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Headword: Apopurgizontas logous
Adler number: alpha,3493
Translated headword: Apopurgizontes Logoi
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[These are the works] which Diagoras the Atheist wrote, containing the recantation and dissolution of his belief in the divine.
Greek Original:
Apopurgizontas logous: hous egrapse Diagoras ho Atheos, anachôrêsin autou kai ekptôsin echontas tês peri to theion doxês.
Notes:
The headword phrase, in the accusative case, is extracted from either delta 523 or pi 3200
For the lyric poet Diagoras of Melos (active late C5 BCE) see those two entries; also delta 524, and generally OCD(4) s.v. (p.444).
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; philosophy; poetry; religion
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 2 June 2001@12:38:52.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 3 June 2001@11:42:06.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 6 February 2008@01:10:42.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 6 February 2008@03:13:24.
David Whitehead on 4 April 2012@07:32:45.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@09:02:57.

Headword: Diagoras
Adler number: delta,523
Translated headword: Diagoras
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Diagoras], son of Telekleides or Teleklytos; a Melian, a philosopher and a lyric poet; whom Democritus from Abdera,[1] seeing that he was naturally talented, bought -- since he was a slave -- for ten thousand drachmas and made a pupil. And he also applied himself to the lyric art, being in time after Pindar and Bacchylides, but older than Melanippides:[2] he flourished in the 78th Olympiad.[3] And he was called Atheos since he held such an opinion, after the time when someone of the same art, being accused by him of stealing a paean which he himself had made, swore he did not steal this, and performing it a short while later, met with success. Thereupon Diagoras, being upset, wrote the so-called Apopyrgizontes Logoi, which includes his withdrawal and falling away from his belief concerning the divine.[4] But Diagoras, settling in Corinth, lived out his life there.
Greek Original:
Diagoras, Têlekleidou, ê Têleklutou, Mêlios, philosophos kai aismatôn poiêtês: hon euphua theasamenos Dêmokritos ho Abdêritês ônêsato auton doulon onta muriôn drachmôn kai mathêtên epoiêsato. ho de kai têi lurikêi epetheto, tois chronois ôn meta Pindaron kai Bakchulidên, Melanippidou de presbuteros: êkmaze toinun oê# Olumpiadi. kai epeklêthê Atheos dioti touto edoxazen, aph' hou tis homotechnos aitiatheis hup' autou hôs dê paiana aphelomenos, hon autos epepoiêkei, exômosato mê keklophenai touton, mikron de husteron epideixamenos auton euêmerêsen. enteuthen oun ho Diagoras lupêtheis egrapse tous kaloumenous Apopurgizontas logous, anachôrêsin autou kai ekptôsin echontas tês peri to theion doxês. katoikêsas de Korinthon ho Diagoras autothi ton bion katestrepsen.
Notes:
C5 BCE. See also delta 524, and generally OCD(4) s.v. (p.444).
[1] delta 448.
[2] Pindar pi 1617, Bacchylides beta 59, Melanippides mu 455.
[3] 468-465.
[4] For this work cf. alpha 3493, pi 3200. On the (controversial) view that it has survived -- on the so-called Derveni Papyrus -- see Richard Janko, 'The Derveni Papyrus (Diagoras of Melos, Apopyrgizontes Logoi?)', Classical Philology 96 (2001) 1-32.
Keywords: biography; chronology; geography; philosophy; poetry; religion
Translated by: Jason Karnes on 6 May 2002@14:00:58.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (minor modifications to translation; cross-references and keywords) on 6 May 2002@22:17:28.
David Whitehead (added notes; cosmetics) on 7 May 2002@03:03:43.
David Whitehead (augmented n.4) on 28 January 2005@03:29:04.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaking) on 27 June 2012@08:26:17.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 3 August 2014@04:56:50.

Headword: Diagoras ho Mêlios
Adler number: delta,524
Translated headword: Diagoras the Melian
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[A phrase used] in reference to atheists and unbelievers and impious people. For after the capture of Melos[1] this man was living in Athens, and he disparaged the mysteries[2] in such a way as to turn many people away from initiation. So the Athenians made the following proclamation against him, and inscribed it on a bronze monument: anyone who killed him would receive a talent, and anyone who brought him [alive] would receive two. This proclamation was made because of his impiety, when he described the mysteries to everyone, making them common knowledge, trivialising them, and turning away those people who wanted to be initiated. So Aristophanes says in Birds: "on this day in particular the proclamation is made: if one of you kills Diagoras the Melian, he will receive a talent, and if anyone kills one of the tyrants, the dead ones, he will receive a talent." 'Dead': that is, those who are fleeing under penalty of death. He has said with exaggeration, 'to kill the dead'.[3]
Greek Original:
Diagoras ho Mêlios: epi tôn atheôn kai apistôn kai asebôn. houtos gar meta tên halôsin Mêlou ôikei en Athênais: ta de mustêria houtôs êutelizen hôs pollous ektrepein tês teletês. touto oun ekêruxan kat' autou Athênaioi kai en chalkêi stêlêi egrapsan, tôi men apokteinanti talanton lambanein, tôi de agonti duo. ekêruchthê de touto dia to asebes autou, epei ta mustêria pasi diêgeito, koinopoiôn auta kai mikra poiôn kai tous boulomenous mueisthai apotrepôn. phêsin oun Aristophanês en Ornisi: têide mentoi thêmerai malist' epanagoreuetai: ên apokteinêi tis humôn Diagoran ton Mêlion, lambanein talanton: ên te tôn turannôn tis tôn tethnêkotôn apokteinêi, talanton lambanein. tethnêkoti, toutesti tôn epi thanatôi pheugontôn. en huperbolêi de eirêtai, tous tethnêkotas apokteinein.
Notes:
For Diagoras see already delta 523. The present entry stems from Aristophanes, Birds 1072-1075 (web address 1; reading ti/s tina in 1074), with comments from the scholia there.
[1] By Athenian forces, in 416/15 BCE. For Melos see generally mu 935.
[2] sc. of Eleusis. See generally mu 1485.
[3] The scholiast does his best here, but misses the central point that the allusion is to the Peisistratid tyrants of the previous century (pi 1474).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; comedy; economics; ethics; geography; history; law; military affairs; religion
Translated by: Nicholas Wilshere on 16 October 2004@11:58:44.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (modified translation slightly, added link, set status) on 16 October 2004@22:03:50.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 17 October 2004@04:15:47.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 27 June 2012@08:32:12.

Headword: Epekêruxan
Adler number: epsilon,2037
Translated headword: they proclaimed
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] they spoke clearly and forcefully. "They also proclaimed that they would give a talent to the informant."[1]
And elsewhere: "they, unable to hold out against the thirst, sent a messenger by herald."[2]
Greek Original:
Epekêruxan: diasêmôs kai diaprusiôs elalêsan. kai epekêruxan te talanton dôsein tôi mênusanti. kai authis: hoi de antischein tôi dipsei mê dunêthentes epekêrukeusanto.
Notes:
The headword is aorist indicative active, third person plural, of e)pikhru/ssw (cf. epsilon 2360). It might be extracted from the first quotation given here, though there are extant alternatives in (e.g.) Herodotus and Polybius.
[1] Quotation unidentifiable (Adler suggests Aelian), via the Excerpta of Constantine Porphyrogenitus. Such proclamations of reward using forms of the headword are not uncommon. Adler cites the case of Diagoras at delta 524 (and Ammonius 184), but there is also Plutarch, Themistocles 29, as well as Lysias 6.18 (a closer parallel than any of the others).
[2] Quotation (already at alpha 2729) unidentifiable. Adler also cites the Ambrosian Lexicon (2316, 2318). This quotation uses a form of a verb, khrukeu/omai, that is different from, though related to, the headword. This verb is also glossed in the next entry, epsilon 2038, and it is possible that this quotation was meant for that entry.
Keywords: biography; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; food; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; rhetoric
Translated by: William Hutton on 1 September 2007@09:02:59.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, status) on 1 September 2007@13:39:30.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 9 September 2007@05:39:24.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 1 October 2012@08:51:15.
David Whitehead (expanded primary note; cosmetics) on 22 January 2016@02:59:57.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 21 July 2017@23:20:20.

Headword: Erre
Adler number: epsilon,2916
Translated headword: go (to hell)
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] perish.[1]
"Go, bad cub, bad lot, go to Hades, go: I did not bear the one [who was] unworthy of Sparta."[2]
"O Xenophaneses and Diagorases and Hippons and Epicuruses and all the rest of the [catalogue] of those ill-starred and hateful to the gods: go to hell!"[3]
Greek Original:
Erre: phtheirou. erre, kakon skulakeuma, kaka meris, erre poth' haidan: erre: ton ou Spartas axion, hôn etekon. ô Xenophaneis kai Diagorai kai Hippônes Epikouroi kai pas ho loipos tôn kakodaimonôn te kai theois echthrôn, erresthe.
Notes:
[1] Likewise in Hesychius and other lexica. From the scholia to Homer, Iliad 8.164, where the headword imperative occurs; cf. epsilon 2939.
[2] Greek Anthology 7.433.5-6 (reading ou)d' e)/tekon): a Spartan mother kills her son.
[3] Aelian fr. 36 Domingo-Forasté (33 Hercher), with an unparalleled instance of e)/rrw in the middle voice: referring to philosophers considered atheistic (cf. upsilon 386, alpha 1398, epsilon 1581). (Other suggestions for the missing noun are 'mob' and 'chorus'.) See Xenophanes at xi 46, Diagoras at delta 523 & delta 524, Epicurus at epsilon 2404, epsilon 2405, epsilon 2406.
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; gender and sexuality; military affairs; philosophy; poetry; religion; women
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 11 July 2004@22:33:20.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation at one point; augmented notes and keywords) on 12 July 2004@03:58:14.
Catharine Roth (added cross-references) on 12 July 2004@22:32:54.
Catharine Roth (updated reference, added cross-references) on 17 April 2011@19:03:07.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 25 April 2011@03:38:49.
Catharine Roth (expanded notes, added keywords) on 25 April 2011@11:09:52.
David Whitehead on 25 October 2012@07:28:45.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1) on 6 February 2016@08:50:22.

Headword: Iakchos
Adler number: iota,15
Translated headword: Iakkhos, Iacchus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning a] hymn to Dionysos.[1] "They sing the Iacchos, like Diagoras."[2] They say that this man was called "the atheist."[3] There was also a second [Diagoras], who was ridiculed for his size. Hermippos in Fates [writes]: "for he was larger [than] he is now, and indeed it seems to me, if one adds [more] of the day, he will be bigger than Diagoras the son of Terthreus ["Quibbler"]."[4]
Greek Original:
Iakchos: humnos eis Dionuson. aidousi ton Iakchon, hôsper Diagoras. touton phasin Atheon keklêsthai. gegone de kai heteros, kômôidoumenos epi megethei. Hermippos en Moirais: meizôn gar ên. nun d' esti kai dokei dê moi, ean tis epididôi tês hêmeras, meizôn estai Diagorou tou Terthreôs.
Notes:
[1] cf. iota 11, iota 16.
[2] Aristophanes, Frogs 320 (web address 1); the entry is derived from a scholion on this verse.
[3] Diagoras of Melos: delta 523, delta 524; and cf. tau 343.
[4] Hermippus fr. 42 Kock = 43 K.-A. On Hermippus the comic poet, see epsilon 3044.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; comedy; definition; medicine; meter and music; poetry; religion
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 6 February 2008@01:16:05.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; another x-ref; more keywords; cosmetics) on 6 February 2008@04:19:11.
David Whitehead (tweak; another x-ref) on 6 April 2010@03:20:35.
David Whitehead on 8 January 2013@04:23:13.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 24 January 2013@01:16:32.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 December 2014@09:29:48.
David Whitehead (cosmeticule) on 26 April 2016@03:43:12.

Headword: Philokratês
Adler number: phi,381
Translated headword: Philokrates, Philocrates
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Philokrates] 'the Sparrower', as if '[the] Melian'. He was a fowler. "If any of you kills Philokrates the Sparrower, he shall receive a talent; but if anyone brings him alive, four; because he strings the finches together and sells them at seven to the obol; next, because he plumps up the thrushes and displays them for sale and degrades them, and inserts their feathers into the nostrils of the blackbirds, and likewise seizes the pigeons and keeps them shut up, and compels them to decoy, fastened in a net."
Greek Original:
Philokratês ho Strouthios, hôsper Mêlios. ên de ornithothêras. ên apokteinêi tis humôn Philokratê ton Strouthion, lêpsetai talanton: ên de zônta auton agagêi, tessara: hoti suneirôn tous spinous pôlei kath' hepta tou obolou. eita phusôn tas kichlas deiknusi pasi kai lumainetai, tois te kopsichoisin eis tas rhinas enchei ta ptera, tas peristeras th' homoiôs xullabôn eirxas echei, kapanankazei paleuein dedemenas en diktuôi.
Notes:
Aristophanes, Birds 1077-1083 (web address 1), with comment from the fuller scholia to the first line there.
This Philokrates has already been mentioned in line 14 of the play, where he is called a 'board-seller': see pi 1614. Here in the spoof decree he is given a spoof ethnikon, along the lines of 'Diagoras the Melian' just mentioned (1073). In fact Ph. was an Athenian, on orthodox assumptions.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; comedy; definition; economics; food; geography; law; zoology
Translated by: David Whitehead on 27 April 2003@11:09:59.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added link, set status) on 19 January 2004@14:42:26.
David Whitehead (typos) on 20 January 2004@03:05:02.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 August 2011@06:22:50.
Catharine Roth (fixed link) on 9 September 2011@01:18:02.
David Whitehead on 11 December 2013@03:55:59.
David Whitehead (another note) on 13 December 2013@03:11:10.

Headword: Purgiskoi
Adler number: pi,3200
Translated headword: cabinets, cupboards
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
and treasure-chests:[1] household furniture.
Also [sc. attested is the verb] a)popurgi/zw.[2]
Diagoras wrote the Apopyrgizontes Logoi,[3] containing his withdrawal and falling-away of the belief concerning the divine; for he had previously been an atheist.[4]
Greek Original:
Purgiskoi kai Thêsaurophulakia: skeuê kat' oikon. kai Apopurgizô. Diagoras egrapse tous Apopurgizontas logous, anachôrêsin autou kai ekptôsin echontas tês peri to theion doxês: atheos gar ên to proteron.
Notes:
For the primary headword, here in the nominative plural, see LSJ s.v. purgi/skos, 2.
[1] Adler classifies this phrase as part of the headword. Both terms are linked by Artemidorus 1.74 as symbols of similar meaning that one might see in dreams; cf. under theta 362.
[2] Only (as a participle) in what follows: see next note.
[3] This cryptic title might be interpreted in a number of ways: Discourses that.. (a) remove towers (sc. the defences of the speaker's enemies), (b) reflect the towered-off (sc. secluded, ostracized) status of the speaker, (c) fight from the towers (sc. warding off attacks from the speaker's enemies), etc.
[4] cf. delta 523, which presents a longer excerpt from the same source (ascribed to Hesychius of Miletus 191), and clarifies the context somewhat. See also alpha 3493.
Keywords: architecture; biography; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; dreams; imagery; philosophy; poetry; religion; rhetoric; trade and manufacture
Translated by: David Whitehead on 25 March 2008@06:12:34.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (augmented notes, added keywords, raised status) on 26 March 2008@09:59:07.
David Whitehead (another note) on 27 March 2008@05:22:28.
David Whitehead on 24 October 2013@05:23:10.

Headword: Sôkratês
Adler number: sigma,830
Translated headword: Socrates, Sokrates
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Genitive] *Swkra/tous ["of Socrates"].
"Socrates the Melian and Chaerephon, who knows about the footsteps of fleas."[1] [Said] in reference to those discussing certain esoteric matters.[2] It is unhistorical, for Socrates [was] an Athenian; but since Diagoras, who was a Melian, was criticized as being hostile to the gods, so [the dramatist] criticizes Socrates as being an atheist.[3] On account of the inquiry about how many feet a flea which has feet would jump. Or 'Melian', as some opine, as being one sharpening the souls who enter [the Think Shop] who were uncivilized before they entered, by a metaphor regarding irrational beasts, for sheep[4] are animals. But others understand it as meaning a dense and dry topic;[5] and some accepted [this interpretation]. Diagoras the Melian, who had formerly been devout, on being deprived of a deposit by someone, ran off [into exile] on a charge of atheism.[6] The Athenians, indignant at this, maltreated Melos.[7] And there was also Aristagoras the Melian, a dithyrambic poet:[8] [the man] who after openly dancing about and speaking out on the Eleusinian Mysteries was adjudged particularly impious. And because of him they [the comic poets] ridicule the Melians for impiety. [The term Melian] is also applied to blasphemers.
Greek Original:
Sôkratês, Sôkratous. Sôkratês ho Mêlios kai Chairephôn, hos oide ta psullôn ichnê. epi tôn aporrêta tina legontôn. esti de par' historian: Athênaios gar ho Sôkratês: all' epei Diagoras Mêlios ôn dieballeto hôs theomachos, kai ton Sôkratên hôs atheon diaballei. dia de tên zêtêsin, hoposous halloito hê psulla podas echousa. ê Mêlios, hôs tines exedexanto, ho tas tôn eisiontôn psuchas oxunôn, prin eiselthein êgriômenas, apo metaphoras tôn alogôn thêriôn: mêla gar ta thremmata. hoi de eis to dasu kai auchmêron noousin auto: hoi de parelabon auto. Diagoras: ho Mêlios, hos to men proteron ên theosebês, parakatathêkên de hupo tinos aposterêtheis epi to atheos einai edramen. eph' hôi kai hoi Athênaioi aganaktêsantes tên Mêlon ekakôsan. egeneto de kai Aristagoras Mêlios, dithurambopoios: hos ta Eleusinia mustêria exorchêsamenos kai exeipôn asebestatos ekrithê. kai ap' ekeinou tous Mêlious asebeiai kômôidousi. tattetai de kai epi tôn blasphêmôn.
Notes:
For Socrates see already sigma 829.
Adler (Prolegomena p. xviii) reports that the compiler of the Suda had available a manuscript containing the comedies of Aristophanes and annotations very like the Laurentian scholia. The present entry quotes Aristophanes, Clouds 830-1 and the scholia thereto, except that it sometimes truncates the latter to the point of unintelligibility.
[1] For Chaerephon see chi 158, chi 159, chi 160. In Clouds 143-152 a pupil at the Think Shop had reported to Strepsiades that Chaerephon and Socrates had calculated how many flea-feet a flea could jump. Our encyclopedist quotes neither Aristophanes nor the scholia quite correctly. The pupil had said that the philosophers had figured out 'how many of its own feet a flea could jump' (line 145), and so says the scholiast.
[2] Or 'things that may not be spoken publicly'. The expression would suggest that the calculations were the inner lore of a mystery religion, which is in fact exactly what the pupil had called them in line 143, musth/ria.
[3] For Diagoras see alpha 3493, delta 523, delta 524, tau 543. Also see Dover (below), commentary to line 830, where he accepts the interpretation that an allusion to Diagoras is intended and suggesting Socrates is an atheist. We learn from the feathered chorus in Birds 1073-74 that whoever killed Diagoras would receive a talent's reward, at least in Cloudcuckooland.
[4] The scholiast over-ingeniously connects the adjective 'Melian' with mh=lon, a sheep.
[5] 'Dense and dry', as the sort of ground sheep would graze on.
[6] In the ancient world, where few had access to banking services, someone leaving home would deposit money or other valuables with a trusted person. Violation of such a trust became a prominent topic of rhetoric and moralizing (as well, sometimes, as court-cases).
[7] The Melian affair, a notorious massacre and slave haul, 416 BCE. See Thucydides 5.17. Though it was one year too late for this comedy, even in its second version (Dover, Introduction, p. lxxx), it would have been known to the scholiast and presumed to be connected with Diagoras' misfortunes. See lambda 557.
[8] Otherwise unknown (but for another Melian dithyrambic poet see mu 455; confusion?).
Reference:
Aristophanes, Clouds, edited with introduction and commentary by K.J. Dover (Oxford 1968)
Keywords: biography; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; geography; history; imagery; law; philosophy; poetry; religion
Translated by: Oliver Phillips ✝ on 17 August 2003@16:11:57.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (modified translation) on 17 August 2003@18:48:27.
David Whitehead (modified end of translation; added initial note and augmented others; augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 18 August 2003@03:33:19.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 18 October 2005@06:56:05.
Catharine Roth (removed nonfunctional links) on 19 September 2011@22:41:56.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics; raised status) on 31 December 2013@04:03:58.

Headword: Terthreus
Adler number: tau,343
Translated headword: Terthreus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A proper name.
Greek Original:
Terthreus: onoma kurion.
Note:
Actually an improper name - meaning Quibbler - coined as a comic patronymic for Diagoras of Melos, the (so-called) atheist; see delta 523, delta 524.
Keywords: biography; comedy; definition; geography; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: David Whitehead on 8 November 2001@02:56:38.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (modified cross-references, set status) on 1 October 2004@23:17:49.
David Whitehead on 3 October 2004@04:59:15.
David Whitehead on 9 January 2014@04:41:24.

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