron.[14] Thus, when Abraham was 14 years old[15] and deemed worthy of divine knowledge, he upbraided his father, "Why do you lead the people astray for harmful gain (that is, with idols)? There is no other God but the One in heaven, the Creator of the entire universe." Yet seeing the people serving earthly things, he embarked on a tireless quest, seeking out with his pious heart the Truly Existing God.[16] But seeing that the sky is sometimes light and sometimes dark, he said to himself, "That is not God." Observing similarly the sun and the moon, the one obscured and eclipsed and the other waning and occluded, he said, "Those are not gods either." True, he was trained in astronomy by his father, but Abraham all the same was puzzled by the motions of the stars and scornful of them. But God appeared to him and said, "Go out of your land and leave your kinsmen."[17] Abraham took his father's idols, smashing some and incinerating others. Then he went away with his father out of the land of the Chaldeans. And they came to Haran,[18] where his father died. He left there, obeying the Lord's word, with his wife Sarah and his nephew Lot[19] and all their possessions, and came to the promised land Canaan, which the Canaanites had seized and settled in. When a famine arose, Abraham left the land of the Canaanites and went into Egypt, where Abimelech[20] the king took his wife Sarah. God struck terror into Abimelech and paralysed his limbs, saying "Give this man back his wife, because he is a prophet and will pray for you, and you will live. But if you do not give her back, know that you and your entire household will die." When Abraham got his wife back, undefiled, he prayed, and Abimelech and his household were cured of the paralysis.[21] After this the king, honoring Abraham and devoting himself to his sayings, became a pious and expert teacher to the Egyptians. The same Abraham, upon returning from war,[22] was considered worthy of blessing by Melchisedek, king of Salem, who brought bread and wine out to him. Melchisedek was a priest of the Most High, and Abraham gave to Him a tenth of all he had. Melchisedek was without father, mother, or lineage, like the Son of God.[23]
When Abram[24] lamented to God about his childlessness, God revealed to him through a dream that his descendants would be as numerous as the stars. And he believed God, and God reckoned it to him as righteousness.[25] Now Sarah, who was barren, gave Abraham permission to father a child with her maidservant, and she bore Ismael.[26] And when Abram was 99 years old, God appeared to him and altered his name to Abraham, for until then he had been called Abram. Similarly, Sarah became Sarrah with another "r".[27] And Abraham circumcised Ismael and all his descendants. Moreover, when the Lord was being shown the hospitality of Abraham's house, He promised Abraham that Sarrah would bear him a son. But Sarrah smiled; and the one who was begotten was called Isaac, by the Hebrew name that means "laughter with delight."[28]
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] *abramiai=os: [meaning] descendant of Abraham, or towering, revered.[29]
Greek Original:
*)abraa/m: o( prw=tos e)n patria/rxais: ei)s o(\n a)pesemnu/neto dh=mos o( tw=n *(ebrai/wn to\ pro/teron, pri\n h)\ qeou= a)poskirth=sai kai\ gene/sqai tou/tou a)llo/trioi kai\ to\ tou= monogenou=s ui(ou= au)tou= ai(=ma e)f' e(autou\s e)pispa/sasqai. ou(=tos e)k me\n th=s *xaldai/wn gh=s u(ph=rxen o(rmw/menos, tw=n peri\ ta\ mete/wra kai\ tou\s a)ste/ras to\n bi/on o(/lon katanalisko/ntwn. a)skhqei\s ou)=n kata\ to\n pa/trion no/mon ta\s tw=n e)pourani/wn a)ste/rwn kinh/seis kai\ stoxasa/menos w(s ou)k e)n tou/tois i(/statai to\ megalourgo\n th=s fainome/nhs tauthsi\ kti/sews, a)ll' e)/xei tina\ to\n dhmiourgo\n to\n kai\ kinou=nta kai\ dieuqu/nonta th\n e)narmo/nion tw=n a)ste/rwn porei/an kai\ tou= ko/smou panto\s th\n kata/stasin, kai\ dia\ tou= mege/qous kai\ th=s kallonh=s tw=n ktisma/twn to\n genesiourgo\n au)tw=n, w(s e)nh=n, qewrh/sas ou)k e)/sth me/xri tou/twn, ou)de\ th\n e)/fesin ei)s tau=ta katedapa/nhsen, a)lla\ tw=n ou)rani/wn a(yi/dwn u(perarqei\s kai\ pa=san diaba\s th\n nohth/n te kai\ u(perko/smion su/mphcin ou)k a)pe/sth tou= zhtoume/nou, e(/ws ou(= o( poqou/menos e(auto\n au)tw=| e)fane/rwse tu/pois te kai\ morfw/masin, oi(=s e(auto\n e)mfani/zei o( a)fanh\s kai\ a)o/ratos. kai\ metana/sthn au)to\n e)k th=s patri/dos labw\n e)pi\ th\n *xanani=tin kate/sthse, to\n e)nenhkosto/n pou kai\ e)/naton h)/dh xro/non pare/lkonta: kai\ a)/paida me/xri to/te tugxa/nonta gennh/tora tou= qaumasi/ou kai\ ma/karos kate/- sthsen *)isaa\k, i(/n' e)/xoi monogenh= ui(o\n kai\ prwto/tokon, tou= monogenou=s kai\ prwtoto/kou mustikh\n ei)ko/na prodiagra/fonta: tou=to ge/ras au)tw=| kat' e)cai/reton xarisa/menos, to\ dou=lon kai\ fi/lon kai\ pate/ra xrhmati/sai tou= monogenou=s ui(ou= kata\ sa/rka, tou= to\n ko/smon o(/lon dhmiourgh/santos. ou(=tos eu(=re me\n i(era\ gra/mmata kai\ glw=ssan e)mhxanh/sato, h(=s *(ebrai/wn pai=des e)n e)pisth/mh| e)tu/gxanon, w(s o)/ntes tou/tou maqhtai\ kai\ a)po/gonoi. e)k tou/tou kai\ ta\ *(ellh/nwn gra/mmata ta\s a)forma\s e)/labon, ka)\n a)/llws kai\ a)/llws e(autou\s diapai/zontes a)nagra/fwsin *(/ellhnes. kai\ tou/tou martu/rion h( tou= *)/alfa fwnh\ tou= prw/tou stoixei/ou kai\ a)/rxontos, a)po\ tou= *)/alef *(ebrai/ou labo/ntos th\n e)pi/klhsin tou= makari/ou kai\ prw/tou kai\ a)qana/tou o)no/matos. e)k tou/tou kai\ ta\ o)nei/rwn bibli/a e)sfeteri/santo *(/ellhnes. kai\ ma/rtus *)iwsh\f o( panqau/mastos o( tou/tou a)po/gonos, o( tou= *faraw\ ta\ e)nu/pnia w(s e)/mellon a)pobh/sesqai dihgou/menos. tou=to/ moi kai\ *fi/lwn, e)c *(ebrai/wn filo/sofos, e)n tw=| tou= *politikou= bi/w| sunepimarturh/setai, *fi/lwn, peri\ ou(= e)rrh/qh, *fi/lwn platwni/zei, kai\ *pla/twn filwni/zei. o(/ti h)/rcato h( ei)dwlolatrei/a a)po\ *serou\x e(/ws tw=n xro/nwn *qa/rra tou= patro\s *)abraa/m. o(\s *)abraa\m u(pa/rxwn e)tw=n id# kai\ qeognwsi/as a)ciwqei\s e)nouqe/tei to\n pate/ra au)tou=, le/gwn: ti/ plana=|s tou\s a)nqrw/pous dia\ ke/rdos e)pizh/mion [toute/sti ta\ ei)/dwla]; ou)k e)/stin a)/llos qeo\s ei) mh\ o( e)n toi=s ou)ranoi=s, o( kai\ pa/nta to\n ko/smon dhmiourgh/sas. o(rw=n ga\r tou\s a)nqrw/pous ktismatolatrou=ntas dih/rxeto diaponou/menos kai\ to\n o)/ntws o)/nta qeo\n e)kzhtw=n e)k filoqe/ou kardi/as. o(rw=n de\ to\n ou)rano\n pote\ me\n lampro\n, pote\ de\ skoteino\n, e)/legen e)n e(autw=|: ou)k e)/stin ou(=tos qeo/s. o(moi/ws kai\ to\n h(/lion kai\ th\n selh/nhn, to\n me\n a)pokrupto/menon kai\ a)maurou/menon, th\n de\ fqi/nousan kai\ a)polh/gousan, e)/fhsen: ou)d' ou(=toi/ ei)si qeoi/. kai\ me/ntoi kai\ th\n tw=n a)ste/rwn ki/nhsin, e)k tou= patro\s ga\r e)paideu/eto th\n a)stronomi/an, kai\ a)porw=n e)dusxe/rainen. w)/fqh de\ au)tw=| o( qeo\s kai\ le/gei au)tw=|: e)/celqe e)k th=s gh=s sou kai\ e)k th=s suggenei/as sou. kai\ labw\n ta\ ei)/dwla tou= patro\s kai\ ta\ me\n kla/sas ta\ de\ e)mpuri/sas a)nexw/rhse meta\ tou= patro\s e)k gh=s *xaldai/wn: kai\ e)lqo/ntos ei)s *xarra\n, e)teleu/thsen o( path\r au)tou=. kai\ e)celqw\n e)kei=qen e)n lo/gw| *kuri/ou h)=lqe su\n th=| gunaiki\ *sa/rra| kai\ tw=| a)neyiw=| *lw\t meta\ pa/shs au)tw=n th=s a)poskeuh=s ei)s th\n o)feilome/nhn gh=n *xanaa\n, h(\n oi( *xananai=oi turannikw=s a)felo/menoi w)/|khsan. limou= de\ genome/nou katalipw\n th\n *xananai/wn gh=n ei)s *ai)/gupton a)ph/|ei, ou(= th\n gunai=ka *sa/rran *)abime/lex h(/rpasen o( basileu/s. tou=ton o( qeo\s e)kdeimatw/sas kai\ pa/resin tw=n melw=n e)pa/cas, a)po/dos, e)/fh, th\n gunai=ka tw=| a)nqrw/pw|, o(/ti profh/ths e)sti\ kai\ proseu/cetai peri\ sou= kai\ zh/seis. ei) de\ mh\ a)podw=|s, gnw=qi o(/ti a)poqanh=| su\ kai\ ta\ sa\ pa/nta. kai\ ou(/tws a)polabw\n th\n gunai=ka a)mi/anton kai\ proseuca/menos i)aqh=nai e)poi/hse th=s pare/sews *)abime/lex kai\ to\n oi)=kon au)tou=. e)/ktote timw=n au)to\n o( basileu\s kai\ prose/xwn toi=s u(p' au)tou= legome/nois, dida/skalos eu)sebei/as kai\ polupeiri/as *ai)gupti/ois e)ge/neto. o( au)to\s *)/abram u(postre/fwn e)k tou= pole/mou th=s eu)logi/as tou= *melxisede\k kathci/wtai, tou= basile/ws *salh\m, o(\s e)ch/negken au)tw=| a)/rtous kai\ oi)=non. h)=n de\ kai\ i(ereu\s tou= *(uyi/stou. kai\ e)/dwken au)tw=| *)/abram deka/thn a)po\ pa/ntwn. h)=n de\ o( *melxisede\k a)pa/twr, a)mh/twr, a)genealo/ghtos, a)fwmoiwme/nos tw=| ui(w=| tou= qeou=. tw=| de\ *)/abram a)tekni/an o)lofurome/nw| kaq' u(/pnous e)pidei/cas o( qeo\s tou\s a)ste/ras kata\ to\ plh=qos au)tw=n e)/sesqai/ oi( to\ spe/rma proedh/lou. o( de\ e)pi/steuse tw=| qew=|, kai\ e)logi/sqh au)tw=| ei)s dikaiosu/nhn. h( de\ *sa/rra stei=ra ou)=sa sunexw/rhsen *)/abram a)po\ th=s paidi/skhs paidopoih/sasqai: kai\ i)/sxei to\n *)ismah/l. e)nenh/konta de\ kai\ e)nne/a e)tw=n o)/nti tw=| *)/abram e)pifanei\s o( qeo\s *)abraa\m metwno/masen: *)/abram ga\r prw/hn w)noma/zeto: o(moi/ws kai\ th\n *sa/ran *sa/rran, prosqei\s kai\ e(/teron r. kai\ perie/teme to\n *)ismah\l kai\ pa/ntas tou\s e)c au)tou=. *ku/rios de\ tw=| *)abraa\m e)picenwqei\s e)phggei/lato te/cesqai *sa/rran au)tw=| pai=da. h( de\ e)meidi/ase, kai\ *)isaa\k to\ gennhqe\n proshgoreu/qh, ferwnu/mws tw=| meq' h(donh=s ge/lwti kata\ th\n *(ebrai/+da dia/lekton. kai\ *)abramiai=os: o( a)po/gonos *)abraa\m, h)\ gigantiai=os, i(eropreph/s.
This long entry is derived in part directly from George the Monk, in part indirectly from Philo of Alexandria; see further in the notes below.
[1] cf. Matthew 27:25 (web address 1).
[2] The Suda's attention to Chaldean astrology derives from Philo, On Abraham, (Colson, Philo Vol VI: XV.69-70).
[3] Use of tu/pos here is twofold: 1) To assert that God's appearance to Abraham was indirect (echoing Philo, On Abraham, XVII.79-80); 2) To impart, as if a corollary of tu/pos in Romans 5:14, that God's manifestation to Abraham was a type or prefiguration of Christ.
[4] Abraham is 100 years old at Isaac's birth (Genesis 21:5); however, the Suda follows Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.191-93 (web address 2 below) in assuming Abraham's age as 99 at the time of God's promise.
[5] The Suda here omits Ishmael, born to Abraham by the Egyptian slave Hagar when he was 86 years old (Genesis 16:1-16). The Suda's omission tacitly acknowledges a covenantal and legal distinction clearly drawn in Genesis. In Isaac, God establishes an "everlasting covenant" for his progeny, whereas God blesses Ishmael and makes him "fruitful and exceedingly numerous" (Genesis 17:19-20). Isaac's filial status is made explicit by God in identifying him as Abraham's "only son" (Genesis 22:12) through whom "offspring shall be named" for Abraham, whereas Ishmael, although destined to father a nation, is identified by God as "the son of the slave woman" (Genesis 21:12-13). Ishmael is, however, mentioned later in the entry.
[6] Christological imagery links Isaac to the personage of Jesus (Matthew 1:1-2 at web address 3 below). See also delta 94, notes 1 and 14.
[7] The Suda underscores the magnitude of the honor with a hyperbolic kat' before e)cai/reton.
[8] The statement, rooted in a paternalistic-filial model that originates in Abraham and culminates in the figure of Christ, approximates the transcendental premise: Abraham is to Joseph as Isaac is to Christ.
[9] The Suda confuses Mosaic and Abrahamic lore. The 2nd century BCE Jewish writer Eupolemus claimed for Moses the invention and propagation of writing: "Moses was the first wise man, the first who imparted the alphabet to the Jews; the Phoenicians received it from the Jews, and the Greeks from the Phoenicians." The 2nd century BCE Egyptian Jewish writer Artapanus attributed hieroglyphics to Moses. According to the 2nd century BCE Samaritan writer Ps.-Eupolemus and Artapanus, astrology and astronomy originated with Abraham, who taught these disciplines and other tools of culture to the Jews, Phoenicians, and Egyptians. They, in turn, transmitted these arts to the Greeks. Philo in On Abraham stresses Abraham's expertise as a teacher. (Encyc. Judaica, Vol 6.964-65; Gruen, 146-51, 157, 294; Grant, 77; Philo, XI.52) At sigma 295, Seth is credited with the invention of the alphabet; Greek legend named Cadmus or Linus as the one who introduced the alphabet to Greece (gamma 416, kappa 21, kappa 22, lambda 568). See also phi 787.
[10] The reference recalls א aleph as the initial letter of ʾelohīm, the most frequent generic name for God in the OT, used about 2,500 times--but a distant second to the unspoken covenant name YHWH (Yahweh), which occurs some 6,800 times (Perdue, 685-86). Cf. alpha 1445.
[11] A reference to Philo's *bi/os politikou= o(/per e)sti peri\ *)iwsh/f (Colson, Philo Vol VI, 140ff.)
[12] Adapted from Jerome's On Illustrious Men (11): h)\ *pla/twn filwni/zei h)\ *fi/lwn platwni/zei ("Either Plato philonizes or Philo platonizes.") Cf. phi 448 and Photius, Bibliotheca 86b 25.
[13] Abraham's grandfather (Genesis 11:22). Seruch in the LXX, שרוג śerūḡ in Hebrew. See also sigma 253.
[14] Abraham's father (Genesis 11:24). Tharra (*qa/rra, *qarra/) or Tharrha (*qa/r)r(a) (Hatch, Concordance, Appendix 1, 71; Brenton, 13); in Hebrew תרח Teraḥ. From the Chronicon of George the Monk, 92.11-12; cf. Malalas 55.5-6.
[15] The Midrash sets Abraham's rejection of idolatry at age 13 (Encyc. Judaica, 4.244). From here to "teacher to the Egyptians," the Suda's source is the Chronicon of George the Monk, 93.16 - 95.17.
[16] On God as "He who is," see omicron 438, omega 105.
[17] cf. Philo, On Abraham XIV.62.
[18] The call in Genesis 12:1-5 brings Abraham from Haran (חרן) to Canaan (כנען). The Suda adheres to Philo, On Abraham, XIV. 67: metani/statai...a)po\ th=s *xaldai/wn gh=s...e)is th\n *xarrai/wn gh=n.
[19] Philo shows a)delfidou=s, as at On Abraham, XXXVII.212, rather than the Suda's potentially ambiguous a)neyio/s for nephew (see LSJ s.v. at web address 4).
[20] On Abimelech, see alpha 45.
[21] The affliction cured in Genesis 20:17-18 is unspecified for Abimelech, but clearly is sterility for the female members of his house. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.208 (web address 5) relates that a "dangerous distemper" (Whiston trans.) afflicted Abimelech. For other traditions, see EncycJudaica, 2.76.
[22] Genesis 14:14-18; the Suda's source is the Chronicon of George the Monk, 100.17-26; 101.5-7.
[23] See Hebrews 7:3 (web address 6). In the Suda, see mu 544, mu 545, mu 546.
[24] The Greek mainly uses Abraam (אברהם ʾAḇraham) to this point, but here Abram (אברם), his pre-covenant name (Genesis 17:5).
[25] Genesis 15:5-6. The statement "and he believed God and God reckoned it to him as righteousness" appears also in Romans 4:3 (web address 7), Galatians 3:6 (web address 8), and James 2:23 (web address 9). A more idiomatic and semantically precise translation of the Hebrew (והאמין בה' ויחשבה לו צדקה weheʾemīn bah' wayyaḥšeḇeha lō ṣedaqah) reads: "And because he put his trust in the Lord, He reckoned it to his merit" (Plaut, 146). This version takes into interpretive account the imperfective waw consecutive (consequential) (Kautzsch, 111.l).
[26] Ismael (Ishmael) appears in the Suda at iota 644, but with a gloss that belongs to Isaak.
[27] Genesis 17:15. Also as *sa/r)r(a or Sarrha (Brenton, 18). The Hebrew covenant name change is Sarai to Sarah (both meaning Princess).
[28] Isaac (יצחק yiṣḥaq) from the Hebrew meaning "he (Abraham) laughed" in Genesis 17:17, and puns Sarah's תצחק tiṣḥaq ("she laughed") in Genesis 18:12. (Kohlenberger, Vol 1, 37, 39; Anderson, 182) In the Suda, see iota 606 (mostly taken from this entry).
[29] This adjectival derivative of Abraham's name appears in 4 Maccabees 9:21 LXX. The gloss replicates, apart from word order, one in Photius; cf. Synagoge alpha17, Hesychius alpha181.
Anderson, A.W. Understanding the Old Testament. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1966
Attridge, H.W. "The Letter to the Hebrews" in The HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Brenton, L.C.L. The Septuagint with Apocrypha. Peabody: Henrickson, 1999 (reprint of 1851 edn.)
Colson F.H., Philo (Vol VI), Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1994
Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1973
Grant, M. From Alexander to Cleopatra: The Hellenistic World. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1982
Gruen, E.S. Heritage and Hellenism: The Reinvention of Jewish Tradition. Berkeley: University of California, 1998
Hatch, E., Redpath, H.A., and Muraoka, T. A Concordance to the Septuagint. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1998
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910
Keck, L.E. "The Letter of Paul to the Romans" in The HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987
Perdue, L.G. "Names of God in the Old Testament" in Harper's Bible Dictionary. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985
Plaut, W.G. The Torah: Genesis, A Modern Commentary. New York: Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1972
Smyth, H.W. Greek Grammar. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1984
Whiston, W. The Works of Josephus. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1987 (reprint of 1736 edn.)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4,
Web address 5,
Web address 6,
Web address 7,
Web address 8,
Web address 9
Keywords: aetiology; biography; children; Christianity; chronology; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; dreams; food; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; history; law; medicine; religion; science and technology; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:54:17.
Vetted by:
Craig Miller (Under editorial review as of this date) on 6 January 2002@08:24:02.
Craig Miller (Modified translation) on 24 January 2002@19:18:31.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@00:26:38.
Craig Miller (Notes added. Additional work pending.) on 25 January 2002@00:29:41.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@01:17:54.
Craig Miller (Added bibliography, keywords; changed status) on 25 January 2002@22:21:22.
Craig Miller (Cosmetics) on 25 January 2002@22:51:36.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@22:54:34.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@23:13:26.
Craig Miller on 4 June 2002@20:45:55.
Craig Miller on 19 June 2002@19:13:42.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew words; minor cosmetics.) on 31 October 2002@10:38:39.
Raphael Finkel (More Hebrew, cosmetics.) on 18 December 2002@10:58:21.
Craig Miller (Additional cosmetics) on 17 May 2003@19:07:49.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@08:20:23.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 November 2005@07:49:08.
Jennifer Benedict (added 15 links) on 25 March 2008@11:50:57.
Catharine Roth (references, cosmetics) on 10 April 2008@16:09:00.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 10 April 2008@20:15:09.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, pruned notes, added cross-references) on 11 April 2008@12:30:02.
Catharine Roth (adjusted note numbers; more tweaks) on 11 April 2008@14:18:11.
William Hutton (augmented n. 29) on 17 July 2009@17:14:18.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 December 2011@07:16:50.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links, other tweaks) on 22 December 2011@19:00:49.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note and links) on 11 November 2013@01:26:27.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:27:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 11 August 2014@00:14:27.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:33:55.
Catharine Roth (betacode typo) on 2 October 2018@02:07:40.

Headword: *(abroko/mas
Adler number: alpha,83
Translated headword: Abrokomas, Habrokomas, Abrocomas
Vetting Status: high
This man was satrap[1] under Artaxerxes, king of the Persians.[2]
Greek Original:
*(abroko/mas: ou(=tos satra/phs h)=n *)artace/rcou tou= *persw=n basile/ws.
From Harpokration (and Photius) s.v. The name has a smooth breathing (Abrokomas) there, as in Xenophon before them (below); in the Suda it is rough (Habrokomas).
[1] Provincial governor; see sigma 153 (and generally OCD(4) p.1321).
[2] There were several Persian kings of this name (see generally OCD(4) p.175), but probably Artaxerxes II (405/4-359/8) is meant; he had a general called Abrokomas, mentioned by Xenophon in the Anabasis.
Keywords: biography; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; politics
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:36:18.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword, notes, keyword; cosmetics) on 29 September 2000@05:33:34.
William Hutton (Cosmetics) on 1 February 2001@00:51:03.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 19 July 2011@09:44:36.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 21 December 2011@01:44:30.
David Whitehead (updated 2 refs) on 29 July 2014@12:13:20.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 2 April 2015@11:02:29.

Headword: *)agaqi/as
Adler number: alpha,112
Translated headword: Agathias
Vetting Status: high
A lawyer,[1] of Myrina;[2] the one who wrote the History as a continuation of Procopius of Caesarea,[3] [comprising] the affairs involving Belisarius[4] and the events in Italy and Libya; that is the affairs involving Narses[5] in Italy and the events in Lazike[6] and Byzantion. He also composed other books, both in meter and in prose, including the Daphniaka[7] and the Cycle of New Epigrams, which he compiled himself from the poets of his day. He was a contemporary of Paulus Silentiarius and of the consul Macedonius and of Tribonian[8] in the time of Justinian.[9]
Greek Original:
*)agaqi/as: sxolastiko\s, *murinai=os, o( gra/yas th\n meta\ *proko/pion i(stori/an to\n *kaisare/a, ta\ kata\ *belisa/rion kai\ ta\s e)n *)itali/a| kai\ e)n *libu/h| pra/ceis, toute/sti ta\ kata\ *narsh=n e)n *)itali/a| kai\ ta\ e)n *lazikh=| kai\ *buzanti/w|. ou(=tos sune/tace kai\ e(/tera bibli/a e)/mmetra/ te kai\ kataloga/dhn, ta/ te kalou/mena *dafniaka/, kai\ to\n *ku/klon tw=n ne/wn *)epigramma/twn, o(\n au)to\s sunh=cen e)k tw=n kata\ kairo\n poihtw=n. sunh/kmase de\ *pau/lw| tw=| *selentiari/w| kai\ *makedoni/w| tw=| u(pa/tw| kai\ *tribounianw=| e)pi\ tw=n *)ioustinianou= xro/nwn.
c.532-c.580. See generally Averil Cameron in OCD(4) s.v. (p.35).
[1] See OCD s.v.
[2] a.k.a. Sebastopolis, in Aeolis (Asia Minor): Barrington Atlas map 56 grid D4.
[3] For Procopius see pi 2479. A's own work was in turn continued by Menander Protector (mu 591).
[4] See beta 233.
[5] See nu 42.
[6] An alternative name for Colchis (kappa 1979); present-day Georgia, between the Black and Caspian Seas.
[7] Amatory hexameters.
[8] tau 956, cf. tau 951.
[9] iota 446.
Keywords: biography; chronology; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; law; poetry; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 30 March 2001@15:08:59.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 24 April 2002@04:07:08.
David Whitehead (added note) on 3 November 2003@06:05:01.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; corrected a note number) on 3 August 2006@09:47:58.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr) on 18 May 2011@08:29:09.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 22 December 2011@04:42:12.
Philip Rance (modified translation) on 23 January 2012@07:57:14.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:22:58.

Headword: *)aga/pios
Adler number: alpha,157
Translated headword: Agapios, Agapius
Vetting Status: high
Athenian philosopher, after the death of Proclus,[1] under Marinus.[2] He was admired for his love of learning and for his setting of dilemmas that were hard to solve.[3]
Greek Original:
*)aga/pios: *)aqhnai=os filo/sofos, meta\ *pro/klon a)poixo/menon, u(po\ *mari/nw|. o(\s e)qauma/zeto e)pi\ filomaqei/a| kai\ a)poriw=n probolh=| dusepibo/lwn.
Damascius, Life of Isidore fr. 277 Zintzen (164 Asmus).
[1] See pi 2473.
[2] See mu 198, mu 199.
[3] cf. delta 1618, epsilon 2241.
Keywords: biography; chronology; ethics; geography; philosophy
Translated by: William Hutton on 9 April 2000@22:48:07.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes and keyword; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@04:35:17.
David Whitehead (added note) on 25 April 2002@08:58:34.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@06:54:19.

Headword: *)age/lios
Adler number: alpha,195
Translated headword: Agelios, Agelius
Vetting Status: high
This man was bishop of Constantinople during the reign of Valens.[1] He lived an apostolic life, for he always went about unshod and wore only a single tunic, in observance of what the Gospel says.[2]
Greek Original:
*)age/lios: ou(=tos e)pi\ *ou)a/lentos h)=n *kwnstantinoupo/lews e)pi/skopos, bi/on a)postoliko\n biou/s. a)nupo/dhtos ga\r dio/lou dih=gen, e(ni/ te xitw=ni e)ke/xrhto, to\ tou= eu)aggeli/ou fula/ttwn r(hto/n.
See again under mu 207.
[1] Agelius was a Novatian, persecuted for accepting the homoousian doctrine. For the emperor Valens, see omicron 764.
[2] Socrates, Ecclesiastical History 4.9.3 (translation at web address 1).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; Christianity; chronology; clothing; ethics; geography; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 11 April 2000@00:02:16.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added notes and link) on 4 March 2002@13:30:20.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@09:54:59.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 3 October 2005@07:11:09.
Catharine Roth (augmented note, added keyword, raised status) on 12 October 2007@23:02:42.
David Whitehead (another x-ref; another keyword) on 29 December 2011@07:30:01.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 29 December 2011@12:11:37.

Headword: *)/aggelos
Adler number: alpha,196
Translated headword: angel
Vetting Status: high
The angels are circumscribed only by the comprehension of the intellect; not in space, nor in body, nor in time; for they came into existence before the sun.[1] Scripture calls the servants of retribution "evil angels," just as it calls the day of retribution an "evil day";[2] and it calls the bitter retributions "wrath and anger and affliction" in the hands of God.[3] For it does not say that it is [their] nature or preference.
Greek Original:
*)/aggelos: oi( a)/ggeloi mo/noi th=| tou= noo\s katalh/yei ei)si\ perigraptoi\, ou)/te de\ e)n to/pw|, ou)de\ e)n sw/mati, ou)de\ e)n xro/nw|: pro\ ga\r tou= h(li/ou h( ge/nesis au)tw=n. a)gge/lous ponhrou\s tou\s th=s timwri/as u(pourgou\s h( grafh\ kalei=: w(/sper h(me/ran ponhra\n th\n th=s timwri/as. o)rgh\n de\ kai\ qumo\n kai\ qli/yin e)pi\ *qeou= ta\s pikra\s timwri/as kalei=. ou) ga\r fu/sin ou)de\ proai/resi/n fhsin.
Theodoret (PG 80.1496b) on Psalm 79.49 LXX (not Adler's 77.49).
[1] Perhaps referring to Psalm 109.3 LXX "before the morning star have I begotten thee."
[2] cf. eta 299.
[3] cf. theta 391, theta 575.
Keywords: Christianity; chronology; definition; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 16 October 2000@15:04:42.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Cosmetics; reference.) on 25 January 2001@18:00:55.
David Whitehead (added notes) on 25 April 2002@10:08:40.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 12 October 2007@22:47:52.
Catharine Roth (further tweaks, additional note) on 12 October 2007@23:24:43.
Catharine Roth (another cross-reference) on 14 October 2007@12:02:45.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 29 December 2011@07:35:52.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:40:13.

Headword: *)agh/tas
Adler number: alpha,230
Translated headword: Agetas
Vetting Status: high
The general of the Aetolians.
Greek Original:
*)agh/tas: o( tw=n *ai)twlw=n strathgo/s.
In the late third century BCE. He is mentioned for dating purposes by Polybius 5.91.1 -- and may also be the Hagetas on an inscription of the time: so F.W. Walbank, A Historical Commmentary on Polybius vol.I (Oxford 1957 and reprints) 622.
Keywords: biography; chronology; geography; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg ✝ on 24 November 1998@14:11:02.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note/bibliography) on 18 September 2000@10:12:06.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 1 August 2011@08:20:15.

Headword: *(agistei/as
Adler number: alpha,242
Translated headword: rituals
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning those] of holiness, of cleansing, of service.
Greek Original:
*(agistei/as: a(giwsu/nhs, kaqaro/thtos, latrei/as.
LSJ entry at web address 1; and cf. generally alpha 234.
Same material in other lexica (references at Photius alpha176 Theodoridis), and also in the scholia to Plato, Axiochus 371D, where the headword -- accusative plural, not genitive singular -- occurs.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; philosophy; religion
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg ✝ on 24 November 1998@14:18:45.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added headword translation, note, keywords, and link.) on 18 February 2001@20:06:16.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note and keyword) on 9 June 2003@09:51:41.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 4 January 2012@04:55:36.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@07:55:03.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 22 November 2020@00:51:21.

Headword: *)agkw/n
Adler number: alpha,249
Translated headword: elbow
Vetting Status: high
"In the royal palace of Gelimer was a building full of darkness, which the Carthaginians used to call [the] Elbow; therein were thrown all toward whom the tyrant was ill-disposed. There, in the time of Belisarius, happened to be confined many traders from the east about to be destroyed by the tyrant at that time, whom the guard of the prison released."[1]
"And he placed the siege-engines in the way that seemed most timely, and he hit both the wall-angles [angkones] and the trenches from both sides."[2]
Also [sc. attested is] a)gkw=nes, a certain part of the house.[3]
Another meaning of a)gkw=nes is everything that, in a dream, fixes the well-ordered aspect of life.[4]
*)agkw=nes [are] also the prominences of rivers, the ones at the banks.
"It was not possible to sail through to the stream ahead because of the size of the descending prominences which it was necessary for those dragging the ships to bend round."[5]
Also [sc. attested is] a)gkw=nes, [in the sense of] the heights of the mountains. "Some of you seek out the [western] heights, and some the eastern, going toward the evil exit of the man."[6]
And [there is] a proverbial expression: wiping one's nose with the elbow.[7]
Bion the philosopher said: "my father was a freed slave, wiping his nose with his elbow;" it indicated clearly the saltfish-importer.[8]
See another proverbial expression, 'sweet bend' [in a river, etc.].[9]
Greek Original:
*)agkw/n: e)n th=| basilikh=| au)lh=| tou= *geli/meros oi)/khma h)=n sko/tous a)na/plewn, o(\ dh\ *)agkw=na e)ka/loun oi( *karxhdo/nioi: e)/nqa e)neba/llonto a(/pantes oi(=s a)\n xalepai/noi o( tu/rannos. e)ntau=qa e)pi\ *belisari/ou polloi\ kaqeirgme/noi e)tu/gxanon tw=n e(w/|wn e)mpo/rwn, ou(\s me/llontas kat' e)kei=no kairou= a)nairei=sqai u(po\ tou= tura/nnou o( fu/lac tou= desmwthri/ou a)pe/luse. kai\ dieti/qei ta\s mhxana\s h(=| ma/lista e)do/kei kai/rion, a)gkw=nas te kai\ ta/frous e)ba/leto e(kate/rwqen. kai\ *)agkw=nes, me/ros ti th=s oi)ki/as. a)gkw=nes de\ kai\ pa/nta ta\ prosphsso/mena kat' o)/nar to\ ko/smion tou= bi/ou shmai/nei. *)agkw=nes kai\ ai( tw=n potamw=n e)coxai\, ai( para\ tai=s o)/xqais. ou) dunato\n h)=n pro\s a)nti/on to\n r(ou=n a)naplei=n dia\ to\ me/geqos tw=n prospipto/ntwn a)gkw/nwn, ou(\s e)/dei ka/mptein pare/lkontas ta\s nau=s. kai\ *)agkw=nas, ta\s a)/kras tw=n o)rw=n. oi( de\ spei/rousin a)gkw=nas, oi( d' a)nthli/ous zhtei=t' i)o/ntes t' a)ndro\s e)/codon kakh/n. kai\ paroimi/a: tw=| a)gkw=ni a)pomusso/menos. *bi/wn fhsi\n o( filo/sofos: e)mou= o( path\r me\n h)=n a)peleu/qeros, tw=| a)gkw=ni a)pomusso/menos: diedh/lou de\ to\n tarixe/mporon. zh/tei kai\ a)/llhn paroimi/an, to\ gluku\s a)gkw/n.
[1] An abridgement of Procopius, History of the Wars of Justinian 3.20.4-7.
[2] From an unidentifiable military narrative. (For the headword in this sense see LSJ s.v., II.)
[3] For this gloss, cf. iota 552.
[4] Artemidorus 1.74; cf. omicron 349.
[5] Quotation unidentifiable.
[6] Sophocles, Ajax 805-6 (web address 1); the first adjective is garbled here.
[7] cf. Mantissa Proverbiorum 3.31 and the quotation which follows here.
[8] Diogenes Laertius 4.46.
[9] gamma 316.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: architecture; biography; chronology; daily life; dreams; economics; ethics; food; geography; historiography; history; imagery; military affairs; philosophy; proverbs; science and technology; trade and manufacture; tragedy
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg ✝ on 24 November 1998@13:57:02.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (supplied headword; added notes; augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@04:02:29.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@08:29:24.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 20 November 2005@10:40:36.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 February 2011@08:38:56.
Catharine Roth (tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 February 2011@01:08:42.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 4 January 2012@05:46:10.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 30 December 2014@00:14:19.

Headword: *)/agkuran
Adler number: alpha,258
Translated headword: anchor
Vetting Status: high
[Note] that Anacharsis the Scythian philosopher invented the anchor and the potter's wheel. He lived in the time of Croesus.
Greek Original:
*)/agkuran: o(/ti *)ana/xarsis *sku/qhs filo/sofos eu(=ren a)/gkuran kai\ to\n kerameiko\n troxo/n. h)=n de\ e)pi\ *kroi/sou.
An extract from the main entry on Anacharsis (alpha 2130). The headword, part of it, is accusative singular.
Anacharsis is an important character in Book 4 of Herodotus' History; Croesus, tyrant of Lydia, is important throughout Herodotus. Anacharsis earns his fame by attempting to introduce Greek customs into Scythia, and eventually dies for it. The story of Anacharsis' inventions, however, is not found elsewhere.
OCD(4) s.v. (p.77).
Keywords: biography; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Roger Travis on 4 October 2000@12:08:40.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note; added bibliography; keywords; cosmetics) on 12 February 2001@05:04:56.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, keyword, status) on 22 August 2006@22:12:29.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 23 August 2006@03:27:29.
Catharine Roth (deleted link, added keyword) on 20 October 2013@20:18:36.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@02:42:40.

Headword: *)agkuranw=n po/lis
Adler number: alpha,259
Translated headword: Ankyrans' city, Ancyrans' city
Vetting Status: high
[Note] that the present Ankyrans were called of old Hellenogalatians.
Greek Original:
*)agkuranw=n po/lis: o(/ti oi( nu=n *)agkuranoi\ *(ellhnogala/tai pa/lai e)le/gonto.
The headword phrase is presumably quoted from somewhere.
Ankyra is the present-day Ankara. See already alpha 257 (with gamma 21), and sigma 1067.
The 'Hellenogalatians' are of course the Galatians (called in Livy 'Gallograeci', and see gamma 39), Kelts who settled in central Asia Minor in 279 BCE and after.
OCD(4) s.v. (p.84)
Keywords: chronology; geography; history
Translated by: Roger Travis on 4 October 2000@12:19:10.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes, bibliography, keyword; cosmetics) on 6 February 2001@10:57:36.
Nicholas Fincher (added note mentioning Galatians) on 16 July 2003@05:33:14.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; cosmetics) on 16 July 2003@05:42:00.
David Whitehead (another note; another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 1 August 2011@08:26:39.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@02:45:12.

Headword: *)agleuke/s
Adler number: alpha,269
Translated headword: sour
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] what is bitter. Xenophon used [the word] in the Oeconomicus.[1] But the word seems to be foreign, Sicilian; at any rate it is much used later in Rhinthon.[2]
Also [sc. attested is the comparative] a)gleuke/steron, meaning more/rather bitter. Xenophon in Hiero [sc. uses the word].[3]
Greek Original:
*)agleuke/s: to\ a)hde/s. *cenofw=n ei)/rhken e)n tw=| *oi)konomikw=|. dokei= de\ ceniko\n ei)=nai to\ o)/noma, *sikeliko/n: polu\ gou=n e)sti\ pa/lin para\ *(ri/nqwni. kai\ *)agleuke/steron, a)nti\ tou= a)hde/steron. *cenofw=n *(ie/rwni.
[1] The word does not appear in the transmitted texts of Xen. Oec., but is a suggested emendation in both 8.3 (for the mss a)terpe/s) and 8.4 (where its superlative could replace the mss a)klee/staton).
[2] Rhinthon fr. 28 Kaibel, 25 K.-A; Photius alpha200 Theodoridis. (Rhinthon was a writer of "phlyax" plays, farces, in C3-BCE Syracuse. See generally OCD(4) p.1138, s.v. phlyakes, and 1277, s.v. Rhinthon.)
[2] Xen. Hiero 1.21.
Keywords: chronology; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; food; geography
Translated by: Roger Travis on 4 October 2000@13:00:57.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (altered headword, to differentiate it from gloss; augmented notes; added keywords; cosmetics) on 12 February 2001@05:46:08.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 19 July 2003@07:09:03.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@04:44:01.
David Whitehead (updated 2 refs) on 30 July 2014@02:52:01.
David Whitehead (more of same) on 21 December 2014@09:23:22.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 9 April 2015@08:29:40.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 17 September 2015@10:03:12.

Headword: *)agra/fou meta/llou di/kh
Adler number: alpha,345
Translated headword: prosecution for an unregistered mine
Vetting Status: high
When those who worked the silver mines [sc. in Athens] wanted to begin a new working, they would notify those the people had put in charge of mines and would register a twenty-fourth part of the new mine as a tax payable to the people. So if someone appeared to be working a mine in secret, anyone who wanted could indict and expose him for not having registered.
Greek Original:
*)agra/fou meta/llou di/kh: oi( ta\ a)rgu/reia me/talla e)rgazo/menoi o(/pou bou/lointo kainou= e)/rgou a)/rcasqai, fanero\n e)poiou=nto toi=s e)p' e)kei/nois tetagme/nois u(po\ tou= dh/mou kai\ a)pegra/fonto tou= telei=n e(/neka tw=| dh/mw| ei)kosth\n teta/rthn tou= kainou= meta/llou. ei)/ tis ou)=n e)do/kei la/qra e)rga/zesqai me/tallon, to\n mh\ a)pograya/menon e)ch=n tw=| boulome/nw| gra/fesqai kai\ e)le/gxein.
Same entry in Photius.
For taxation of mines see again alpha 3456; the tax mentioned here appears to be post-classical.
Keywords: chronology; definition; economics; ethics; law; science and technology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 August 1998@18:32:34.
Vetted by:
David Mirhady on 17 December 1999@16:47:19.
David Mirhady on 17 December 1999@17:31:05.
Joseph L. Rife (added keyword) on 9 September 2000@21:15:31.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note) on 29 September 2000@07:08:15.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 20 November 2005@09:01:09.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords; tweaks) on 6 January 2012@07:37:28.

Headword: *)agroilh=qen
Adler number: alpha,379
Translated headword: from-Agroile; Agryle
Vetting Status: high
Agroile is a deme of the Erechtheid tribe [sc. in Athens]. A demesman [sc. of this deme] used once to be called Agroileus ["Agroilian"].[1]
Greek Original:
*)agroilh=qen: *)agroi/lh dh=mo/s e)sti fulh=s th=s *)erexqei/+dos. o( de\ dhmo/ths pa/lai e)le/geto *)agroileu/s.
Abridged from Harpokration s.v. Agryle (sic - the Suda, besides transmitting an odd version of the deme-name itself, changes the headword from the deme-name to the demotikon, on which see n.1 below).
Agryle was one of the six instances of Athenian demes with "upper" and "lower" population centres: see generally D. Whitehead, The Demes of Attica (Princeton 1986) 21.
[1] An illusory piece of chronological information. What Harpok. actually says is: 'the demesmen [is an] Agryleus, but the locative adverb is Agrylethen. (And in fact, the latter is the regular demotikon also.)
Keywords: chronology; constitution; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 March 1999@17:35:00.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added footnote) on 15 September 2000@06:31:55.
David Whitehead on 17 September 2000@09:42:30.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@04:32:21.

Headword: *)ada/m
Adler number: alpha,425
Translated headword: Adam
Vetting Status: high
The first human, he who was shaped by the hand of God and formed in the image and likeness of the Creator and Founder; he was also deemed worthy of a dwelling in Paradise. He could justly be called the first wise man, since he was the first likeness created and an image wrought by God, and also because he had a full share of all the graces that exist. And all the senses of the body and the soul he possessed in a pure and unadulterated state. For rays of a certain sort, so to speak, flashed from the soul of that man, rays teeming with divine thoughts and energies, and they coursed through all nature, accurately and unerringly anticipating the particular virtue of each thing. Those who judged him were not men, who often make judgments in an erroneous fashion, but the God of everything, who makes every decision and judgment correctly, and, before his mind was stirred to action, by the soul, which labors over such things and gives birth to ideas. And as Scripture says: "God made all the domesticated and wild animals and the things that crawl and the winged things, and he brought them before Adam to see what he would call them, and whatever Adam called them, that was their name."[1] And what is more perfectly clear than this statement and this testimony? What more sublime than this wisdom and this discrimination? He gave names to nature itself, as though prescribing the essence of each animal, without practice, without prior consideration, with no preparatory effort at the things which people take pains to learn. And although many, nay, innumerable species were brought before him no one has managed to change the name even of some insignificant animal, nor did anyone manage to attain even a fraction of his great wisdom and discrimination. Instead all humans scattered across the entire earth continue following his pronouncements unaltered. And the first-born one's surpassing judgment in all things did not stop there, but also extended to the varieties of seeds and plants and the uses of roots and herbs. And whatever in the way of prevention and treatment nature assigned to each of the living things he determined and made clear. He, the first to see woman, spoke about her not as with a human mouth. As though he were echoing some divine pronouncement he uttered incisively that celebrated and awe-inspiring saying: "this now is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh. She will be called woman, because she was taken out of her man."[2] He, moreover, is the one who assesses each thing and establishes rules, precise standards, and incontestable boundaries for all. His are the crafts and letters, his are rational and non-rational sciences, his are prophethoods, priesthoods, purifications and laws both written and unwritten; his are all discoveries and doctrines and whatever needs and regimens are essential for life. He is the first representation of mankind, the image summoned from God; all image-making among men starts out from him as a model, though more and more they sink to a level inferior to his blessed and God-like image, which had no starting point upon which one who molded or painted images after him might depend; to such an extent that the Abomination, the Apostate, the deceiving Devil toppled him from his original foundation and position and caused him to be borne headfirst into pit-like and unlit places which reach all the way down to the joyless recesses of Hades. And from this point human nature became caricatured and falsified and was stamped with the shapings and designs of the Tyrant. From this source that bastard wisdom had its beginnings, for divine wisdom had made its escape and had flown up toward heaven, whence it had previously started out. Whence the Imposter expropriated the name of God and dealt it out it in many directions, giving himself different names, such as "Kronos" and "Zeus", and -- the most wicked thing of all -- the Criminal even had the gall to drag down the blessed and ineffable nature [of God] and associate it with names that were female and unworthy of respect, such as those "Rheas" and "Aphrodites" and "Athenas" and thousands of others, and into strange forms and shapes of illogical things which the Creator of Evil and the Hatcher of Heresy invented and carved out. Hence the wretched tales of the Egyptians about Osiris and Typhon and Isis, and the chicanery of the Persian Magi, and the gymnosophistry and impertinent fantasies of the Brahmans, the fabled sayings of the Skythians and the orgies of the Thracians and the flutes and Corybantes of the Phyrgians. Hence the deceitful and damaging astrology of the Chaldaeans. Hence poetry, the midwife of lies, the pretentious diction of Greek storytelling. Hence Orpheus and Homer and that portrayer of improper begettings, Hesiod. Hence the reputation of Thales and the glorious Pythagoras and Socrates the wise and Plato, the much-ballyhooed pride of the Academy of the Athenians. Hence the Parmenideses and the Protagorases and the Zenos. Hence the Stoas, and the Areopaguses and the Epicureans. Hence the dirges and breast-beatings of the tragedians and the jestings and raillery of the comics. Hence the dishonest divinations of Loxias the liar[3] and the remaining shenanigans and omen-mongering of Greek sophistication. And lest I prolong my essay by getting caught up in rotten and malodorous myths, the Imposter, having taken the burden of the entirety of creation on himself, and having taken man under his control as though he were a slave, went through all that is below heaven and patrolled the earth and kept watch over everything like a hen on her eggs, as he himself says in his lying fashion. He thought that it was necessary to set his throne above the clouds of heaven and to be equal to the Highest One. But the only begotten Son of God, the primordial Word, took pity on mankind since it had been deceived by the serpent, removed himself from the lap of the Father and became flesh by the Holy Spirit and by the Holy Virgin and Mother of God, Mary. He defeated his rival through the hallowed cross and through his suffering and went down to the lowest reaches of the earth and from there dragged back the fallen first-formed one, restoring the primordial beauty to his image and the original worth to his nature. And at that point the entire regime and conformity of the Tyrant vanished, as the light of piousness beamed more brightly than the rays of the sun on the entirety of creation. From this light the godly wisdom once again shone through and gave voice to the tongues of the fishermen and made the unwise teachers of the wise. From this came the birth of thunder, as follows: "In the beginning was the word."[4] It flashed forth from heavenly clouds and thundered and brought light to the entire inhabited world. And through this light Paul is carried to the Third Heaven and sees the unseeable and hears the unspoken sayings and speeds across the entire earth like a bird bringing the Gospel of Jesus in mid air. Thence Peter named Christ the son of the living God, and he is entrusted with the keys of the kingdom of the heavens, so that he may open the entrance to the divine palace for those who believe and lock it against those who do not. Thence flocks of martyrs cast down idols and hasten readily toward their death, displaying their wounds as crowns and their blood as robes of purple, beautiful in victory. The first-formed one should be considered the one who directs this writing, in my opinion and judgment at any rate, as a river the spring and the sea, and roots and branches and shoots, and as the one who originates all human nature, the beginning offerings and the first-fruits.
From Adam until the flood: 2242 years; from the flood until the building of the tower [sc. of Babel], 525 years; from the building of the tower until Abraham, 425. From Abraham until the Exodus of the sons of Israel from Egypt, 430. From the Exodus until the building of the Temple of Solomon, 757 years. From the building of the temple until the captivity of Israel, 425. Altogether 4880 years.[5] From the captivity until king Alexander [sc. the Great], 318. From Alexander until Christ our God, 303. Altogether 5500 years.[6] From Christ until Constantine the Great, 318. From Constantine until Michael son of Theophilos, 555. The whole span altogether 6375 years.[7] From Michael to Romanos son of Constantine Porphyrogennetos ... years.[8] From Porphyrogennetos to the death of John Tzimiskes ... years.[9]
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] Adamiaios, [meaning he who is descended] from Adam.
Greek Original:
*)ada/m: o( prw=tos a)/nqrwpos, o( xeiri\ qeou= plasqei\s kai\ kata\ th\n ei)ko/na kai\ o(moi/wsin morfwqei\s tou= dhmiourgou= te kai\ kti/santos, o( kai\ timhqei\s th\n ei)s para/deison oi)/khsin. ou(=tos dikai/ws a)\n prw=tos kaloi=to sofo\s w(s prwto/ktiston a)/galma kai\ ei)kw\n ou)=sa qeo/grafos, w(s tw=n xari/twn o(/lwn u(pa/rxwn a)na/plews kai\ pa/nta kaqara\ kai\ a)ki/bdhla perife/rwn ta\ yuxh=s te kai\ sw/matos ai)sqhth/ria. marmarugai\ ga/r tines, w(s ei)pei=n, e)k th=s e)kei/nou yuxh=s a)pastra/ptousai kai\ qei/wn e)nnoiw=n te kai\ e)nergeiw=n plh/qousai kata\ pa=san ei)se/trexon fu/sin eu)sto/xws kai\ a)namarth/tws to\ oi)kei=on e(ka/sths pleone/kthma fqa/nousai. o(\s ou) para\ a)nqrw/pwn e)dokima/sqh tw=n ta\s kri/seis polla/kis e)pisfalw=s poioume/nwn, a)lla\ para\ tou= tw=n o(/lwn qeou= tou= pa=san gnw=sin kai\ kri/sin o)rqw=s poioume/nou kai\ pro\ tou= ta\s e)nnoi/as kinhqh=nai para\ th=s w)dinou/shs ta\ toiau=ta yuxh=s kai\ a)potiktou/shs noh/mata. kai\ h(=| fhsin h( grafh/: e)poi/hsen o( qeo\s pa/nta ta\ kth/nh kai\ ta\ qhri/a kai\ ta\ e(rpeta\ kai\ peteina\ kai\ h)/gagen au)ta\ pro\s to\n *)ada\m i)dei=n, ti/ kale/sei au)ta/. kai\ o(\ e)ka/lesen *)ada\m, tou=to o)/noma au)tw=|. ti/ th=s fwnh=s tau/ths kai\ marturi/as a)ridhlo/teron; ti/ th=s sofi/as tau/ths kai\ diagnw/sews u(yhlo/teron; e)ka/lesen o)no/mata th\n fu/sin au)th\n kai\ th\n u(po/stasin e(ka/stou zw/|ou w(/sper u(pografo/menos, ou) meleth/sas, ou) proskeya/menos, ou)de/n ti propeponqw\s tw=n o(/sa metamanqa/nousin a)/nqrwpoi. kai\ pollw=n kai\ a)nari/qmwn genew=n paradramousw=n ou)k i)/sxusen ou)dei\s u(palla/cai ka)\n tou= tuxo/ntos zw/|ou to\ o)/noma, ou)de\ th=s e)kei/nou dra/casqai megalonoi/as kai\ diagnw/sews. ma=llon me\n ou)=n me/nousin a(/pantes oi( kata\ pa=san e)sparme/noi th\n gh=n a)/nqrwpoi toi=s e)kei/nou stoixou=ntes a)metaqe/tois qespi/smasi. kai\ ou)de\ me/xri tou/twn e)/sth tou= prwtogo/nou a)nqrw/pou to\ u(perba/llon e)n pa=sin a)ci/wma, a)lla\ kai\ sperma/twn kai\ futw=n diafora\s r(izw=n te kai\ botanw=n duna/meis, kai\ o(/sa ei)s a)nti/lhyin kai\ qerapei/an h( fu/sis e(ka/stw| prosarmo/ttei tw=n zw/|wn, die/krine/ te kai\ e)sa/fhsen. ou(=tos kai\ th\n gunai=ka prw=tos i)dw\n ou)x w(/sper e)k sto/matos a)nqrwpi/nou peri\ tau/ths e)fqe/gcato, a)ll' w(s e)/k tinos qei/as o)mfh=s e)nhxou/menos eu)sto/xws to\ poluu/mnhton e)kei=no kai\ qaumasto\n a)pefoi/base lo/gion: tou=to nu=n o)stou=n e)k tw=n o)ste/wn mou kai\ sa\rc e)k th=s sarko/s mou. au(/th klhqh/setai gunh\, o(/ti e)k tou= a)ndro\s au)th=s e)lh/fqh. ou(=tos toi/nun e)sti\n o( dokima/sas e(/kasta kai\ pa=si kano/nas kai\ sta/qmas a)kribei=s kai\ o(/rous a)nantirrh/tous e)narmo- sa/menos. tou/tou te/xnai kai\ gra/mmata, tou/tou e)pisth=mai logikai/ te kai\ a)/logoi, tou/tou profhtei=ai, i(erourgi/ai kai\ kaqarismoi\ kai\ no/moi graptoi/ te kai\ a)/grafoi, tou/tou pa/nta eu(rh/mata kai\ dida/gmata, kai\ o(/sai kata\ to\n bi/on a)nagkai=ai xrei=ai/ te kai\ di/aitai. ou(=to/s e)stin o( prw=tos a)ndria\s, to\ qeo/klhton a)/galma, a)f' ou(=per a)peuqu/nontai pa=sai a)nqrw/pwn a)galmatourgi/ai, ka)\n pro\s to\ h(=tton ma=llon kai\ ma=llon e)kpi/ptwsin e)kei/nou tou= makari/ou kai\ qeoeidou=s a)peika/smatos mhdemi/an e)/xontos a)formh\n, h(=s a)\n e)pila/boito o( met' e)kei=non diaplatto/menos h)\ zw|grafou/menos, e(/ws o( palamnai=os kai\ a)posta/ths kai\ pla/nos dia/bolos tou=ton e)ceku/lisen e)k th=s oi)kei/as i(dru/sew/s te kai\ sta/sews kai\ kata\ tou= pranou=s ei)/ase fe/resqai pro\s baraqrw/deis tina\s kai\ a)lampei=s xw/rous kai\ me/xri tw=n a)meidh/twn tou= a(/|dou keuqmw/nwn e)ggi/zontas. ka)nteu=qen h)/rcato fu/sis h( tw=n a)nqrw/pwn paraxara/ttesqai kai\ diakibdhleu/esqai kai\ tupou=sqai toi=s tou= tura/nnou morfw/masi/ te kai\ sxh/masin. e)nteu=qen h( no/qos sofi/a ta\s a)forma\s e)/labe, th=s qei/as drapeteusa/shs kai\ pro\s ou)rano\n a)napta/shs, o(/qen to\ pro/teron h)=n a)formh/sasa. o(/qen o( pla/nos to\ tou= qeou= sfeterisa/menos o)/noma ei)s polla\ kateme/rise, *kro/nous te kai\ *zh=nas kai\ *poseidw=nas e(auto\n metakalw=n: kai\ to\ dh\ pa/ntwn a)nosiw/taton, ei)s o)no/mata qh/lea/ te kai\ a)/semna th\n makari/an kai\ a)/rrhton sugkataspa/sai fu/sin o( a)lith/rios kateto/lmhsen, ei)/s te ta\s *(re/as e)kei/nas kai\ *)afrodi/tas kai\ *)aqhna=s kai\ ei)s a)/llas muri/as kai\ a)lloko/tous a)lo/gwn i)de/as te kai\ morfa\s, a(\s o( kaki/as dhmiourgo\s kai\ th\n a)postasi/an nosh/sas e)pe/xrwse/ te kai\ diexa/racen. e)nteu=qen *ai)gupti/wn ta\ peri\ *)/osirin kai\ *tufw=na kai\ *)/isin moxqhra\ dihgh/mata kai\ *persw=n magika\ magganeu/mata kai\ *braxma/nwn gumnosofisti/ai kai\ a)/kairoi fantasi/ai kai\ h( qaumazome/nh *skuqw=n r(h=sis kai\ ta\ *qra|kw=n o)/rgia kai\ oi( *frugw=n au)loi\ kai\ *koru/bantes. e)nteu=qen h( *xaldai/wn a)stronomi/a h( sfalera/ te kai\ poluw/dunos. e)nteu=qen h( tou= yeu/dous loxeu/tria poi/hsis, h( tw=n *(ellhnikw=n lhrhma/twn semnomuqi/a. e)nteu=qen *)orfeu/s te kai\ *(/omhros kai\ o( tw=n a)qemi/twn gonw=n zw|gra/fos *(hsi/odos. e)nteu=qen h( *qa/lhtos do/ca kai\ o( kleino\s *puqago/ras kai\ o( sofo\s *swkra/ths kai\ *pla/twn, to\ th=s *)aqhnai/wn *)akadhmi/as poluqru/lhton semnolo/ghma. e)nteu=qen oi( *parmeni/dai kai\ *prwtago/rai kai\ *zh/nwnes. e)nteu=qen ai( *stoai\ kai\ oi( *)/areioi pa/goi kai\ *)epikou/reioi. e)nteu=qen oi( tragw|dw=n qrh=noi kai\ kopetoi\ kai\ ta\ kwmikw=n pai/gnia kai\ twqa/smata. e)nteu=qen ta\ dolera\ tou= *loci/ou kai\ yeudhgo/rou qespi/smata kai\ h( loiph\ tw=n *(ellhnikw=n komyeuma/twn e)resxeli/a kai\ teratei/a. kai\ i(/na mh\ makro\n a)potei/nw to\n lo/gon ei)s saprou/s te kai\ o)dwdo/tas mu/qous e)nasxolou/menos, pa=san ei)s e(auto\n th\n kti/sin o( pla/nos e)mfortisa/menos kai\ labw\n u(po\ xei=ra to\n a)/nqrwpon w(s a)ndra/podon kai\ dierxo/menos th\n u(p' ou)rano\n kai\ peripatw=n th\n gh=n kai\ w(s w)a\ pa/nta kate/xwn, w(s au)to/s pou/ fhsin a)lazoneuo/menos, w)/|eto dei=n to\n e(autou= qro/non qh/sein e)pa/nw tw=n nefelw=n tou= ou)ranou= kai\ e)/sesqai o(/moios tw=| *(uyi/stw|. a)ll' o( tou= qeou= monogenh\s ui(o\s kai\ lo/gos o( proaiw/nios oi)ktei/ras to\n a)/nqrwpon w(s h)pathme/non u(po\ tou= dra/kontos e)k tw=n tou= patro\s ko/lpwn e(auto\n e)ke/nwse kai\ sarkwqei\s e)k pneu/matos a(gi/ou kai\ e)k th=s a(gi/as parqe/nou kai\ qeoto/kou *mari/as, kai\ dia\ tou= timi/ou staurou= kai\ tou= pa/qous au)tou= katabalw\n to\n a)nti/palon kai\ kataba\s ei)s ta\ katw/tata me/rh th=s gh=s e)kei=qen ei(/lkuse to\n parapeso/nta prwto/plaston, a)podou\s th=| ei)ko/ni to\ prw=ton ka/llos kai\ th=| fu/sei to\ a)rxai=on a)ci/wma. ka)nteu=qen h)fa/nistai pa=sa h( tou= tura/nnou dunastei/a kai\ summorfi/a tou= th=s eu)sebei/as fwto\s diauga/santos pa/sh| th=| kti/sei tw=n h(liakw=n marmarugw=n thlauge/steron. e)k tou/tou tou= fwto\s h( kata\ qeo\n sofi/a pa/lin die/lamye kai\ glw/ssas a(lie/wn e)sto/mwse kai\ tw=n sofw=n didaska/lous tou\s a)so/fous ei)rga/sato e)nteu=qen o( th=s bronth=s go/nos, to\: e)n a)rxh=| h)=n o( lo/gos, e)c ou)rani/wn nefelw=n a)pastra/yas e)bro/nthse, kai\ pa=san th\n oi)koume/nhn e)la/mprune. ka)k tou/tou tou= fwto\s *pau=los ei)s tri/ton ou)rano\n a)nafe/retai kai\ qea=tai ta\ a)qe/ata kai\ tw=n a)rrh/twn u(pakou/ei logi/wn kai\ diatre/xei pa=san th\n gh=n w(s pthno\s kai\ a)e/rios to\n *)ihsou=n eu)aggelizo/menos. e)nteu=qen o( *pe/tros to\n *xristo\n ui(o\n qeou= tou= zw=ntos w)no/mase kai\ ta\s klei=s th=s tw=n ou)ranw=n pisteu/etai basilei/as, i(/na a)noi/gh| me\n toi=s pistoi=s, a)poklei/h| de\ toi=s a)pi/stois tw=n qei/wn a)nakto/rwn th\n ei)/sodon. e)nteu=qen a)ge/lai martu/rwn kataba/llousin ei)/dwla kai\ tre/xousin e(/toimoi pro\s to\n qa/naton, w(s stefa/nous ta\s plhga\s kai\ w(s porfu/ras ta\ e(autw=n ai(/mata perife/rontes oi( kalli/nikoi. e)/stw gou=n o( prwto/plastos a)rxhgo\s tou=de tou= gra/mmatos, kata/ ge to\n e)mo\n o(/ron kai\ lo/gon, w(s potamo\s phgh/ te kai\ qa/latta kai\ r(i/za kai\ kla/doi kai\ o(/rphkes kai\ pa/shs u(pa/rxwn th=s a)nqrwpi/nhs fu/sews a)parxh\ kai\ prwto/leion. o(/ti a)po\ *)ada\m e(/ws tou= kataklusmou= e)/th #22bsmb#. a)po\ de\ tou= kataklusmou= e(/ws th=s purgopoii/+as e)/th fke#. a)po\ de\ th=s purgopoii/+as e(/ws tou= *)abraa\m uke#. a)po\ de\ tou= *)abraa\m e(/ws th=s e)co/dou tw=n ui(w=n *)israh\l e)c *ai)gu/ptou ul#. a)po\ de\ th=s e)co/dou e(/ws th=s oi)kodomh=s tou= *solomwntei/ou naou= e)/th ynz#. a)po\ de\ th=s oi)kodomh=s tou= naou= e(/ws th=s ai)xmalwsi/as tou= *)israh\l uke#. o(mou= e)/th #22dwp#. a)po\ de\ th=s ai)xmalwsi/as e(/ws *)aleca/ndrou basile/ws tih#. a)po\ de\ *)aleca/ndrou e(/ws *xristou= tou= qeou= h(mw=n tg#. o(mou= e)/th #22ef#. a)po\ de\ *xristou= e(/ws tou= mega/lou *kwnstanti/nou tih#. a)po\ de\ *kwnstanti/nou me/xri *mixah\l ui(ou= *qeofi/lou fne#. o(mou= ta\ pa/nta e)/th #22#2toe#. a)po\ de\ *mixah\l e(/ws *(rwmanou= ui(ou= *kwnstanti/nou tou= *porfurogennh/tou e)/th ... a)po\ de\ tou= *porfurogennh/tou e(/ws th=s teleuth=s *)iwa/nnou tou= *tzimiskh= e)/th ... kai\ *)adamiai=os, a)po\ *)ada/m.
The great bulk of this entry -- 104 lines out of 117 in the printed edition -- is a tour de force of polemic by an unidentifiable scholar quite outside the type of neutral reticence which characterises most of the contributors to the Suda (although Küster suggests a comparison with the entry on Job at iota 471). His self-styled "essay" (logos), unparalleled in this form and content elsewhere, is a tirade on two levels: explicitly, against the great men of pagan culture(s), and also implicitly, in that its determination to enhance the significance of Adam to extraordinary levels rests in part upon an almost Pelagian exculpation of him from the taint of original sin.
[1] A paraphrase of Genesis 1.20 and 2.19.
[2] Genesis 2.23; the wordplay between "man" and "wo-man" in English, is also present in the original Hebrew איש ʾīš and אישה ʾīššah, but not in the Greek.
[3] i.e. Apollo (lambda 673).
[4] John 1.1.
[5] The actual sum of the numbers given up to this point is 4804 (dwd) instead of the 4880 (dwp) of the mss.
[6] The actual sum of all the numbers given so far is 5432; adding merely the last two numbers to the previous summation yields 5528.
[7] 6373, counting from the last summation. The actual total of all individual numbers is 6305. (Up to this point the chronology is taken from George the Monk, Chronicon 804.1-20; and cf. generally phi 45. The two time-spans which now follow are odd, in that the chronology stops being linear.)
[8] Romanus (II) died in 963.
[9] John died in 976.
Keywords: art history; biography; botany; Christianity; chronology; comedy; epic; ethics; food; gender and sexuality; historiography; imagery; law; mythology; philosophy; poetry; proverbs; religion; tragedy; women; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 23 April 2001@15:37:44.
Vetted by:
Patrick T. Rourke (Cleaned up encoding issue) on 8 April 2002@12:19:19.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 8 April 2002@14:00:09.
Catharine Roth (raised status) on 5 May 2002@12:51:12.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew words.) on 31 October 2002@10:41:09.
David Whitehead (modified last paragraph of translation; corrected error in footnote numeration; cosmetics) on 10 June 2003@04:32:32.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@07:34:57.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 9 January 2012@10:28:35.
David Whitehead on 9 January 2012@10:58:50.
David Whitehead (added primary note) on 11 January 2012@11:10:07.
David Whitehead (my typo) on 11 January 2012@11:26:30.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 6 January 2013@23:16:27.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 17 January 2014@06:41:18.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:30:26.
Catharine Roth (cross-reference) on 28 January 2019@15:16:53.

Headword: *)adiki/ou
Adler number: alpha,486
Translated headword: misdemeanor
Vetting Status: high
A sort of crime. It is the name of a lawsuit. It requires single payment, if it is returned before the ninth prytany; if not, the payment is double.
Greek Original:
*)adiki/ou: oi(=on a)dikh/matos. e)/sti de\ o)/noma di/khs. a)poti/nnutai de\ tou=to a(plou=n, e)a\n pro\ th=s e)na/ths prutanei/as a)podoqh=|: ei) de\ mh\, diplou=n kataba/lletai.
From the equivalent entry in Harpokration. Unusually, no primary source is cited there, but it is nevertheless recognizable as ?Aristotle Athenaion Politeia 54.2.
As is regular in entries of this kind, the headword is in the genitive case, implying the noun di/kh or (as in this instance) grafh/.
P.J. Rhodes, A Commentary on the Aristotelian Athenaion Politeia (Oxford 1981) 599
Keywords: chronology; constitution; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; law
Translated by: David Mirhady on 20 May 1999@13:25:28.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added headword translation.) on 13 July 2000@23:44:19.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note and bibliography) on 29 September 2000@08:33:38.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 4 December 2005@06:45:15.
David Whitehead (another note and keyword; cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@05:26:26.
Catharine Roth (expanded abbreviations) on 27 November 2014@23:20:41.

Headword: *)adriano/s
Adler number: alpha,528
Translated headword: Hadrian, Adrianos, Adrian, Hadrianos, Hadrianus, Adrianus
Vetting Status: high
Sophist. A pupil of Herodes;[1] floruit under Marcus Antoninus;[2] as a teacher he was a rival to the rhetor Aristides[3] in Athens. He was also sophist in Rome, and was secretary with responsibility for correspondence under Commodus.[4] [He wrote] Declamations; Metamorphoses (7 books); On Types of Style (5 books); On Distinctive Features in the Issues (3 books); letters and epideictic speeches; Phalaris; Consolation to Celer.
Greek Original:
*)adriano/s, sofisth\s, maqhth\s *(hrw/dou, a)kma/sas de\ e)pi\ *ma/rkou *)antwni/nou, a)ntisxolasth\s *)aristei/dou tou= r(h/toros e)n *)aqh/nais geno/menos: e)sofi/steuse de\ kai\ kata\ th\n *(rw/mhn kai\ a)ntigrafeu\s tw=n e)pistolw=n u(po\ *komo/dou e)ge/neto. *mele/tas, kai\ *metamorfw/seis e)n bibli/ois z#, *peri\ i)dew=n lo/gou e)n bibli/ois e#, *peri\ tw=n e)n tai=s sta/sesin i)diwma/twn e)n bibli/ois trisi\n, e)pistola\s kai\ lo/gous e)pideiktikou\s, *fa/larin, *paramuqhtiko\n ei)s *ke/lera.
Hadrian (or Adrian) of Tyre, c. 113-193. See generally RE Hadrianos(1); OCD4 Adrianus; PIR2 H4; Philostratus, Lives of the Sophists 2.10.
[1] [eta 545] Herodes.
[2] a.k.a. Marcus Aurelius [mu 214].
[3] [alpha 3902] Aristides.
[4] [kappa 2007] Commodus.
S. Rothe, Kommentar zu ausgewahlten Sophistenviten des Philostratos (Heidelberg 1988) 87-126.
Keywords: biography; chronology; geography; history; philosophy; rhetoric
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 7 July 1999@14:05:46.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Emended headword, enumeration of notes, raised status to "low") on 31 May 2000@12:39:50.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 9 February 2003@09:10:49.
David Whitehead (another note; cosmetics) on 11 January 2012@09:36:48.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@08:23:45.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 10 December 2014@00:33:44.
David Whitehead (another note) on 26 April 2015@04:35:57.

Headword: *)adrianoi/
Adler number: alpha,529
Translated headword: Adrianoi, Hadrianoi, Adriani, Hadriani
Vetting Status: high
A city of Mysia, [the area which is] the present Bithynia.
Greek Original:
*)adrianoi/: po/lis *musi/as, th=s nu=n *biquni/as.
For this, see again at alpha 3902.
Several cities of this name are attested in the regions which make up present-day Turkey, but the precision of the historico-geographical gloss here enables us to identify the one in question, on the river Rhyndakos. The modern Orhaneli, formerly Adranos; Barrington Atlas map 62 grid A2.
Keywords: chronology; definition; geography; history
Translated by: Sean M. Redmond on 21 October 1999@16:19:34.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (supplied headword, note, keyword) on 13 February 2001@09:02:53.
Nicholas Fincher (augmented note) on 23 July 2003@02:31:35.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; augmented note) on 14 August 2006@08:39:15.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 1 August 2011@09:08:37.
David Whitehead (more headword options; expanded note) on 11 January 2012@09:43:30.
David Whitehead on 26 April 2015@04:36:55.

Headword: *)ae/tios
Adler number: alpha,571
Translated headword: Aetios, Aetius
Vetting Status: high
From Antioch in Syria,[1] the teacher of Eunomios,[2] he happened [to be] of poor and lower-class parentage. His father was one of those in the army who were faring rather poorly; when he had just sent that son away, he died. So he [Aetios] having come to the extreme of difficulty took himself to goldsmithing and became very skillful. But when his nature yearned for better studies, he turned to logical theories. And he joined Paulinos right when that man had recently arrived at Antioch from Tyre. He still attended him [as a student] in the time of Constantine, displaying a great force of impiety in his disputations with his opponents, and few men could withstand him. After Paulinos died, when Eulalius held the see as twenty-third [in succession] from the apostles,[3] many of those who had been shamed by Aetios thought it a terrible thing to have been defeated by a man who was a newcomer and a craftsman: they banded together and drove him out of Antioch. Being driven out he came to Anazarbos.[4] And he, so full of every ability, brought forth fruits better than his given circumstances. He did not at all stop disputing them, although he was poorly dressed and lived as he happened to be able.[5]
This man was a heresiarch,[6] who was called an atheist in the time of Constantine the Great. He believed the same things as Arius and applauded the same doctrine, but he separated himself from the Arians. Aetios was a heretical[7] man earlier and he passionately hastened to advocate the dogma of Arius, for when he had learned a little in Alexandria he departed. And upon arrival in Antioch in Syria (for he was from that place) he was made a deacon by Leontios, who was bishop at the time. And he shouted at[8] those who met him, discoursing from the Categories of Aristotle and setting right the contentious arguments.[9] He also patched together letters to the emperor Constantine. But even though he said the same things as the Arianists, he nevertheless, although agreeing with those people, was thought a heretic by his own familiars who were unable to understand the complexity of the arguments. And on account of this he was expelled from their church and he himself decided [it was best] not to have dealings with them.[10] And now because of that there are men who were then called "Aetianists" but now "Eunomians". For Eunomios who was his secretary and was taught by him in the heretical doctrine assumed the leadership of this faction.
Greek Original:
*)ae/tios: e)c *)antioxei/as th=s *suri/as, dida/skalos *eu)nomi/ou, a)po\ penixrw=n kai\ eu)telw=n gone/wn tugxa/nwn. o( de\ path\r au)tw=| tw=n e)n stratia=| dusprage/steron e)nhnegme/nwn geno/menos, e)teqnh/kei komidh=| pai=da tou=ton a)fei/s. au)to\s de\ ei)s e)/sxaton a)pori/as h(/kwn, e)pi\ xrusoxoi/+an e)xw/rhsen a)kro/tato/s te e)ge/neto. e)pei\ de\ h( fu/sis au)tw=| meizo/nwn w)re/geto maqhma/twn, pro\s logika\s qewri/as e)tra/peto. kai\ dh=ta suggi/netai *pauli/nw| a)rti/ws a)po\ th=s *tu/rou ei)s *)antio/xeian a)fikome/nw|: e)/ti kata\ tou\s *kwnstanti/nou xro/nous tou/tou h)kroa=to, pollh\n e)pieikw=s fai/nwn th=s a)sebei/as th\n r(w/mhn ei)s ta\s pro\s tou\s diaferome/nous zhth/seis: kai\ ou)x u(po/statos h)/dh toi=s polloi=s h)=n. e)pei\ de\ *pauli=nos e)teqnh/kei, *eu)lali/ou tri/tou kai\ ei)kostou= a)po\ tw=n a)posto/lwn e)/xontos to\n qro/non, polloi\ tw=n u(po\ tou= *)aeti/ou e)legxome/nwn deino\n poihsa/menoi pro\s a)ndro\s dhmiourgou= kai\ ne/ou kata\ kra/tos e)lau/nesqai, susta/ntes e)ch/lasan au)to\n th=s *)antioxei/as. e)celaqei\s de\ ei)s th\n *)ana/zarbon a)fiknei=tai. o( de\ h)/dh ta/xista duna/mews pa/shs pimpla/menos mei/zous a)ei\ tw=n dedome/nwn a)formw=n ei)se/fere tou\s karpou/s. o( de\ ou)de\n e)pau/eto tou\s me\n diele/gxwn, fau/lws de\ a)mpisxo/menos kai\ w(s e)/tuxe zw=n. ou(=tos ai(resia/rxhs h)=n, o(\s kai\ a)/qeos e)peklh/qh e)pi\ tou= mega/lou *kwnstanti/nou. ta\ au)ta\ me\n ou)=n e)fro/nei *)arei/w| kai\ th\n au)th\n sunekro/tei do/can: pro\s de\ a)reiani/zontas diekri/neto. h)=n de\ kai\ pro/teron ai(retiko\s a)/nqrwpos *)ae/tios kai\ tw=| *)arei/ou do/gmati diapu/rws sunhgorei=n e)/speuden: e)n ga\r th=| *)alecandrei/a| mikra\ paideuqei\s a)nazeu/gnusi. kai\ katalabw\n th\n e)n *suri/a| *)antio/xeian, e)nteu=qen ga\r h)=n, u(po\ *leonti/ou tou= to/te th=s *)antioxei/as e)pisko/pou xeirotonei=tai dia/konos. eu)qu\s ou)=n sunecefw/nei tou\s e)ntugxa/nontas e)k tw=n *)aristote/lous kathgoriw=n dialego/menos, tou\s e)ristikou\s katwrqwkw\s lo/gous. e)pistola/s te suneka/ttue pro\s basile/a *kwnsta/ntion. a)ll' ei) ta\ au)ta\ toi=s a)reiani/zousin e)/legen, o(/mws u(po\ tw=n oi)kei/wn ou) duname/nwn sunie/nai to\ periskele\s tw=n logismw=n w(s ai(retiko\s o( o(mo/frwn au)toi=s e)nomi/zeto. kai\ dia\ tou=to e)kdiwxqei\s th=s au)tw=n e)kklhsi/as e)/docen au)to\s mh\ bou/lesqai koinwnei=n au)toi=s. kai\ nu=n ei)sin e)c e)kei/nou oi( to/te me\n *)aetianoi\ nu=n de\ *eu)nomianoi\ lego/menoi. *eu)no/mios ga\r taxugra/fos w)\n e)kei/nou kai\ u(p' au)tw=| paideuqei\s th\n ai(retikh\n le/cin tou= sti/fous tou/tou proe/sth.
See Catholic Encyclopedia entry on Eunomianism at web address 1.
[1] Syrian Antioch (cf. alpha 2692 and OCD(4) s.v. Antioch(1)) is on the River Orontes (cf. omicron 622), near present-day Antakya, Turkey, some 20km inland from the eastern Mediterranean coast (Barrington Atlas map 67 grid D4). The qualifier (again later in the entry) is used because there was more than one city of that name, e.g. one in Pisidia (in west-central Asia Minor; near the modern-day city of Yalvaç, Turkey; Barrington Atlas map 62 grid F5).
[2] Eunomios: epsilon 3598.
[3] Eulalius was patriarch of Antioch for five months in the year 332.
[4] Anazarbos: alpha 1866.
[5] Philostorgius, Historia ecclesiastica III.15b, pp.44-47 Bidez-Winkelmann. Philostorgius himself had Arian sympathies, and presents a more favorable view of Aetius than does Socrates Scholaticus, in what follows here.
[6] The rest of the Suda entry is based on Socrates, Historia ecclesiastica 2.35. See translation at web address 2.
[7] Socrates says "contentious" (e)ristiko/s).
[8] Socrates says "he astounded them by his strange language" (e)cenofw/nei).
[9] This clause is not in Socrates.
[10] Socrates says that Aetios pretended to have decided for himself to break his association with the Arianists.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; Christianity; chronology; clothing; economics; ethics; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; philosophy; religion; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 3 May 2001@16:36:40.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (modified translation, added references) on 3 May 2001@22:32:14.
Catharine Roth (Added link.) on 7 May 2001@20:06:41.
Catharine Roth (modified translation) on 8 May 2001@01:14:02.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 17 February 2002@23:19:35.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords; restorative and other cosmetics) on 10 June 2003@05:36:28.
Catharine Roth (augmented reference) on 28 November 2004@23:37:53.
Catharine Roth (added keyword) on 2 October 2005@01:41:21.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 17 August 2006@00:57:43.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 31 December 2011@17:50:58.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 12 January 2012@06:00:52.
David Whitehead (another note) on 28 April 2015@02:41:46.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 28 April 2015@10:40:42.
Ronald Allen (added map notes and cross-references) on 5 April 2018@23:43:19.
Catharine Roth (modified translation, added a link) on 7 April 2018@18:24:07.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 7 April 2018@18:27:27.
Catharine Roth (expanded notes) on 7 April 2018@18:42:27.
Catharine Roth (recent tweaks inspired by Ron Allen's suggestions) on 7 April 2018@18:45:44.

Headword: *)aqa/natoi
Adler number: alpha,707
Translated headword: immortals
Vetting Status: high
Ten thousand select [troops] of the Persians.
[The ones] which Ardabourios destroyed and obliterated during Theodosius' reign.[1]
[The ones] which Xerxes, son of Darius, had.[2]
Greek Original:
*)aqa/natoi: mu/rioi *persw=n e)pi/lektoi. ou(\s *)ardabou/rios e)pi\ *qeodosi/ou basile/ws die/fqeire kai\ h)fa/nisen. ou(\s ei)=xe *ce/rchs o( *darei/ou.
The name reflected the fact that this was "a body of Persian troops in which vacancies were filled up by successors already appointed" (LSJ s.v., repeating what Herodotus 7.83 says).
For other picked bodies of troops cf. alpha 3843, delta 818, epsilon 684, kappa 1044, xi 170, omicron 68, pi 1761, pi 2242.
[1] cf. generally alpha 3803.
[2] cf. xi 54.
Keywords: biography; chronology; definition; geography; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: David Whitehead on 7 June 2002@03:41:19.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth on 8 June 2002@14:18:15.
David Whitehead (added x-refs) on 23 July 2003@09:12:37.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 17 January 2012@04:47:53.
Catharine Roth (tweak) on 18 January 2012@01:00:18.

Headword: *)aqh/naios
Adler number: alpha,731
Translated headword: Athenaios, Athenaeus
Vetting Status: high
Of Naucratis.[1] Grammarian. Lived in the time of Marcus. He wrote a book with the title Deipnosophists, in which he records how many of the ancients had a reputation for munificence in giving banquets.[2]
Alexander the Great, after that naval victory over the Spartans and after he had fortified the Peiraeus, sacrificed a hecatomb and feasted all the Athenians.[3] And after his Olympic victory Alcibiades gave a feast for the whole festival.[4] Leophron did the same at the Olympic games.[5] And Empedocles of Acragas, being a Pythagorean and an abstainer from animal food, when he won an Olympic victory made an ox out of incense, myrrh and expensive perfumes and divided it among those who came to the festival. And Ion of Chios, when he won a victory in the tragic competition at Athens, gave every Athenian a jar of Chian [sc. wine].[6] And Tellias of Acragas, a hospitable man, when 500 horsemen were billeted with him during the winter, gave each of them a cloak and tunic.[7] [It is on record] that Charmus of Syracuse used to utter little verses and proverbs for every one of the dishes served at his banquets. Clearchus of Soli calls the poem Deipnology, others Opsology, Chrysippus Gastronomy, others The Life of Luxury [Hedupatheia].[8] [It is on record] that in Plato's symposium there were 28 diners.
Greek Original:
*)aqh/naios, *naukrati/ths, grammatiko\s, gegonw\s e)pi\ tw=n xro/nwn *ma/rkou. e)/graye bibli/on o)/noma *deipnosofistai/: e)n w(=| mnhmoneu/ei, o(/soi tw=n palaiw=n megaloyu/xws e)/docan e(stia=n. o( me/gas *)ale/candros ka)kei/nhn nikh/sas naumaxi/an *lakedaimoni/ous kai\ teixi/sas to\n *peiraia= kai\ e(kato/mbhn qu/sas pa/ntas ei(sti/asen *)aqhnai/ous. kai\ *)alkibia/dhs *)olu/mpia nikh/sas th\n panh/gurin a(/pasan ei(sti/ase. to\ au)to\ kai\ *leo/frwn *)olumpia/si. kai\ *)empedoklh=s o( *)akraganti=nos, *puqagoriko\s w)\n kai\ e)myu/xwn a)pexo/menos, *)olu/mpia nikh/sas, e)k libanwtou= kai\ smu/rnhs kai\ tw=n polutelw=n a)rwma/twn bou=n a)napla/sas die/neime toi=s ei)s th\n panh/gurin a)panth/sasi. kai\ o( *xi=os *)/iwn tragw|di/an nikh/sas *)aqh/nhsin e(ka/stw| tw=n *)aqhnai/wn e)/dwke *xi=on kera/mion. kai\ o( *)akraganti=nos *telli/as filo/cenos w)\n katalu/sasi/ pote f# i(ppeu=sin w(/ra| xeimw=nos, e)/dwken e(ka/stw| xitw=na kai\ i(ma/tion. o(/ti *xa/rmos o( *surakou/sios ei)s e(/kaston tw=n e)n toi=s dei/pnois paratiqeme/nwn stixi/dia kai\ paroimi/as e)/lege. *kle/arxos de\ o( *soleu\s deipnologi/an kalei= to\ poi/hma, a)/lloi o)yologi/an, *xru/sippos gastronomi/an, a)/lloi h(dupa/qeian. o(/ti e)n tw=| sumposi/w| *pla/twnos kh# h)=san daitumo/nes.
Fl. c. AD 200. See generally RE Athenaios(22); NP Athenaios(3); OCD4 Athenaeus(1); Olson (2006), vii.
[1] In Egypt (see nu 58).
[2] cf. delta 359, sigma 1397. What follows is excerpted from Athenaeus 1.3D-4A [1.5 Kaibel], 4E (epit.).
[3] Two of Athenaeus' examples (3D) have been run together here (and again at alpha 1123): the 'naval victory over the Spartans' refers to Conon's victory at Cnidus (394 BC).
[4] cf. alpha 1280 (end).
[5] Athenaeus says (3E) that Simonides wrote a victory ode commemorating this (PMG 515, and Olson, 2006, 15 n.34).
[6] cf. iota 487 (end) and chi 314. On "Chian" and other wines with specific (though not necessarily simple) city-connections see A. Dalby, "Topikos Oinos", in D. Harvey and J. Wilkins (eds.), The Rivals of Aristophanes (London 2000) 397-405.
[7] cf. tau 272.
[8] cf. chi 132. The poem in question was in fact by Archestratus of Gela; see discussion of the title (most probably Hedypatheia in S. D. Olson and A. Sens (eds.), Archestratos of Gela: Greek Culture and Cuisine in the Fourth Century BCE(Oxford 2000) xxii-xxiv.
D. Braund and J. Wilkins, eds. Athenaeus and his World. Exeter, 2000
S.D. Olson, Athenaeus: The Learned Banqueters (Loeb Classical Library: 2006-)
Keywords: architecture; athletics; biography; chronology; clothing; economics; food; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; philosophy; proverbs; religion; tragedy
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 7 July 1999@14:13:15.
Vetted by:
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added transliteration to headword) on 14 August 2000@14:39:21.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 15 June 2001@06:09:35.
David Whitehead (augmented note 6) on 3 August 2001@10:02:27.
David Whitehead (augmented initial note; added bibliography; cosmetics) on 11 October 2002@03:28:29.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added italics; cosmetics) on 12 February 2005@22:01:08.
Aikaterini Oikonomopoulou (Augmented and corrected notes; added bibliography) on 21 February 2008@14:05:08.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 22 February 2008@04:03:13.
David Whitehead (tweaked bibliographical item) on 20 January 2012@04:12:30.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 19 January 2014@07:25:01.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@08:24:54.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 22 November 2014@22:08:06.
David Whitehead (expanded a ref) on 14 January 2015@03:48:39.

Headword: *)aqhno/dwros
Adler number: alpha,735
Translated headword: Athenodoros, Athenodorus
Vetting Status: high
Stoic philosopher, of the time of the Roman emperor Octavian. Under Octavian there was every reason for unbridled excess of power to be a universal misfortune, but the aforementioned Athenodoros persuaded him away from that with his advice. Then Tiberius succeeded to the principate.[1] For at that time the flatterers that had gained esteem through gifts and honors from the emperor had entered into the highest offices, but those who were seemly and modest and who did not choose the same lifestyle as those men were, as one might imagine, in an uproar, since they did not enjoy the same [honors]. Thus from this point on the cities were filled with revolts and disturbances, and the fact that the government had been turned over to officials who could not resist profit made life grievous and painful for the better class of people in peacetime and undermined their determination in times of war. In those times also pantomime dancing was introduced for the first time,[2] and many other things happened which were the cause of great evils.
Everything was leading Athenodoros toward philosophy, both the inclinations of his nature and the inclinations of his prudent predilection, when Proclus was alive. And he explained things clearly to his students. Sallustius, amazed at him, said with regard to his zeal that "like indeed to a fire the man seems to ignite the things around him." Nevertheless he encouraged Athenodoros not to practice philosophy.
Greek Original:
*)aqhno/dwros: *stwi+ko\s filo/sofos, e)pi\ *)oktaoui+anou= basile/ws *(rwmai/wn: e)f' ou(= pa=sa a)na/gkh koino\n ei)=nai dustu/xhma th\n tou= kra/tous a)/logon e)cousi/an, e)c ou(= dh\ ma/lista tai=s *)aqhnodw/rou tou/tou sumbouli/ais e)pei/sqh. kai\ diade/xetai *tibe/rios th\n basilei/an. to/te ga\r oi( ko/lakes para\ tou= basile/ws dwrew=n kai\ timw=n a)ciou/menoi megi/stwn a)rxw=n e)pe/bainon, oi(/ te e)pieikei=s kai\ a)pra/gmones mh\ to\n au)to\n e)kei/nois ai(rou/menoi bi/on ei)ko/tws e)sxetli/azon, ou) tw=n au)tw=n a)polau/ontes. w(/ste e)k tou/tou ta\s me\n po/leis sta/sewn plhrou=sqai kai\ taraxw=n ta\ de\ politika\ ke/rdous h(/ttosin a)/rxousin e)kdido/mena, to\n me\n e)n ei)rh/nh| bi/on luphro\n kai\ o)dunhro\n toi=s xarieste/rois e)poi/oun, th\n de\ e)n toi=s pole/mois proqumi/an e)ce/luon. kata\ de\ tou\s kairou\s e)kei/nous kai\ h( panto/mimos o)/rxhsis ei)sh/xqh ou)/pw pro/teron ou)=sa: kai\ prose/ti ge e(/tera pollw=n kakw=n ai)/tia gegono/ta. o(/ti tw=| *)aqhnodw/rw| pa/nta pareskeu/asto pro\s filosofi/an ta/ te a)po\ th=s fu/sews kai\ ta\ a)po\ th=s e)pieikou=s proaire/sews, o(/te *pro/klos e)/zh. kai\ diafanw=s e)chgei=to toi=s plhsia/zousin. o(\n o( *salou/stios qauma/zwn e)pi\ spoudh=s e)/legen, o(/ti puri\ a)/ra e)w/|kei o( a)/nqrwpos e)ca/ptonti pa/nta ta\ parakei/mena. a)ll' o(/mws e)/peisen *)aqhno/dwron mh\ filosofh=sai.
The entry seems to confuse at least two Athenodoroi. Paragraph 1 (from Zosimus 1.5.3-6.2) concerns Athenodorus of Tarsus, the well-known Stoic advisor of Augustus, on whom see generally OCD(4) s.v., p.195. Paragraph 2 (= Damascius fr. 145 Zintzen, 88 Asmus) is about a contemporary of the Neoplatonist Proclus.
[1] tau 551, tau 552.
[2] cf. omicron 671.
Banchich, T.M. "Eunapius, Eustathius, and the Suda." AJP 109 (1988) 223-225
Keywords: biography; chronology; daily life; economics; ethics; history; imagery; military affairs; meter and music; philosophy; politics
Translated by: William Hutton on 3 April 2001@22:36:10.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords; cosmetics) on 20 May 2002@09:13:47.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 28 November 2005@08:22:25.
David Whitehead (more x-refs; cosmetics) on 20 January 2012@04:24:27.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@03:36:38.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 1 May 2015@10:38:03.
Catharine Roth (added bibliography) on 27 January 2016@22:47:15.

Headword: *)aka/kios
Adler number: alpha,783
Translated headword: Akakios, Acacius
Vetting Status: high
The patriarch of Constantinople, he was revered as no other. For he was the guardian of orphans, and it was evident to all that he managed the affairs of the orphans well and with pleasure. Moreoever, he became an acquaintance of the emperor Leo with whom he found immense favor. He [Leo] confided his affairs, both public and private, to this man first of all. When he assembled the senate, he invited this man as well and turned the beginning of every discussion over to him.
This Akakios realized the savagery of Leo Makelles[1] toward those who had offended him in some way and had accurately divined his character; but because this was something only those who flattered him had the opportunity to observe, he made a habit of marvelling at all that he did. Nevertheless he was readily able to rein [Leo] in and easily made him slacken his anger. He also brought about the salvation of many who ran afoul of him, and managed to have those sentenced to life-long exile recalled to their homeland.
After the death of Gennadios, patriarch of Constantinople, he was nominated to serve in that priesthood with the backing of Zenon. Since he was a natural leader and took all the churches under his direct control, he exercised a deliberate discrimination concerning those who were appointed to the churches. They in gratitude dedicated images of him in their prayer chambers. Thus, when images of him appeared in all the churches, some people began to think that he, in a pursuit of empty glory, had ordered their dedication, and no small confirmation of this suspicion was supplied by the mosaic image fashioned in the church by the harbor. For although the entire work had been completed in the time of Gennadios, in a conspicuous place in the temple they portrayed [Akakios] and after him the Savior saying to Gennadios 'destroy this temple', and over him 'after you I will raise him up.'[2] As a result of such images, then, Akakios, though he was generous and a capable leader, nevertheless seemed to all to be excessively ambitious.[3]
See concerning this man under Basiliskos.[4]
Greek Original:
*)aka/kios: o( patria/rxhs *kwnstantinoupo/lews, ai)de/simos h)=n w(s ou)k a)/llos tis. o)rfanotro/fos ga\r gegonw\s kai\ kalw=s ta\ tw=n o)rfanw=n dioikw=n pa=sin e)fai/neto kaq' h(donh/n. kai\ dh\ kai\ tw=| basilei= *le/onti sunh/qhs gegonw\s u(perfuw=s h)/reske kai\ tou/tw| prw/tw| a)ei\ pa/nta a)nekoinou=to ta/ te koina\ kai\ ta\ i)/dia. kai\ o(/te th\n boulh\n h)/qroize, suneka/lei kai\ tou=ton kai\ th=s ske/yews a)rxh\n e)c au)tou= pa/shs e)ti/qeto. o(\s *)aka/kios th\n tou= *le/ontos tou= *make/llh w)mo/thta sunidw\n pro\s tou/s ti luph/santas kai\ to\ h)=qos a)kribw=s to\ e)kei/nou fwra/sas, o(/ti toi=s e)painou=si mo/non u(pa/rxei eu)a/lwton, e)peth/deue pa/nta ta\ e)kei/nou qauma/zein. toigarou=n peiqh/nion au)to\n ei)=xen e(toi/mws to/n te qumo\n au)tou= r(a|di/ws kate/stelle kai\ polloi=s proskekrouko/si th\n swthri/an e)pragmateu/eto kai\ tou\s e)cori/an a)i/+dion e)/xontas a)nekalei=to pro\s th\n patri/da. ou(=tos meta\ qa/naton *gennadi/ou, patria/rxou *kwnstantinoupo/lews, spoudh=| *zh/nwnos i(era=sqai proeblh/qh. o(\s w)\n a)rxiko\s kai\ pa/sas ta\s e)kklhsi/as u(f' e(auto\n poih/sas pefrontisme/nws tw=n e)n au)tai=s keklhrwme/nwn e)poiei=to th\n khdemoni/an, oi(\ eu)xaristou=ntes e)n grafai=s a)ne/qhkan au)to\n kata\ tou\s eu)kthri/ous oi)/kous. e)pei/per ou)=n a)qro/on e)n pa/sais tai=s e)kklhsi/ais e)dei/xqhsan au)tou= ei)ko/nes, w)|h/qhsa/n tines kenodocou=nta th\n a)na/qesin prostetaxe/nai ou) mikra\n e)/xontes th=s u(ponoi/as pi/stwsin, th\n e)k yhfi/dwn grafh\n dhmiourghqei=san e)n th=| pro\s tw=| newri/w| e)kklhsi/a|. tou= ga\r e)/rgou panto\s e)pi\ *gennadi/ou telesqe/ntos ei)s to\n e)pifanh= to/pon e)cetu/pwsan au)to\n tou= new\ kai\ metacu\ tou=de to\n *swth=ra le/gonta tw=| *gennadi/w|, lu=son to\n nao\n tou=ton, kai\ e)pi\ tou=, meta/ se e)gerw= au)to/n. e)k tw=n toiou/twn ou)=n ei)ko/nwn *)aka/kios, ei) kai\ eu)meta/dotos h)=n kai\ prostatiko\s, a)lla\ docomanh\s pa=sin e)/docen u(pa/rxein. zh/tei peri\ tou=ton e)n tw=| *basili/skos.
On Acacius or Akakios, see web address 1.
[1] Leo "the Butcher": see lambda 267 and biography (by Hugh Elton) at web address 2.
[2] cf. John 2.19.
[3] Valesius (Henri de Valois 1603-1676) attributed this entry to Malchus (on Theodore the Reader 167); now accepted as Malchus fr.2b Cresci.
[4] beta 164.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: architecture; art history; biography; children; Christianity; chronology; ethics; geography; historiography; history; law; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 1 June 2001@11:30:21.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added links) on 1 June 2001@18:44:50.
William Hutton (Modified translation) on 3 June 2001@11:10:35.
Catharine Roth (added note) on 28 February 2002@00:12:18.
Catharine Roth (augmented translation and notes) on 28 February 2002@13:38:30.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@11:17:30.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note, added cross-reference) on 20 May 2008@11:40:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 22 January 2012@08:28:19.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 31 January 2015@07:57:40.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note) on 3 May 2015@23:35:20.


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