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Headword: Ἀγάθαρχος
Adler number: alpha,109
Translated headword: Agatharkhos, Agatharchos, Agatharchus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A proper name. He was an outstanding painter from nature, the son of Eudemos, of Samian stock.
Greek Original:
Ἀγάθαρχος: ὄνομα κύριον. ἦν δὲ ζωγράφος ἐπιφανὴς, Εὐδήμου υἱὸς, τὸ δὲ γένος Σάμιος.
Notes:
After the initial gloss, this entry derives from Harpokration s.v., commenting on Demosthenes 21.147 (web address 1).
The other primary sources on A. (translated in Pollitt, below) are Plutarch, Life of Pericles 13.2 (web address 2); Plutarch, Life of Alcibiades 16.4 (web address 3); Vitruvius, On Architecture 7, praef. 1l (web address 4).
According to tradition, A. was the first painter to make a theatrical skene (for Aeschylus).
References:
OCD(4) s.v. (p.35)
J.J. Pollitt, The Art of Ancient Greece (Cambridge 1990) 145-6 (with 188)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4
Keywords: art history; biography; definition; geography; rhetoric; science and technology; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 1 October 1999@23:24:55.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headwords and note; augmented bibliography) on 9 February 2001@09:13:41.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 19 December 2003@08:05:39.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 28 September 2005@20:10:00.
Jennifer Benedict (added links) on 26 March 2008@00:23:53.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 19 July 2011@09:47:47.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links, other cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@18:47:22.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:18:59.

Headword: Ἄγαλμα
Adler number: alpha,131
Translated headword: decoration, delight, ornament, statue
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Anything in which someone takes delight.[1]
"And he [A] gives silver, so that he [B] might complete the statue with the utmost artisanry, adding the size and prescribing the nature of the stone."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἄγαλμα: πᾶν ἐφ' ᾧ τις ἀγάλλεται. καὶ δίδωσιν ἀργύριον, ἵνα ἐκπονήσῃ τὸ ἄγαλμα ἄκρας τέχνης, προσθεὶς τὸ μέγεθος καὶ προσειπὼν τῆς λίθου τὴν φύσιν.
Notes:
See also alpha 132, alpha 133, alpha 135, alpha 136.
[1] Again under alpha 133. Also in Photius, other lexica, and various scholia (e.g. to Homer, Odyssey 8.509, and Aristophanes, Wasps 303).
[2] Aelian fr. 65b Domingo-Forasté (part of 62 Hercher), on an unscrupulous (but unnamed) sculptor.
Keywords: art history; comedy; definition; economics; epic; ethics; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 June 2000@01:06:06.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@09:59:18.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 18 February 2011@06:57:00.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords; tweaks) on 23 December 2011@03:46:34.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 2) on 28 January 2012@19:11:34.

Headword: Ἄγαλμα Ἀθηνᾶς
Adler number: alpha,132
Translated headword: statue of Athena
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Look under "Athena's"[1]; and see "statue, desolating abomination" under "Antiochos".[2] And see "statue of Apollo" under "Apollo's statue".[3] And see "statue of Dionysus" under "Auxentios".[4]
Greek Original:
Ἄγαλμα Ἀθηνᾶς: ζήτει ἐν τῷ Ἀθηνᾶς: καὶ ζήτει ἄγαλμα βδέλυγμα τῆς ἐρημώσεως ἐν τῷ Ἀντίοχος: καὶ ζήτει ἄγαλμα Ἀπόλλωνος ἐν τῷ Ἀπόλλωνος ἄγαλμα: καὶ ζήτει ἄγαλμα Διονύσου ἐν τῷ Αὐξέντιος.
Notes:
This entry, more of a set of cross references than anything else, appears as a marginal gloss in two of the better manuscripts, Adler's A (= Parisinus 2625) and M (= Marcianus 448).
[1] alpha 727.
[2] alpha 2693, where the text actually reads "idol (εἴδωλον ), abomination of desolation". For the meaning of the phrase see Dan. 11.31.
[3] alpha 3425.
[4] alpha 4450.
Keywords: art history; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 12 January 1999@12:36:32.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (removed keyword; cosmetics; raised status) on 9 February 2001@10:08:20.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding) on 26 March 2008@00:54:35.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@03:51:13.

Headword: Ἀγάλματα
Adler number: alpha,133
Translated headword: delights, ornaments, statues
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the likenesses of the gods, and anything that is decorative in some way. Homer [writes]: "but it is stored away as a delight for the king."[1] And Hesiod calls a necklace an "ornament";[2] but Pindar uses this term for the decoration on a tomb,[3] and Euripides uses it for the adornments for corpses.[4]
Also something in which someone takes delight.[5]
Also [sc. a term for] image, wooden statue, delight, beauty, ornament, source of pride, palm leaves,[6] [human] statues, [honorific?] inscriptions.
Paintings and [human] statues are also called agalmata.[7]
agalmation [is] the diminutive form.
Greek Original:
Ἀγάλματα: τὰ τῶν θεῶν μιμήματα, καὶ πάντα τὰ κόσμου τινὸς μετέχοντα. Ὅμηρος: βασιλῆϊ δὲ κεῖται ἄγαλμα. καὶ Ἡσίοδος τὸν ὅρμον ἄγαλμα καλεῖ: Πίνδαρος δὲ τὴν ἐπὶ τάφου στήλην οὕτω καλεῖ, Εὐριπίδης τὸν ἐπὶ νεκροῖς κόσμον. καὶ ἐφ' ᾧ τις ἀγάλλεται. καὶ τὸ εἴδωλον, βρέτας, χάρμα, καλλονὴ, κόσμος, καύχημα, θαλλοὶ, ἀνδριάντες, ἐπιγραφαί. Ἀγάλματα δὲ καὶ τὰς γραφὰς καὶ τοὺς ἀνδριάντας λέγουσιν. Ἀγαλμάτιον δὲ ὑποκοριστικῶς.
Notes:
The (neuter) headword is the plural of alpha 131 (and cf. alpha 132). It is perhaps, though not necessarily, quoted from somewhere.
[1] Homer, Iliad 4.144 (web address 1), on an ivory cheek-piece for a horse.
[2] This fragment of Hesiod (142 Merkelbach-West, 233 Rzach) is not known from any other source. It may pertain to the story of Europa in the Catalogue of Women.
[3] Pindar, Nemean Odes 10.125 (67 Bowra): web address 2.
[4] Euripides, Alcestis 613: web address 3.
[5] Already at alpha 131.
[6] Used as prizes for victors in competition.
[7] Same material in Photius (Lexicon alpha92 Theodoridis) and elsewhere; cf. Kassel-Austin, PCG II p.365 (on Antiphanes fr.102).
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3
Keywords: art history; athletics; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; mythology; poetry; religion; trade and manufacture; tragedy
Translated by: William Hutton on 12 January 1999@12:39:04.
Vetted by:
Ross Scaife ✝ (cosmetics) on 29 June 2000@22:39:50.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 17 February 2003@05:54:38.
Jennifer Benedict (cleaned up links) on 26 March 2008@01:00:28.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@04:07:43.
David Whitehead (expanded n.7) on 16 August 2013@07:56:54.
David Whitehead (expanded n.7; another keyword) on 22 December 2014@04:58:33.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 6 November 2016@12:23:04.

Headword: Ἀγαλματοποιοί
Adler number: alpha,135
Translated headword: statue-makers, sculptors
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
That is, craftsmen; these [are] in the strict sense Lysippus, Polycleitus, Pheidias.[1]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαλματοποιοί: τουτέστι χειρουργοί: οὗτοι ἀκριβεῖς Λύσιππος, Πολύκλειτος, Φειδίας.
Notes:
The headword, a nominative plural, is presumably quoted from somewhere; perhaps Herodotus 2.46.2, but it may just be an internal cross-reference to chi 266.
[1] Or meaning these three are outstandingly precise (as, apparently, at chi 266).
See web address 1, web address 2, and web address 3 for information on these three sculptors of the C5 and (Lysippus) C4 BC.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3
Keywords: art history; biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: William Hutton on 9 February 2000@02:47:56.
Vetted by:
William Hutton on 26 June 2000@09:07:25.
Ross Scaife ✝ on 26 June 2000@09:42:10.
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented note) on 16 July 2001@08:47:30.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 26 March 2008@01:01:13.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 27 March 2008@07:43:05.
David Whitehead (typo) on 23 December 2011@03:54:40.
William Hutton (updated links) on 18 August 2013@02:32:18.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note) on 19 August 2013@00:40:55.

Headword: Ἀγλαοφῶν
Adler number: alpha,267
Translated headword: Aglaophon
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A proper name.
Greek Original:
Ἀγλαοφῶν: ὄνομα κύριον.
Note:
Pausanias (10.27.4, see web address 1) quotes an epigram of Simonides, naming Aglaophon as the father of the painter Polygnotos. See also pi 1948.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: art history; biography; definition; poetry
Translated by: Roger Travis on 4 October 2000@12:50:21.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, raised status) on 18 June 2001@01:48:13.
Catharine Roth (added note and link) on 19 June 2001@21:25:11.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; cosmetics) on 10 February 2003@09:26:43.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@08:27:44.

Headword: Ἄγουσαν
Adler number: alpha,316
Translated headword: having the weight of, weighing
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Being equal in weight.
"So having prepared a golden Victory, having the weight of 10,000 gold coins, he sent ambassadors to Rome to convey it to the people."[1]
Greek Original:
Ἄγουσαν: ἰσοσταθμοῦσαν. διόπερ κατασκευάσας Νίκην χρυσῆν, ἄγουσαν ὁλκὴν χρυσίων μυρίων, ἐξαπέστειλε πρεσβευτὰς εἰς τὴν Ῥώμην τοὺς ταύτην κομιοῦντας τῷ δήμῳ.
Notes:
The headword, presumably extracted from the quotation given, is the present active participle, feminine accusative singular, of the verb ἄγω . (For this sense of it, see LSJ s.v., VI.)
[1] Diodorus Siculus 33.28a; cf. epsilon 3786, lambda 865.
Keywords: art history; biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; religion; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 11 June 1999@11:10:56.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified headword, added keywords, set status.) on 23 October 2000@22:06:44.
David Whitehead (augmented note) on 29 April 2002@07:33:34.
David Whitehead (expanded primary note; more keywords; cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@04:49:35.

Headword: Ἀδάμ
Adler number: alpha,425
Translated headword: Adam
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The first human, he who was shaped by the hand of God and formed in the image and likeness of the Creator and Founder; he was also deemed worthy of a dwelling in Paradise. He could justly be called the first wise man, since he was the first likeness created and an image wrought by God, and also because he had a full share of all the graces that exist. And all the senses of the body and the soul he possessed in a pure and unadulterated state. For rays of a certain sort, so to speak, flashed from the soul of that man, rays teeming with divine thoughts and energies, and they coursed through all nature, accurately and unerringly anticipating the particular virtue of each thing. Those who judged him were not men, who often make judgments in an erroneous fashion, but the God of everything, who makes every decision and judgment correctly, and, before his mind was stirred to action, by the soul, which labors over such things and gives birth to ideas. And as Scripture says: "God made all the domesticated and wild animals and the things that crawl and the winged things, and he brought them before Adam to see what he would call them, and whatever Adam called them, that was their name."[1] And what is more perfectly clear than this statement and this testimony? What more sublime than this wisdom and this discrimination? He gave names to nature itself, as though prescribing the essence of each animal, without practice, without prior consideration, with no preparatory effort at the things which people take pains to learn. And although many, nay, innumerable species were brought before him no one has managed to change the name even of some insignificant animal, nor did anyone manage to attain even a fraction of his great wisdom and discrimination. Instead all humans scattered across the entire earth continue following his pronouncements unaltered. And the first-born one's surpassing judgment in all things did not stop there, but also extended to the varieties of seeds and plants and the uses of roots and herbs. And whatever in the way of prevention and treatment nature assigned to each of the living things he determined and made clear. He, the first to see woman, spoke about her not as with a human mouth. As though he were echoing some divine pronouncement he uttered incisively that celebrated and awe-inspiring saying: "this now is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh. She will be called woman, because she was taken out of her man."[2] He, moreover, is the one who assesses each thing and establishes rules, precise standards, and incontestable boundaries for all. His are the crafts and letters, his are rational and non-rational sciences, his are prophethoods, priesthoods, purifications and laws both written and unwritten; his are all discoveries and doctrines and whatever needs and regimens are essential for life. He is the first representation of mankind, the image summoned from God; all image-making among men starts out from him as a model, though more and more they sink to a level inferior to his blessed and God-like image, which had no starting point upon which one who molded or painted images after him might depend; to such an extent that the Abomination, the Apostate, the deceiving Devil toppled him from his original foundation and position and caused him to be borne headfirst into pit-like and unlit places which reach all the way down to the joyless recesses of Hades. And from this point human nature became caricatured and falsified and was stamped with the shapings and designs of the Tyrant. From this source that bastard wisdom had its beginnings, for divine wisdom had made its escape and had flown up toward heaven, whence it had previously started out. Whence the Imposter expropriated the name of God and dealt it out it in many directions, giving himself different names, such as "Kronos" and "Zeus", and -- the most wicked thing of all -- the Criminal even had the gall to drag down the blessed and ineffable nature [of God] and associate it with names that were female and unworthy of respect, such as those "Rheas" and "Aphrodites" and "Athenas" and thousands of others, and into strange forms and shapes of illogical things which the Creator of Evil and the Hatcher of Heresy invented and carved out. Hence the wretched tales of the Egyptians about Osiris and Typhon and Isis, and the chicanery of the Persian Magi, and the gymnosophistry and impertinent fantasies of the Brahmans, the fabled sayings of the Skythians and the orgies of the Thracians and the flutes and Corybantes of the Phyrgians. Hence the deceitful and damaging astrology of the Chaldaeans. Hence poetry, the midwife of lies, the pretentious diction of Greek storytelling. Hence Orpheus and Homer and that portrayer of improper begettings, Hesiod. Hence the reputation of Thales and the glorious Pythagoras and Socrates the wise and Plato, the much-ballyhooed pride of the Academy of the Athenians. Hence the Parmenideses and the Protagorases and the Zenos. Hence the Stoas, and the Areopaguses and the Epicureans. Hence the dirges and breast-beatings of the tragedians and the jestings and raillery of the comics. Hence the dishonest divinations of Loxias the liar[3] and the remaining shenanigans and omen-mongering of Greek sophistication. And lest I prolong my essay by getting caught up in rotten and malodorous myths, the Imposter, having taken the burden of the entirety of creation on himself, and having taken man under his control as though he were a slave, went through all that is below heaven and patrolled the earth and kept watch over everything like a hen on her eggs, as he himself says in his lying fashion. He thought that it was necessary to set his throne above the clouds of heaven and to be equal to the Highest One. But the only begotten Son of God, the primordial Word, took pity on mankind since it had been deceived by the serpent, removed himself from the lap of the Father and became flesh by the Holy Spirit and by the Holy Virgin and Mother of God, Mary. He defeated his rival through the hallowed cross and through his suffering and went down to the lowest reaches of the earth and from there dragged back the fallen first-formed one, restoring the primordial beauty to his image and the original worth to his nature. And at that point the entire regime and conformity of the Tyrant vanished, as the light of piousness beamed more brightly than the rays of the sun on the entirety of creation. From this light the godly wisdom once again shone through and gave voice to the tongues of the fishermen and made the unwise teachers of the wise. From this came the birth of thunder, as follows: "In the beginning was the word."[4] It flashed forth from heavenly clouds and thundered and brought light to the entire inhabited world. And through this light Paul is carried to the Third Heaven and sees the unseeable and hears the unspoken sayings and speeds across the entire earth like a bird bringing the Gospel of Jesus in mid air. Thence Peter named Christ the son of the living God, and he is entrusted with the keys of the kingdom of the heavens, so that he may open the entrance to the divine palace for those who believe and lock it against those who do not. Thence flocks of martyrs cast down idols and hasten readily toward their death, displaying their wounds as crowns and their blood as robes of purple, beautiful in victory. The first-formed one should be considered the one who directs this writing, in my opinion and judgment at any rate, as a river the spring and the sea, and roots and branches and shoots, and as the one who originates all human nature, the beginning offerings and the first-fruits.
From Adam until the flood: 2242 years; from the flood until the building of the tower [sc. of Babel], 525 years; from the building of the tower until Abraham, 425. From Abraham until the Exodus of the sons of Israel from Egypt, 430. From the Exodus until the building of the Temple of Solomon, 757 years. From the building of the temple until the captivity of Israel, 425. Altogether 4880 years.[5] From the captivity until king Alexander [sc. the Great], 318. From Alexander until Christ our God, 303. Altogether 5500 years.[6] From Christ until Constantine the Great, 318. From Constantine until Michael son of Theophilos, 555. The whole span altogether 6375 years.[7] From Michael to Romanos son of Constantine Porphyrogennetos ... years.[8] From Porphyrogennetos to the death of John Tzimiskes ... years.[9]
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] Adamiaios, [meaning he who is descended] from Adam.
Greek Original:
Ἀδάμ: ὁ πρῶτος ἄνθρωπος, ὁ χειρὶ θεοῦ πλασθεὶς καὶ κατὰ τὴν εἰκόνα καὶ ὁμοίωσιν μορφωθεὶς τοῦ δημιουργοῦ τε καὶ κτίσαντος, ὁ καὶ τιμηθεὶς τὴν εἰς παράδεισον οἴκησιν. οὗτος δικαίως ἂν πρῶτος καλοῖτο σοφὸς ὡς πρωτόκτιστον ἄγαλμα καὶ εἰκὼν οὖσα θεόγραφος, ὡς τῶν χαρίτων ὅλων ὑπάρχων ἀνάπλεως καὶ πάντα καθαρὰ καὶ ἀκίβδηλα περιφέρων τὰ ψυχῆς τε καὶ σώματος αἰσθητήρια. μαρμαρυγαὶ γάρ τινες, ὡς εἰπεῖν, ἐκ τῆς ἐκείνου ψυχῆς ἀπαστράπτουσαι καὶ θείων ἐννοιῶν τε καὶ ἐνεργειῶν πλήθουσαι κατὰ πᾶσαν εἰσέτρεχον φύσιν εὐστόχως καὶ ἀναμαρτήτως τὸ οἰκεῖον ἑκάστης πλεονέκτημα φθάνουσαι. ὃς οὐ παρὰ ἀνθρώπων ἐδοκιμάσθη τῶν τὰς κρίσεις πολλάκις ἐπισφαλῶς ποιουμένων, ἀλλὰ παρὰ τοῦ τῶν ὅλων θεοῦ τοῦ πᾶσαν γνῶσιν καὶ κρίσιν ὀρθῶς ποιουμένου καὶ πρὸ τοῦ τὰς ἐννοίας κινηθῆναι παρὰ τῆς ὠδινούσης τὰ τοιαῦτα ψυχῆς καὶ ἀποτικτούσης νοήματα. καὶ ᾗ φησιν ἡ γραφή: ἐποίησεν ὁ θεὸς πάντα τὰ κτήνη καὶ τὰ θηρία καὶ τὰ ἑρπετὰ καὶ πετεινὰ καὶ ἤγαγεν αὐτὰ πρὸς τὸν Ἀδὰμ ἰδεῖν, τί καλέσει αὐτά. καὶ ὃ ἐκάλεσεν Ἀδὰμ, τοῦτο ὄνομα αὐτῷ. τί τῆς φωνῆς ταύτης καὶ μαρτυρίας ἀριδηλότερον; τί τῆς σοφίας ταύτης καὶ διαγνώσεως ὑψηλότερον; ἐκάλεσεν ὀνόματα τὴν φύσιν αὐτὴν καὶ τὴν ὑπόστασιν ἑκάστου ζῴου ὥσπερ ὑπογραφόμενος, οὐ μελετήσας, οὐ προσκεψάμενος, οὐδέν τι προπεπονθὼς τῶν ὅσα μεταμανθάνουσιν ἄνθρωποι. καὶ πολλῶν καὶ ἀναρίθμων γενεῶν παραδραμουσῶν οὐκ ἴσχυσεν οὐδεὶς ὑπαλλάξαι κἂν τοῦ τυχόντος ζῴου τὸ ὄνομα, οὐδὲ τῆς ἐκείνου δράξασθαι μεγαλονοίας καὶ διαγνώσεως. μᾶλλον μὲν οὖν μένουσιν ἅπαντες οἱ κατὰ πᾶσαν ἐσπαρμένοι τὴν γῆν ἄνθρωποι τοῖς ἐκείνου στοιχοῦντες ἀμεταθέτοις θεσπίσμασι. καὶ οὐδὲ μέχρι τούτων ἔστη τοῦ πρωτογόνου ἀνθρώπου τὸ ὑπερβάλλον ἐν πᾶσιν ἀξίωμα, ἀλλὰ καὶ σπερμάτων καὶ φυτῶν διαφορὰς ῥιζῶν τε καὶ βοτανῶν δυνάμεις, καὶ ὅσα εἰς ἀντίληψιν καὶ θεραπείαν ἡ φύσις ἑκάστῳ προσαρμόττει τῶν ζῴων, διέκρινέ τε καὶ ἐσάφησεν. οὗτος καὶ τὴν γυναῖκα πρῶτος ἰδὼν οὐχ ὥσπερ ἐκ στόματος ἀνθρωπίνου περὶ ταύτης ἐφθέγξατο, ἀλλ' ὡς ἔκ τινος θείας ὀμφῆς ἐνηχούμενος εὐστόχως τὸ πολυύμνητον ἐκεῖνο καὶ θαυμαστὸν ἀπεφοίβασε λόγιον: τοῦτο νῦν ὀστοῦν ἐκ τῶν ὀστέων μου καὶ σὰρξ ἐκ τῆς σαρκός μου. αὕτη κληθήσεται γυνὴ, ὅτι ἐκ τοῦ ἀνδρὸς αὐτῆς ἐλήφθη. οὗτος τοίνυν ἐστὶν ὁ δοκιμάσας ἕκαστα καὶ πᾶσι κανόνας καὶ στάθμας ἀκριβεῖς καὶ ὅρους ἀναντιρρήτους ἐναρμο- σάμενος. τούτου τέχναι καὶ γράμματα, τούτου ἐπιστῆμαι λογικαί τε καὶ ἄλογοι, τούτου προφητεῖαι, ἱερουργίαι καὶ καθαρισμοὶ καὶ νόμοι γραπτοί τε καὶ ἄγραφοι, τούτου πάντα εὑρήματα καὶ διδάγματα, καὶ ὅσαι κατὰ τὸν βίον ἀναγκαῖαι χρεῖαί τε καὶ δίαιται. οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ πρῶτος ἀνδριὰς, τὸ θεόκλητον ἄγαλμα, ἀφ' οὗπερ ἀπευθύνονται πᾶσαι ἀνθρώπων ἀγαλματουργίαι, κἂν πρὸς τὸ ἧττον μᾶλλον καὶ μᾶλλον ἐκπίπτωσιν ἐκείνου τοῦ μακαρίου καὶ θεοειδοῦς ἀπεικάσματος μηδεμίαν ἔχοντος ἀφορμὴν, ἧς ἂν ἐπιλάβοιτο ὁ μετ' ἐκεῖνον διαπλαττόμενος ἢ ζῳγραφούμενος, ἕως ὁ παλαμναῖος καὶ ἀποστάτης καὶ πλάνος διάβολος τοῦτον ἐξεκύλισεν ἐκ τῆς οἰκείας ἱδρύσεώς τε καὶ στάσεως καὶ κατὰ τοῦ πρανοῦς εἴασε φέρεσθαι πρὸς βαραθρώδεις τινὰς καὶ ἀλαμπεῖς χώρους καὶ μέχρι τῶν ἀμειδήτων τοῦ ᾅδου κευθμώνων ἐγγίζοντας. κἀντεῦθεν ἤρξατο φύσις ἡ τῶν ἀνθρώπων παραχαράττεσθαι καὶ διακιβδηλεύεσθαι καὶ τυποῦσθαι τοῖς τοῦ τυράννου μορφώμασί τε καὶ σχήμασιν. ἐντεῦθεν ἡ νόθος σοφία τὰς ἀφορμὰς ἔλαβε, τῆς θείας δραπετευσάσης καὶ πρὸς οὐρανὸν ἀναπτάσης, ὅθεν τὸ πρότερον ἦν ἀφορμήσασα. ὅθεν ὁ πλάνος τὸ τοῦ θεοῦ σφετερισάμενος ὄνομα εἰς πολλὰ κατεμέρισε, Κρόνους τε καὶ Ζῆνας καὶ Ποσειδῶνας ἑαυτὸν μετακαλῶν: καὶ τὸ δὴ πάντων ἀνοσιώτατον, εἰς ὀνόματα θήλεά τε καὶ ἄσεμνα τὴν μακαρίαν καὶ ἄρρητον συγκατασπάσαι φύσιν ὁ ἀλιτήριος κατετόλμησεν, εἴς τε τὰς Ῥέας ἐκείνας καὶ Ἀφροδίτας καὶ Ἀθηνᾶς καὶ εἰς ἄλλας μυρίας καὶ ἀλλοκότους ἀλόγων ἰδέας τε καὶ μορφὰς, ἃς ὁ κακίας δημιουργὸς καὶ τὴν ἀποστασίαν νοσήσας ἐπέχρωσέ τε καὶ διεχάραξεν. ἐντεῦθεν Αἰγυπτίων τὰ περὶ Ὄσιριν καὶ Τυφῶνα καὶ Ἴσιν μοχθηρὰ διηγήματα καὶ Περσῶν μαγικὰ μαγγανεύματα καὶ Βραχμάνων γυμνοσοφιστίαι καὶ ἄκαιροι φαντασίαι καὶ ἡ θαυμαζομένη Σκυθῶν ῥῆσις καὶ τὰ Θρᾳκῶν ὄργια καὶ οἱ Φρυγῶν αὐλοὶ καὶ Κορύβαντες. ἐντεῦθεν ἡ Χαλδαίων ἀστρονομία ἡ σφαλερά τε καὶ πολυώδυνος. ἐντεῦθεν ἡ τοῦ ψεύδους λοχεύτρια ποίησις, ἡ τῶν Ἑλληνικῶν ληρημάτων σεμνομυθία. ἐντεῦθεν Ὀρφεύς τε καὶ Ὅμηρος καὶ ὁ τῶν ἀθεμίτων γονῶν ζῳγράφος Ἡσίοδος. ἐντεῦθεν ἡ Θάλητος δόξα καὶ ὁ κλεινὸς Πυθαγόρας καὶ ὁ σοφὸς Σωκράτης καὶ Πλάτων, τὸ τῆς Ἀθηναίων Ἀκαδημίας πολυθρύλητον σεμνολόγημα. ἐντεῦθεν οἱ Παρμενίδαι καὶ Πρωταγόραι καὶ Ζήνωνες. ἐντεῦθεν αἱ Στοαὶ καὶ οἱ Ἄρειοι πάγοι καὶ Ἐπικούρειοι. ἐντεῦθεν οἱ τραγῳδῶν θρῆνοι καὶ κοπετοὶ καὶ τὰ κωμικῶν παίγνια καὶ τωθάσματα. ἐντεῦθεν τὰ δολερὰ τοῦ Λοξίου καὶ ψευδηγόρου θεσπίσματα καὶ ἡ λοιπὴ τῶν Ἑλληνικῶν κομψευμάτων ἐρεσχελία καὶ τερατεία. καὶ ἵνα μὴ μακρὸν ἀποτείνω τὸν λόγον εἰς σαπρούς τε καὶ ὀδωδότας μύθους ἐνασχολούμενος, πᾶσαν εἰς ἑαυτὸν τὴν κτίσιν ὁ πλάνος ἐμφορτισάμενος καὶ λαβὼν ὑπὸ χεῖρα τὸν ἄνθρωπον ὡς ἀνδράποδον καὶ διερχόμενος τὴν ὑπ' οὐρανὸν καὶ περιπατῶν τὴν γῆν καὶ ὡς ὠὰ πάντα κατέχων, ὡς αὐτός πού φησιν ἀλαζονευόμενος, ᾤετο δεῖν τὸν ἑαυτοῦ θρόνον θήσειν ἐπάνω τῶν νεφελῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ ἔσεσθαι ὅμοιος τῷ Ὑψίστῳ. ἀλλ' ὁ τοῦ θεοῦ μονογενὴς υἱὸς καὶ λόγος ὁ προαιώνιος οἰκτείρας τὸν ἄνθρωπον ὡς ἠπατημένον ὑπὸ τοῦ δράκοντος ἐκ τῶν τοῦ πατρὸς κόλπων ἑαυτὸν ἐκένωσε καὶ σαρκωθεὶς ἐκ πνεύματος ἁγίου καὶ ἐκ τῆς ἁγίας παρθένου καὶ θεοτόκου Μαρίας, καὶ διὰ τοῦ τιμίου σταυροῦ καὶ τοῦ πάθους αὐτοῦ καταβαλὼν τὸν ἀντίπαλον καὶ καταβὰς εἰς τὰ κατώτατα μέρη τῆς γῆς ἐκεῖθεν εἵλκυσε τὸν παραπεσόντα πρωτόπλαστον, ἀποδοὺς τῇ εἰκόνι τὸ πρῶτον κάλλος καὶ τῇ φύσει τὸ ἀρχαῖον ἀξίωμα. κἀντεῦθεν ἠφάνισται πᾶσα ἡ τοῦ τυράννου δυναστεία καὶ συμμορφία τοῦ τῆς εὐσεβείας φωτὸς διαυγάσαντος πάσῃ τῇ κτίσει τῶν ἡλιακῶν μαρμαρυγῶν τηλαυγέστερον. ἐκ τούτου τοῦ φωτὸς ἡ κατὰ θεὸν σοφία πάλιν διέλαμψε καὶ γλώσσας ἁλιέων ἐστόμωσε καὶ τῶν σοφῶν διδασκάλους τοὺς ἀσόφους εἰργάσατο ἐντεῦθεν ὁ τῆς βροντῆς γόνος, τὸ: ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λόγος, ἐξ οὐρανίων νεφελῶν ἀπαστράψας ἐβρόντησε, καὶ πᾶσαν τὴν οἰκουμένην ἐλάμπρυνε. κἀκ τούτου τοῦ φωτὸς Παῦλος εἰς τρίτον οὐρανὸν ἀναφέρεται καὶ θεᾶται τὰ ἀθέατα καὶ τῶν ἀρρήτων ὑπακούει λογίων καὶ διατρέχει πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν ὡς πτηνὸς καὶ ἀέριος τὸν Ἰησοῦν εὐαγγελιζόμενος. ἐντεῦθεν ὁ Πέτρος τὸν Χριστὸν υἱὸν θεοῦ τοῦ ζῶντος ὠνόμασε καὶ τὰς κλεῖς τῆς τῶν οὐρανῶν πιστεύεται βασιλείας, ἵνα ἀνοίγῃ μὲν τοῖς πιστοῖς, ἀποκλείῃ δὲ τοῖς ἀπίστοις τῶν θείων ἀνακτόρων τὴν εἴσοδον. ἐντεῦθεν ἀγέλαι μαρτύρων καταβάλλουσιν εἴδωλα καὶ τρέχουσιν ἕτοιμοι πρὸς τὸν θάνατον, ὡς στεφάνους τὰς πληγὰς καὶ ὡς πορφύρας τὰ ἑαυτῶν αἵματα περιφέροντες οἱ καλλίνικοι. ἔστω γοῦν ὁ πρωτόπλαστος ἀρχηγὸς τοῦδε τοῦ γράμματος, κατά γε τὸν ἐμὸν ὅρον καὶ λόγον, ὡς ποταμὸς πηγή τε καὶ θάλαττα καὶ ῥίζα καὶ κλάδοι καὶ ὅρπηκες καὶ πάσης ὑπάρχων τῆς ἀνθρωπίνης φύσεως ἀπαρχὴ καὶ πρωτόλειον. ὅτι ἀπὸ Ἀδὰμ ἕως τοῦ κατακλυσμοῦ ἔτη #22βσμβ#. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ κατακλυσμοῦ ἕως τῆς πυργοποιί̈ας ἔτη φκε#. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς πυργοποιί̈ας ἕως τοῦ Ἀβραὰμ υκε#. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Ἀβραὰμ ἕως τῆς ἐξόδου τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραὴλ ἐξ Αἰγύπτου υλ#. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ἐξόδου ἕως τῆς οἰκοδομῆς τοῦ Σολομωντείου ναοῦ ἔτη ψνζ#. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς οἰκοδομῆς τοῦ ναοῦ ἕως τῆς αἰχμαλωσίας τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ υκε#. ὁμοῦ ἔτη #22δωπ#. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς αἰχμαλωσίας ἕως Ἀλεξάνδρου βασιλέως τιη#. ἀπὸ δὲ Ἀλεξάνδρου ἕως Χριστοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν τγ#. ὁμοῦ ἔτη #22εφ#. ἀπὸ δὲ Χριστοῦ ἕως τοῦ μεγάλου Κωνσταντίνου τιη#. ἀπὸ δὲ Κωνσταντίνου μέχρι Μιχαὴλ υἱοῦ Θεοφίλου φνε#. ὁμοῦ τὰ πάντα ἔτη #22#2τοε#. ἀπὸ δὲ Μιχαὴλ ἕως Ῥωμανοῦ υἱοῦ Κωνσταντίνου τοῦ Πορφυρογεννήτου ἔτη ... ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Πορφυρογεννήτου ἕως τῆς τελευτῆς Ἰωάννου τοῦ Τζιμισκῆ ἔτη ... καὶ Ἀδαμιαῖος, ἀπὸ Ἀδάμ.
Notes:
The great bulk of this entry -- 104 lines out of 117 in the printed edition -- is a tour de force of polemic by an unidentifiable scholar quite outside the type of neutral reticence which characterises most of the contributors to the Suda (although Küster suggests a comparison with the entry on Job at iota 471). His self-styled "essay" (logos), unparalleled in this form and content elsewhere, is a tirade on two levels: explicitly, against the great men of pagan culture(s), and also implicitly, in that its determination to enhance the significance of Adam to extraordinary levels rests in part upon an almost Pelagian exculpation of him from the taint of original sin.
[1] A paraphrase of Genesis 1.20 and 2.19.
[2] Genesis 2.23; the wordplay between "man" and "wo-man" in English, is also present in the original Hebrew איש ʾīš and אישה ʾīššah, but not in the Greek.
[3] i.e. Apollo (lambda 673).
[4] John 1.1.
[5] The actual sum of the numbers given up to this point is 4804 (δωδ ) instead of the 4880 (δωπ ) of the mss.
[6] The actual sum of all the numbers given so far is 5432; adding merely the last two numbers to the previous summation yields 5528.
[7] 6373, counting from the last summation. The actual total of all individual numbers is 6305. (Up to this point the chronology is taken from George the Monk, Chronicon 804.1-20; and cf. generally phi 45. The two time-spans which now follow are odd, in that the chronology stops being linear.)
[8] Romanus (II) died in 963.
[9] John died in 976.
Keywords: art history; biography; botany; Christianity; chronology; comedy; epic; ethics; food; gender and sexuality; historiography; imagery; law; mythology; philosophy; poetry; proverbs; religion; tragedy; women; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 23 April 2001@15:37:44.
Vetted by:
Patrick T. Rourke (Cleaned up encoding issue) on 8 April 2002@12:19:19.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 8 April 2002@14:00:09.
Catharine Roth (raised status) on 5 May 2002@12:51:12.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew words.) on 31 October 2002@10:41:09.
David Whitehead (modified last paragraph of translation; corrected error in footnote numeration; cosmetics) on 10 June 2003@04:32:32.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@07:34:57.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 9 January 2012@10:28:35.
David Whitehead on 9 January 2012@10:58:50.
David Whitehead (added primary note) on 11 January 2012@11:10:07.
David Whitehead (my typo) on 11 January 2012@11:26:30.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 6 January 2013@23:16:27.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 17 January 2014@06:41:18.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:30:26.
Catharine Roth (cross-reference) on 28 January 2019@15:16:53.

Headword: Ἀδαῖον
Adler number: alpha,431
Translated headword: unfired, Adaios, Adaeus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] unburnt.[1]
Also [sc. attested is] Adaios, a proper name.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀδαῖον: ἄκαυστον. καὶ Ἀδαῖος: ὄνομα κύριον.
Notes:
Same material, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon (484, 414).
[1] The primary headword, evidently quoted from somewhere, is masculine accusative singular or neuter nominative/accusative singular of this adjective. The glossing interprets it as if derived from δαίω , "burn" (delta 112); however, the only entry in LSJ for ἀδαῖος (web address 1 below) connects it with ἄδην , "sufficiently", and translates it as "producing surfeit", citing Sophron 137.
[2] The individual in question is probably the C4 BCE Macedonian general of this name, nicknamed Rooster. See principally Theopompus FGrH 115 F249 (quoted by Athenaeus), with N.G.L. Hammond & G.T. Griffith, A History of Macedonia 2 (Oxford 1979) 441. But for another possibility see under alpha 594.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: William Hutton on 6 November 2000@13:43:37.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 13 February 2001@08:15:32.
David Whitehead (augmented note 2; added keyword; cosmetics) on 10 June 2003@08:03:05.
David Whitehead (augmented n.1; modified keywords; cosmetics) on 9 July 2008@05:07:58.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 10 January 2012@05:22:37.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 17 December 2013@21:57:25.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 28 March 2015@15:20:18.
David Whitehead (x-ref; cosmetics) on 14 April 2015@11:10:15.

Headword: Ἀείδελον
Adler number: alpha,613
Translated headword: dark, obscure, invisible
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] unseen.[1]
Also [sc. attested is] ἀειδές ["deformed/unsightly"], [meaning something] painful.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] ἀειδέστερον ["more/rather shapeless"], [meaning] formless.
"[Craftsmen] who take the formless and rather shapeless copper and stretch and fashion it into shape."[3]
Greek Original:
Ἀείδελον: ἀόρατον. καὶ Ἀειδὲς, λυπηρόν. καὶ Ἀειδέστερον, ἄμορφον. τὸν χαλκὸν ἄμορφον παραλαβόντες καὶ ἀειδέστερον εἰς μορφὴν ἐντείνουσι καὶ κατασχηματίζουσι.
Notes:
[1] Similarly in other lexica. This primary headword itself is masculine accusative singular or neuter nominative/accusative singular of the poetic adjective ἀείδελος . It has perhaps been extracted from somewhere in this form; alternatively it has been generated by Hesiod's use of this adjective (noted in lexica, where a neuter plural is quoted: fr. 67b) to mean unseen.
[2] Neuter singular. Same lemma and gloss transmitted at Photius alpha406 Theodoridis, though the former should be ἀηδές .
[3] Damascius, quoted from delta 436.
Keywords: art history; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Carl Widstrand on 12 January 2000@18:30:22.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 8 May 2002@07:35:07.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; augmented notes and keywords; betacoding and other cosmetics) on 16 August 2006@04:43:33.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 12 January 2012@08:33:22.
David Whitehead (expanded n.2) on 19 August 2013@06:21:57.
David Whitehead on 30 April 2015@09:25:26.

Headword: Ἀεὶ τοῖς ἐρῶσιν σύνεσμεν
Adler number: alpha,643
Translated headword: always we associate with love(r)s
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Aristophanes [sc. says this] about birds.[1] Because lovers give noble birds to please their beloveds. And the nuthatch or some other sort of bird appears fortunate for lovers.[2] "I, o Leukippe, [am] a fortunate nuthatch."[3]
The [bird] now, I think, called a sitaris.
Greek Original:
Ἀεὶ τοῖς ἐρῶσιν σύνεσμεν: Ἀριστοφάνης περὶ ὀρνίθων. διὰ τὸ τοὺς ἐραστὰς ὄρνιθας εὐγενεῖς χαρίζεσθαι τοῖς ἐρωμένοις. καὶ ἡ σίττη δὲ καὶ εἴ τι τοιοῦτον ὄρνεον δεξιὰ πρὸς τοὺς ἔρωτας φαίνεται. ἐγὼ μὲν, ὦ Λευκίππη, δεξιὰ σίττη. ἡ νῦν οἶμαι λεγομένη σιτάρις.
Notes:
[1] Aristophanes, Birds 704 (without 'always': web address 1 below). The scholia there supply the material which now follows; see further below, n.3.
[2] So on vase-paintings: see Dunbar [below] 447. (For this sense of dexios, with particular reference to birds, see LSJ s.v., II.)
[3] Poetae Lyrici Graeci 3.695. (The scholiast's version is somewhat different, e.g. the addressee is male: Leukippos.)
Reference:
Aristophanes, Birds, edited with introduction and commentary by Nan Dunbar (Oxford 1995)
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: art history; comedy; gender and sexuality; poetry; women; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 18 March 2001@16:13:29.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes; added keyword) on 19 March 2001@05:20:48.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 15 August 2006@04:51:02.
Jennifer Benedict (updated link) on 16 March 2008@03:32:50.
David Whitehead (modified aspects of tr; expanded n.2; tweaks and cosmetics) on 12 January 2012@11:02:24.
David Whitehead (tweaked and expanded notes) on 1 May 2015@04:01:00.

Headword: Ἀθηνᾶς ἄγαλμα δόρυ κρατεῖ
Adler number: alpha,727
Translated headword: Athena's statue holds a spear
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Because of the steadfastness and masculinity [sc. of such an attribute]; likewise also a shield, from her turning-away every treachery through her wisdom; for [wisdom] is [close] to intelligence. And they gave her a helmet because of her being the invisible[1] summit of wisdom; also an olive-tree, as being of the purest essence; for the olive-tree [is] the stuff of a man. And they gave her a Gorgon on her breast because of the swiftness of her intelligence.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀθηνᾶς ἄγαλμα δόρυ κρατεῖ: διὰ τὸ σταθερὸν καὶ ἀνδρεῖον: ὁμοίως καὶ ἀσπίδα παρὰ τὸ πᾶσαν ἐπιβουλὴν διὰ τῆς σοφίας ἀπωθεῖσθαι: ἡ αὐτὴ γάρ ἐστι τῷ νῷ. καὶ περικεφαλαίαν διδόασιν αὐτῇ διὰ τὸ εἶναι τῆς σοφίας τὸ ἀκρότατον ἀθέατον: καὶ ἐλαίαν, ὡς καθαρωτάτης οὐσίας οὔσης: φωτὸς γὰρ ὕλη ἡ ἐλαία. καὶ γοργόνην διδόασιν ἐπὶ τοῦ στήθους αὐτῇ διὰ τὸ ταχὺ τοῦ νοῦ.
Notes:
ps.-Codinus, Patria Constantinopoleos 2.3 (Preger, Scriptores originum Constantinopolitanarum 152).
See already alpha 132.
[1] Or: secret.
[2] cf. gamma 394, gamma 395.
Keywords: art history; botany; clothing; imagery; military affairs; mythology; religion; women
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 3 February 2000@00:22:31.
Vetted by:
Edmund P. Cueva on 14 March 2000@06:34:55.
Edmund P. Cueva on 14 March 2000@06:36:23.
David Whitehead (added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 20 May 2002@03:54:47.
David Whitehead (added note) on 11 July 2003@06:50:02.
David Whitehead (tweaks to tr; updated ref) on 19 January 2012@07:30:04.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 8 August 2013@16:29:33.
Catharine Roth on 9 August 2013@01:02:17.
David Whitehead on 1 May 2015@09:46:55.

Headword: Ἀκάκιος
Adler number: alpha,783
Translated headword: Akakios, Acacius
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The patriarch of Constantinople, he was revered as no other. For he was the guardian of orphans, and it was evident to all that he managed the affairs of the orphans well and with pleasure. Moreoever, he became an acquaintance of the emperor Leo with whom he found immense favor. He [Leo] confided his affairs, both public and private, to this man first of all. When he assembled the senate, he invited this man as well and turned the beginning of every discussion over to him.
This Akakios realized the savagery of Leo Makelles[1] toward those who had offended him in some way and had accurately divined his character; but because this was something only those who flattered him had the opportunity to observe, he made a habit of marvelling at all that he did. Nevertheless he was readily able to rein [Leo] in and easily made him slacken his anger. He also brought about the salvation of many who ran afoul of him, and managed to have those sentenced to life-long exile recalled to their homeland.
After the death of Gennadios, patriarch of Constantinople, he was nominated to serve in that priesthood with the backing of Zenon. Since he was a natural leader and took all the churches under his direct control, he exercised a deliberate discrimination concerning those who were appointed to the churches. They in gratitude dedicated images of him in their prayer chambers. Thus, when images of him appeared in all the churches, some people began to think that he, in a pursuit of empty glory, had ordered their dedication, and no small confirmation of this suspicion was supplied by the mosaic image fashioned in the church by the harbor. For although the entire work had been completed in the time of Gennadios, in a conspicuous place in the temple they portrayed [Akakios] and after him the Savior saying to Gennadios 'destroy this temple', and over him 'after you I will raise him up.'[2] As a result of such images, then, Akakios, though he was generous and a capable leader, nevertheless seemed to all to be excessively ambitious.[3]
See concerning this man under Basiliskos.[4]
Greek Original:
Ἀκάκιος: ὁ πατριάρχης Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, αἰδέσιμος ἦν ὡς οὐκ ἄλλος τις. ὀρφανοτρόφος γὰρ γεγονὼς καὶ καλῶς τὰ τῶν ὀρφανῶν διοικῶν πᾶσιν ἐφαίνετο καθ' ἡδονήν. καὶ δὴ καὶ τῷ βασιλεῖ Λέοντι συνήθης γεγονὼς ὑπερφυῶς ἤρεσκε καὶ τούτῳ πρώτῳ ἀεὶ πάντα ἀνεκοινοῦτο τά τε κοινὰ καὶ τὰ ἴδια. καὶ ὅτε τὴν βουλὴν ἤθροιζε, συνεκάλει καὶ τοῦτον καὶ τῆς σκέψεως ἀρχὴν ἐξ αὐτοῦ πάσης ἐτίθετο. ὃς Ἀκάκιος τὴν τοῦ Λέοντος τοῦ Μακέλλη ὠμότητα συνιδὼν πρὸς τούς τι λυπήσαντας καὶ τὸ ἦθος ἀκριβῶς τὸ ἐκείνου φωράσας, ὅτι τοῖς ἐπαινοῦσι μόνον ὑπάρχει εὐάλωτον, ἐπετήδευε πάντα τὰ ἐκείνου θαυμάζειν. τοιγαροῦν πειθήνιον αὐτὸν εἶχεν ἑτοίμως τόν τε θυμὸν αὐτοῦ ῥᾳδίως κατέστελλε καὶ πολλοῖς προσκεκρουκόσι τὴν σωτηρίαν ἐπραγματεύετο καὶ τοὺς ἐξορίαν ἀί̈διον ἔχοντας ἀνεκαλεῖτο πρὸς τὴν πατρίδα. οὗτος μετὰ θάνατον Γενναδίου, πατριάρχου Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, σπουδῇ Ζήνωνος ἱερᾶσθαι προεβλήθη. ὃς ὢν ἀρχικὸς καὶ πάσας τὰς ἐκκλησίας ὑφ' ἑαυτὸν ποιήσας πεφροντισμένως τῶν ἐν αὐταῖς κεκληρωμένων ἐποιεῖτο τὴν κηδεμονίαν, οἳ εὐχαριστοῦντες ἐν γραφαῖς ἀνέθηκαν αὐτὸν κατὰ τοὺς εὐκτηρίους οἴκους. ἐπείπερ οὖν ἀθρόον ἐν πάσαις ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις ἐδείχθησαν αὐτοῦ εἰκόνες, ᾠήθησάν τινες κενοδοξοῦντα τὴν ἀνάθεσιν προστεταχέναι οὐ μικρὰν ἔχοντες τῆς ὑπονοίας πίστωσιν, τὴν ἐκ ψηφίδων γραφὴν δημιουργηθεῖσαν ἐν τῇ πρὸς τῷ νεωρίῳ ἐκκλησίᾳ. τοῦ γὰρ ἔργου παντὸς ἐπὶ Γενναδίου τελεσθέντος εἰς τὸν ἐπιφανῆ τόπον ἐξετύπωσαν αὐτὸν τοῦ νεὼ καὶ μεταξὺ τοῦδε τὸν Σωτῆρα λέγοντα τῷ Γενναδίῳ, λῦσον τὸν ναὸν τοῦτον, καὶ ἐπὶ τοῦ, μετά σε ἐγερῶ αὐτόν. ἐκ τῶν τοιούτων οὖν εἰκόνων Ἀκάκιος, εἰ καὶ εὐμετάδοτος ἦν καὶ προστατικὸς, ἀλλὰ δοξομανὴς πᾶσιν ἔδοξεν ὑπάρχειν. ζήτει περὶ τοῦτον ἐν τῷ Βασιλίσκος.
Notes:
On Acacius or Akakios, see web address 1.
[1] Leo "the Butcher": see lambda 267 and biography (by Hugh Elton) at web address 2.
[2] cf. John 2.19.
[3] Valesius (Henri de Valois 1603-1676) attributed this entry to Malchus (on Theodore the Reader 167); now accepted as Malchus fr.2b Cresci.
[4] beta 164.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: architecture; art history; biography; children; Christianity; chronology; ethics; geography; historiography; history; law; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 1 June 2001@11:30:21.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added links) on 1 June 2001@18:44:50.
William Hutton (Modified translation) on 3 June 2001@11:10:35.
Catharine Roth (added note) on 28 February 2002@00:12:18.
Catharine Roth (augmented translation and notes) on 28 February 2002@13:38:30.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@11:17:30.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note, added cross-reference) on 20 May 2008@11:40:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 22 January 2012@08:28:19.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 31 January 2015@07:57:40.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note) on 3 May 2015@23:35:20.

Headword: Ἀκρωτήριον
Adler number: alpha,1031
Translated headword: extremity
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[no gloss]
Greek Original:
Ἀκρωτήριον.
Notes:
Comparable entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon (1061).
The neuter noun is used in various contexts: top of a mountain, promontory of land, ornament of ship's stern-post, ornament on the angle of the pediment of a building; (in the plural) extremities of the limbs (hands, feet, fingers, toes). See LSJ entry at web address 1.
cf. alpha 1030.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: architecture; art history; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; medicine; military affairs
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 16 February 2001@21:20:37.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, set status) on 22 February 2001@23:28:29.
David Whitehead (x-ref) on 3 January 2005@11:03:23.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 19 May 2015@23:36:28.
David Whitehead (another note and keyword) on 23 May 2015@10:57:44.

Headword: Ἀκυληί̈α
Adler number: alpha,1043
Translated headword: Aquileia
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A populous city of Italy, lying on [= by] the sea.
Also [sc. attested are] 'Aquileians', [meaning] the citizens [of it].[1]
Greek Original:
Ἀκυληί̈α: πόλις Ἰταλίας πολυάνθρωπος, προκειμένη ἐν θαλάττῃ. καὶ Ἀκυληί̈σιοι, οἱ πολῖται.
Notes:
OCD(4) p.129; Barrington Atlas map 19 grid F4. (NB: the present gloss makes it clear that this is not the smaller Aquileia in Germany: ib. map 12 grid D4.) See also alpha 938.
Aquileia has a strategic location at the head of the Adriatic Sea, controlling roads over the Alps. Gauls occupied the site in 186 BC. The Romans ejected them and founded a Latin colony in 181 BC (Livy 39.22, 54; 40.34). Aquileia was a large military, commercial, and industrial city under the empire. The amber trade was especially important (Strabo 4.207f.; 5.214). A Christian church council was held there in 381 with Ambrose presiding. Attila sacked the city in 452 but did not destroy it. Aquileia's bishop became a patriarch in the 6th century and the patriarchate continued influential through the middle ages. Information on councils held at Aquileia may be found on the Catholic Encyclopedia web site (web address 1). Excavations of the basilica have revealed remarkable 4th-century floor mosaics (see UNESCO World Heritage Site page at web address 2).
[2] Stephanus of Byzantium s.v. gives the ethnikon as ̀Ακυλήιος , but the Suda's form is the norm in (e.g.) Herodian's History.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: architecture; art history; Christianity; definition; geography; historiography; history; religion; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 2 July 2000@17:17:08.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added bibliography; cosmetics) on 18 February 2001@11:09:12.
Catharine Roth (Modified links.) on 23 February 2001@20:28:14.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, keyword) on 11 October 2005@21:50:50.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 12 October 2005@03:00:38.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 20 November 2005@10:43:24.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 21 February 2006@17:43:45.
Catharine Roth (modified links) on 1 February 2012@19:03:49.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@04:06:49.
David Whitehead (another note and keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 24 May 2015@04:08:41.

Headword: Ἀλαβαστοθήκας
Adler number: alpha,1050
Translated headword: perfume-bottle boxes, scent-bottle boxes
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Demosthenes calls boxes of scent-bottles [this].[1] In common parlance they call them murothekai ["unguent-boxes"]. Alabastoi are flasks of which one cannot take hold because of [their] smoothness.[2]
Aristophanes [writes]: "into the scent-bottle one ladle of peace". As if he was saying one spoonful.[3]
Greek Original:
Ἀλαβαστοθήκας: τὰς θήκας τῶν ἀλαβάστων Δημοσθένης λέγει. ἐν τῇ συνηθείᾳ μυροθήκας καλοῦσιν. ἀλάβαστοι δέ εἰσι λήκυθοι, ὧν οὐκ ἔστι λαβέσθαι διὰ λειότητα. Ἀριστοφάνης: ἐς τὸν ἀλάβαστον κύαθον εἰρήνης ἕνα. ὡσεὶ ἔλεγε κοχλιάριον ἕν.
Notes:
The first part of this entry comes from Harpokration s.v., but Photius and the Suda convert his nominative plural headword into an accusative plural.
[1] Demosthenes 19.237 (web address 1).
[2] See alpha 1051.
[3] Aristophanes, Acharnians 1053 (web address 2), with scholion. The "ladle" (kuathos, kappa 2574) was a standard Attic measure.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: art history; comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; rhetoric; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 3 July 2000@18:19:41.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword; cosmetics) on 1 October 2000@09:49:22.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 6 June 2002@09:05:45.
Catharine Roth (adjusted links) on 9 August 2007@15:08:01.
David Whitehead (expanded primary note; x-ref; more keywords; tweaks) on 2 February 2012@05:38:00.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 2 February 2012@18:26:22.
Catharine Roth (tweaked links) on 20 October 2013@19:38:21.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 24 May 2015@10:59:08.

Headword: Ἀλάβαστρον
Adler number: alpha,1051
Translated headword: alabastron, unguent-flask
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning a] vessel of [= for] unguent,[1] without handles, [made] of stone,[2] or a stone unguent-box.
Greek Original:
Ἀλάβαστρον: ἄγγος μύρου μὴ ἔχον λαβὰς λιθίνου ἢ λίθινος μυροθήκη.
Notes:
Same or similar material in other lexica.
The earlier Attic form is ἀλάβαστος (see alpha 1050). Derivation: ἀ- "not" and λαβή "handle" (from λαβεῖν "take hold").
[1] For μύρον ('sweet oil, unguent, perfume': LSJ) cf. mu 1449, mu 1450, mu 1452.
[2] In Adler's text this adjective is in the genitive case, i.e. agreeing with 'unguent'; it should obviously be accusative, agreeing with 'vessel' (as in ms. M and other lexica).
Keywords: art history; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 16 February 2001@22:14:03.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead on 6 June 2002@09:08:00.
Catharine Roth (removed nonworking link) on 8 June 2002@14:43:17.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics; removed inoperative link) on 9 August 2007@15:09:49.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; tweaks) on 10 August 2007@03:11:40.
Catharine Roth (added more betacode) on 10 August 2007@11:10:41.
David Whitehead (another note; another keyword) on 2 February 2012@05:41:07.
Catharine Roth (deleted link) on 2 February 2012@18:23:19.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 24 May 2015@11:03:10.

Headword: Ἀλλαξάμενος
Adler number: alpha,1070
Translated headword: having chosen, having exchanged
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning he] having preferred.
"For the sake of profit the unfortunate man having chosen mutilation; and [this] was an example and a lesson to all, not to risk or to profit by similar things".[1]
Greek Original:
Ἀλλαξάμενος: προτιμήσας. ὑπὲρ τοῦ κέρδους ὁ κακοδαίμων τὴν πήρωσιν ἀλλαξάμενος: καὶ ἦν παράδειγμα καὶ παίδευμα πᾶσιν ὥστε μὴ τολμᾶν μηδὲ κερδαίνειν παραπλήσια.
Notes:
For this headword see already alpha 1069. Here again it is presumably extracted from the quotation given (where, oddly, this aorist participle functions as a finite verb).
[1] Aelian fr. 65e Domingo-Forasté, 62 Hercher (a wicked sculptor).
Keywords: art history; biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 31 March 2000@18:03:26.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes; cosmetics) on 26 January 2001@09:03:47.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 10 June 2002@07:47:46.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 28 November 2005@08:25:19.
David Whitehead (expanded primary note; tweaks) on 2 February 2012@09:07:37.
Catharine Roth (updated reference) on 7 February 2012@01:50:34.
David Whitehead on 26 May 2015@08:55:27.

Headword: Ἀλκαμένης
Adler number: alpha,1269
Translated headword: Alkamenes, Alcamenes
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A proper name.
The Lemnian.
Greek Original:
Ἀλκαμένης: ὄνομα κύριον. ὁ Λήμνιος.
Note:
A sculptor, Lemnian or Athenian (the confusion arises because Lemnos was an Athenian overseas possession), of the second half of the C5 BC; pupil of phi 246. See OCD(4) s.v. (pp.50-1).
Reference:
J.J. Pollitt, The Art of Ancient Greece (Cambridge 1990) 65-66
Keywords: art history; biography; definition; geography
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 11 May 2000@21:17:44.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note, bibliography, keyword; cosmetics) on 9 October 2000@09:36:39.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 18 June 2002@05:28:07.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 30 June 2008@05:50:17.
David Whitehead on 2 August 2011@04:38:21.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@04:32:57.

Headword: Ἀμάχιος
Adler number: alpha,1513
Translated headword: Amachios, Amachius
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
This man was the chief official of a small Phrygian city under Julian the Apostate,[1] and a fanatical pagan. As the shrines were open, a certain Makedonios and Theodoulos and Tatianos[2] in zeal for Christianity burst in at night and destroyed the statues. They endured many hardships and punishments on account of this and were set upon grills and punished by fire. They showed their valour then by saying: "Amachios, if you want to get a taste of roast meat, turn us over on our other sides lest we seem to you half-roasted to the taste." And thus they died.
Greek Original:
Ἀμάχιος: οὗτος ἐπὶ Ἰουλιανοῦ τοῦ παραβάτου ἄρχων ἦν μικρᾶς πόλεως Φρυγίας, Ἕλλην γοργός. τῶν ἱερῶν ἀνοιγομένων, Μακεδόνιός τις καὶ Θεόδουλος καὶ Τατιανὸς ζήλῳ τοῦ Χριστιανισμοῦ νυκτὸς ἐσπηδήσαντες συντρίβουσι τὰ ἀγάλματα. οἳ πολλὰς αἰκίας καὶ τιμωρίας διὰ τοῦτο ὑπομείναντες ἐσχάραις τε ἐπιτεθέντες καὶ πυρὶ ἐτιμωροῦντο. τὴν δὲ ἀνδρίαν ὑπέδειξαν τηνικαῦτα εἰπόντες: εἰ ἐπεθύμησας, ὦ Ἀμάχιε, ὀπτῶν κρεῶν ἀπογεύσασθαι, στρέψον ἡμᾶς καὶ εἰς τὰς ἑτέρας πλευράς, ἵνα μὴ εἰς τὴν γεῦσιν ἡμίοπτοι ὀφθῶμέν σοι. καὶ οὕτως ἐτελειώθησαν.
Notes:
cf. Socrates, Historia ecclesiastica 3.15; and gamma 396.
[1] For Julian see generally iota 437.
[2] Cross-referenced at mu 64, theta 146, and tau 148.
Keywords: art history; biography; Christianity; chronology; ethics; food; geography; historiography; history; religion
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 23 March 2001@08:41:32.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, added keyword, set status.) on 25 March 2001@08:18:47.
David Whitehead (added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 14 July 2002@05:11:31.
Catharine Roth (typo identified by Andrew Smith) on 10 October 2004@18:57:33.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 3 October 2005@09:32:06.
David Whitehead (more x-refs; more keywords) on 12 February 2012@08:34:12.
David Whitehead on 16 June 2015@03:01:09.
Catharine Roth (typo, other tweaks) on 27 December 2016@12:24:57.

Headword: Ἀμφίθετον φιάλην
Adler number: alpha,1731
Translated headword: set-about bowl, set-about phiale
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
On every part of it when it is placed, [it is] without a base.
Not the drinking vessel that we use, but a type of basin, which is able to rest on every side.
Greek Original:
Ἀμφίθετον φιάλην: κατὰ πᾶν μέρος αὐτῆς τιθεμένης, ἀπύθμενον. οὐ τὸ παρ' ἡμῖν ποτήριον, ἀλλὰ γένος λέβητος, ἐκ παντὸς μέρους δυνάμενον ἕδραν ἔχειν.
Notes:
The two-word phrase in the accusative case which forms the present headword -- reversed at phi 283 -- occurs in Homer, Iliad 23.270 (web address 1; nominative case at line 616). The second gloss here comes from the scholia there (and the first gloss from Photius and other lexica). In fact ancient commentators could not agree whether the adjective meant able to stand on both ends or with a handle on each side: see Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 11.500F-501D (11.103 Kaibel), and summarily in LSJ s.v.
For the shallow phiale cf. phi 284.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: art history; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; trade and manufacture
Translated by: William Hutton on 24 April 2001@23:59:09.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified note; added keyword) on 25 April 2001@09:51:38.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; augmented notes and keywords) on 9 May 2006@07:23:42.
David Whitehead on 19 February 2012@08:55:41.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 3 March 2012@22:59:11.
David Whitehead (expanded a ref) on 14 January 2015@03:43:56.

Headword: Ἀμφιστεφέες
Adler number: alpha,1770
Translated headword: crowned-around, surrounding like a crown
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning ones which are] brim-full, entwined with each other.
Greek Original:
Ἀμφιστεφέες: πάντοθεν πλήρεις, περιπεπλεγμέναι ἀλλήλαις.
Note:
Same or similar entry in other lexica; references at Photius alpha1369 Theodoridis. The nominative plural headword is a variant reading at Homer, Iliad 11.40 (web address 1): referring to the three heads of the serpent on Agamemnon's shield.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: art history; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; military affairs; science and technology; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 10 August 2000@14:16:55.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (modified translation, added note and keyword) on 28 July 2002@01:16:58.
Catharine Roth (augmented note) on 28 July 2002@01:18:42.
David Whitehead (augmented headword and keywords; cosmetics) on 11 June 2003@06:43:26.
David Whitehead (expanded note; more keywords) on 21 February 2012@09:40:52.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 5 March 2012@00:22:36.
David Whitehead on 21 August 2013@04:55:36.
David Whitehead on 25 June 2015@03:24:56.

Headword: Ἀναγαλλίς
Adler number: alpha,1817
Translated headword: Anagallis
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Anagallis],[1] the female grammarian from Corcyra, who attributes the invention of ball-games to Nausicaa, the daughter of Alcinous.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀναγαλλίς, ἡ Κερκυραία γραμματικὴ, ἥτις τὴν τῆς σφαίρας εὕρεσιν Ναυσικάᾳ τῇ Ἀλκινόου θυγατρὶ ἀνατίθησιν.
Notes:
cf. omicron 671 and sigma 1720.
[1] RE Agallis(1); and see next note for the form of the name.
[2] cf. Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 1.14D [1.25 Kaibel], with the correct form of the name, Agallis. Nausicaa (for whom see generally nu 70) plays ball in Homer, Odyssey 6.99-117; Athenaeus says that Agallis names her as the originator of doing so out of partiality for a fellow-countrywoman (but for doubts about the orthodox identification of Scheria with Corcyra/Corfu see OCD(4) p.1325). Agallis is also known for the theory that the two cities portrayed on the Shield of Achilles (Homer, Iliad 18.490-540) were Athens and Eleusis (scholion T to Iliad 18.483-606, scholion D to Iliad 18.490; Eustathius on Iliad 18.490).
Keywords: aetiology; art history; biography; daily life; epic; geography; military affairs; mythology; women
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 7 June 2000@11:10:21.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note; added keywords; cosmetics) on 5 March 2001@07:56:51.
David Whitehead on 5 March 2001@07:59:17.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 16 September 2009@07:55:25.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 22 February 2012@07:10:31.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 21 July 2014@22:02:46.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@05:53:24.

Headword: Ἀνακεῖσθαι
Adler number: alpha,1898
Translated headword: to be erected, to be set up
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
In reference to statues. But κατακεῖσθαι and κατακεκλίσθαι [are used] in reference to [sc. reclining at] table.[1]
And[2] ἀνακεῖσθαι [is said] often instead of κατακεῖσθαι .
Greek Original:
Ἀνακεῖσθαι: ἐπὶ ἀνδριάντων. κατακεῖσθαι δὲ καὶ κατακεκλίσθαι ἐπὶ τραπέζης. καὶ Ἀνακεῖσθαι πολλάκις ἀντὶ τοῦ κατακεῖσθαι.
Notes:
[1] (Again at kappa 572.) See for this distinction Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 1.23C-D (1.42 Kaibel).
[2] The conjunction could have been 'But ...', since this addendum effaces the distinction just made.
Keywords: art history; daily life; definition; food
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 28 March 2001@06:54:47.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 29 July 2002@06:51:12.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; betacoding and other cosmetics) on 23 February 2012@06:38:49.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 13 January 2015@23:53:25.
David Whitehead on 28 June 2015@08:56:44.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 4 May 2019@00:07:21.

Headword: Ἀναποληκοῦν
Adler number: alpha,2032
Translated headword: snapping
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The image making sounds with its fingers, striking [them] together, so that it is snapping with its fingers; also search under Sardanapalos.[1]
Greek Original:
Ἀναποληκοῦν: τὸ εἴδωλον κροτοῦν τοῖς δακτύλοις, ἀνακροταλοῦν, ὥστ' ἀναποληκοῦν τοῖς δακτύλοις: καὶ ζήτει ἐν τῷ Σαρδανάπαλος.
Note:
[1] sigma 122; also omicron 1037.
Keywords: art history; biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 18 October 2000@22:32:10.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 19 October 2000@02:40:35.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 1 August 2002@03:17:17.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference and keyword) on 31 July 2010@20:36:17.
David Whitehead on 27 February 2012@06:57:00.

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