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Headword: Ἀββᾶ
Adler number: alpha,10
Translated headword: Abba, Father
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The ancients called God "Father" from a feeling of relationship. Moses said, "You have forsaken God who begot you."[1] And Malachi: "One God begot us and is our father."[2] They were in a state of grace, moved by the force of the Spirit. Just as there is the Spirit of wisdom by which fools have become wise (for this is clear from the teachings), and the Spirit of power by which they raised both the weak and the dead, and the Spirit of prophecy, and the Spirit of tongues, so also there is the Spirit of adoption.[3] And just as we know the Spirit of prophecy, through which one who has it is moved by grace to tell the future, so also the Spirit of adoption, through which one moved by the Spirit calls God "Father." One who wishes to show that this is most legitimate even used a Hebrew word. For he did not say "Father" but "Abba the Father." This is the word used especially by legitimate children for their father.[4]
Greek Original:
Ἀββᾶ: ὁ πατήρ. οἱ μὲν παλαιοὶ ἐκάλουν πατέρα τὸν θεὸν ἐξ οἰκείας διανοίας, ὡς Μωϋσῆς: θεὸν τὸν γεννήσαντά σε ἐγκατέλιπες: καὶ Μαλαχίας: ὁ θεὸς εἷς ἐγέννησεν ἡμᾶς καὶ πατήρ: οἱ δὲ ἐν χάριτι, ἀπὸ πνευματικῆς ἐνεργείας κινούμενοι. ὥσπερ πνεῦμα σοφίας εἶναι, καθ' ὃ σοφοὶ οἱ ἄσοφοι ἐγένοντο [καὶ δηλοῦται τοῦτο ἀπὸ τῆς διδασκαλίας] καὶ πνεῦμα δυνάμεως εἶναι, καθ' ὃ καὶ ἀσθενεῖς καὶ νεκροὺς ἤγειρον, καὶ πνεῦμα προφητείας, καὶ πνεῦμα γλωσσῶν, οὕτω καὶ πνεῦμα υἱοθεσίας. καὶ ὥσπερ ἴσμεν τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς προφητείας, ἀφ' ὧν ὁ ἔχων αὐτὸ λέγει τὰ μέλλοντα ὑπὸ τῆς χάριτος κινούμενος, οὕτω δὴ καὶ πνεῦμα υἱοθεσίας, ἀφ' οὗ ὁ λαβὼν πατέρα καλεῖ τὸν θεὸν, ὑπὸ πνεύματος κινούμενος. ὁ δὴ βουλόμενος δεῖξαι γνησιώτατον ὂν καὶ τῇ τῶν Ἑβραίων ἐχρήσατο γλώττῃ. οὐ γὰρ εἶπεν ὁ πατὴρ, ἀλλ' ἀββᾶ ὁ πατήρ: ὅπερ τῶν παίδων μάλιστά ἐστι τῶν γνησίων πρὸς πατέρα ῥῆμα.
Notes:
A paraphrase of St. John Chrysostom, Homily on the Epistle to the Romans PG 60.527.
(Entry placed after alpha 16, Adler reports, in mss GTMB.)
[1] Deuteronomy 32:18 LXX (web address 1).
[2] Malachi 2:10 LXX (web address 2).
[3] cf. Ep.Romans 8:15 (web address 3).
[4] On "Abba," see also alpha 12.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3
Keywords: children; Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; medicine; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:57:30.
Vetted by:
Samuel Huskey (added links to Bible, changed "sonship" to "filiation") on 15 July 2000@15:01:55.
Catharine Roth (Altered wording.) on 29 July 2000@23:15:23.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 11 July 2003@08:51:36.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 6 October 2005@08:51:18.
William Hutton (tweaked translation, augmented notes, fixed broken links, added keywords, set status) on 20 August 2007@10:15:40.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 5 August 2013@01:15:24.
David Whitehead (another note; cosmetics) on 28 March 2014@06:14:49.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, added cross-reference) on 28 March 2014@12:15:01.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:24:11.

Headword: Ἀββακούμ
Adler number: alpha,12
Translated headword: Habakkuk, Avvakoum
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[A name meaning] father of awakening. For the [word] abba means father,[1] and koum means awakening.[2] So also in the Holy Gospel: "Talitha, koum," that is, "young girl, get up."[3] From which [it is] clear that Abbakoum must be written with double b.[4]
Greek Original:
Ἀββακούμ: πατὴρ ἐγέρσεως. τὸ μὲν γὰρ ἀββᾶ σημαίνει πατήρ, τὸ δὲ κοὺμ ἔγερσις: ὡς καὶ παρὰ τῷ θείῳ εὐαγγελίῳ: ταληθὰ, κούμ, ἤγουν ἡ παῖς ἐγείρου. ὅθεν δῆλον, ὅτι διὰ τῶν δύο ββ γραπτέον τὸ Ἀββακούμ.
Notes:
An etymology for the name of the prophet Habakkuk (in the Septuagint, Ambakoum or Avvakoum), based on two Aramaic words found in the New Testament. The Suda is drawing from older onomastica; the same etymology is found in the Origenistic lexicon (see bibliography).
[1] See already alpha 10. The Hebrew/Aramaic אבּא abba means father.
[2] The Hebrew/Aramaic קום kūm means arise; it can also be used to mean awake.
[3] Mark 5:41 (web address 1); not in the other Gospels, but several times in patristic literature.
[4] The Suda is correct. The doubling of the בּ is indicated by its dot (dagesh); unlike Greek, Hebrew and Aramaic do not replicate doubled letters.
Reference:
Paul de Lagarde, Onomastica Sacra, p. 200, line 14-15
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: children; Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; imagery; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:59:43.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Altered wording.) on 29 July 2000@23:23:46.
Catharine Roth (Augmented note with information supplied by Lee Fields.) on 1 May 2001@19:02:40.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; cosmetics) on 22 July 2003@10:07:42.
Raphael Finkel (Added notes 2, 4, Hebrew.) on 12 August 2004@14:47:21.
Catharine Roth (added a keyword) on 8 October 2005@00:31:59.
William Hutton (cosmetics, added keywords and link, set status) on 21 August 2007@09:59:47.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 24 March 2008@23:27:14.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 17 December 2011@00:23:06.
David Whitehead (another keyword; typo and other cosmetics) on 18 December 2011@10:27:45.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 18 December 2011@10:53:04.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 August 2013@01:12:51.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@13:38:11.
David Whitehead (expanded a note; cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@08:48:00.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@06:56:57.

Headword: Ἄβαξι
Adler number: alpha,16
Translated headword: planks, abacuses
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
What we call ἀβάκια .[1] The Lawmaker [says] in the Martyrdom of Saint Thecla: "Tryphaina was overcome by suffering, and was seen lying like the dead on the slabs."[2] So he says.
Greek Original:
Ἄβαξι: τοῖς παρ' ἡμῖν λεγομένοις ἀβακίοις. ὁ Λογοθέτης ἐν τῷ τῆς ἁγίας Θέκλης μαρτυρίῳ: Τρύφαινα δὲ πάθει ληφθεῖσα νεκροῖς ὁμοία πρὸς τοῖς ἄβαξιν ὡρᾶτο κειμένη. οὕτω φησίν.
Notes:
This entry occurs after alpha 17 in ms A (= Parisinus 2625), after alpha 9 in ms S (= Vaticanus 1296) and in the margin of ms D (Bodleianus Auct. V 52).
[1] The given form is a dative plural of ἄβαξ , ("abacus"), and the lexicographer explains it by reference to the diminutive ἀβάκιον . The primary sense is a table topped by a slab, or the slab itself; a "calculator" is a secondary meaning.
[2] Symeon Metaphrastes (also known as the Logothete ('Lawmaker')) Patrologia Graeca 115.837c. On Thecla, cf. tau 1108.
Keywords: biography; Christianity; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; history; mathematics; religion; science and technology; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:53:59.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation and notes, added keywords, raised status) on 18 January 2001@09:46:37.
Catharine Roth (modified translation, augmented note) on 7 November 2002@15:06:33.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 7 November 2002@15:08:44.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 November 2005@09:20:27.
Catharine Roth (added keyword) on 6 September 2006@23:44:05.
William Hutton (modified headword and translation, augmented notes, set status) on 24 August 2007@09:36:45.
William Hutton on 24 August 2007@09:42:51.
Jennifer Benedict (tweaks) on 24 March 2008@23:50:31.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 18 December 2011@10:35:22.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 February 2015@23:44:46.

Headword: Ἄβαρις
Adler number: alpha,18
Translated headword: Abaris, Avars
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Scythian, son of Seuthes. He wrote the so-called Scythinian Oracles[1] and Marriage of the river Hebros and Purifications and a Theogony in prose and Arrival of Apollo among the Hyperboreans in meter. He came from Scythia to Greece.
The legendary arrow belongs to him, the one he flew on from Greece to Hyperborean Scythia. It was given to him by Apollo.[2]
Gregory the Theologian mentioned this man in his Epitaphios for Basil the Great.[3]
They say[4] that once, when there was a plague throughout the entire inhabited world, Apollo told the Greeks and barbarians who had come to consult his oracle that the Athenian people should make prayers on behalf of all of them. So, many peoples sent ambassadors to them, and Abaris, they say, came as ambassador of the Hyperboreans in the third Olympiad.[5]
[Note] that the Bulgarians thoroughly destroyed the Avars[6] by force.
[Note] that these Avars drove out the Sabinorians, when they themselves had been expelled by peoples living near the shore of the Ocean, who left their own land when a mist formed in the flood of the Ocean and a crowd of griffins appeared; the story was that they would not stop until they had devoured the race of men. So the people driven away by these monsters invaded their neighbors. As the invaders were stronger, the others submitted and left, just as the Saragurians, when they were driven out, went to the Akatziri Huns.[7]
The declension is Abaris, Abaridos [genitive singular], Abaridas [accusative plural], and with apocope Abaris [nominative plural].
See about these things under 'Bulgarians'.[8]
Greek Original:
Ἄβαρις: Σκύθης, Σεύθου υἱός. συνεγράψατο δὲ χρησμοὺς τοὺς καλουμένους Σκυθινοὺς καὶ Γάμον Ἕβρου τοῦ ποταμοῦ καὶ Καθαρμοὺς καὶ Θεογονίαν καταλογάδην καὶ Ἀπόλλωνος ἄφιξιν εἰς Ὑπερβορέους ἐμμέτρως. ἧκε δὲ ἐκ Σκυθῶν εἰς Ἑλλάδα. τούτου ὁ μυθολογούμενος ὀϊστὸς, τοῦ πετομένου ἀπὸ τῆς Ἑλλάδος μέχρι τῶν Ὑπερβορέων Σκυθῶν: ἐδόθη δὲ αὐτῷ παρὰ τοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος. τούτου καὶ Γρηγόριος ὁ Θεολόγος ἐν τῷ εἰς τὸν μέγαν Βασίλειον Ἐπιταφίῳ μνήμην πεποίηται. φασὶ δὲ ὅτι λοιμοῦ κατὰ πᾶσαν τὴν οἰκουμένην γεγονότος ἀνεῖλεν ὁ Ἀπόλλων μαντευομένοις Ἕλλησι καὶ βαρβάροις τὸν Ἀθηναίων δῆμον ὑπὲρ πάντων εὐχὰς ποιήσασθαι. πρεσβευομένων δὲ πολλῶν ἐθνῶν πρὸς αὐτοὺς, καὶ Ἄβαριν ἐξ Ὑπερβορέων πρεσβευτὴν ἀφικέσθαι λέγουσι κατὰ τὴν γ# Ὀλυμπιάδα. ὅτι τοὺς Ἀβάρις οἱ Βούλγαροι κατὰ κράτος ἄρδην ἠφάνισαν. ὅτι οἱ Ἀβάρις οὗτοι ἐξήλασαν Σαβίνωρας, μετανάσται γενόμενοι ὑπὸ ἐθνῶν οἰκούντων μὲν τὴν παρωκεανῖτιν ἀκτήν, τὴν δὲ χώραν ἀπολιπόντων διὰ τὸ ἐξ ἀναχύσεως τοῦ Ὠκεανοῦ ὁμιχλῶδες γινόμενον, καὶ γρυπῶν δὲ πλῆθος ἀναφανέν: ὅπερ ἦν λόγος μὴ πρότερον παύσασθαι πρὶν ἢ βορὰν ποιῆσαι τὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων γένος. διὸ δὴ ὑπὸ τῶνδε ἐλαυνόμενοι τῶν δεινῶν τοῖς πλησιοχώροις ἐνέβαλλον: καὶ τῶν ἐπιόντων δυνατωτέρων ὄντων οἱ τὴν ἔφοδον ὑφιστάμενοι μετανίσταντο, ὥσπερ καὶ οἱ Σαράγουροι ἐλαθέντες πρὸς τοῖς Ἀκατίροις Οὔννοις ἐγένοντο. κλίνεται δὲ Ἄβαρις, Ἀβάριδος, τοὺς Ἀβάριδας, καὶ κατὰ ἀποκοπὴν Ἀβάρις. ζήτει περὶ τῶν αὐτῶν ἐν τῷ Βούλγαροι.
Notes:
See generally A.H. Griffiths in OCD(4) p.1: "legendary devotee of Apollo from the far north, a shamanistic missionary and saviour-figure like Aristeas [alpha 3900]". Adler credits this part of the entry to the Epitome Onomatologi Hesychii Milesii.
[1] Or in one manuscript, 'Skythian'.
[2] Perhaps from a scholion on the passage about to be cited (so Adler). Cf. Herodotos 4.36.1 (web address 1).
[3] Gregory of Nazianzus PG 36.524b.
[4] This material is from Harpokration s.v. Ἄβαρις
[5] 768-765 BCE. Harpokration (see preceding note) cites Hippostratos (FGrH 568 F4) to this effect, but adds that there were later alternatives: the twenty-first Olympiad (696-693) or "the time of Croesus, king of Lydia" (so Pindar, fr.270 Snell-Maehler), i.e. c.560-546.
[6] The word used for the Avars here, Ἀβάρις , is a homograph for the name of the Hyperborean wise man Abaris, so this separate section on the Avars is included in this entry. There is no indication that the lexicographer sees any connection between the two topics.
[7] Priscus fr.30 FHG (4.104), still 30 Bornmann. The final part reappears at alpha 820 and sigma 111.
[8] beta 423.
References:
RE Abaris (1) I.16-17
Macartney, C.A. "On the Greek Sources for the History of the Turks in the Sixth Century." BSOAS 11 (1944): 266-275
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; Christianity; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; history; mythology; philosophy; poetry; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@17:03:41.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation and notes, added keywords, set status.) on 19 January 2001@14:57:43.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and bibliography; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@05:20:43.
David Whitehead (added note) on 14 February 2001@06:09:48.
Mihai Olteanu (The only thracian item concerning Abaris is his father's name. Everything else pledes for his sythian ('hyperborean') origin. This is why I suppose we deal here with a copist mistake, and I propose the emendation: ́Αβαρις: Σκύθης, *Σκύθου υἱός (for Σκύθης as mythological character, see for example Herodotos 4,10).) on 22 January 2002@21:55:20.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 23 January 2002@03:11:25.
David Whitehead (augmented n.6 and added a keyword) on 5 October 2004@03:21:13.
William Hutton (augmented notes, added link and keywords, set status) on 24 August 2007@11:05:00.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 25 March 2008@00:16:43.
David Whitehead (another note; cosmetics) on 28 March 2014@06:23:27.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:06:21.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 31 January 2015@09:22:24.

Headword: Ἀβαχθανῆ
Adler number: alpha,24
Translated headword: abakhthani
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A Hebrew expression.
Greek Original:
Ἀβαχθανῆ: λέξις Ἑβραϊκή.
Notes:
Strictly speaking the headword is a truncated Aramaic, rather than Hebrew, term. Its proper form in Greek transliteration is σαβαχθάνι and translates "you have forsaken me." The term occurs at Matthew 27:46 and Mark 15:34, where Jesus on the cross quotes Psalm 21:2 LXX (22:2 MT): "God, my God, ... why have you forsaken me?" (see eta 210). For the Hebrew, see Kohlenberger, 3.367. In Aramaic, "why have you forsaken me" is למא שבקתני lama šaḇaqtani. The Suda has carelessly disassociated the sigma, creating in effect "lamas aḇaqtani or ἀβαχθανη --a clear signal that the compiler was unfamiliar with Aramaic. The Psalmic Hebrew original is עזבתני 'azaḇtani, from עזב ʿazaḇ "forsake, forget". For the triliteral root citation, see Brown, Driver, and Briggs, 736ff. For šaḇaqtani (from שבק šeḇaq), see Perschbacher, 364; Danker, 909.
The Suda item has a circumflex accent on the final syllable. In the Hebrew עזבתני ʿazaḇtani, the accent falls on the penultimate syllable (-ta-), consistent with perfects suffixed with a first person singular pronoun; for this, see Kelley, 154.A; Gesenius, 155(58.1). So in the Aramaic, the accent falls on the penultimate syllable (-ta-). That said, the accent in Greek transliteration is inconsistent. Perschbacher places it over the final iota (σαβαχθανί ) in the headword; however, his citation from The Greek New Testament According to the Majority Text (1982) places the accent over the penultimate (σαβαχθάνι ). In addition, Perschbacher offers the transliteration σαβαχθανεί from The New Testament in the Original Greek (1881). Danker places the accent over the penultimate syllable.
Phonologically, the Aramaic shin (ש š /ʃ/) cannot be accommodated by Greek, which must substitute sigma. For a parallel instance, see omega 182 (note 47). Both chi (for Aramaic ק qaf) and theta (for Aramaic ת taw) function as aspirated plosives (equivalent to English "kit" and "top"). See Allen, 16-17. The theta is noteworthy insofar as its sound value parallels that of the taw (ת) in šaḇaqtani, hardened by silent shewa and dagesh lene. Moreover, the Aramaic in Greek transliteration bolsters the linguistic argument for the compound "chi-theta" as successive aspirated plosives. See Allen, 24-27. Aramaic taw, like its Hebrew counterpart, otherwise has a "th" (as in "both") value. See "Aramaic" in Encyclopaedia Judaica, 3.263; a modern descriptive approach is found in "Aramaic" (Kaufman). For theta as a fricative in Hebrew transliteration, see omega 182 (note 47).
That the Suda terminates the headword with eta rather than iota (paralleling the Aramaic khireq-yod or long "i") showcases a phonological shift in Greek. By the 3rd century CE, the Greek letters eta, and the digraph epsilon-iota (note the -ει alternative in Perschbacher) were sounded as long iota. See Allen, 74. The Suda compiler viewed eta as the more elegant solution. This feature bears directly on the Suda's own taxonomy: the homophones epsilon-iota, eta, and iota follow zeta in the Suda's "alphabetical" scheme. See "Suidas" in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, XXVI.51.
References:
Allen, W.S. Vox Graeca. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1968
"Aramaic" in Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1973
Brown, F., Driver, S.R., and Briggs, C.A. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon, 1951
Danker, F.W. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2000
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910
Kelley, P.H. Biblical Hebrew: An Introductory Grammar. Grand Rapids: William B. Erdmans, 1992
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987
Kaufman, S.A. "Aramaic" in Hetzron, R. The Semitic Languages. New York: Routledge, 1997
Perschbacher, W.J. The New Analytical Greek Lexicon. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1996
"Suidas" in Encyclopaedia Britannica. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1910
Keywords: Christianity; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 4 December 1999@16:23:20.
Vetted by:
Raphael Finkel on 9 December 1999@11:17:30.
Elizabeth Vandiver on 14 December 1999@16:17:44.
Craig Miller on 27 May 2002@01:29:46.
Craig Miller (Reformatted translation; modified/expanded notes; added bibliography; expanded keywords. Cosmetics pending by editor.) on 27 May 2002@01:58:58.
Craig Miller (Cosmetics) on 27 May 2002@15:48:11.
Craig Miller on 27 May 2002@16:11:44.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 4 October 2002@00:55:00.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew and Aramaic characters.) on 31 October 2002@10:06:56.
Raphael Finkel (Minor fixes.) on 31 October 2002@12:39:23.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added italics; cosmetics) on 12 February 2005@21:58:54.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 1 March 2006@01:08:11.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 December 2011@06:21:33.
Catharine Roth (coding, typo) on 5 August 2013@00:57:53.
Raphael Finkel (Fixed translation of LXX; changed to ISO 259 Romanization of Hebrew and Aramaic.) on 7 August 2014@13:30:23.
Raphael Finkel (Standardized Romanization fonts.) on 7 August 2014@13:46:48.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:25:56.

Headword: Ἀβέβηλα
Adler number: alpha,29
Translated headword: inviolable [places]
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] places that must not be walked on, holy and sacred places. For βέβηλα meant what is not holy or sacred, where anyone may walk.
Also [sc. attested is] βέβηλοι , [meaning] those who do not have a share in sacred things.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] λόγοι ἀβέβηλοι , [meaning] words that may not be spoken.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] ἀβέβηλος , [meaning someone or something masculine] pure.[3]
Greek Original:
Ἀβέβηλα: τὰ μὴ βάσιμα χωρία, ἱερὰ δὲ καὶ ὅσια. βέβηλα γὰρ ἐλέγετο τὰ μὴ ὅσια μηδὲ ἱερὰ, παντὶ δὲ βάσιμα. καὶ Βέβηλοι, οἱ μὴ κεκοινωνηκότες ἱερῶν. καὶ Λόγοι ἀβέβηλοι, οἱ ἀπόρρητοι. καὶ Ἀβέβηλος, ὁ καθαρός.
Notes:
The closest parallel to the entry as a whole is Photius, Lexicon alpha34 Theodoridis. Various parts of it appear in other lexica, as noted below.
[1] This part is a paraphrase of what appears in Photius; cf. beta 218.
[2] This part of the entry is not paralleled in other lexica.
[3] This appears as the first gloss in Photius and constitutes the entire entry at Synagoge alpha6; cf. Hesychius alpha101, with neuter/accusative equivalents. Cyril of Alexandria uses the headword frequently in conjunction with καθαρός .
Keywords: Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; geography; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 23 August 1998@16:27:02.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation and keywords, set status) on 20 January 2001@23:11:04.
Catharine Roth (Added link.) on 21 January 2001@01:35:20.
David Whitehead (supplemented translation; added keyword; cosmetics) on 9 June 2003@07:15:41.
Catharine Roth (changed italics to betacode) on 8 October 2005@00:35:16.
Catharine Roth (augmented notes, deleted link, raised status) on 8 October 2007@00:22:04.
William Hutton (Augmented and rearranged notes) on 11 November 2007@07:30:53.
Jennifer Benedict (changed spelling of "Photios" so that it's linked in) on 25 March 2008@01:01:35.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 19 December 2011@06:44:18.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:37:30.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 3 September 2014@23:32:38.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@09:11:39.

Headword: Ἄβελ
Adler number: alpha,30
Translated headword: Abel
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Son of Adam.[1] This man was chaste and just from the beginning and a shepherd of flocks; out of these he offered a sacrifice to God and was accepted, but was then killed because he was envied by his brother Cain.[2] Cain happened to be a farmer and after the judgement he lived worse, with groaning and trembling. For Abel, by dedicating the firstborn [of the flock] to God, recommended himself as more God-loving than self-loving,[3] and because this was a good choice, he was accepted. But Cain impiously kept his first-fruits for himself and gave the seconds to God, and for this reason was rightly rejected. For it says: "and after some days it happened that Cain offered from the fruits of the earth."[4] Cain was disgraced by the fact that the produce he offered was not the first-fruits but that which was some days old and second-best.
Greek Original:
Ἄβελ: υἱὸς Ἀδάμ. οὗτος παρθένος καὶ δίκαιος ὑπῆρχε καὶ ποιμὴν προβάτων: ἐξ ὧν καὶ θυσίαν τῷ θεῷ προσαγαγὼν καὶ δεχθεὶς ἀναιρεῖται, φθονηθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ Κάϊν. ὁ Κάϊν δὲ γεωργὸς τυγχάνων καὶ μετὰ τὴν δίκην χειρόνως βιώσας στένων καὶ τρέμων ἦν. ὁ γὰρ Ἄβελ τὰ πρωτότοκα τῷ θεῷ καθιερῶν φιλόθεον μᾶλλον ἢ φίλαυτον ἑαυτὸν συνίστη, ὅθεν καὶ διὰ τῆς ἀγαθῆς αὐτοῦ προαιρέσεως ἀπεδέχθη. ὁ δὲ Κάϊν δυσσεβῶς ἑαυτῷ ἀπονέμων τὰ πρωτογεννήματα, θεῷ δὲ τὰ δεύτερα, εἰκότως καὶ ἀπεβλήθη. φησὶ γάρ: καὶ ἐγένετο μεθ' ἡμέρας, προσήνεγκε Κάϊν ἀπὸ τῶν καρπῶν τῆς γῆς. ὥστε διὰ τοῦτο Κάϊν ἐλέγχεται, ὅτι μὴ τὰ ἀκροθίνια γεννήματα προσήνεγκε τῷ θεῷ, ἀλλὰ τὰ μεθ' ἡμέρας καὶ δεύτερα.
Notes:
George the Monk, Chronicon 6.10-7.16.
[1] alpha 425.
[2] kappa 27.
[3] Again at sigma 1580.
[4] Genesis 4:3.
Keywords: agriculture; biography; botany; Christianity; daily life; ethics; food; historiography; religion; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:57:27.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, keywords, set status) on 27 January 2001@12:23:00.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 27 February 2003@08:28:31.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 8 September 2003@06:15:32.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@10:57:50.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics; raised status) on 22 June 2011@07:14:12.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 29 August 2012@10:24:09.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 August 2013@01:03:34.

Headword: Ἀβιά
Adler number: alpha,39
Translated headword: Abia, Abijah
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
Ἀβιά: ὄνομα κύριον.
Notes:
(Entry lacking, Adler reports, in ms S.)
1 Kings 15:1-8 LXX, Matthew 1.7. Son of Rehoboam and father of Asaph (Asa); king of Judah. See also alpha 42, Ἀβίας , a different transliteration of the name, but the same figure.
Keywords: biography; Christianity; definition; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:52:26.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, set status) on 26 January 2001@23:18:53.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords) on 27 February 2003@08:32:42.
Jennifer Benedict (Added headword, expanded note) on 23 March 2008@14:11:16.
Jennifer Benedict (added x-ref, more expansion of note) on 23 March 2008@14:15:19.
Catharine Roth (tweaked betacode) on 24 March 2008@00:09:30.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@07:35:19.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 19 December 2011@07:04:03.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:32:01.
David Whitehead (another note) on 28 March 2014@06:28:33.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:28:24.

Headword: Ἀβιάθαρ
Adler number: alpha,41
Translated headword: Abiathar
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
Ἀβιάθαρ: ὄνομα κύριον.
Notes:
In Mark 2.26, Abiathar is a priest who gives sacred food to David and his men.
In 1 Samuel 21.4-8, the priest is Ahimilech, and Abiathar is his son; cf. 1 Samuel 22.20.
Keywords: biography; Christianity; definition; food; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:53:54.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, set status.) on 26 January 2001@23:22:05.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords) on 27 February 2003@08:34:57.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@07:36:15.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:37:32.

Headword: Ἀβιούδ
Adler number: alpha,48
Translated headword: Abioud, Abihud
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
Ἀβιούδ: ὄνομα κύριον.
Notes:
Exodus 6:23 (etc.): a son of Aaron.
cf. the genealogy of Christ at Matthew 1:13 (son of Zorobabel, father of Eliakim).
Keywords: biography; Christianity; definition; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:00:24.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, set status) on 28 January 2001@20:47:42.
William Hutton (Added note and keyword) on 29 January 2001@19:34:27.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 27 February 2003@08:44:09.
Catharine Roth (cosmetic, keyword) on 17 November 2009@18:43:35.
David Whitehead (expanded notes) on 19 December 2011@07:26:26.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 8 August 2013@00:39:08.

Headword: Ἄβιτος
Adler number: alpha,53
Translated headword: Abitos, Abitus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
"Abitos built himself an ascetic's cell."[1]
Greek Original:
Ἄβιτος: ὄνομα κύριον. Ἄβιτος τὴν ἀσκητικὴν καλύβην ἐπήξατο.
Note:
[1] Quotation not identified by Adler, but a TLG search reveals it to be Theodoret, Historia religiosa, Vita 3.12 (lightly abridged). See on this Theodoridis' Photius edition, vol.II p.LXXXI.
Keywords: biography; Christianity; definition; ethics; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:05:27.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, keyword, set status) on 30 January 2001@08:07:35.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword) on 31 January 2001@03:56:53.
David Whitehead (modified note, with source identification; more keywords) on 18 February 2011@06:43:58.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 11 October 2011@03:32:47.
David Whitehead on 19 December 2011@07:49:57.

Headword: Ἀβραάμ
Adler number: alpha,69
Translated headword: Abraham
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The first among patriarchs; [it was he] in whom the Hebrew people took pride at first, before they rebelled against God, became estranged from Him, and shed upon themselves the blood of His Only-Begotten Son.[1] This man came out of the land of the Chaldeans, who devoted their entire lives to the stars and heavenly bodies. Trained, therefore, as was their ancestral custom, to observe the motions of the heavenly bodies[2] he surmised that the masterwork underlying this visible creation was not to be found in such objects, but had a Creator who set them in motion, gave harmony to their paths, and ordered the entire universe. Because of the greatness and beauty of the things He had made, Abraham, as it was likely, ceased devoting himself to gazing out into the heavens nor did he squander his passion in their pursuit. Instead, by surmounting the celestial vaults and transcending all the intelligible realm beyond the cosmos, Abraham no longer stood apart from the One sought, until finally the Creator for whom he yearned manifested Himself to Abraham in likenesses[3] and forms. And in this way the Unseen and Invisible revealed Himself. And [God] sent him forth from his own land as a wanderer and settled him in the land of the Canaanites. There he dwelled, now being in about his ninety-ninth year.[4] Until this time, he was childless; then [God] made him the father of the miraculous and blessed Isaac that he might have a first-born, only-begotten son[5] -- prefiguring the mystical image of the First-Born, Only-Begotten Son.[6] This was an exceedingly singular[7] honor bestowed upon Abraham, for the Creator favored him with the titles Servant, Beloved, and Father by flesh of the Only Begotten Son of Him who fashioned the entire universe.[8] Abraham invented sacred writing and devised the language of which Hebrew children used to have a command, as they were this man's disciples and descendants. Moreover, the Greek alphabet received its impetus from this script,[9] even if Greeks amused themselves by forming the letters differently. Proof of this is in the pronunciation of the first and preeminent letter "alpha" because it derives its name from the Hebrew "aleph" by way of the Blessed, First, and Eternal Name.[10] So too, the Greeks through Abraham came to possess books on dream interpretation. Witness to this is Joseph, the truly wondrous descendant of Abraham, who interpreted Pharoah's dreams as they were going to turn out in fact. In this, Philo, the Jewish philosopher, will be my confirmation via his work Life of the Statesman.[11] About Philo it is said "Philo platonizes and Plato philonizes."[12]
The practice of idolatry extended from Serug[13] to the time of Abraham's father Tharron.[14] Thus, when Abraham was 14 years old[15] and deemed worthy of divine knowledge, he upbraided his father, "Why do you lead the people astray for harmful gain (that is, with idols)? There is no other God but the One in heaven, the Creator of the entire universe." Yet seeing the people serving earthly things, he embarked on a tireless quest, seeking out with his pious heart the Truly Existing God.[16] But seeing that the sky is sometimes light and sometimes dark, he said to himself, "That is not God." Observing similarly the sun and the moon, the one obscured and eclipsed and the other waning and occluded, he said, "Those are not gods either." True, he was trained in astronomy by his father, but Abraham all the same was puzzled by the motions of the stars and scornful of them. But God appeared to him and said, "Go out of your land and leave your kinsmen."[17] Abraham took his father's idols, smashing some and incinerating others. Then he went away with his father out of the land of the Chaldeans. And they came to Haran,[18] where his father died. He left there, obeying the Lord's word, with his wife Sarah and his nephew Lot[19] and all their possessions, and came to the promised land Canaan, which the Canaanites had seized and settled in. When a famine arose, Abraham left the land of the Canaanites and went into Egypt, where Abimelech[20] the king took his wife Sarah. God struck terror into Abimelech and paralysed his limbs, saying "Give this man back his wife, because he is a prophet and will pray for you, and you will live. But if you do not give her back, know that you and your entire household will die." When Abraham got his wife back, undefiled, he prayed, and Abimelech and his household were cured of the paralysis.[21] After this the king, honoring Abraham and devoting himself to his sayings, became a pious and expert teacher to the Egyptians. The same Abraham, upon returning from war,[22] was considered worthy of blessing by Melchisedek, king of Salem, who brought bread and wine out to him. Melchisedek was a priest of the Most High, and Abraham gave to Him a tenth of all he had. Melchisedek was without father, mother, or lineage, like the Son of God.[23]
When Abram[24] lamented to God about his childlessness, God revealed to him through a dream that his descendants would be as numerous as the stars. And he believed God, and God reckoned it to him as righteousness.[25] Now Sarah, who was barren, gave Abraham permission to father a child with her maidservant, and she bore Ismael.[26] And when Abram was 99 years old, God appeared to him and altered his name to Abraham, for until then he had been called Abram. Similarly, Sarah became Sarrah with another "r".[27] And Abraham circumcised Ismael and all his descendants. Moreover, when the Lord was being shown the hospitality of Abraham's house, He promised Abraham that Sarrah would bear him a son. But Sarrah smiled; and the one who was begotten was called Isaac, by the Hebrew name that means "laughter with delight."[28]
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] Αβραμιαῖος : [meaning] descendant of Abraham, or towering, revered.[29]
Greek Original:
Ἀβραάμ: ὁ πρῶτος ἐν πατριάρχαις: εἰς ὃν ἀπεσεμνύνετο δῆμος ὁ τῶν Ἑβραίων τὸ πρότερον, πρὶν ἢ θεοῦ ἀποσκιρτῆσαι καὶ γενέσθαι τούτου ἀλλότριοι καὶ τὸ τοῦ μονογενοῦς υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ αἷμα ἐφ' ἑαυτοὺς ἐπισπάσασθαι. οὗτος ἐκ μὲν τῆς Χαλδαίων γῆς ὑπῆρχεν ὁρμώμενος, τῶν περὶ τὰ μετέωρα καὶ τοὺς ἀστέρας τὸν βίον ὅλον καταναλισκόντων. ἀσκηθεὶς οὖν κατὰ τὸν πάτριον νόμον τὰς τῶν ἐπουρανίων ἀστέρων κινήσεις καὶ στοχασάμενος ὡς οὐκ ἐν τούτοις ἵσταται τὸ μεγαλουργὸν τῆς φαινομένης ταυτησὶ κτίσεως, ἀλλ' ἔχει τινὰ τὸν δημιουργὸν τὸν καὶ κινοῦντα καὶ διευθύνοντα τὴν ἐναρμόνιον τῶν ἀστέρων πορείαν καὶ τοῦ κόσμου παντὸς τὴν κατάστασιν, καὶ διὰ τοῦ μεγέθους καὶ τῆς καλλονῆς τῶν κτισμάτων τὸν γενεσιουργὸν αὐτῶν, ὡς ἐνῆν, θεωρήσας οὐκ ἔστη μέχρι τούτων, οὐδὲ τὴν ἔφεσιν εἰς ταῦτα κατεδαπάνησεν, ἀλλὰ τῶν οὐρανίων ἁψίδων ὑπεραρθεὶς καὶ πᾶσαν διαβὰς τὴν νοητήν τε καὶ ὑπερκόσμιον σύμπηξιν οὐκ ἀπέστη τοῦ ζητουμένου, ἕως οὗ ὁ ποθούμενος ἑαυτὸν αὐτῷ ἐφανέρωσε τύποις τε καὶ μορφώμασιν, οἷς ἑαυτὸν ἐμφανίζει ὁ ἀφανὴς καὶ ἀόρατος. καὶ μετανάστην αὐτὸν ἐκ τῆς πατρίδος λαβὼν ἐπὶ τὴν Χανανῖτιν κατέστησε, τὸν ἐνενηκοστόν που καὶ ἔνατον ἤδη χρόνον παρέλκοντα: καὶ ἄπαιδα μέχρι τότε τυγχάνοντα γεννήτορα τοῦ θαυμασίου καὶ μάκαρος κατέ- στησεν Ἰσαὰκ, ἵν' ἔχοι μονογενῆ υἱὸν καὶ πρωτότοκον, τοῦ μονογενοῦς καὶ πρωτοτόκου μυστικὴν εἰκόνα προδιαγράφοντα: τοῦτο γέρας αὐτῷ κατ' ἐξαίρετον χαρισάμενος, τὸ δοῦλον καὶ φίλον καὶ πατέρα χρηματίσαι τοῦ μονογενοῦς υἱοῦ κατὰ σάρκα, τοῦ τὸν κόσμον ὅλον δημιουργήσαντος. οὗτος εὗρε μὲν ἱερὰ γράμματα καὶ γλῶσσαν ἐμηχανήσατο, ἧς Ἑβραίων παῖδες ἐν ἐπιστήμῃ ἐτύγχανον, ὡς ὄντες τούτου μαθηταὶ καὶ ἀπόγονοι. ἐκ τούτου καὶ τὰ Ἑλλήνων γράμματα τὰς ἀφορμὰς ἔλαβον, κἂν ἄλλως καὶ ἄλλως ἑαυτοὺς διαπαίζοντες ἀναγράφωσιν Ἕλληνες. καὶ τούτου μαρτύριον ἡ τοῦ Ἄλφα φωνὴ τοῦ πρώτου στοιχείου καὶ ἄρχοντος, ἀπὸ τοῦ Ἄλεφ Ἑβραίου λαβόντος τὴν ἐπίκλησιν τοῦ μακαρίου καὶ πρώτου καὶ ἀθανάτου ὀνόματος. ἐκ τούτου καὶ τὰ ὀνείρων βιβλία ἐσφετερίσαντο Ἕλληνες. καὶ μάρτυς Ἰωσὴφ ὁ πανθαύμαστος ὁ τούτου ἀπόγονος, ὁ τοῦ Φαραὼ τὰ ἐνύπνια ὡς ἔμελλον ἀποβήσεσθαι διηγούμενος. τοῦτό μοι καὶ Φίλων, ἐξ Ἑβραίων φιλόσοφος, ἐν τῷ τοῦ Πολιτικοῦ βίῳ συνεπιμαρτυρήσεται, Φίλων, περὶ οὗ ἐρρήθη, Φίλων πλατωνίζει, καὶ Πλάτων φιλωνίζει. ὅτι ἤρξατο ἡ εἰδωλολατρεία ἀπὸ Σεροὺχ ἕως τῶν χρόνων Θάρρα τοῦ πατρὸς Ἀβραάμ. ὃς Ἀβραὰμ ὑπάρχων ἐτῶν ιδ# καὶ θεογνωσίας ἀξιωθεὶς ἐνουθέτει τὸν πατέρα αὐτοῦ, λέγων: τί πλανᾷς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους διὰ κέρδος ἐπιζήμιον [τουτέστι τὰ εἴδωλα]; οὐκ ἔστιν ἄλλος θεὸς εἰ μὴ ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς, ὁ καὶ πάντα τὸν κόσμον δημιουργήσας. ὁρῶν γὰρ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους κτισματολατροῦντας διήρχετο διαπονούμενος καὶ τὸν ὄντως ὄντα θεὸν ἐκζητῶν ἐκ φιλοθέου καρδίας. ὁρῶν δὲ τὸν οὐρανὸν ποτὲ μὲν λαμπρὸν, ποτὲ δὲ σκοτεινὸν, ἔλεγεν ἐν ἑαυτῷ: οὐκ ἔστιν οὗτος θεός. ὁμοίως καὶ τὸν ἥλιον καὶ τὴν σελήνην, τὸν μὲν ἀποκρυπτόμενον καὶ ἀμαυρούμενον, τὴν δὲ φθίνουσαν καὶ ἀπολήγουσαν, ἔφησεν: οὐδ' οὗτοί εἰσι θεοί. καὶ μέντοι καὶ τὴν τῶν ἀστέρων κίνησιν, ἐκ τοῦ πατρὸς γὰρ ἐπαιδεύετο τὴν ἀστρονομίαν, καὶ ἀπορῶν ἐδυσχέραινεν. ὤφθη δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ θεὸς καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ: ἔξελθε ἐκ τῆς γῆς σου καὶ ἐκ τῆς συγγενείας σου. καὶ λαβὼν τὰ εἴδωλα τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ τὰ μὲν κλάσας τὰ δὲ ἐμπυρίσας ἀνεχώρησε μετὰ τοῦ πατρὸς ἐκ γῆς Χαλδαίων: καὶ ἐλθόντος εἰς Χαρρὰν, ἐτελεύτησεν ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ. καὶ ἐξελθὼν ἐκεῖθεν ἐν λόγῳ Κυρίου ἦλθε σὺν τῇ γυναικὶ Σάρρᾳ καὶ τῷ ἀνεψιῷ Λὼτ μετὰ πάσης αὐτῶν τῆς ἀποσκευῆς εἰς τὴν ὀφειλομένην γῆν Χαναὰν, ἣν οἱ Χαναναῖοι τυραννικῶς ἀφελόμενοι ᾤκησαν. λιμοῦ δὲ γενομένου καταλιπὼν τὴν Χαναναίων γῆν εἰς Αἴγυπτον ἀπῄει, οὗ τὴν γυναῖκα Σάρραν Ἀβιμέλεχ ἥρπασεν ὁ βασιλεύς. τοῦτον ὁ θεὸς ἐκδειματώσας καὶ πάρεσιν τῶν μελῶν ἐπάξας, ἀπόδος, ἔφη, τὴν γυναῖκα τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ, ὅτι προφήτης ἐστὶ καὶ προσεύξεται περὶ σοῦ καὶ ζήσεις. εἰ δὲ μὴ ἀποδῷς, γνῶθι ὅτι ἀποθανῇ σὺ καὶ τὰ σὰ πάντα. καὶ οὕτως ἀπολαβὼν τὴν γυναῖκα ἀμίαντον καὶ προσευξάμενος ἰαθῆναι ἐποίησε τῆς παρέσεως Ἀβιμέλεχ καὶ τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ. ἔκτοτε τιμῶν αὐτὸν ὁ βασιλεὺς καὶ προσέχων τοῖς ὑπ' αὐτοῦ λεγομένοις, διδάσκαλος εὐσεβείας καὶ πολυπειρίας Αἰγυπτίοις ἐγένετο. ὁ αὐτὸς Ἄβραμ ὑποστρέφων ἐκ τοῦ πολέμου τῆς εὐλογίας τοῦ Μελχισεδὲκ κατηξίωται, τοῦ βασιλέως Σαλὴμ, ὃς ἐξήνεγκεν αὐτῷ ἄρτους καὶ οἶνον. ἦν δὲ καὶ ἱερεὺς τοῦ Ὑψίστου. καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ Ἄβραμ δεκάτην ἀπὸ πάντων. ἦν δὲ ὁ Μελχισεδὲκ ἀπάτωρ, ἀμήτωρ, ἀγενεαλόγητος, ἀφωμοιωμένος τῷ υἱῷ τοῦ θεοῦ. τῷ δὲ Ἄβραμ ἀτεκνίαν ὀλοφυρομένῳ καθ' ὕπνους ἐπιδείξας ὁ θεὸς τοὺς ἀστέρας κατὰ τὸ πλῆθος αὐτῶν ἔσεσθαί οἱ τὸ σπέρμα προεδήλου. ὁ δὲ ἐπίστευσε τῷ θεῷ, καὶ ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ εἰς δικαιοσύνην. ἡ δὲ Σάρρα στεῖρα οὖσα συνεχώρησεν Ἄβραμ ἀπὸ τῆς παιδίσκης παιδοποιήσασθαι: καὶ ἴσχει τὸν Ἰσμαήλ. ἐνενήκοντα δὲ καὶ ἐννέα ἐτῶν ὄντι τῷ Ἄβραμ ἐπιφανεὶς ὁ θεὸς Ἀβραὰμ μετωνόμασεν: Ἄβραμ γὰρ πρώην ὠνομάζετο: ὁμοίως καὶ τὴν Σάραν Σάρραν, προσθεὶς καὶ ἕτερον ρ. καὶ περιέτεμε τὸν Ἰσμαὴλ καὶ πάντας τοὺς ἐξ αὐτοῦ. Κύριος δὲ τῷ Ἀβραὰμ ἐπιξενωθεὶς ἐπηγγείλατο τέξεσθαι Σάρραν αὐτῷ παῖδα. ἡ δὲ ἐμειδίασε, καὶ Ἰσαὰκ τὸ γεννηθὲν προσηγορεύθη, φερωνύμως τῷ μεθ' ἡδονῆς γέλωτι κατὰ τὴν Ἑβραί̈δα διάλεκτον. καὶ Ἀβραμιαῖος: ὁ ἀπόγονος Ἀβραὰμ, ἢ γιγαντιαῖος, ἱεροπρεπής.
Notes:
This long entry is derived in part directly from George the Monk, in part indirectly from Philo of Alexandria; see further in the notes below.
[1] cf. Matthew 27:25 (web address 1).
[2] The Suda's attention to Chaldean astrology derives from Philo, On Abraham, (Colson, Philo Vol VI: XV.69-70).
[3] Use of τύπος here is twofold: 1) To assert that God's appearance to Abraham was indirect (echoing Philo, On Abraham, XVII.79-80); 2) To impart, as if a corollary of τύπος in Romans 5:14, that God's manifestation to Abraham was a type or prefiguration of Christ.
[4] Abraham is 100 years old at Isaac's birth (Genesis 21:5); however, the Suda follows Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.191-93 (web address 2 below) in assuming Abraham's age as 99 at the time of God's promise.
[5] The Suda here omits Ishmael, born to Abraham by the Egyptian slave Hagar when he was 86 years old (Genesis 16:1-16). The Suda's omission tacitly acknowledges a covenantal and legal distinction clearly drawn in Genesis. In Isaac, God establishes an "everlasting covenant" for his progeny, whereas God blesses Ishmael and makes him "fruitful and exceedingly numerous" (Genesis 17:19-20). Isaac's filial status is made explicit by God in identifying him as Abraham's "only son" (Genesis 22:12) through whom "offspring shall be named" for Abraham, whereas Ishmael, although destined to father a nation, is identified by God as "the son of the slave woman" (Genesis 21:12-13). Ishmael is, however, mentioned later in the entry.
[6] Christological imagery links Isaac to the personage of Jesus (Matthew 1:1-2 at web address 3 below). See also delta 94, notes 1 and 14.
[7] The Suda underscores the magnitude of the honor with a hyperbolic κατ' before ἐξαίρετον .
[8] The statement, rooted in a paternalistic-filial model that originates in Abraham and culminates in the figure of Christ, approximates the transcendental premise: Abraham is to Joseph as Isaac is to Christ.
[9] The Suda confuses Mosaic and Abrahamic lore. The 2nd century BCE Jewish writer Eupolemus claimed for Moses the invention and propagation of writing: "Moses was the first wise man, the first who imparted the alphabet to the Jews; the Phoenicians received it from the Jews, and the Greeks from the Phoenicians." The 2nd century BCE Egyptian Jewish writer Artapanus attributed hieroglyphics to Moses. According to the 2nd century BCE Samaritan writer Ps.-Eupolemus and Artapanus, astrology and astronomy originated with Abraham, who taught these disciplines and other tools of culture to the Jews, Phoenicians, and Egyptians. They, in turn, transmitted these arts to the Greeks. Philo in On Abraham stresses Abraham's expertise as a teacher. (Encyc. Judaica, Vol 6.964-65; Gruen, 146-51, 157, 294; Grant, 77; Philo, XI.52) At sigma 295, Seth is credited with the invention of the alphabet; Greek legend named Cadmus or Linus as the one who introduced the alphabet to Greece (gamma 416, kappa 21, kappa 22, lambda 568). See also phi 787.
[10] The reference recalls א aleph as the initial letter of ʾelohīm, the most frequent generic name for God in the OT, used about 2,500 times--but a distant second to the unspoken covenant name YHWH (Yahweh), which occurs some 6,800 times (Perdue, 685-86). Cf. alpha 1445.
[11] A reference to Philo's Βίος πολιτικοῦ ὅπερ ἐστι περὶ Ἰωσήφ (Colson, Philo Vol VI, 140ff.)
[12] Adapted from Jerome's On Illustrious Men (11): ἢ Πλάτων φιλωνίζει ἢ Φίλων πλατωνίζει ("Either Plato philonizes or Philo platonizes.") Cf. phi 448 and Photius, Bibliotheca 86b 25.
[13] Abraham's grandfather (Genesis 11:22). Seruch in the LXX, שרוג śerūḡ in Hebrew. See also sigma 253.
[14] Abraham's father (Genesis 11:24). Tharra (Θάρρα , Θαρρά ) or Tharrha (Θάῤῥα ) (Hatch, Concordance, Appendix 1, 71; Brenton, 13); in Hebrew תרח Teraḥ. From the Chronicon of George the Monk, 92.11-12; cf. Malalas 55.5-6.
[15] The Midrash sets Abraham's rejection of idolatry at age 13 (Encyc. Judaica, 4.244). From here to "teacher to the Egyptians," the Suda's source is the Chronicon of George the Monk, 93.16 - 95.17.
[16] On God as "He who is," see omicron 438, omega 105.
[17] cf. Philo, On Abraham XIV.62.
[18] The call in Genesis 12:1-5 brings Abraham from Haran (חרן) to Canaan (כנען). The Suda adheres to Philo, On Abraham, XIV. 67: μετανίσταται...ἀπὸ τῆς Χαλδαίων γῆς...ἐις τὴν Χαρραίων γῆν .
[19] Philo shows ἀδελφιδοῦς , as at On Abraham, XXXVII.212, rather than the Suda's potentially ambiguous ἀνεψιός for nephew (see LSJ s.v. at web address 4).
[20] On Abimelech, see alpha 45.
[21] The affliction cured in Genesis 20:17-18 is unspecified for Abimelech, but clearly is sterility for the female members of his house. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.208 (web address 5) relates that a "dangerous distemper" (Whiston trans.) afflicted Abimelech. For other traditions, see EncycJudaica, 2.76.
[22] Genesis 14:14-18; the Suda's source is the Chronicon of George the Monk, 100.17-26; 101.5-7.
[23] See Hebrews 7:3 (web address 6). In the Suda, see mu 544, mu 545, mu 546.
[24] The Greek mainly uses Abraam (אברהם ʾAḇraham) to this point, but here Abram (אברם), his pre-covenant name (Genesis 17:5).
[25] Genesis 15:5-6. The statement "and he believed God and God reckoned it to him as righteousness" appears also in Romans 4:3 (web address 7), Galatians 3:6 (web address 8), and James 2:23 (web address 9). A more idiomatic and semantically precise translation of the Hebrew (והאמין בה' ויחשבה לו צדקה weheʾemīn bah' wayyaḥšeḇeha lō ṣedaqah) reads: "And because he put his trust in the Lord, He reckoned it to his merit" (Plaut, 146). This version takes into interpretive account the imperfective waw consecutive (consequential) (Kautzsch, 111.l).
[26] Ismael (Ishmael) appears in the Suda at iota 644, but with a gloss that belongs to Isaak.
[27] Genesis 17:15. Also as Σάῤῥα or Sarrha (Brenton, 18). The Hebrew covenant name change is Sarai to Sarah (both meaning Princess).
[28] Isaac (יצחק yiṣḥaq) from the Hebrew meaning "he (Abraham) laughed" in Genesis 17:17, and puns Sarah's תצחק tiṣḥaq ("she laughed") in Genesis 18:12. (Kohlenberger, Vol 1, 37, 39; Anderson, 182) In the Suda, see iota 606 (mostly taken from this entry).
[29] This adjectival derivative of Abraham's name appears in 4 Maccabees 9:21 LXX. The gloss replicates, apart from word order, one in Photius; cf. Synagoge alpha17, Hesychius alpha181.
References:
Anderson, A.W. Understanding the Old Testament. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1966
Attridge, H.W. "The Letter to the Hebrews" in The HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Brenton, L.C.L. The Septuagint with Apocrypha. Peabody: Henrickson, 1999 (reprint of 1851 edn.)
Colson F.H., Philo (Vol VI), Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1994
Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1973
Grant, M. From Alexander to Cleopatra: The Hellenistic World. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1982
Gruen, E.S. Heritage and Hellenism: The Reinvention of Jewish Tradition. Berkeley: University of California, 1998
Hatch, E., Redpath, H.A., and Muraoka, T. A Concordance to the Septuagint. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1998
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910
Keck, L.E. "The Letter of Paul to the Romans" in The HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987
Perdue, L.G. "Names of God in the Old Testament" in Harper's Bible Dictionary. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985
Plaut, W.G. The Torah: Genesis, A Modern Commentary. New York: Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1972
Smyth, H.W. Greek Grammar. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1984
Whiston, W. The Works of Josephus. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1987 (reprint of 1736 edn.)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4,
Web address 5,
Web address 6,
Web address 7,
Web address 8,
Web address 9
Keywords: aetiology; biography; children; Christianity; chronology; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; dreams; food; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; history; law; medicine; religion; science and technology; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:54:17.
Vetted by:
Craig Miller (Under editorial review as of this date) on 6 January 2002@08:24:02.
Craig Miller (Modified translation) on 24 January 2002@19:18:31.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@00:26:38.
Craig Miller (Notes added. Additional work pending.) on 25 January 2002@00:29:41.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@01:17:54.
Craig Miller (Added bibliography, keywords; changed status) on 25 January 2002@22:21:22.
Craig Miller (Cosmetics) on 25 January 2002@22:51:36.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@22:54:34.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@23:13:26.
Craig Miller on 4 June 2002@20:45:55.
Craig Miller on 19 June 2002@19:13:42.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew words; minor cosmetics.) on 31 October 2002@10:38:39.
Raphael Finkel (More Hebrew, cosmetics.) on 18 December 2002@10:58:21.
Craig Miller (Additional cosmetics) on 17 May 2003@19:07:49.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@08:20:23.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 November 2005@07:49:08.
Jennifer Benedict (added 15 links) on 25 March 2008@11:50:57.
Catharine Roth (references, cosmetics) on 10 April 2008@16:09:00.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 10 April 2008@20:15:09.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, pruned notes, added cross-references) on 11 April 2008@12:30:02.
Catharine Roth (adjusted note numbers; more tweaks) on 11 April 2008@14:18:11.
William Hutton (augmented n. 29) on 17 July 2009@17:14:18.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 December 2011@07:16:50.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links, other tweaks) on 22 December 2011@19:00:49.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note and links) on 11 November 2013@01:26:27.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:27:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 11 August 2014@00:14:27.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:33:55.
Catharine Roth (betacode typo) on 2 October 2018@02:07:40.

Headword: Ἄβυσσον
Adler number: alpha,104
Translated headword: abyss
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] that which not even a deep [βυθός ] can contain; but Ionians pronounce βυθός as βυσσός .[1]
From which also βυσσοδομεύειν ["to build in the deep"] appears to be said,[2] from the verb δύνω ["I sink"] [meaning] I enter upon secretly, with a change [of initial consonant] [giving] βύω , βύσω , βέβυσμαι , βέβυσαι , [and the nouns] βυσός and ἀβύσσος [meaning] where no-one enters because of its depth.[3]
Aristophanes in Frogs [writes]: "for immediately you will come to a huge lake, an absolute abyss."[4] And he also uses the word in the neuter: "they shall not make peace while the measureless [ἄβυσσον ] silver is with the goddess on the Acropolis." For 1,000 talents were stored on the Acropolis.[5]
"Abyss" is what the Holy Scripture calls the watery substance. So since the land is surrounded on all sides by waters [and] by great and small seas, David naturally called this [i.e., abyss] the earth's surrounding garment.[6] Also, "abyss calls to abyss", the same prophet says,[7] meaning figuratively military divisions and the excessive size of the multitude.[8]
"I was under water as [if] in a kind of abyss."[9]
So an abyss [is] a great amount of water.
Greek Original:
Ἄβυσσον: ἣν οὐδὲ βυθὸς χωρῆσαι δύναται: Ἴωνες δὲ τὸν βυθὸν βυσσόν φασιν. ὅθεν δοκεῖ λέγεσθαι καὶ βυσσοδομεύειν, παρὰ τὸ δύνω, τὸ ὑπεισέρχομαι, κατὰ τροπὴν βύω, βύσω, βέβυσμαι, βέβυσαι, βυσὸς καὶ ἀβύσσος, οὗ οὐδεὶς εἰσέρχεται διὰ τὸ βάθος. Ἀριστοφάνης Βατράχοις: εὐθὺς γὰρ ἐπὶ λίμνην μεγάλην ἥξεις πάνυ ἄβυσσον. καὶ οὐδετέρως φησὶν ὁ αὐτός: ἕως ἂν ᾖ τὸ ἀργύριον τὸ ἄβυσσον παρὰ τῇ θεῷ, οὐκ εἰρηνεύσουσιν. ἐν γὰρ τῇ ἀκροπόλει χίλια τάλαντα ἀπέκειτο. Ἄβυσσον καλεῖ τὴν ὑγρὰν οὐσίαν ἡ θεία γραφή. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἡ γῆ πανταχόθεν ὕδασι περιέχεται μεγάλοις καὶ μικροῖς πελάγεσιν, εἰκότως περιβόλαιον αὐτῆς εἴρηκεν ὁ Δαβίδ. καὶ, ἄβυσσος ἄβυσσον ἐπικαλεῖται, ὁ αὐτὸς προφήτης φησίν: τὰ στρατιωτικὰ λέγων τάγματα καὶ τὴν τοῦ πλήθους ὑπερβολὴν τροπικῶς. ὡς ἐν ἀβύσσῳ τινὶ ὑποβρύχιος ἐγενόμην. Ἄβυσσος οὖν ὑδάτων πλῆθος πολύ.
Notes:
See also alpha 105.
[1] This comment on Ionian pronunciation comes from the scholiast on Aristophanes, Frogs 138, quoted later in the entry.
[2] In Homer, Odyssey, where βυσσοδομεύω occurs most frequently, it has the sense "brood over."
[3] cf. Etymologicum Magnum 4.44. These are principal parts of the verb βύω , which means "to stuff," followed by βυσός , which does not exist according to LSJ. Probably this is a mistake for βυσσός , "depth of the sea" (cf. beta 598, βυσσόν ). The Suda generally has little concern for the distinction between single and double consonants. The author thus seems to propose a very dubious etymology: that ἀ-βυσσος literally means "unstuffable" -- i.e., unable to be entered. [Ms M (= Marcianus 448) omits this sentence.]
[4] Aristophanes, Frogs 137-8 (web address 1).
[5] "Silver" [ἀργύριον ] is a neuter noun in Greek, while lake [λίμνη ] in the previous sentence is feminine; the point is that the same form ἄβυσσον is used with both. The sentence quoted here is actually part of a scholion to Aristophanes, Lysistrata 173 (web address 2); Aristophanes uses the phrase τὸ ἀργύριον τὸ ἄβυσσον in that line itself.
[6] Psalm 103:6 LXX. See again under pi 1083.
[7] Psalm 41:8 LXX.
[8] Referring to the continuation of Psalm 41:8 LXX, "all thy waves and thy billows are gone over me" (KJV).
[9] From Theodoret's commentary (PG 80.1173) on Psalm 41:8 LXX.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: Christianity; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; epic; geography; history; imagery; military affairs; proverbs; religion
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 21 November 1998@17:02:02.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, augmented note, added keywords, set status) on 5 February 2001@11:48:31.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@08:11:37.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; cosmetics) on 4 July 2003@08:14:49.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added links; cosmetics) on 14 December 2003@15:22:17.
David Whitehead (modified translation and notes 6-9) on 28 April 2004@11:16:41.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding) on 26 March 2008@00:15:00.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 19 April 2011@18:23:25.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 25 April 2011@04:11:52.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation and note, after consulting with the translator) on 26 April 2011@17:14:37.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 22 December 2011@03:45:27.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 21 November 2014@10:58:29.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 21 November 2014@11:44:30.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:36:21.

Headword: Ἀγαθοεργία
Adler number: alpha,114
Translated headword: beneficence
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Damascius [writes]: "to sum everything up in one word, what Pythagoras said about man being very similar to the divine is something that he [Isidore] clearly demonstrated in his deeds: his beneficent zeal and the generosity that he extended to everybody, but especially the elevation of souls from the manifold evil that weighs them down, and also the deliverance of bodies from unjust and unholy suffering;[1] and moreover a third thing: he took care of external matters as much as he was able."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθοεργία. Δαμάσκιος: ὡς δὲ ἑνὶ λόγῳ τὸ πᾶν συλλαβεῖν, ὅπερ ἔφη ὁ Πυθαγόρας ὁμοιότατον ἔχειν τῷ θεῷ τὸν ἄνθρωπον, τοῦτο σαφῶς ἐπὶ τῶν ἔργων αὐτὸς ἐπεδείκνυτο, τὴν ἀγαθοεργὸν προθυμίαν καὶ τὴν ἐς πάντας ἐπεκτεινομένην εὐεργεσίαν, μάλιστα μὲν τὴν ἀναγωγὴν τῶν ψυχῶν ἀπὸ τῆς κάτω βριθούσης παντοίας κακίας: ἔπειτα καὶ τὴν σωτήριον τῶν σωμάτων ἐκ τῆς ἀδίκου ἢ ἀνοσίου ταλαιπωρίας: τὸ δ' αὖ τρίτον, ἐπεμελεῖτο τῶν ἔξω πραγμάτων, ὅση δύναμις.
Notes:
[1] "No doubt at the hands of the civil authorities or of the Christians" (Athanassiadi).
[2] Damascius fr.24 Zintzen (237 Asmus, 26B Athanassiadi).
Keywords: biography; Christianity; ethics; philosophy; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 31 March 2001@09:53:52.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added note) on 7 March 2002@12:06:23.
David Whitehead (augmented note) on 17 February 2003@05:46:10.
Catharine Roth (augmented notes) on 15 May 2003@21:17:36.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 12 October 2005@07:58:53.
Catharine Roth (added keyword) on 22 November 2005@11:30:01.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 22 December 2011@04:57:53.

Headword: ἀγάπη οὐ περπερεύεται
Adler number: alpha,155
Translated headword: boastful
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
"Love is not boastful", says the Apostle Paul;[1] that is, it does not hurry.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἡ ἀγάπη οὐ περπερεύεται, ὁ ἀπόστολος Παῦλός φησι: τουτέστιν οὐ προπετεύεται.
Notes:
[1] 1 Corinthians 13:4 (web address 1 below).
[2] Again at pi 1365; cf. also eta 9, omicron 926.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: Christianity; definition; ethics; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 2 April 2000@22:20:00.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (rearranged headword and translation; added note; cosmetics) on 11 February 2001@09:24:07.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 4 October 2005@08:59:06.
Jennifer Benedict (replaced outdated link, cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@01:28:10.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@08:11:44.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 11 January 2012@00:11:19.
Catharine Roth (augmented note 2) on 12 January 2012@14:35:23.
Catharine Roth (undid my erroneous vetting) on 12 January 2012@14:37:03.
David Whitehead (more x-refs) on 17 January 2014@05:30:03.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 1 November 2018@10:42:19.

Headword: Ἀγαπητός
Adler number: alpha,156
Translated headword: Agapetos, Agapetus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Bishop of Synada.[1] Eusebius [the spiritual son] of Pamphilus[2] gives him great praise and mentions his amazing miracles: his shifting of boundaries and rivers and raisings of the dead. He also relates that when he was a soldier Maximinus[3] wanted to kill him for being a Christian, since he had learned that many were extremely impressed by the things he had accomplished.
Greek Original:
Ἀγαπητός: ἐπίσκοπος Συνάδων, ὃν ἐν ἐπαίνῳ πολλῷ τίθεται Εὐσέβιος ὁ Παμφίλου καὶ θαυμάτων αὐτοῦ ἐξαισίων μνήμην ποιεῖται, ὁρῶν μεταστάσεις καὶ ποταμῶν καὶ νεκρῶν ἐγέρσεις. καὶ ὅτι στρατιώτην ὄντα ἠβουλήθη Μαξιμῖνος ὡς Χριστιανὸν ἀποκτεῖναι, διὰ τὸ πυνθάνεσθαι πολλοὺς τὰ πρὸς αὐτοῦ τελούμενα ὑπεραγαμένους.
Notes:
Philostorgius II.8a (pp. 19-20 Bidez-Winkelmann).
[1] In Phrygia. ('Synada' again under sigma 1427, but more usually spelled Synnada.) Barrington Atlas map 62 grid E4; present-day Suhut.
[2] Eusebius of Caesarea: epsilon 3737.
[3] Maximinus Daia, emperor 305-313 (mu 172).
Keywords: biography; Christianity; ethics; geography; military affairs; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 2 April 2000@22:31:44.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added note) on 27 February 2002@23:57:08.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 28 February 2002@03:17:44.
Catharine Roth (added note) on 28 February 2002@10:44:08.
Catharine Roth (augmented notes) on 28 February 2002@11:52:36.
Catharine Roth (augmented reference in note 4) on 28 November 2004@23:35:35.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 3 October 2005@07:10:06.
David Whitehead (tweaked and expanded notes; more keywords) on 23 December 2011@06:49:29.

Headword: Ἀγέλιος
Adler number: alpha,195
Translated headword: Agelios, Agelius
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
This man was bishop of Constantinople during the reign of Valens.[1] He lived an apostolic life, for he always went about unshod and wore only a single tunic, in observance of what the Gospel says.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγέλιος: οὗτος ἐπὶ Οὐάλεντος ἦν Κωνσταντινουπόλεως ἐπίσκοπος, βίον ἀποστολικὸν βιούς. ἀνυπόδητος γὰρ διόλου διῆγεν, ἑνί τε χιτῶνι ἐκέχρητο, τὸ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου φυλάττων ῥητόν.
Notes:
See again under mu 207.
[1] Agelius was a Novatian, persecuted for accepting the homoousian doctrine. For the emperor Valens, see omicron 764.
[2] Socrates, Ecclesiastical History 4.9.3 (translation at web address 1).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; Christianity; chronology; clothing; ethics; geography; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 11 April 2000@00:02:16.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added notes and link) on 4 March 2002@13:30:20.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@09:54:59.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 3 October 2005@07:11:09.
Catharine Roth (augmented note, added keyword, raised status) on 12 October 2007@23:02:42.
David Whitehead (another x-ref; another keyword) on 29 December 2011@07:30:01.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 29 December 2011@12:11:37.

Headword: Ἄγγελος
Adler number: alpha,196
Translated headword: angel
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The angels are circumscribed only by the comprehension of the intellect; not in space, nor in body, nor in time; for they came into existence before the sun.[1] Scripture calls the servants of retribution "evil angels," just as it calls the day of retribution an "evil day";[2] and it calls the bitter retributions "wrath and anger and affliction" in the hands of God.[3] For it does not say that it is [their] nature or preference.
Greek Original:
Ἄγγελος: οἱ ἄγγελοι μόνοι τῇ τοῦ νοὸς καταλήψει εἰσὶ περιγραπτοὶ, οὔτε δὲ ἐν τόπῳ, οὐδὲ ἐν σώματι, οὐδὲ ἐν χρόνῳ: πρὸ γὰρ τοῦ ἡλίου ἡ γένεσις αὐτῶν. ἀγγέλους πονηροὺς τοὺς τῆς τιμωρίας ὑπουργοὺς ἡ γραφὴ καλεῖ: ὥσπερ ἡμέραν πονηρὰν τὴν τῆς τιμωρίας. ὀργὴν δὲ καὶ θυμὸν καὶ θλίψιν ἐπὶ Θεοῦ τὰς πικρὰς τιμωρίας καλεῖ. οὐ γὰρ φύσιν οὐδὲ προαίρεσίν φησιν.
Notes:
Theodoret (PG 80.1496b) on Psalm 79.49 LXX (not Adler's 77.49).
[1] Perhaps referring to Psalm 109.3 LXX "before the morning star have I begotten thee."
[2] cf. eta 299.
[3] cf. theta 391, theta 575.
Keywords: Christianity; chronology; definition; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 16 October 2000@15:04:42.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Cosmetics; reference.) on 25 January 2001@18:00:55.
David Whitehead (added notes) on 25 April 2002@10:08:40.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 12 October 2007@22:47:52.
Catharine Roth (further tweaks, additional note) on 12 October 2007@23:24:43.
Catharine Roth (another cross-reference) on 14 October 2007@12:02:45.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 29 December 2011@07:35:52.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:40:13.

Headword: Ἁγιάσαι
Adler number: alpha,233
Translated headword: to sanctify
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] to offer as a sacrifice, to burn in sacred fashion.
Greek Original:
Ἁγιάσαι: καρπῶσαι, καῦσαι ἁγίως.
Note:
Same entry in other lexica; references at Photius alpha172 Theodoridis. The headword -- aorist active infinitive of ἁγιάζω (cf. alpha 232 and under alpha 235; LSJ entry at web address 1) -- is presumably quoted from somewhere; there are instances in e.g. the New Testament (1 Thessalonians 5.23) and the Septuagint.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; religion
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg on 24 November 1998@14:12:35.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added headword translation, note, keyword, and link.) on 18 February 2001@19:26:36.
Catharine Roth (Added cross-reference.) on 18 February 2001@19:39:10.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 23 July 2003@06:47:09.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 4 January 2012@04:01:03.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@07:43:03.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:01:54.

Headword: Ἅγιος, ἅγιος, ἅγιος κύριος
Adler number: alpha,238
Translated headword: holy, holy, holy Lord
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Those who say the Lord is ten thousand times holy and those who dare to misinterpret this are clearly refuted by the [verse]: "I have sought out your countenance, your countenance, o Lord, I shall seek, do not turn your countenance from me."[1] It announces the Holy Trinity. Also the [verse] "sacrifice to the Lord the sacrifice of praise, and render to the highest your prayers," and that which follows.[2] And through these and through many other [passages] the Old [Testament] proclaims that it indicates the rule not of one person but of three hypostases on the one hand and of one essence on the other.
Those who say "holy is the crucified one," let them be gagged by the [verse]: "my soul thirsted after God, the powerful, the living."[3]
Greek Original:
Ἅγιος, ἅγιος, ἅγιος κύριος: ὅτι τοὺς λέγοντας, μυριάκις ἐστὶν ἅγιος ὁ θεὸς, καὶ τοὺς παρερμηνεῦσαι τοῦτο τολμῶντας, λαμπρῶς ἐλέγχει τὸ: ἐξεζήτησα τὸ πρόσωπόν σου, τὸ πρόσωπόν σου, κύριε, ζητήσω, μὴ ἀποστρέψῃς τὸ πρόσωπόν σου ἀπ' ἐμοῦ. τὴν ἁγίαν ἀνακηρύττει τριάδα. καὶ τὸ, θῦσον τῷ θεῷ θυσίαν αἰνέσεως καὶ ἀπόδος τῷ ὑψίστῳ τὰς εὐχάς σου, καὶ τὰ ἑξῆς. καὶ διὰ τούτων καὶ δι' ἄλλων πολλῶν ἡ παλαιὰ κηρύττει, ὅτι οὐχ ἑνὸς προσώπου σημαίνει δεσποτείαν, ἀλλὰ τριῶν μὲν ὑποστάσεων, μιᾶς δὲ οὐσίας. οἱ δὲ λέγοντες, ἅγιος ὁ σταυρωθείς, ἐπιστομιζέσθωσαν ἀπὸ τοῦ: ἐδίψησεν ἡ ψυχή μου πρὸς τὸν θεὸν τὸν ἰσχυρὸν, τὸν ζῶντα.
Notes:
The headword phrase itself comes from Isaiah 6.3 LXX (the cry of the seraphim at the death of King Uzziah); the main part of the gloss from George the Monk, Chronicon (528.16-24, 529.6-9).
[1] Psalm 26.8-9 LXX (27.8-9 KJV).
[2] Psalm 49.14 LXX (50.14 KJV). What follows is "call on me in the day of tribulation," a third injunction to supplicate the Lord.
[3] Psalm 41.3 LXX (42.3 KJV); cf. theta 179. The addition to the Trisagion was made by Peter the Fuller, Patriarch of Antioch (d. 488), in order to spread the doctrine of the Theopaschites (who asserted that the Divine Nature suffered upon the cross); see web address 1.
Reference:
"Peter the Fuller," Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church 2 (1974) 1072
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: Christianity; religion
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg on 24 November 1998@14:16:09.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Modified translation and notes.) on 26 January 2001@01:21:44.
Catharine Roth (Augmented note, added link.) on 27 January 2001@00:25:13.
Catharine Roth (Augmented note, added reference, adjusted headword translation.) on 30 January 2001@00:51:50.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 14 April 2004@06:48:40.
Catharine Roth (changed a word) on 1 December 2004@00:28:26.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 4 October 2005@08:46:06.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 4 January 2012@04:42:42.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 6 November 2014@00:41:36.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:46:04.
Catharine Roth (cross-reference) on 29 June 2016@01:38:13.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation and note) on 1 November 2018@01:46:42.

Headword: Ἀγνωμόνως
Adler number: alpha,284
Translated headword: senselessly
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] mindlessly, or gracelessly. The unlearned are called senseless -- without discernment -- in Plato.[1]
And Demosthenes in the Philippics [sc. uses the word] to mean ἀλογίστως ["without reason"] and ἀβούλως ["without counsel"].[2]
And the Theologian [writes]: "o [you], even more senseless than Jews."[3] Meaning "more mindless".
Greek Original:
Ἀγνωμόνως: ἀνοήτως, ἢ ἀχαρίστως. λέγονται δὲ παρὰ Πλάτωνι ἀγνώμονες, ἀσύγγνωστοι, οἱ ἀμαθεῖς. καὶ Δημοσθένης ἐν τοῖς Φιλιππικοῖς ἀντὶ τοῦ ἀλογίστως καὶ ἀβούλως. καὶ ὁ Θεολόγος: ὦ καὶ Ἰουδαίων ἀγνωμονέστερε. ἀντὶ τοῦ ἀνοητότερε.
Notes:
[1] Plato, Republic 5.450D; likewise in Photius alpha217 Theodoridis.
[2] Demosthenes 2.26. This paragraph of the entry comes from Harpokration s.v.
[3] Gregory of Nazianzus, in Oration 38 (PG 36.329.13) and again in Oration 45 (PG 36.661.7).
Keywords: Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; philosophy; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: Roger Travis on 23 October 2000@13:28:56.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 12 February 2001@07:22:37.
David Whitehead (augmented n.2; more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 July 2011@09:30:45.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@08:35:17.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 February 2015@23:46:27.

Headword: Ἀγόμφωτον
Adler number: alpha,294
Translated headword: not-bolted
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. Something] not-nailed.
Greek Original:
Ἀγόμφωτον: τὸ ἀνήλωτον.
Notes:
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon; and Hesychius has the plural ἀγόμφωτα glossed with ἀνάρμοστα ("not-fixed"). Otherwise, this adjective is attested only -- and in the singular, as here -- in [John Chrysostom], On Martha, Mary and Lazarus (PG 10.757e), where it is used of a boat.
For γόμφοι see gamma 376.
Keywords: Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; religion; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 1 February 2001@12:27:47.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@06:44:45.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@08:46:09.

Headword: Ἀγόνων χοῶν
Adler number: alpha,297
Translated headword: [than] unfruitful drink-offerings
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
It is used in two ways.[1]
The Theologian says [this]; that is, [more pious] than the offerings which are poured for the dead and are therefore unfruitful.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] ἀγονία , barrenness.[3]
"That Artemis was angered and that she attacked with sterility of the earth as punishment."[4]
Greek Original:
Ἀγόνων χοῶν. διφορεῖται ὁ Θεολόγος φησί: τουτέστι τῶν ἐπὶ τοῖς νεκροῖς χεομένων καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ἀγόνων. καὶ Ἀγονία, ἡ ἀφορία. τὴν Ἄρτεμιν μηνίσαι καὶ μετελθεῖν δικαιοῦσαν αὐτὴν γῆς ἀγονίᾳ.
Notes:
[1] This comment (a single word in the Greek; in ms A only, Adler reports) perhaps refers to the active and passive senses of the adjective ("not bearing" and "not born"): see LSJ entry at web address 1, and again at alpha 337.
[2] Scholion on Gregory of Nazianzus (PG 36.378b), who does use the headword phrase.
[3] See already alpha 295.
[4] Aelian fr. 49d Domingo-Forasté (46 Hercher); cf. delta 1079.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: aetiology; agriculture; botany; Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; religion
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 12 February 2001@11:03:29.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Raised status) on 12 February 2001@19:54:21.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@08:08:46.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; augmented note 2) on 14 April 2004@07:29:21.
David Whitehead (tweak) on 25 July 2006@07:01:45.
David Whitehead (another x-ref; more keywords; cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@09:03:04.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 4) on 29 January 2012@22:33:54.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1; cosmetics) on 9 April 2015@08:51:08.

Headword: Ἀγοραῖοι
Adler number: alpha,309
Translated headword: marketplace [men]
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Has circumflex accent on the penultimate syllable; [meaning] men involved in a marketplace.[1]
Damascius [writes]: "[...] but he stood by and begged those who were defrauding, even including (?)skilled judges."[2]
But with the acute accent on the second syllable ἀγόραιος [is] the day on which the market is held.[3]
Greek Original:
Ἀγοραῖοι: προπερισπωμένως: οἱ ἐν ἀγορᾷ ἀναστρεφόμενοι ἄνθρωποι. Δαμάσκιος: ὁ δὲ παρίστατο καὶ ἐξῄτει τοῖς ἀποστεροῦσι μέχρι καὶ δικαστῶν ἀγοραίων. προπαροξυτόνως δὲ Ἀγόραιος, ἡ ἡμέρα ἐν ᾗ ἡ ἀγορὰ τελεῖται.
Notes:
[1] See LSJ s.v. and cf. generally alpha 308. The present nominative plural headword and substantive gloss ('men involved in a marketplace') also occur in other lexica (references at Photius alpha232 Theodoridis); Latte on Hesychius claims the headword as stemming from Acts 17.5 (genitive plural).
[2] Damascius, Life of Isidore fr. 53 Zintzen (24 Asmus). A fuller version of the fragment is given at pi 658, where Adler notes several attempts, by her predecessors, to improve its wording. With or without them, the nature and identity of these dikastai agoraioi is unclear.
[3] LSJ s.v., III 1, where the distinction of meaning between ἀγόραιος "vulgar" and ἀγοραῖος "public speaker" is said to be fictitious. Note that section 2b is deleted by the LSJ Supplement. The shift of properispomenon to proparoxytone is a regular phenomenon of the Attic dialect, known as Vendryes' Law: see Kuehner-Blass #80 (web address 1); it is still possible, however, that the properispomenon form could have been restored in the productive category, where it is more closely asssociated with ἀγορά .
Reference:
J. Kuryłowicz, L'accentuation des langues indo-européennes (Wroclaw 1958) 159-161
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; Christianity; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; law; religion; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 9 March 2001@12:25:41.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note; added keyword; cosmetics) on 10 March 2001@08:43:44.
Catharine Roth (Revised grammatical note.) on 10 March 2001@11:36:25.
Catharine Roth (augmented grammatical note, added bibliography) on 4 April 2001@10:44:08.
David Whitehead (augmented Damascius ref; cosmetics) on 14 April 2004@07:40:52.
David Whitehead (tweaked translation) on 20 April 2005@08:14:54.
David Whitehead (augmented n.1; added a keyword) on 20 April 2005@09:59:36.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@11:08:03.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 9 October 2005@16:17:44.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 18 September 2010@01:21:55.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 18 September 2010@07:04:16.
Catharine Roth (tweaked links) on 5 January 2012@22:58:39.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 6 January 2012@03:24:49.
David Whitehead on 19 August 2013@03:57:45.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 19 August 2013@10:26:33.

Headword: $10Ἀγριωπός
Adler number: alpha,362
Translated headword: wild-eyed
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
"The wild-eyed, uncontrollably boastful."[1] He is speaking of sin. From ὤψ , [genitive] ὠπός , which means the eye; that is, the shameless and wild [kind].
Greek Original:
Ἀγριωπός: τὴν ἀγριωπὸν ἀκρατῶς γαυρουμένην. λέγει δὲ τὴν ἁμαρτίαν. ἐκ τοῦ ὤψ ὠπός, ὃ σημαίνει τὸν ὀφθαλμὸν, τουτέστιν ἡ ἀναιδὴς καὶ ἄγριος.
Note:
[1] A line from from one of the Iambic Canons of St. John Damascene (1.96 Nauck).
Keywords: Christianity; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; imagery; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:47:31.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 13 February 2001@05:36:17.
David Whitehead (typo and other cosmetics) on 14 April 2004@08:37:35.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 8 January 2012@09:15:08.

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