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Headword: Κριός
Adler number: kappa,2434
Translated headword: ram, battering ram
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] the siege machine [of that name]. It is so called because it collides forcefully and goes back again and does this continually as if it is fighting. There is a big horn resembling a that of a ram and the protruding part of the horn is overlaid with so much iron that it neither breaks off nor catches fire.[1]
[Note] that[2] the front part is called a προτομή ["figurehead"]. The construction of the ram is as follows. 'A big beam resembling the mast of a ship; this is covered with a thick [layer of] iron on its end, formed into a figurehead in the likeness of a ram, from which it is named. It is suspended with ropes, just like from a scale, on either side of the beam, supported by a bottom cross-pieces at each side. [It is] pushed by a crowd of men toward the rear, and when the same men throw their weight against it toward the front, it strikes the walls with the protruding iron. And no fortress is so strong nor enclosing wall so wide that it can hold out against it, even if it survives the first strikes: because persistence' prevails, it takes the walls down.
Greek Original:
Κριός: τὸ μηχάνημα τὸ πολιορκητικόν. καλεῖται δὲ οὕτως, ὅτι προσπίπτει τε ῥύμῃ καὶ πάλιν ἐπανέρχεται καὶ τοῦτο συνεχῶς ὥσπερ μαχόμενον ποιεῖ. ἔστι δὲ κεραία μεγάλη κριοειδὴς καὶ αὐτῆς τὸ προέχον τῆς ἐμβολῆς σεσιδήρωται ἐπὶ πολύ, ὥστε μήτε ἀποκαυλίζεσθαι μήτε ἐμπίπρασθαι. ὅτι προτομὴ λέγεται τὸ πρόσθεν μέρος. ἔστι δὲ τοῦ κριοῦ ἡ κατασκευὴ τοιάδε. δοκὸς ὑπερμεγέθης ἱστῷ νηὸς παραπλησία: ἐστόμωται δὲ παχεῖ σιδήρῳ κατ' ἄκρον, ἐς κριοῦ προτομήν, ἀφ' οὗ καὶ καλεῖται, τετυπωμένος. καταιωρεῖται δὲ κάλοις μέσοις ὥσπερ ἀπὸ πλάστιγγος ἑκατέρας δοκοῦ, σταυροῖς ἑκατέρωθεν ἑδραίοις ὑπεστηριγμένος, ἀνωθούμενος ὑπὸ πλήθους ἀνδρῶν ἐς τὸ κατόπιν, τῶν αὐτῶν πάλιν ἀθρόως ἐς τοὔμπροσθεν ἐπιβρισάντων, τύπτει τὰ τείχη τῷ προσανέχοντι σιδήρῳ: καὶ οὐδεὶς οὕτω καρτερὸς πύργος ἢ περίβολος πλατύς, ὃς κἂν τὰς πρώτας πληγὰς ἐνεγκεῖν κατισχύσειε: τῆς γὰρ ἐπιμονῆς κρατούσης, καθαιρεῖ τὰ τείχη.
[1] The source of this first paragraph is unidentifiable; cf. merely at alpha 3340.
[2] For this second paragraph cf. pi 2891. The quoted section in both entries is a close paraphrase of Josephus, Jewish War 3.214-217.
Keywords: architecture; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; imagery; military affairs; science and technology; trade and manufacture; zoology
Translated by: Giorgos Akrivas on 18 January 2004@17:47:54.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (modified translation, set status) on 18 January 2004@20:51:36.
David Whitehead (added note and another keyword; cosmetics) on 19 January 2004@03:36:34.
David Whitehead (more notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 18 March 2013@05:08:41.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 6 May 2015@23:59:47.


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