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Headword: Ἄβελ
Adler number: alpha,30
Translated headword: Abel
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Son of Adam.[1] This man was chaste and just from the beginning and a shepherd of flocks; out of these he offered a sacrifice to God and was accepted, but was then killed because he was envied by his brother Cain.[2] Cain happened to be a farmer and after the judgement he lived worse, with groaning and trembling. For Abel, by dedicating the firstborn [of the flock] to God, recommended himself as more God-loving than self-loving,[3] and because this was a good choice, he was accepted. But Cain impiously kept his first-fruits for himself and gave the seconds to God, and for this reason was rightly rejected. For it says: "and after some days it happened that Cain offered from the fruits of the earth."[4] Cain was disgraced by the fact that the produce he offered was not the first-fruits but that which was some days old and second-best.
Greek Original:
Ἄβελ: υἱὸς Ἀδάμ. οὗτος παρθένος καὶ δίκαιος ὑπῆρχε καὶ ποιμὴν προβάτων: ἐξ ὧν καὶ θυσίαν τῷ θεῷ προσαγαγὼν καὶ δεχθεὶς ἀναιρεῖται, φθονηθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ Κάϊν. ὁ Κάϊν δὲ γεωργὸς τυγχάνων καὶ μετὰ τὴν δίκην χειρόνως βιώσας στένων καὶ τρέμων ἦν. ὁ γὰρ Ἄβελ τὰ πρωτότοκα τῷ θεῷ καθιερῶν φιλόθεον μᾶλλον ἢ φίλαυτον ἑαυτὸν συνίστη, ὅθεν καὶ διὰ τῆς ἀγαθῆς αὐτοῦ προαιρέσεως ἀπεδέχθη. ὁ δὲ Κάϊν δυσσεβῶς ἑαυτῷ ἀπονέμων τὰ πρωτογεννήματα, θεῷ δὲ τὰ δεύτερα, εἰκότως καὶ ἀπεβλήθη. φησὶ γάρ: καὶ ἐγένετο μεθ' ἡμέρας, προσήνεγκε Κάϊν ἀπὸ τῶν καρπῶν τῆς γῆς. ὥστε διὰ τοῦτο Κάϊν ἐλέγχεται, ὅτι μὴ τὰ ἀκροθίνια γεννήματα προσήνεγκε τῷ θεῷ, ἀλλὰ τὰ μεθ' ἡμέρας καὶ δεύτερα.
Notes:
George the Monk, Chronicon 6.10-7.16.
[1] alpha 425.
[2] kappa 27.
[3] Again at sigma 1580.
[4] Genesis 4:3.
Keywords: agriculture; biography; botany; Christianity; daily life; ethics; food; historiography; religion; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:57:27.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, keywords, set status) on 27 January 2001@12:23:00.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 27 February 2003@08:28:31.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 8 September 2003@06:15:32.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@10:57:50.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics; raised status) on 22 June 2011@07:14:12.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 29 August 2012@10:24:09.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 August 2013@01:03:34.

Headword: Ἄβιος
Adler number: alpha,47
Translated headword: full-lived
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Antiphon has ἄβιον for one who has acquired a good living.[1] Similarly Homer has ἄξυλον for "full of timber."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἄβιος: Ἀντιφῶν τὸν ἄβιον ἐπὶ τοῦ πολὺν τὸν βίον τάττει κεκτημένου. ὥσπερ καὶ Ὅμηρος τὸ ἄξυλον ἀντὶ τοῦ πολύξυλον.
Notes:
= Harpocration s.v. (A2 Keaney).
The point is that the alpha prefix intensifies, rather than negates as it usually does: LSJ entries for ἄβιος (A) and (B) at web address 1. On the different alpha prefixes, see LSJ.
[1] Antiphon (the sophist) B87 F43 Diels-Kranz.
[2] Homer, Iliad 11.155 (web address 2): ἐν ἀξύλῳ... ὕλῃ , of a forest fire falling in "a wood with much dead timber," and thus spreading rapidly. On the meaning of this adjective see Lexikon des frühgriechischen Epos I (fasc. 6, 1969) 974-75. (Although LSJ correctly defines ξύλον as 'timber', the entry there for ἄξυλος erroneously assumes alpha privative and is misleading.)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: botany; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:59:58.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added note.) on 30 July 2000@22:59:00.
David Whitehead (added note) on 9 October 2000@06:48:14.
Catharine Roth (added link) on 4 September 2001@23:26:33.
Robert Dyer (Corrected error in note 2 (and corresponding translation) arising from a mistranslation in LSJ. Raised status, added keywords) on 6 May 2002@18:17:20.
Robert Dyer (Cosmetics) on 6 May 2002@18:20:58.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding) on 23 March 2008@14:30:04.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 23 March 2008@20:07:24.
David Whitehead (augmented notes) on 24 March 2008@05:13:43.
Jennifer Benedict (fixed my betacode typo) on 25 March 2008@11:20:15.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, deleted link) on 17 November 2009@15:29:14.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 8 August 2013@00:38:05.

Headword: Ἀβρότονον
Adler number: alpha,95
Translated headword: wormwood
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Type of plant.
Greek Original:
Ἀβρότονον: εἶδος βοτάνης.
Notes:
Wormwood, or other Artemisia species; see e.g. Theophrastus Enquiry into Plants 6.7.3.
(Also a woman's name in New Comedy.)
Keywords: botany; comedy; definition; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:45:02.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, augmented note, set status) on 1 February 2001@22:41:01.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords; cosmetics) on 3 January 2005@10:48:59.
David Whitehead on 21 December 2011@06:29:50.
Catharine Roth (expanded abbreviation) on 24 November 2014@19:45:34.
Catharine Roth (tweak) on 25 November 2014@23:07:45.

Headword: Ἀβυρτάκη
Adler number: alpha,103
Translated headword: sour-sauce, aburtake, abyrtake, abyrtace
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A sharp-flavored barbarian dish, prepared from leeks and cress[-seeds] and pomegranate kernels and other such things, quite clearly pungent. Theopompus in Theseus [writes]: "he will reach the land of the Medes, where aburtake is made mostly of cress and leeks."[1] The noun also appears in the Kekruphalos of Menander.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀβυρτάκη: ὑπότριμμα βαρβαρικὸν, κατασκευαζόμενον διὰ πράσων καὶ καρδάμων καὶ ῥόας κόκκων καὶ ἑτέρων τοιούτων, δριμὺ δηλονότι. Θεόπομπος Θησεῖ: ἥξει δὲ Μήδων γαῖαν, ἔνθα καρδάμων πλείστων ποιεῖται καὶ πράσων ἀβυρτάκη. ἔστι καὶ ἐν Κεκρυφάλῳ Μενάνδρου τοὔνομα.
Notes:
[1] Theopompus fr. 17 Kock, now 18 Kassel-Austin. In the long list of food allowances for the Persian Kings (allegedly seen in Babylon by Alexander the Great) in Polyaenus 4.3.32 there is a mention of salted capers "from which they make abyrtakai".
[2] Menander fr. 280 Kock, 247 Koerte, now 217 Kassel-Austin. For other appearances of the word in comedy see LSJ s.v. at web address 1 below.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: botany; comedy; food; geography
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 21 November 1998@17:00:55.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified headword, added keywords, set status) on 5 February 2001@11:10:09.
David Whitehead (modified headword; augmented notes; cosmetics) on 6 February 2001@03:24:05.
David Whitehead (modified translation) on 14 July 2006@03:15:01.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 26 March 2008@00:07:25.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation and link) on 19 April 2011@10:58:42.
Catharine Roth (raised status) on 20 April 2011@17:32:46.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 28 December 2014@05:36:45.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 December 2014@10:42:30.

Headword: Ἄγανον
Adler number: alpha,145
Translated headword: firewood, broken; good, gentle
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
With proparoxytone accent[1] [this means] wood that has been cut up.
Or brushwood and [wood that is] ready to be cut up.[2]
But some [sc. define it as wood] which is not chopped.
But with the oxytone[3] it means fine. Or good or kindly, though some [say] immortal. Whence also [comes the term] ἀγανοφροσύνη ["kindly-mindedness"].
Also [sc. attested is the verb] ἀγανοῦμεν ["we will make nice"],[4] meaning we will beautify.
And elsewhere: "however gentle you might pass into the Athenian book of death, you would always have your tresses well-garlanded."[5]
Greek Original:
Ἄγανον: προπαροξυτόνως τὸ κατεαγὸς ξύλον. ἢ τὸ φρυγανῶδες καὶ ἕτοιμον πρὸς τὸ κατεαγῆναι. οἱ δὲ τὸ ἀπελέκητον. Ἀγανὸν δὲ ὀξυτόνως καλόν. ἢ ἀγαθὸν ἢ ἱλαρὸν, οἱ δὲ ἀθάνατον. ἔνθεν καὶ ἀγανοφροσύνη. καὶ Ἀγανοῦμεν, ἀντὶ τοῦ κοσμήσομεν. καὶ αὖθις: ὡς ἄν τοι ῥείῃ μὲν ἀγανὸς Ἀτθίδι δέλτῳ κηρὸς, ὑπὸ στεφάνοις δ' αἰὲν ἔχοις πλοκάμους.
Notes:
cf. generally alpha 146, alpha 147, alpha 148, alpha 149.
[1] i.e. ἄγανος (here neuter).
[2] Addendum lacking in mss ASM.
[3] i.e. ἀγανός (again, here neuter).
[4] Attested only here, but cf. the scholia to Aristophanes, Peace 398 (where ἀγαλοῦμεν occurs).
[5] Greek Anthology 7.36.5 (Erucius), on the tomb of Sophocles; cf. Gow and Page (252-253), alpha 1421, beta 453, and sigma 569.
Reference:
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: The Garland of Philip and Some Contemporary Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge, 1968)
Keywords: botany; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry; tragedy
Translated by: William Hutton on 28 March 2000@23:57:06.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@11:07:52.
Jennifer Benedict (tags) on 26 March 2008@01:08:32.
David Whitehead (augmented n.4; more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 27 March 2008@08:01:50.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; tweaks) on 23 December 2011@05:41:50.
Ronald Allen (expanded n.5, added bibliography, added cross-references, added keyword) on 25 October 2018@15:42:25.

Headword: Ἀγελαία σταφυλή
Adler number: alpha,184
Translated headword: ordinary bunch of grapes
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the cheap [sort].[1]
Also [sc. attested is] ἀγελαῖα ["ordinary things"],[2] [meaning] those with no distinction.
Greek Original:
Ἀγελαία σταφυλή: ἡ εὐτελής. καὶ Ἀγελαῖα, τὰ οὐ γενναῖα.
Notes:
cf. alpha 186, alpha 187, alpha 188, alpha 189.
[1] The headword phrase is presumably quoted from somewhere; as presented here, its adjective is in the feminine nominative singular.
[2] Same adjective but in the neuter nominative/accusative plural.
Keywords: botany; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; food
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 7 June 1999@11:35:43.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword; added keyword; cosmetics) on 11 February 2001@09:59:59.
Catharine Roth (added betacode and notes, raised status) on 14 October 2007@01:44:53.
Catharine Roth (added cross-references) on 14 October 2007@01:46:53.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 14 October 2007@03:28:00.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 29 December 2011@06:41:42.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 5 April 2015@10:25:10.

Headword: Ἁγιστείας
Adler number: alpha,242
Translated headword: rituals
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning those] of holiness, of cleansing, of service.
Greek Original:
Ἁγιστείας: ἁγιωσύνης, καθαρότητος, λατρείας.
Notes:
LSJ entry at web address 1; and cf. generally alpha 234.
Same material in other lexica (references at Photius alpha176 Theodoridis), and also in the scholia to Plato, Axiochus 371D, where the headword -- accusative plural, not genitive singular -- occurs.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; philosophy; religion
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg on 24 November 1998@14:18:45.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added headword translation, note, keywords, and link.) on 18 February 2001@20:06:16.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note and keyword) on 9 June 2003@09:51:41.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 4 January 2012@04:55:36.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@07:55:03.

Headword: Ἄγκεσι
Adler number: alpha,245
Translated headword: [in] forests
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning in] tree-filled and wooded places.[1]
In the Epigrams: "with this he slays wild beasts in beast-breeding forests".[2]
Greek Original:
Ἄγκεσι: συνδένδροις καὶ ὑλώδεσι τόποις. ἐν Ἐπιγράμμασι: θηροβολεῖ τούτῳ δ' ἄγκεσι θηροτόκοις.
Notes:
The headword is dative plural of alpha 248. It is perhaps extracted from the quotation given, though not demonstrably so; there are other extant possibilities in e.g. Theocritus and Oppian.
[1] For this glossing cf. the scholia to Homer, Iliad 18.321, where ἄγκε' occurs.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.186.4 (Diocles), dedications to Pan by three brothers; cf. Gow and Page (230-231).
Reference:
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: The Garland of Philip and Some Contemporary Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge, 1968)
Keywords: botany; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; poetry; religion; zoology
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg on 24 November 1998@14:04:48.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword, notes, keywords; cosmetics) on 12 February 2001@04:42:05.
Catharine Roth (Added cross-reference.) on 4 March 2001@22:35:12.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 4 January 2012@05:13:03.
David Whitehead (expanded note; cosmetics) on 9 April 2015@07:42:49.
David Whitehead (coding) on 7 July 2015@02:50:08.
Ronald Allen (expanded n.2, added bibliography, added keyword) on 2 November 2018@18:01:43.

Headword: Ἄγκυρα πλοίου
Adler number: alpha,256
Translated headword: anchor of a ship
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
See under embryoikos.[1]
Greek Original:
Ἄγκυρα πλοίου: ζήτει ἐν τῷ ἐμβρύοικος.
Note:
[1] Lit. "seaweed-dwelling", an adjective applied to an anchor in Greek Anthology 6.90.1. This word has no entry of its own in the Suda, however; instead, it is defined in the entry for βρύχιος (beta 579).
Keywords: botany; imagery; poetry; science and technology
Translated by: Roger Travis on 4 October 2000@11:55:32.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added note) on 18 June 2001@00:43:13.
William Hutton on 18 June 2001@00:45:10.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 21 July 2003@06:59:32.
William Hutton (added footnote number) on 3 April 2006@00:22:17.
David Whitehead (more keywords; raised status) on 3 April 2006@03:00:58.

Headword: Ἀγκύρισμα
Adler number: alpha,261
Translated headword: anchor-hold
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] a kind of wrestling-move. Also [sc. attested is the related participle] ἀγκυρίσας , meaning [someone] wrestling down or taking down by the knee. An 'anchor-hold' is also a hunter's container of figs.[1] Aristophanes [writes]: "striking, anchoring, then turning his shoulder, you swallowed him up."[2] That is, you smote [him].
Greek Original:
Ἀγκύρισμα: εἶδος παλαίσματος. καὶ Ἀγκυρίσας, ἀντὶ τοῦ καταπαλαίσας ἢ τῇ ἀγκύλῃ καταβαλών. ἔστι δὲ ἀγκύρισμα καὶ σκεῦος ἀγρευτικὸν σύκων. Ἀριστοφάνης: διαβαλὼν, ἀγκυρίσας, εἶτ' ἀποστρέψας τὸν ὦμον, αὐτὸν ἐκολάβησας. τουτέστι προσέκρουσας.
Notes:
[1] This meaning is not attested in LSJ (web address 1 below). Perhaps it stems from a misunderstanding of the Aristophanes passage about to be quoted, where in addition to applying the anchor-hold, Kleon is charged with squeezing treasury officials like ripe figs.
[2] Aristophanes, Knights 262-3 (web address 2), with comment from the scholia there.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: athletics; botany; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; food; history; imagery
Translated by: Roger Travis on 4 October 2000@12:34:39.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified headword and translation, added note and link to LSJ, added keywords, set status) on 18 June 2001@01:28:37.
David Whitehead (modified translation; added keyword; restorative and other cosmetics) on 4 May 2003@07:28:30.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 4 January 2012@09:01:44.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 9 April 2015@07:58:17.

Headword: Ἄγλιθες
Adler number: alpha,270
Translated headword: garlic-crowns
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the heads of garlic plants. Aristophanes [writes]: "like field-mice, you dig garlic-crowns with a peg".[1]
Greek Original:
Ἄγλιθες: αἱ κεφαλαὶ τῶν σκορόδων. Ἀριστοφάνης: ὡς ἀρουραῖοι μύες ὀρύσσετε πασσάλῳ τὰς ἄγλιθας.
Notes:
The headword, nominative plural of ἄγλις , is generated by the quotation given (where it is accusative plural).
[1] An approximation of Aristophanes, Acharnians 762-3 (web address 1), with scholion.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: botany; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; food; zoology
Translated by: Roger Travis on 6 October 2000@12:49:51.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 18 January 2001@06:04:48.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 5 January 2012@04:49:50.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note and link) on 25 September 2013@01:03:17.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 9 April 2015@08:31:08.

Headword: Ἀγναπτότατος βάτος αὖος
Adler number: alpha,273
Translated headword: stiffest dried skate
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to one who is harsh and obstinate by temperament.
Greek Original:
Ἀγναπτότατος βάτος αὖος: ἐπὶ τοῦ σκληροῦ καὶ αὐθάδους τὸν τρόπον.
Note:
For discussion see alpha 340, where the entry is repeated (in correct alphabetical context).
Keywords: daily life; ethics; food; imagery; proverbs; zoology
Translated by: Roger Travis on 6 October 2000@12:59:16.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, set status) on 18 June 2001@02:18:24.
David Whitehead (modified headword, translation, note) on 18 June 2001@04:40:42.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 5 January 2012@04:57:59.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 9 April 2015@08:33:55.

Headword: Ἄγνος
Adler number: alpha,279
Translated headword: chaste-tree, withy
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A plant, which they also call lugos.[1]
But it is also a kind of bird.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἄγνος: φυτὸν, ὃν καὶ λύγον καλοῦσιν. ἔστι δὲ καὶ εἶδος ὀρνέου.
Notes:
LSJ entry at web address 1.
[1] From Timaeus' Platonic Lexicon; likewise in Photius (alpha210 Theodoridis) and elsewhere; cf. alpha 280, lambda 780.
[2] So too the scholia to Plato, Phaedrus 230B.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: botany; definition; zoology
Translated by: Roger Travis on 23 October 2000@13:08:16.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added note and link.) on 26 January 2001@21:44:33.
Catharine Roth (Added cross-references.) on 26 January 2001@21:54:10.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 10 February 2003@09:28:37.
David Whitehead (tweaked and augmented notes) on 5 January 2012@05:17:31.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@08:26:35.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 21 December 2014@23:38:22.

Headword: Ἄγνον
Adler number: alpha,280
Translated headword: chaste-tree, withy
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
They are not speaking of the lugos.[1] And Chionides uses it in the masculine in Heroes: "and verily, by Zeus, I don't seem anymore to be different from an agnos growing in a mountain stream."[2] Plato [writes]: "for this plane-tree [is] very wide-spreading and lofty, and the height and the shade of the agnos [are] gorgeous."[3]
But hagnos with the accent on the final syllable [means] pure.
Greek Original:
Ἄγνον: οὐχὶ λύγον καλοῦσιν. καὶ ἀρσενικῶς Χιωνίδης Ἥρωσι: καὶ μὴν μὰ τὸν Δί' οὐθὲν ἔτι τέ μοι δοκῶ ἄγνου διαφέρειν ἐν χαράδρᾳ πεφυκότος. Πλάτων: ἥ τε γὰρ πλάτανος αὕτη μάλα ἀμφιλαφὴς καὶ ὑψηλὴ, καὶ τοῦ ἄγνου τε τὸ ὕψος καὶ τὸ σύσκιον πάγκαλον. Ἁγνὸς δὲ ὀξυτόνως, ὁ καθαρός.
Notes:
The main part of this entry is also in Photius (alpha220 Theodoridis) and elsewhere.
[1] cf. alpha 279, lambda 780.
[2] Chionides [a very early comic poet: see chi 318) fr. 2 Kock (and K.-A.).
[3] Plato, Phaedrus 230B (web address 1).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: botany; comedy; dialects, grammar, and etymology; philosophy
Translated by: Roger Travis on 23 October 2000@13:14:32.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added link and keywords.) on 26 January 2001@21:51:14.
Catharine Roth (Added cross-reference.) on 26 January 2001@21:55:38.
David Whitehead (added keyword; restorative and other cosmetics) on 10 February 2003@09:32:02.
David Whitehead (added x-ref) on 3 September 2003@09:57:22.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; tweaks and cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@07:19:45.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@08:27:45.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 23 December 2014@03:33:08.

Headword: Ἀγόνων χοῶν
Adler number: alpha,297
Translated headword: [than] unfruitful drink-offerings
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
It is used in two ways.[1]
The Theologian says [this]; that is, [more pious] than the offerings which are poured for the dead and are therefore unfruitful.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] ἀγονία , barrenness.[3]
"That Artemis was angered and that she attacked with sterility of the earth as punishment."[4]
Greek Original:
Ἀγόνων χοῶν. διφορεῖται ὁ Θεολόγος φησί: τουτέστι τῶν ἐπὶ τοῖς νεκροῖς χεομένων καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ἀγόνων. καὶ Ἀγονία, ἡ ἀφορία. τὴν Ἄρτεμιν μηνίσαι καὶ μετελθεῖν δικαιοῦσαν αὐτὴν γῆς ἀγονίᾳ.
Notes:
[1] This comment (a single word in the Greek; in ms A only, Adler reports) perhaps refers to the active and passive senses of the adjective ("not bearing" and "not born"): see LSJ entry at web address 1, and again at alpha 337.
[2] Scholion on Gregory of Nazianzus (PG 36.378b), who does use the headword phrase.
[3] See already alpha 295.
[4] Aelian fr. 49d Domingo-Forasté (46 Hercher); cf. delta 1079.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: aetiology; agriculture; botany; Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; religion
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 12 February 2001@11:03:29.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Raised status) on 12 February 2001@19:54:21.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@08:08:46.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; augmented note 2) on 14 April 2004@07:29:21.
David Whitehead (tweak) on 25 July 2006@07:01:45.
David Whitehead (another x-ref; more keywords; cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@09:03:04.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 4) on 29 January 2012@22:33:54.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1; cosmetics) on 9 April 2015@08:51:08.

Headword: Ἀγοράσω
Adler number: alpha,305
Translated headword: I will go to market
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Meaning I will spend time in [the] marketplace. Aristophanes [writes]: "and I will go to market in arms alongside Aristogeiton."[1] Meaning I will spend time in the market with Aristogeiton, near Aristogeiton.[2] That is,[3] "in a myrtle branch we will carry our sword, just like Harmodios and Aristogeiton". For they, having drawn their swords from myrtle branches, struck down the tyrant.
Greek Original:
Ἀγοράσω: ἀντὶ τοῦ ἐν ἀγορᾷ διατρίψω. Ἀριστοφάνης: ἀγοράσω τ' ἐν τοῖς ὅπλοις ἑξῆς Ἀριστογείτονι. ἀντὶ τοῦ ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ διατρίψω μετὰ Ἀριστογείτονος, ἐγγὺς Ἀριστογείτονος. τουτέστιν ἐν μυρσίνῳ κλάδῳ τὸ ξίφος φορέσομεν, ὥσπερ Ἁρμόδιος καὶ Ἀριστογείτων. οὗτοι γὰρ ἀπὸ τῶν μυρσίνων κλάδων τὰ ξίφη ἀνασπάσαντες τὸν τύραννον κατέβαλον.
Notes:
See also epsilon 1384, phi 592.
[1] Aristophanes, Lysistrata 633 (web address 1 below), with comment from the scholia there.
[2] On the statues of the tyrannicides (see further, next note) Aristogeiton and Harmodios in the Athenian Agora, see in brief J.M. Camp, The Athenian Agora (London 1986) 38; cf. OCD(4) s.v. Aristogiton (pp.156-7); and at length M.W. Taylor, The Tyrant Slayers (New York 1981) 51-77.
[3] What follows this less-than-apposite opening is a line from one of the skolia (drinking songs) -- best preserved in Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 15.695A-B [15.50 Kaibel] -- which commemorated the assassination of Hipparchos in 514 BCE. See generally M. Ostwald, Nomos and the Beginnings of the Athenian Democracy (Oxford 1969) 121-136.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; botany; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; history; military affairs; meter and music; politics; trade and manufacture
Translated by: William Hutton on 30 October 2000@00:44:39.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes; cosmetics) on 30 October 2000@04:35:33.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@11:05:58.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; x-refs; more keywords) on 28 February 2006@03:08:29.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@09:28:58.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@02:58:03.
David Whitehead (typo; other tweaking) on 9 April 2015@09:02:53.

Headword: Ἀγών
Adler number: alpha,327
Translated headword: contest, training, arena
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Training with a view to competitions.[1] [sc. Also attested is the accusative case] ἀγῶνα ; and Homer [sc. uses this term for] the actual place where the competition takes place.[2] Thucydides in [book] 5 [writes]: "he came into the arena and garlanded the charioteer."[3]
Greek Original:
Ἀγών: ἡ πρὸς τοὺς ἀγῶνας ἄσκησις. Ἀγῶνα: καὶ Ὅμηρος τὸν τόπον αὐτὸν ἐν ᾧ ἀγωνίζονται. Θουκυδίδης πέμπτῃ: προελθὼν ἐς τὸν ἀγῶνα ἀνέδησε τὸν ἡνίοχον.
Notes:
Apart from the initial glossing (on which see next note), this material also occurs in Photius, Lexicon alpha316 Theodoridis.
[1] The word used for 'competitions' here is the (accusative) plural of the headword itself. The Suda seems therefore to be saying, indirectly, that the word denotes both competition and the training for it.
[2] i.e. the arena. Adler cites Homer, Iliad 23.273 for this; Theodoridis chooses Odyssey 8.260. For instances in other authors (including the one about to be quoted here) see LSJ s.v. ἀγών I.2.
[3] Thucydides 5.50.4, on Lichas the Spartan.
Keywords: athletics; biography; botany; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; historiography; history
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 7 July 1999@11:00:05.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Altered headword, augmented notes.) on 24 October 2000@11:56:35.
William Hutton (Corrected my own error, raised status.) on 24 October 2000@11:57:26.
William Hutton on 24 October 2000@21:20:16.
David Whitehead (cosmetics in footnote 1) on 25 October 2000@03:07:38.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords) on 9 February 2003@09:01:04.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@06:26:01.
David Whitehead on 19 August 2013@04:21:37.

Headword: Ἀγρεία ἀοιδή
Adler number: alpha,350
Translated headword: rustic song
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The rural [kind].[1]
"He stretched the hide down a rustic plane tree." In the Epigrams.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] ἀγρεῖος , [meaning] the yokel, the ignoramus.[3]
Or someone from the country.
Aristophanes in Clouds [writes]: "you are rustic and clumsy."[4]
The rustic and possessor of a large beard.[5]
And elsewhere: "it's particularly vulgar to see a poet who is rustic and hairy."[6]
Greek Original:
Ἀγρεία ἀοιδή: ἡ ἀγροικική. τὸ σκύτος ἀγρείης τ' εἴνε κατὰ πλατάνου. ἐν Ἐπιγράμμασι. καὶ Ἀγρεῖος, ὁ ἄγροικος, ὁ ἀμαθής. ἢ ὁ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀγροῦ. Ἀριστοφάνης Νεφέλαις: ἀγρεῖος εἶ καὶ σκαιός. ὁ ἄγροικος καὶ μέγαν πώγωνα ἔχων. καὶ αὖθις: ἄλλως τ' ἄμουσόν ἐστι ποιητὴν ἰδεῖν ἀγρεῖον ὄντα καὶ δασύν.
Notes:
[1] The headword phrase is presumably quoted from somewhere.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.35.2 (Leonidas of Tarentum), a rustic dedication to Pan; cf. Gow and Page, vol. I (122) and vol. II (356-357); cf. further extracts from this epigram at alpha 325, alphaiota 210, gamma 73, lambda 189, rho 72, and tau 264. The plane tree of the epigram, πλάτανος , is almost certainly the Old World or Asiatic Plane, Platanus orientalis, whose range extends from Asia into Greece and the eastern Mediterranean; cf. Raven (24, 70).
[3] From the scholia to Aristophanes, Clouds 655, about to be quoted.
[4] Aristophanes, Clouds 655.
[5] From the scholia to Aristophanes, Thesmophoriazusae 160, about to be quoted.
[6] Aristophanes, Thesmophoriazusae 159-160 (copied here from alpha 1633).
References:
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge 1965)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge 1965)
J.E. Raven, Plants and Plant Lore in Ancient Greece, (Oxford 2000)
Keywords: agriculture; botany; clothing; comedy; definition; ethics; meter and music; poetry; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:33:29.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added keywords; cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@09:09:20.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:02:12.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@08:01:32.
David Whitehead (x-ref) on 6 January 2012@08:05:59.
Ronald Allen (tweaked translation, expanded n.2, added bibliography, added cross-references, added keyword) on 8 November 2018@20:53:37.
Ronald Allen (better wording n.2) on 15 November 2018@18:19:23.

Headword: Ἀγρεῖφνα
Adler number: alpha,351
Translated headword: rake, harrow
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A farm tool, with which they collect hay. "Alkimos [dedicated] his toothless rake and a share of a noise-loving shovel bereft of its olivewood handle."[1]
Greek Original:
Ἀγρεῖφνα: γεωργικὸν ἐργαλεῖον, δι' οὗ συνάγουσι τὸν χόρτον. ἄλκιμος ἀγρεῖφναν κενοδόντιδα καὶ φιλοδούπου φάρσος ἅμα στελεοῦ χῆρον ἐλαϊνέου.
Notes:
Feminine noun, also found in the form ἀγρίφη (alpha 365).
[1] An approximation of Greek Anthology 6.297.1-2 (Phanias), a dedication of agricultural implements to Athena, again (in part) at phi 116; cf. Gow and Page, vol. I (162-163) and vol. II (470-471); cf. further extracts from this epigram at alpha 3945 and kappa 2794. The opening word is a proper name. Here the translation adopts Toup's emendation (cf. Gow and Page, vol. I, 162) and reads ἄμας [cf. alpha 1574] for the Suda's ἅμα ; cf. phi 116. The verb is supplied in translation here from line 6.
References:
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge 1965)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge 1965)
Keywords: agriculture; botany; daily life; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; poetry; religion; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:34:30.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@08:27:51.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@11:08:14.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; added primary note and more keywords; cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@08:20:25.
David Whitehead on 6 January 2012@08:21:15.
David Whitehead on 8 January 2012@09:17:43.
Ronald Allen (betacode typo n.1, expanded and rearranged n.1, added bibliography, added cross-references, added keywords) on 22 December 2018@23:31:13.
Ronald Allen (my punctuation error n.1) on 25 December 2018@12:59:02.

Headword: Ἀγρία συκῆ
Adler number: alpha,353
Translated headword: wild fig
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
See under "unripe" [anerinastos].[1]
Greek Original:
Ἀγρία συκῆ: ζήτει ἐν τῷ ἀνερίναστος.
Note:
[1] alpha 2308.
Keyword: botany
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:37:38.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@09:19:08.
David Whitehead on 6 January 2012@08:23:39.

Headword: Ἄγριππος
Adler number: alpha,364
Translated headword: agrippos
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the wild olive.[1]
Also a proverb: "more barren than an agrippos".[2]
Greek Original:
Ἄγριππος: ἡ ἀγρία ἐλαία. καὶ παροιμία: ἀκαρπότερος ἀγρίππου.
Notes:
[1] So called by Spartans, according to alpha 806.
[2] Applied to the very poor, according to alpha 806.
Keywords: botany; definition; economics; proverbs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:48:41.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword, to differentiate it from gloss; added notes and keywords) on 13 February 2001@05:44:06.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 5 December 2005@08:46:41.
David Whitehead on 9 April 2015@10:51:41.

Headword: Ἀγροτέρας
Adler number: alpha,370
Translated headword: of wilde
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] of wild.[1]
In the Epigrams: "Dionysos himself dedicated to you this club of wilde olive[-wood]."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγροτέρας: ἀγρίου. ἐν Ἐπιγράμμασι: τοῦτό σοι ἀγροτέρης Διονύσιος αὐτὸς ἐλαίης θῆκε ῥόπαλον.
Notes:
The headword, genitive singular, is presumably extracted from the quotation given (where it appears as ἀγροτέρης ).
[1] An uncommon (and poetic) adjective with this meaning is glossed with a common one.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.3.3-4 (Dionysius), the dedication of an olive-wood club to Heracles; cf. Gow and Page, vol. I (81) and vol. II (234-235); cf. another excerpt from this epigram at pi 2954. It is possible that the epigrammatist is indeed the dedicator, but it is unlikely that they are just namesakes, and, in any case, Gow and Page suggest (ibid.) that the epigram's attribution is suspicious.
References:
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge 1965)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge 1965)
Keywords: botany; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:57:20.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@07:51:04.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 8 January 2012@10:32:50.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 8 January 2012@22:27:52.
David Whitehead on 9 April 2015@11:12:37.
Ronald Allen (expanded n.2, added bibliography, added cross-reference) on 27 December 2018@13:33:17.
Ronald Allen (further expanded n.2) on 28 December 2018@00:56:54.

Headword: Ἄγρωστις
Adler number: alpha,374
Translated headword: wild grass
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A type of plant.
Greek Original:
Ἄγρωστις: εἶδος βοτάνης.
Notes:
Same entry in Hesychius and elsewhere.
LSJ s.v. distinguishes several species: Cynodon dactylon (dogs-tooth grass), Hordeum marinum, Parnassia palustris.
Keywords: botany; definition
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 March 1999@17:25:59.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword; augmented note; cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@07:43:07.
David Whitehead (another note) on 9 January 2012@03:55:54.

Headword: Ἄγχουσα
Adler number: alpha,416
Translated headword: alkanet, bugloss, rouge
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A type of plant, which has a red root used by women to redden their faces. "Alkanet will harm [you] as will that white lead[1] of yours".[2]
Greek Original:
Ἄγχουσα: εἶδος βοτάνης, ἧς ἡ ῥίζα ἐρυθρὰ, ᾗ ἐρυθραίνουσι τὰ πρόσωπα αἱ γυναῖκες. ἡ ἄγχουσ' ὀδυνήσει καὶ τὸ σὸν ψιμμύθιον.
Notes:
Anchusa tinctoria: ἄγχουσα here; Attic ἔγχουσα in Aristophanes, Lysistrata 48 and elsewhere.
Besides what follows here (and in epsilon 3093) see e.g. Theophrastus, Enquiry into Plants 7.9.3.
[1] This was also used as a facial cosmetic: see psi 108.
[2] Aristophanes, Ecclesiazusae 928-9, telescoped (see web address 1). The USDA does not indicate that the plant is poisonous, but Anchusa officinalis is classified as a noxious weed in Oregon and Washington. See web address 2.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: botany; comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; gender and sexuality; medicine; science and technology; women
Translated by: William Hutton on 31 October 2000@11:54:11.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword) on 1 November 2000@03:19:17.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference and link) on 18 December 2007@20:12:30.
David Whitehead (modified headword; augmented notes and keywords) on 19 December 2007@03:20:07.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 9 January 2012@08:50:27.
Catharine Roth (tweak) on 25 November 2014@23:09:48.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 26 November 2014@02:45:12.
Catharine Roth (expanded note, added link) on 20 June 2017@19:14:27.

Headword: Ἀδάμ
Adler number: alpha,425
Translated headword: Adam
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The first human, he who was shaped by the hand of God and formed in the image and likeness of the Creator and Founder; he was also deemed worthy of a dwelling in Paradise. He could justly be called the first wise man, since he was the first likeness created and an image wrought by God, and also because he had a full share of all the graces that exist. And all the senses of the body and the soul he possessed in a pure and unadulterated state. For rays of a certain sort, so to speak, flashed from the soul of that man, rays teeming with divine thoughts and energies, and they coursed through all nature, accurately and unerringly anticipating the particular virtue of each thing. Those who judged him were not men, who often make judgments in an erroneous fashion, but the God of everything, who makes every decision and judgment correctly, and, before his mind was stirred to action, by the soul, which labors over such things and gives birth to ideas. And as Scripture says: "God made all the domesticated and wild animals and the things that crawl and the winged things, and he brought them before Adam to see what he would call them, and whatever Adam called them, that was their name."[1] And what is more perfectly clear than this statement and this testimony? What more sublime than this wisdom and this discrimination? He gave names to nature itself, as though prescribing the essence of each animal, without practice, without prior consideration, with no preparatory effort at the things which people take pains to learn. And although many, nay, innumerable species were brought before him no one has managed to change the name even of some insignificant animal, nor did anyone manage to attain even a fraction of his great wisdom and discrimination. Instead all humans scattered across the entire earth continue following his pronouncements unaltered. And the first-born one's surpassing judgment in all things did not stop there, but also extended to the varieties of seeds and plants and the uses of roots and herbs. And whatever in the way of prevention and treatment nature assigned to each of the living things he determined and made clear. He, the first to see woman, spoke about her not as with a human mouth. As though he were echoing some divine pronouncement he uttered incisively that celebrated and awe-inspiring saying: "this now is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh. She will be called woman, because she was taken out of her man."[2] He, moreover, is the one who assesses each thing and establishes rules, precise standards, and incontestable boundaries for all. His are the crafts and letters, his are rational and non-rational sciences, his are prophethoods, priesthoods, purifications and laws both written and unwritten; his are all discoveries and doctrines and whatever needs and regimens are essential for life. He is the first representation of mankind, the image summoned from God; all image-making among men starts out from him as a model, though more and more they sink to a level inferior to his blessed and God-like image, which had no starting point upon which one who molded or painted images after him might depend; to such an extent that the Abomination, the Apostate, the deceiving Devil toppled him from his original foundation and position and caused him to be borne headfirst into pit-like and unlit places which reach all the way down to the joyless recesses of Hades. And from this point human nature became caricatured and falsified and was stamped with the shapings and designs of the Tyrant. From this source that bastard wisdom had its beginnings, for divine wisdom had made its escape and had flown up toward heaven, whence it had previously started out. Whence the Imposter expropriated the name of God and dealt it out it in many directions, giving himself different names, such as "Kronos" and "Zeus", and -- the most wicked thing of all -- the Criminal even had the gall to drag down the blessed and ineffable nature [of God] and associate it with names that were female and unworthy of respect, such as those "Rheas" and "Aphrodites" and "Athenas" and thousands of others, and into strange forms and shapes of illogical things which the Creator of Evil and the Hatcher of Heresy invented and carved out. Hence the wretched tales of the Egyptians about Osiris and Typhon and Isis, and the chicanery of the Persian Magi, and the gymnosophistry and impertinent fantasies of the Brahmans, the fabled sayings of the Skythians and the orgies of the Thracians and the flutes and Corybantes of the Phyrgians. Hence the deceitful and damaging astrology of the Chaldaeans. Hence poetry, the midwife of lies, the pretentious diction of Greek storytelling. Hence Orpheus and Homer and that portrayer of improper begettings, Hesiod. Hence the reputation of Thales and the glorious Pythagoras and Socrates the wise and Plato, the much-ballyhooed pride of the Academy of the Athenians. Hence the Parmenideses and the Protagorases and the Zenos. Hence the Stoas, and the Areopaguses and the Epicureans. Hence the dirges and breast-beatings of the tragedians and the jestings and raillery of the comics. Hence the dishonest divinations of Loxias the liar[3] and the remaining shenanigans and omen-mongering of Greek sophistication. And lest I prolong my essay by getting caught up in rotten and malodorous myths, the Imposter, having taken the burden of the entirety of creation on himself, and having taken man under his control as though he were a slave, went through all that is below heaven and patrolled the earth and kept watch over everything like a hen on her eggs, as he himself says in his lying fashion. He thought that it was necessary to set his throne above the clouds of heaven and to be equal to the Highest One. But the only begotten Son of God, the primordial Word, took pity on mankind since it had been deceived by the serpent, removed himself from the lap of the Father and became flesh by the Holy Spirit and by the Holy Virgin and Mother of God, Mary. He defeated his rival through the hallowed cross and through his suffering and went down to the lowest reaches of the earth and from there dragged back the fallen first-formed one, restoring the primordial beauty to his image and the original worth to his nature. And at that point the entire regime and conformity of the Tyrant vanished, as the light of piousness beamed more brightly than the rays of the sun on the entirety of creation. From this light the godly wisdom once again shone through and gave voice to the tongues of the fishermen and made the unwise teachers of the wise. From this came the birth of thunder, as follows: "In the beginning was the word."[4] It flashed forth from heavenly clouds and thundered and brought light to the entire inhabited world. And through this light Paul is carried to the Third Heaven and sees the unseeable and hears the unspoken sayings and speeds across the entire earth like a bird bringing the Gospel of Jesus in mid air. Thence Peter named Christ the son of the living God, and he is entrusted with the keys of the kingdom of the heavens, so that he may open the entrance to the divine palace for those who believe and lock it against those who do not. Thence flocks of martyrs cast down idols and hasten readily toward their death, displaying their wounds as crowns and their blood as robes of purple, beautiful in victory. The first-formed one should be considered the one who directs this writing, in my opinion and judgment at any rate, as a river the spring and the sea, and roots and branches and shoots, and as the one who originates all human nature, the beginning offerings and the first-fruits.
From Adam until the flood: 2242 years; from the flood until the building of the tower [sc. of Babel], 525 years; from the building of the tower until Abraham, 425. From Abraham until the Exodus of the sons of Israel from Egypt, 430. From the Exodus until the building of the Temple of Solomon, 757 years. From the building of the temple until the captivity of Israel, 425. Altogether 4880 years.[5] From the captivity until king Alexander [sc. the Great], 318. From Alexander until Christ our God, 303. Altogether 5500 years.[6] From Christ until Constantine the Great, 318. From Constantine until Michael son of Theophilos, 555. The whole span altogether 6375 years.[7] From Michael to Romanos son of Constantine Porphyrogennetos ... years.[8] From Porphyrogennetos to the death of John Tzimiskes ... years.[9]
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] Adamiaios, [meaning he who is descended] from Adam.
Greek Original:
Ἀδάμ: ὁ πρῶτος ἄνθρωπος, ὁ χειρὶ θεοῦ πλασθεὶς καὶ κατὰ τὴν εἰκόνα καὶ ὁμοίωσιν μορφωθεὶς τοῦ δημιουργοῦ τε καὶ κτίσαντος, ὁ καὶ τιμηθεὶς τὴν εἰς παράδεισον οἴκησιν. οὗτος δικαίως ἂν πρῶτος καλοῖτο σοφὸς ὡς πρωτόκτιστον ἄγαλμα καὶ εἰκὼν οὖσα θεόγραφος, ὡς τῶν χαρίτων ὅλων ὑπάρχων ἀνάπλεως καὶ πάντα καθαρὰ καὶ ἀκίβδηλα περιφέρων τὰ ψυχῆς τε καὶ σώματος αἰσθητήρια. μαρμαρυγαὶ γάρ τινες, ὡς εἰπεῖν, ἐκ τῆς ἐκείνου ψυχῆς ἀπαστράπτουσαι καὶ θείων ἐννοιῶν τε καὶ ἐνεργειῶν πλήθουσαι κατὰ πᾶσαν εἰσέτρεχον φύσιν εὐστόχως καὶ ἀναμαρτήτως τὸ οἰκεῖον ἑκάστης πλεονέκτημα φθάνουσαι. ὃς οὐ παρὰ ἀνθρώπων ἐδοκιμάσθη τῶν τὰς κρίσεις πολλάκις ἐπισφαλῶς ποιουμένων, ἀλλὰ παρὰ τοῦ τῶν ὅλων θεοῦ τοῦ πᾶσαν γνῶσιν καὶ κρίσιν ὀρθῶς ποιουμένου καὶ πρὸ τοῦ τὰς ἐννοίας κινηθῆναι παρὰ τῆς ὠδινούσης τὰ τοιαῦτα ψυχῆς καὶ ἀποτικτούσης νοήματα. καὶ ᾗ φησιν ἡ γραφή: ἐποίησεν ὁ θεὸς πάντα τὰ κτήνη καὶ τὰ θηρία καὶ τὰ ἑρπετὰ καὶ πετεινὰ καὶ ἤγαγεν αὐτὰ πρὸς τὸν Ἀδὰμ ἰδεῖν, τί καλέσει αὐτά. καὶ ὃ ἐκάλεσεν Ἀδὰμ, τοῦτο ὄνομα αὐτῷ. τί τῆς φωνῆς ταύτης καὶ μαρτυρίας ἀριδηλότερον; τί τῆς σοφίας ταύτης καὶ διαγνώσεως ὑψηλότερον; ἐκάλεσεν ὀνόματα τὴν φύσιν αὐτὴν καὶ τὴν ὑπόστασιν ἑκάστου ζῴου ὥσπερ ὑπογραφόμενος, οὐ μελετήσας, οὐ προσκεψάμενος, οὐδέν τι προπεπονθὼς τῶν ὅσα μεταμανθάνουσιν ἄνθρωποι. καὶ πολλῶν καὶ ἀναρίθμων γενεῶν παραδραμουσῶν οὐκ ἴσχυσεν οὐδεὶς ὑπαλλάξαι κἂν τοῦ τυχόντος ζῴου τὸ ὄνομα, οὐδὲ τῆς ἐκείνου δράξασθαι μεγαλονοίας καὶ διαγνώσεως. μᾶλλον μὲν οὖν μένουσιν ἅπαντες οἱ κατὰ πᾶσαν ἐσπαρμένοι τὴν γῆν ἄνθρωποι τοῖς ἐκείνου στοιχοῦντες ἀμεταθέτοις θεσπίσμασι. καὶ οὐδὲ μέχρι τούτων ἔστη τοῦ πρωτογόνου ἀνθρώπου τὸ ὑπερβάλλον ἐν πᾶσιν ἀξίωμα, ἀλλὰ καὶ σπερμάτων καὶ φυτῶν διαφορὰς ῥιζῶν τε καὶ βοτανῶν δυνάμεις, καὶ ὅσα εἰς ἀντίληψιν καὶ θεραπείαν ἡ φύσις ἑκάστῳ προσαρμόττει τῶν ζῴων, διέκρινέ τε καὶ ἐσάφησεν. οὗτος καὶ τὴν γυναῖκα πρῶτος ἰδὼν οὐχ ὥσπερ ἐκ στόματος ἀνθρωπίνου περὶ ταύτης ἐφθέγξατο, ἀλλ' ὡς ἔκ τινος θείας ὀμφῆς ἐνηχούμενος εὐστόχως τὸ πολυύμνητον ἐκεῖνο καὶ θαυμαστὸν ἀπεφοίβασε λόγιον: τοῦτο νῦν ὀστοῦν ἐκ τῶν ὀστέων μου καὶ σὰρξ ἐκ τῆς σαρκός μου. αὕτη κληθήσεται γυνὴ, ὅτι ἐκ τοῦ ἀνδρὸς αὐτῆς ἐλήφθη. οὗτος τοίνυν ἐστὶν ὁ δοκιμάσας ἕκαστα καὶ πᾶσι κανόνας καὶ στάθμας ἀκριβεῖς καὶ ὅρους ἀναντιρρήτους ἐναρμο- σάμενος. τούτου τέχναι καὶ γράμματα, τούτου ἐπιστῆμαι λογικαί τε καὶ ἄλογοι, τούτου προφητεῖαι, ἱερουργίαι καὶ καθαρισμοὶ καὶ νόμοι γραπτοί τε καὶ ἄγραφοι, τούτου πάντα εὑρήματα καὶ διδάγματα, καὶ ὅσαι κατὰ τὸν βίον ἀναγκαῖαι χρεῖαί τε καὶ δίαιται. οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ πρῶτος ἀνδριὰς, τὸ θεόκλητον ἄγαλμα, ἀφ' οὗπερ ἀπευθύνονται πᾶσαι ἀνθρώπων ἀγαλματουργίαι, κἂν πρὸς τὸ ἧττον μᾶλλον καὶ μᾶλλον ἐκπίπτωσιν ἐκείνου τοῦ μακαρίου καὶ θεοειδοῦς ἀπεικάσματος μηδεμίαν ἔχοντος ἀφορμὴν, ἧς ἂν ἐπιλάβοιτο ὁ μετ' ἐκεῖνον διαπλαττόμενος ἢ ζῳγραφούμενος, ἕως ὁ παλαμναῖος καὶ ἀποστάτης καὶ πλάνος διάβολος τοῦτον ἐξεκύλισεν ἐκ τῆς οἰκείας ἱδρύσεώς τε καὶ στάσεως καὶ κατὰ τοῦ πρανοῦς εἴασε φέρεσθαι πρὸς βαραθρώδεις τινὰς καὶ ἀλαμπεῖς χώρους καὶ μέχρι τῶν ἀμειδήτων τοῦ ᾅδου κευθμώνων ἐγγίζοντας. κἀντεῦθεν ἤρξατο φύσις ἡ τῶν ἀνθρώπων παραχαράττεσθαι καὶ διακιβδηλεύεσθαι καὶ τυποῦσθαι τοῖς τοῦ τυράννου μορφώμασί τε καὶ σχήμασιν. ἐντεῦθεν ἡ νόθος σοφία τὰς ἀφορμὰς ἔλαβε, τῆς θείας δραπετευσάσης καὶ πρὸς οὐρανὸν ἀναπτάσης, ὅθεν τὸ πρότερον ἦν ἀφορμήσασα. ὅθεν ὁ πλάνος τὸ τοῦ θεοῦ σφετερισάμενος ὄνομα εἰς πολλὰ κατεμέρισε, Κρόνους τε καὶ Ζῆνας καὶ Ποσειδῶνας ἑαυτὸν μετακαλῶν: καὶ τὸ δὴ πάντων ἀνοσιώτατον, εἰς ὀνόματα θήλεά τε καὶ ἄσεμνα τὴν μακαρίαν καὶ ἄρρητον συγκατασπάσαι φύσιν ὁ ἀλιτήριος κατετόλμησεν, εἴς τε τὰς Ῥέας ἐκείνας καὶ Ἀφροδίτας καὶ Ἀθηνᾶς καὶ εἰς ἄλλας μυρίας καὶ ἀλλοκότους ἀλόγων ἰδέας τε καὶ μορφὰς, ἃς ὁ κακίας δημιουργὸς καὶ τὴν ἀποστασίαν νοσήσας ἐπέχρωσέ τε καὶ διεχάραξεν. ἐντεῦθεν Αἰγυπτίων τὰ περὶ Ὄσιριν καὶ Τυφῶνα καὶ Ἴσιν μοχθηρὰ διηγήματα καὶ Περσῶν μαγικὰ μαγγανεύματα καὶ Βραχμάνων γυμνοσοφιστίαι καὶ ἄκαιροι φαντασίαι καὶ ἡ θαυμαζομένη Σκυθῶν ῥῆσις καὶ τὰ Θρᾳκῶν ὄργια καὶ οἱ Φρυγῶν αὐλοὶ καὶ Κορύβαντες. ἐντεῦθεν ἡ Χαλδαίων ἀστρονομία ἡ σφαλερά τε καὶ πολυώδυνος. ἐντεῦθεν ἡ τοῦ ψεύδους λοχεύτρια ποίησις, ἡ τῶν Ἑλληνικῶν ληρημάτων σεμνομυθία. ἐντεῦθεν Ὀρφεύς τε καὶ Ὅμηρος καὶ ὁ τῶν ἀθεμίτων γονῶν ζῳγράφος Ἡσίοδος. ἐντεῦθεν ἡ Θάλητος δόξα καὶ ὁ κλεινὸς Πυθαγόρας καὶ ὁ σοφὸς Σωκράτης καὶ Πλάτων, τὸ τῆς Ἀθηναίων Ἀκαδημίας πολυθρύλητον σεμνολόγημα. ἐντεῦθεν οἱ Παρμενίδαι καὶ Πρωταγόραι καὶ Ζήνωνες. ἐντεῦθεν αἱ Στοαὶ καὶ οἱ Ἄρειοι πάγοι καὶ Ἐπικούρειοι. ἐντεῦθεν οἱ τραγῳδῶν θρῆνοι καὶ κοπετοὶ καὶ τὰ κωμικῶν παίγνια καὶ τωθάσματα. ἐντεῦθεν τὰ δολερὰ τοῦ Λοξίου καὶ ψευδηγόρου θεσπίσματα καὶ ἡ λοιπὴ τῶν Ἑλληνικῶν κομψευμάτων ἐρεσχελία καὶ τερατεία. καὶ ἵνα μὴ μακρὸν ἀποτείνω τὸν λόγον εἰς σαπρούς τε καὶ ὀδωδότας μύθους ἐνασχολούμενος, πᾶσαν εἰς ἑαυτὸν τὴν κτίσιν ὁ πλάνος ἐμφορτισάμενος καὶ λαβὼν ὑπὸ χεῖρα τὸν ἄνθρωπον ὡς ἀνδράποδον καὶ διερχόμενος τὴν ὑπ' οὐρανὸν καὶ περιπατῶν τὴν γῆν καὶ ὡς ὠὰ πάντα κατέχων, ὡς αὐτός πού φησιν ἀλαζονευόμενος, ᾤετο δεῖν τὸν ἑαυτοῦ θρόνον θήσειν ἐπάνω τῶν νεφελῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ ἔσεσθαι ὅμοιος τῷ Ὑψίστῳ. ἀλλ' ὁ τοῦ θεοῦ μονογενὴς υἱὸς καὶ λόγος ὁ προαιώνιος οἰκτείρας τὸν ἄνθρωπον ὡς ἠπατημένον ὑπὸ τοῦ δράκοντος ἐκ τῶν τοῦ πατρὸς κόλπων ἑαυτὸν ἐκένωσε καὶ σαρκωθεὶς ἐκ πνεύματος ἁγίου καὶ ἐκ τῆς ἁγίας παρθένου καὶ θεοτόκου Μαρίας, καὶ διὰ τοῦ τιμίου σταυροῦ καὶ τοῦ πάθους αὐτοῦ καταβαλὼν τὸν ἀντίπαλον καὶ καταβὰς εἰς τὰ κατώτατα μέρη τῆς γῆς ἐκεῖθεν εἵλκυσε τὸν παραπεσόντα πρωτόπλαστον, ἀποδοὺς τῇ εἰκόνι τὸ πρῶτον κάλλος καὶ τῇ φύσει τὸ ἀρχαῖον ἀξίωμα. κἀντεῦθεν ἠφάνισται πᾶσα ἡ τοῦ τυράννου δυναστεία καὶ συμμορφία τοῦ τῆς εὐσεβείας φωτὸς διαυγάσαντος πάσῃ τῇ κτίσει τῶν ἡλιακῶν μαρμαρυγῶν τηλαυγέστερον. ἐκ τούτου τοῦ φωτὸς ἡ κατὰ θεὸν σοφία πάλιν διέλαμψε καὶ γλώσσας ἁλιέων ἐστόμωσε καὶ τῶν σοφῶν διδασκάλους τοὺς ἀσόφους εἰργάσατο ἐντεῦθεν ὁ τῆς βροντῆς γόνος, τὸ: ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λόγος, ἐξ οὐρανίων νεφελῶν ἀπαστράψας ἐβρόντησε, καὶ πᾶσαν τὴν οἰκουμένην ἐλάμπρυνε. κἀκ τούτου τοῦ φωτὸς Παῦλος εἰς τρίτον οὐρανὸν ἀναφέρεται καὶ θεᾶται τὰ ἀθέατα καὶ τῶν ἀρρήτων ὑπακούει λογίων καὶ διατρέχει πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν ὡς πτηνὸς καὶ ἀέριος τὸν Ἰησοῦν εὐαγγελιζόμενος. ἐντεῦθεν ὁ Πέτρος τὸν Χριστὸν υἱὸν θεοῦ τοῦ ζῶντος ὠνόμασε καὶ τὰς κλεῖς τῆς τῶν οὐρανῶν πιστεύεται βασιλείας, ἵνα ἀνοίγῃ μὲν τοῖς πιστοῖς, ἀποκλείῃ δὲ τοῖς ἀπίστοις τῶν θείων ἀνακτόρων τὴν εἴσοδον. ἐντεῦθεν ἀγέλαι μαρτύρων καταβάλλουσιν εἴδωλα καὶ τρέχουσιν ἕτοιμοι πρὸς τὸν θάνατον, ὡς στεφάνους τὰς πληγὰς καὶ ὡς πορφύρας τὰ ἑαυτῶν αἵματα περιφέροντες οἱ καλλίνικοι. ἔστω γοῦν ὁ πρωτόπλαστος ἀρχηγὸς τοῦδε τοῦ γράμματος, κατά γε τὸν ἐμὸν ὅρον καὶ λόγον, ὡς ποταμὸς πηγή τε καὶ θάλαττα καὶ ῥίζα καὶ κλάδοι καὶ ὅρπηκες καὶ πάσης ὑπάρχων τῆς ἀνθρωπίνης φύσεως ἀπαρχὴ καὶ πρωτόλειον. ὅτι ἀπὸ Ἀδὰμ ἕως τοῦ κατακλυσμοῦ ἔτη #22βσμβ#. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ κατακλυσμοῦ ἕως τῆς πυργοποιί̈ας ἔτη φκε#. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς πυργοποιί̈ας ἕως τοῦ Ἀβραὰμ υκε#. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Ἀβραὰμ ἕως τῆς ἐξόδου τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραὴλ ἐξ Αἰγύπτου υλ#. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ἐξόδου ἕως τῆς οἰκοδομῆς τοῦ Σολομωντείου ναοῦ ἔτη ψνζ#. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς οἰκοδομῆς τοῦ ναοῦ ἕως τῆς αἰχμαλωσίας τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ υκε#. ὁμοῦ ἔτη #22δωπ#. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς αἰχμαλωσίας ἕως Ἀλεξάνδρου βασιλέως τιη#. ἀπὸ δὲ Ἀλεξάνδρου ἕως Χριστοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν τγ#. ὁμοῦ ἔτη #22εφ#. ἀπὸ δὲ Χριστοῦ ἕως τοῦ μεγάλου Κωνσταντίνου τιη#. ἀπὸ δὲ Κωνσταντίνου μέχρι Μιχαὴλ υἱοῦ Θεοφίλου φνε#. ὁμοῦ τὰ πάντα ἔτη #22#2τοε#. ἀπὸ δὲ Μιχαὴλ ἕως Ῥωμανοῦ υἱοῦ Κωνσταντίνου τοῦ Πορφυρογεννήτου ἔτη ... ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Πορφυρογεννήτου ἕως τῆς τελευτῆς Ἰωάννου τοῦ Τζιμισκῆ ἔτη ... καὶ Ἀδαμιαῖος, ἀπὸ Ἀδάμ.
Notes:
The great bulk of this entry -- 104 lines out of 117 in the printed edition -- is a tour de force of polemic by an unidentifiable scholar quite outside the type of neutral reticence which characterises most of the contributors to the Suda (although Küster suggests a comparison with the entry on Job at iota 471). His self-styled "essay" (logos), unparalleled in this form and content elsewhere, is a tirade on two levels: explicitly, against the great men of pagan culture(s), and also implicitly, in that its determination to enhance the significance of Adam to extraordinary levels rests in part upon an almost Pelagian exculpation of him from the taint of original sin.
[1] A paraphrase of Genesis 1.20 and 2.19.
[2] Genesis 2.23; the wordplay between "man" and "wo-man" in English, is also present in the original Hebrew איש ʾīš and אישה ʾīššah, but not in the Greek.
[3] i.e. Apollo (lambda 673).
[4] John 1.1.
[5] The actual sum of the numbers given up to this point is 4804 (δωδ ) instead of the 4880 (δωπ ) of the mss.
[6] The actual sum of all the numbers given so far is 5432; adding merely the last two numbers to the previous summation yields 5528.
[7] 6373, counting from the last summation. The actual total of all individual numbers is 6305. (Up to this point the chronology is taken from George the Monk, Chronicon 804.1-20; and cf. generally phi 45. The two time-spans which now follow are odd, in that the chronology stops being linear.)
[8] Romanus (II) died in 963.
[9] John died in 976.
Keywords: art history; biography; botany; Christianity; chronology; comedy; epic; ethics; food; gender and sexuality; historiography; imagery; law; mythology; philosophy; poetry; proverbs; religion; tragedy; women; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 23 April 2001@15:37:44.
Vetted by:
Patrick T. Rourke (Cleaned up encoding issue) on 8 April 2002@12:19:19.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 8 April 2002@14:00:09.
Catharine Roth (raised status) on 5 May 2002@12:51:12.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew words.) on 31 October 2002@10:41:09.
David Whitehead (modified last paragraph of translation; corrected error in footnote numeration; cosmetics) on 10 June 2003@04:32:32.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@07:34:57.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 9 January 2012@10:28:35.
David Whitehead on 9 January 2012@10:58:50.
David Whitehead (added primary note) on 11 January 2012@11:10:07.
David Whitehead (my typo) on 11 January 2012@11:26:30.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 6 January 2013@23:16:27.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 17 January 2014@06:41:18.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:30:26.
Catharine Roth (cross-reference) on 28 January 2019@15:16:53.

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