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Headword: *)/abel
Adler number: alpha,30
Translated headword: Abel
Vetting Status: high
Son of Adam.[1] This man was chaste and just from the beginning and a shepherd of flocks; out of these he offered a sacrifice to God and was accepted, but was then killed because he was envied by his brother Cain.[2] Cain happened to be a farmer and after the judgement he lived worse, with groaning and trembling. For Abel, by dedicating the firstborn [of the flock] to God, recommended himself as more God-loving than self-loving,[3] and because this was a good choice, he was accepted. But Cain impiously kept his first-fruits for himself and gave the seconds to God, and for this reason was rightly rejected. For it says: "and after some days it happened that Cain offered from the fruits of the earth."[4] Cain was disgraced by the fact that the produce he offered was not the first-fruits but that which was some days old and second-best.
Greek Original:
*)/abel: ui(o\s *)ada/m. ou(=tos parqe/nos kai\ di/kaios u(ph=rxe kai\ poimh\n proba/twn: e)c w(=n kai\ qusi/an tw=| qew=| prosagagw\n kai\ dexqei\s a)nairei=tai, fqonhqei\s u(po\ tou= a)delfou= au)tou= *ka/i+n. o( *ka/i+n de\ gewrgo\s tugxa/nwn kai\ meta\ th\n di/khn xeiro/nws biw/sas ste/nwn kai\ tre/mwn h)=n. o( ga\r *)/abel ta\ prwto/toka tw=| qew=| kaqierw=n filo/qeon ma=llon h)\ fi/lauton e(auto\n suni/sth, o(/qen kai\ dia\ th=s a)gaqh=s au)tou= proaire/sews a)pede/xqh. o( de\ *ka/i+n dussebw=s e(autw=| a)pone/mwn ta\ prwtogennh/mata, qew=| de\ ta\ deu/tera, ei)ko/tws kai\ a)peblh/qh. fhsi\ ga/r: kai\ e)ge/neto meq' h(me/ras, prosh/negke *ka/i+n a)po\ tw=n karpw=n th=s gh=s. w(/ste dia\ tou=to *ka/i+n e)le/gxetai, o(/ti mh\ ta\ a)kroqi/nia gennh/mata prosh/negke tw=| qew=|, a)lla\ ta\ meq' h(me/ras kai\ deu/tera.
George the Monk, Chronicon 6.10-7.16.
[1] alpha 425.
[2] kappa 27.
[3] Again at sigma 1580.
[4] Genesis 4:3.
Keywords: agriculture; biography; botany; Christianity; daily life; ethics; food; historiography; religion; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:57:27.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, keywords, set status) on 27 January 2001@12:23:00.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 27 February 2003@08:28:31.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 8 September 2003@06:15:32.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@10:57:50.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics; raised status) on 22 June 2011@07:14:12.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 29 August 2012@10:24:09.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 August 2013@01:03:34.

Headword: *)/abios
Adler number: alpha,47
Translated headword: full-lived
Vetting Status: high
Antiphon has a)/bion for one who has acquired a good living.[1] Similarly Homer has a)/culon for "full of timber."[2]
Greek Original:
*)/abios: *)antifw=n to\n a)/bion e)pi\ tou= polu\n to\n bi/on ta/ttei kekthme/nou. w(/sper kai\ *(/omhros to\ a)/culon a)nti\ tou= polu/culon.
= Harpocration s.v. (A2 Keaney).
The point is that the alpha prefix intensifies, rather than negates as it usually does: LSJ entries for a)/bios (A) and (B) at web address 1. On the different alpha prefixes, see LSJ.
[1] Antiphon (the sophist) B87 F43 Diels-Kranz.
[2] Homer, Iliad 11.155 (web address 2): e)n a)cu/lw|... u(/lh|, of a forest fire falling in "a wood with much dead timber," and thus spreading rapidly. On the meaning of this adjective see Lexikon des frühgriechischen Epos I (fasc. 6, 1969) 974-75. (Although LSJ correctly defines cu/lon as 'timber', the entry there for a)/culos erroneously assumes alpha privative and is misleading.)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: botany; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:59:58.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added note.) on 30 July 2000@22:59:00.
David Whitehead (added note) on 9 October 2000@06:48:14.
Catharine Roth (added link) on 4 September 2001@23:26:33.
Robert Dyer (Corrected error in note 2 (and corresponding translation) arising from a mistranslation in LSJ. Raised status, added keywords) on 6 May 2002@18:17:20.
Robert Dyer (Cosmetics) on 6 May 2002@18:20:58.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding) on 23 March 2008@14:30:04.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 23 March 2008@20:07:24.
David Whitehead (augmented notes) on 24 March 2008@05:13:43.
Jennifer Benedict (fixed my betacode typo) on 25 March 2008@11:20:15.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, deleted link) on 17 November 2009@15:29:14.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 8 August 2013@00:38:05.

Headword: *)abro/tonon
Adler number: alpha,95
Translated headword: wormwood
Vetting Status: high
Type of plant.
Greek Original:
*)abro/tonon: ei)=dos bota/nhs.
Wormwood, or other Artemisia species; see e.g. Theophrastus Enquiry into Plants 6.7.3.
(Also a woman's name in New Comedy.)
Keywords: botany; comedy; definition; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:45:02.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, augmented note, set status) on 1 February 2001@22:41:01.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords; cosmetics) on 3 January 2005@10:48:59.
David Whitehead on 21 December 2011@06:29:50.
Catharine Roth (expanded abbreviation) on 24 November 2014@19:45:34.
Catharine Roth (tweak) on 25 November 2014@23:07:45.

Headword: *)aburta/kh
Adler number: alpha,103
Translated headword: sour-sauce, aburtake, abyrtake, abyrtace
Vetting Status: high
A sharp-flavored barbarian dish, prepared from leeks and cress[-seeds] and pomegranate kernels and other such things, quite clearly pungent. Theopompus in Theseus [writes]: "he will reach the land of the Medes, where aburtake is made mostly of cress and leeks."[1] The noun also appears in the Kekruphalos of Menander.[2]
Greek Original:
*)aburta/kh: u(po/trimma barbariko\n, kataskeuazo/menon dia\ pra/swn kai\ karda/mwn kai\ r(o/as ko/kkwn kai\ e(te/rwn toiou/twn, drimu\ dhlono/ti. *qeo/pompos *qhsei=: h(/cei de\ *mh/dwn gai=an, e)/nqa karda/mwn plei/stwn poiei=tai kai\ pra/swn a)burta/kh. e)/sti kai\ e)n *kekrufa/lw| *mena/ndrou tou)/noma.
[1] Theopompus fr. 17 Kock, now 18 Kassel-Austin. In the long list of food allowances for the Persian Kings (allegedly seen in Babylon by Alexander the Great) in Polyaenus 4.3.32 there is a mention of salted capers "from which they make abyrtakai".
[2] Menander fr. 280 Kock, 247 Koerte, now 217 Kassel-Austin. For other appearances of the word in comedy see LSJ s.v. at web address 1 below.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: botany; comedy; food; geography
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 21 November 1998@17:00:55.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified headword, added keywords, set status) on 5 February 2001@11:10:09.
David Whitehead (modified headword; augmented notes; cosmetics) on 6 February 2001@03:24:05.
David Whitehead (modified translation) on 14 July 2006@03:15:01.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 26 March 2008@00:07:25.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation and link) on 19 April 2011@10:58:42.
Catharine Roth (raised status) on 20 April 2011@17:32:46.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 28 December 2014@05:36:45.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 December 2014@10:42:30.

Headword: *)/aganon
Adler number: alpha,145
Translated headword: firewood, broken; good, gentle
Vetting Status: high
With proparoxytone accent[1] [this means] wood that has been cut up.
Or brushwood and [wood that is] ready to be cut up.[2]
But some [sc. define it as wood] which is not chopped.
But with the oxytone[3] it means fine. Or good or kindly, though some [say] immortal. Whence also [comes the term] a)ganofrosu/nh ["kindly-mindedness"].
Also [sc. attested is the verb] a)ganou=men ["we will make nice"],[4] meaning we will beautify.
And elsewhere: "however gentle you might pass into the Athenian book of death, you would always have your tresses well-garlanded."[5]
Greek Original:
*)/aganon: proparocuto/nws to\ kateago\s cu/lon. h)\ to\ fruganw=des kai\ e(/toimon pro\s to\ kateagh=nai. oi( de\ to\ a)pele/khton. *)agano\n de\ o)cuto/nws kalo/n. h)\ a)gaqo\n h)\ i(laro\n, oi( de\ a)qa/naton. e)/nqen kai\ a)ganofrosu/nh. kai\ *)aganou=men, a)nti\ tou= kosmh/somen. kai\ au)=qis: w(s a)/n toi r(ei/h| me\n a)gano\s *)atqi/di de/ltw| khro\s, u(po\ stefa/nois d' ai)e\n e)/xois ploka/mous.
cf. generally alpha 146, alpha 147, alpha 148, alpha 149.
[1] i.e. a)/ganos (here neuter).
[2] Addendum lacking in mss ASM.
[3] i.e. a)gano/s (again, here neuter).
[4] Attested only here, but cf. the scholia to Aristophanes, Peace 398 (where a)galou=men occurs).
[5] Greek Anthology 7.36.5 (Erucius), on the tomb of Sophocles; cf. Gow and Page (252-253), alpha 1421, beta 453, and sigma 569.
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: The Garland of Philip and Some Contemporary Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge, 1968)
Keywords: botany; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry; tragedy
Translated by: William Hutton on 28 March 2000@23:57:06.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@11:07:52.
Jennifer Benedict (tags) on 26 March 2008@01:08:32.
David Whitehead (augmented n.4; more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 27 March 2008@08:01:50.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; tweaks) on 23 December 2011@05:41:50.
Ronald Allen (expanded n.5, added bibliography, added cross-references, added keyword) on 25 October 2018@15:42:25.

Headword: *)agelai/a stafulh/
Adler number: alpha,184

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