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Headword: *)/abel
Adler number: alpha,30
Translated headword: Abel
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Son of Adam.[1] This man was chaste and just from the beginning and a shepherd of flocks; out of these he offered a sacrifice to God and was accepted, but was then killed because he was envied by his brother Cain.[2] Cain happened to be a farmer and after the judgement he lived worse, with groaning and trembling. For Abel, by dedicating the firstborn [of the flock] to God, recommended himself as more God-loving than self-loving,[3] and because this was a good choice, he was accepted. But Cain impiously kept his first-fruits for himself and gave the seconds to God, and for this reason was rightly rejected. For it says: "and after some days it happened that Cain offered from the fruits of the earth."[4] Cain was disgraced by the fact that the produce he offered was not the first-fruits but that which was some days old and second-best.
Greek Original:
*)/abel: ui(o\s *)ada/m. ou(=tos parqe/nos kai\ di/kaios u(ph=rxe kai\ poimh\n proba/twn: e)c w(=n kai\ qusi/an tw=| qew=| prosagagw\n kai\ dexqei\s a)nairei=tai, fqonhqei\s u(po\ tou= a)delfou= au)tou= *ka/i+n. o( *ka/i+n de\ gewrgo\s tugxa/nwn kai\ meta\ th\n di/khn xeiro/nws biw/sas ste/nwn kai\ tre/mwn h)=n. o( ga\r *)/abel ta\ prwto/toka tw=| qew=| kaqierw=n filo/qeon ma=llon h)\ fi/lauton e(auto\n suni/sth, o(/qen kai\ dia\ th=s a)gaqh=s au)tou= proaire/sews a)pede/xqh. o( de\ *ka/i+n dussebw=s e(autw=| a)pone/mwn ta\ prwtogennh/mata, qew=| de\ ta\ deu/tera, ei)ko/tws kai\ a)peblh/qh. fhsi\ ga/r: kai\ e)ge/neto meq' h(me/ras, prosh/negke *ka/i+n a)po\ tw=n karpw=n th=s gh=s. w(/ste dia\ tou=to *ka/i+n e)le/gxetai, o(/ti mh\ ta\ a)kroqi/nia gennh/mata prosh/negke tw=| qew=|, a)lla\ ta\ meq' h(me/ras kai\ deu/tera.
Notes:
George the Monk, Chronicon 6.10-7.16.
[1] alpha 425.
[2] kappa 27.
[3] Again at sigma 1580.
[4] Genesis 4:3.
Keywords: agriculture; biography; botany; Christianity; daily life; ethics; food; historiography; religion; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:57:27.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, keywords, set status) on 27 January 2001@12:23:00.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 27 February 2003@08:28:31.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 8 September 2003@06:15:32.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@10:57:50.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics; raised status) on 22 June 2011@07:14:12.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 29 August 2012@10:24:09.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 August 2013@01:03:34.

Headword: *)abelteroko/kkuc
Adler number: alpha,31
Translated headword: silly cuckoo
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The vacuous and silly man.[1]
Greek Original:
*)abelteroko/kkuc: o( keno\s kai\ a)be/lteros.
Notes:
cf. generally alpha 32, alpha 33.
[1] Plato Comicus fr. 64 Kock = 65 K.-A. (Phrynichus 48.11). For "cuckoo" alone, in this sense, see e.g. Aristophanes, Acharnians 598 (web address 1 below), and Hesychius s.v. ko/kkuges.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: comedy; definition; ethics; imagery; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 23 August 1998@16:28:01.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, keywords, raised status) on 24 January 2001@22:19:23.
David Whitehead (modified translation and note) on 25 January 2001@03:48:12.
Catharine Roth (augmented note, raised status) on 8 October 2007@00:27:35.
Jennifer Benedict (typo) on 23 March 2008@01:09:06.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 25 March 2008@01:04:18.
David Whitehead (x-refs; more keywords;) on 19 December 2011@06:48:41.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 7 August 2013@23:23:30.
Catharine Roth on 7 August 2013@23:26:55.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 1 January 2015@08:53:56.

Headword: *)abolh/twr
Adler number: alpha,59
Translated headword: meeter
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Or[1] a)/bolos ["un-shedder"], a donkey that has not yet shed its teeth, from which the animal's age is known. Similarly, a young animal that does not yet have its indicators.[2] An 'indicator' is what they call a tooth that falls out, by which they verify the age. These teeth are also called 'finished,' by a metaphor from the animals themselves. The a)pognw/mones are those who have grown old and lost their indicators. Also [sc. attested is the phrase] 'unshed foals',[3] those who have not yet lost teeth.
Greek Original:
*)abolh/twr kai\ *)/abolis. h)\ *)/abolos, o)/nos o( mhde/pw beblhkw\s o)do/ntas, e)c ou(= gnwri/zetai h( h(liki/a tou= zw/|ou. e)k de\ tou/tou o( ne/os ou)de/pw gnw/mona e)/xwn. gnw/mona de\ e)/legon to\n ballo/menon o)do/nta, di' ou(= ta\s h(liki/as e)ch/tazon: to\n de\ au)to\n kai\ kathrtuko/ta e)/legon, e)k metafora=s tw=n tetrapo/dwn. kai\ a)pognw/monas tou\s a)pogeghrako/tas, oi(=s e)leloi/pei to\ gnw/risma. kai\ *)abo/lous pw/lous, tou\s mhde/pw beblhko/tas o)do/ntas.
Notes:
[1] The entry has begun with two unglossed headwords, a)bolh/twr ('one who meets': LSJ -- web address 1 below) and a)/bolis (attested only here; not in LSJ).
[2] gnw/mwn; cf. gamma 347, kappa 1061.
[3] Accusative plural, evidently quoted from somewhere.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; medicine; science and technology; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:11:01.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified headword and translation, augmented notes, added keywords, set status) on 30 January 2001@22:25:55.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 23 April 2002@09:15:27.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 18 October 2005@05:37:54.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics, betacode) on 25 March 2008@11:23:51.
David Whitehead (modified headword; augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 25 March 2008@11:38:18.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 24 August 2010@16:57:08.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 19 December 2011@08:26:52.

Headword: *(abro/s
Adler number: alpha,87
Translated headword: delicate
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] bright, delicate, tender.[1]
In the Epigrams: "a cicada sat above a cithara delicately murmuring."[2]
"All the same that fellow is dainty and delicate and weakened by the softness of his body and depraved and with his hair done up like the most licentious little courtesans. And when he goes in to see the king his face and his curly hair are always delicately dripping [with perfume], and he takes as much money from the communal difficulties as would satisfy even the legendary Midas."[3]
Greek Original:
*(abro/s: lampro\s, trufero\s, a(palo/s. e)n *)epigra/mmasin: a(bro\n e)pitru/zwn kiqa/ras u(/per e(/zeto te/ttic. o(/mws de\ o( trufero\s e)kei=nos kai\ a(bro\s kai\ u(po\ malaki/as tou= sw/matos kateagw\s kai\ lelugisme/nos kai\ ta/s te ko/mas a)nadou/menos, w(/sper ai( tw=n e(tairi/dwn a)selge/sterai, kai\ a(brostage\s e)/xwn a)ei\ to\ me/twpon kai\ tou\s bostru/xous, labw\n xrusi/on e)k tw=n koinw=n sumforw=n, o(/son i(kano\n h)=n e)mplh=sai kai\ to\n e)k tou= mu/qou *mi/dan, ei)se/rrei pro\s to\n basile/a.
Notes:
For this adjective see already alpha alpha 73 and alpha 86, and again alpha 88.
[1] Same glossing in other lexica; references at Photius alpha55 Theodoridis.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.54.7 (Paulus Silentarius).
[3] Attributed by Hemsterhuys to Eunapius; again (in part) at alpha 1860.
Keywords: biography; clothing; daily life; definition; ethics; gender and sexuality; historiography; imagery; mythology; poetry; women; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:39:27.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, augmented note, set keywords and status) on 2 February 2001@12:21:50.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@06:35:10.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 3 January 2006@10:26:40.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 December 2011@04:35:18.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 22 December 2011@19:16:16.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@07:18:56.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 17 January 2014@04:31:02.

Headword: *)agaqh\ kai\ ma/za met' a)/rton
Adler number: alpha,110
Translated headword: after bread a barley cake is good too
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
In reference to those who give or take second-best.[1]
*ma/za [barley cake] has an acute [accent]; for a circumflex does not occur before the position of a long vowel.[2] Aristophanes, though, gives ma/za a circumflex: "bring, bring a barley cake for the dung-beetle as quick as you can."[3]
Greek Original:
*)agaqh\ kai\ ma/za met' a)/rton: e)pi\ tw=n ta\ deuterei=a dido/ntwn h)\ ai(roume/nwn. ma/za o)cei=an e)/xei: e)pa/nw ga\r qe/sei makra=s perispwme/nh ou) ti/qetai: o( de\ *)aristofa/nhs perispa= th\n ma/zan: ai)=r' ai)=re ma/zan w(s ta/xista kanqa/rw|.
Notes:
All except the first sentence of this entry is reported by Adler as a marginal gloss in manuscripts A (= Parisinus 2625) and M (= Marcianus 448).
[1] cf. Zenobius 1.12.
[2] Yet in classical Attic, the final syllable is short, so the first syllable can have a circumflex: ma=za. See LSJ (web address 1).
[3] Aristophanes, Peace 1 (web address 2); again at alphaiota 280 and alphaiota 299. In the Aristophanes passage the word is not actually used for cakes of barley but for cakes of dung.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; food; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 30 March 2001@14:33:31.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; minor cosmetics) on 31 March 2001@03:05:31.
William Hutton (Augmented note) on 31 March 2001@08:40:31.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding, cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@00:25:33.
David Whitehead (modified end of translation; augmented note and keywords; cosmetics) on 27 March 2008@07:28:04.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, status) on 4 July 2011@19:14:38.

Headword: *)agaqoklh=s
Adler number: alpha,117
Translated headword: Agathokles, Agathocles
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
This man became tyrant [of Syracuse] and, as Timaeus says, in his early youth was a common prostitute, ready [to give himself] to the most debauched, a jackdaw, a buzzard,[1] presenting his backside to all who wanted it. When he died, says [Timaeus], his wife cried out to him in lamentation, "What [did] I not [carnally do to] you? And what [did] you not [reciprocate to] me?"[2] That nature had endowed Agathokles with great advantages is clear. For escaping the wheel, the smoke[of the kiln and] the clay,[3] he came to Syracuse, at about the age of eighteen, and in a short time, starting from such beginnings, he became master of the whole of Sicily, exposed the Carthaginians to extreme dangers, and finally, having grown old in the role of dynast, ended his life with the title of king.[4]
Greek Original:
*)agaqoklh=s: ou(=tos e)ge/neto tu/rannos kai\, w(/s fhsi *ti/maios, kata\ th\n prw/thn h(liki/an koino\s po/rnos, e(/toimos toi=s a)kratesta/tois, koloio\s, trio/rxhs, pa/ntwn tw=n boulome/nwn toi=s o)/pisqen e)/mprosqen gegonw/s. o(\s o(/te a)pe/qane, th\n gunai=ka fhsi\ kataklaiome/nhn au)to\n ou(/tw qrhnei=n: ti/ d' ou)k e)gw\ se/; ti/ d' ou)k e)me\ su/; o(/ti de\ e)k fu/sews a)na/gkh mega/la proterh/mata gegone/nai peri\ to\n *)agaqokle/a, tou=to dh=lon. ei)s ga\r ta\s *surakou/sas paregenh/qh feu/gwn to\n troxo\n, to\n kapno\n, to\n phlo\n, peri/ te th\n h(liki/an o)ktwkai/deka e)/th gegonw\s, kai\ meta/ tina xro/non o(rmhqei\s u(po\ toiau/ths u(poqe/sews, ku/rios me\n e)genh/qh pa/shs *sikeli/as, megi/stois de\ kindu/nois perie/sthse *karxhdoni/ous, te/los e)gghra/sas th=| dunastei/a|, kate/streye to\n bi/on basileu\s prosagoreuo/menos.
Notes:
360-289 BCE; he ruled Syracuse from 317-289. See generally OCD(4) p.36, under Agathocles(1).
The entry presents a semi-verbatim and mildly abridged extract from Polybius (12.15.2-7: web address 1 below), who is in turn citing, disapprovingly, Timaeus of Tauromenium (FGrH 566 F124b).
[1] On this passage K.J. Dover, Greek Homosexuality (London 1978) p.103 writes: 'The jackdaw here probably sybolises impudence and shamelessness; the buzzard, in Greek triorkhes, having three testicles, presumably symbolises insatiable lust, which is assumed to characterise the true pornos'. Cf. tau 995, where the first part of this quotation reappears.
[2] Probably Theoxene, the daughter or stepdaughter of Ptolemy I Soter and the third wife of Agathokles. See F.W. Walbank, A historical commentary on Polybius (Oxford, 1967) v.2 p.361.
[3] His father owned a large pottery. See Diodorus 19.2.7; 20.63.4. As with equivalent figures in (e.g.) late-C5 Athens, such as Kleon, we see here the conceit that those whose wealth lay in manufacture would actually participate in (and be debased by) the actual manufacturing.
[4] Agathokles assumed the title of king in 305. See Diodorus 20.54.1.
References:
Berve, H., Die Herrschaft des Agathokles (Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1953)
Agathokles(15) in RE 1.1 748-757
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; constitution; daily life; ethics; gender and sexuality; historiography; history; politics; trade and manufacture; women; zoology
Translated by: David Whitehead on 10 February 2001@10:07:49.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 6 June 2001@00:10:30.
Tony Natoli (Modified translation, added notes and bibliography, raised status.) on 12 August 2001@02:19:21.
David Whitehead (restorative and other cosmetics) on 17 September 2002@05:10:41.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@10:59:41.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 20 November 2005@10:37:08.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 26 March 2008@00:30:36.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 22 December 2011@06:16:09.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:23:59.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 1 January 2015@23:51:52.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 17 February 2018@23:14:40.

Headword: *)agaqw=n a)gaqi/des
Adler number: alpha,123
Translated headword: skeins of good things
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The proverb is used in the comic poets in reference to a lot of good things.[1]
Also [sc. attested is] 'sea of good things', in reference to an abundance of good things.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] 'anthills of good things', in reference to an abundance of good fortune.[3]
Also [sc. attested is] 'heap of good things', in reference to an abundance of good things and a lot of good fortune.[4]
Greek Original:
*)agaqw=n a)gaqi/des: ta/ttetai h( paroimi/a para\ toi=s kwmikoi=s e)pi\ tw=n pollw=n a)gaqw=n. kai\ *)agaqw=n qa/lassa, e)pi\ plh/qous a)gaqw=n. kai\ *)agaqw=n murmhki/ai, e)pi\ plh/qous eu)daimoni/as. kai\ *)agaqw=n swro\s, e)pi\ plh/qous a)gaqw=n kai\ pollh=s eu)daimoni/as.
Notes:
The wordplay of the headword phrase a)gaqw=n a)gaqi/des is hard to render in English. 'Bundles of bounties' might do.
[1] (Same material in Photius.) Again at alpha 2601; and see also nu 77 and tau 147.
[2] Again at pi 2049.
[3] Comica adespota fr. 827 Kock, now 796 K.-A.
[4] cf. Apostolius 1.5, etc.
Keywords: comedy; daily life; ethics; imagery; proverbs; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 1 April 2001@00:28:16.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes; minor cosmetics) on 2 April 2001@03:44:41.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; tweaks and cosmetics) on 22 December 2006@08:09:36.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 22 December 2011@07:28:42.
David Whitehead (corrected a ref) on 16 March 2012@07:56:43.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 December 2014@04:31:45.
David Whitehead (coding) on 12 July 2015@03:58:05.

Headword: *)aga/menos
Adler number: alpha,141
Translated headword: admiring, wondering at, marveling at
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning someone] being amazed at.[1]
"Admiring this man for his high spirits they let him ride on the horse."[2]
Greek Original:
*)aga/menos: qauma/zwn. a)ga/menoi tou=ton th=s eu)yuxi/as e)poxou=si tw=| i(/ppw|.
Notes:
The headword is present participle, masculine nominative singular, of a)/gamai. Same or similar glossing in other lexica (references at Photius alpha99 Theodoridis). The headword is evidently quoted from somewhere (other than the quotation given here, which has the corresponding plural); extant possibilities begin with Xenophon and Plato.
[1] cf. alpha 138.
[2] Theophylact Simocatta, Histories 2.6.4.
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography; history; philosophy; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 28 March 2000@00:49:02.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@10:43:58.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword) on 25 April 2002@04:22:39.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks) on 23 December 2011@05:19:02.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@08:04:58.
David Whitehead (expanded primary note; added a keyword) on 4 April 2015@11:40:30.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 4 April 2015@23:28:28.

Headword: *)aggarei/a
Adler number: alpha,162
Translated headword: compulsory labour, corvee
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Surely "of pack mules".[1]
Also [sc. attested is] a)/ggaros: [meaning] labourer, servant, porter; whence we speak of a)ggarei/a [to describe] involuntary compulsion and service brought about by force.[2]
Greek Original:
*)aggarei/a: li/an a)gga/rwn h(mio/nwn. kai\ *)/aggaros: e)rga/ths, u(phre/ths, a)xqofo/ros: o(/qen a)ggarei/an a)na/gkhn a)kou/sion le/gomen kai\ e)k bi/as ginome/nhn u(phresi/an.
Notes:
For the (unglossed) headword, again under alpha 163, see generally LSJ s.v.; and cf. alpha 164, alpha 165 alpha 166.
[1] The force of li/an is not self-evident here, but see generally LSJ s.v. (The remainder of the phrase might be a quotation, from Libanius, Oration 18.143.)
[2] Same or similar glossing in other lexica; references at Photius alpha94 Theodoridis.
Keywords: daily life; definition; ethics; rhetoric; zoology
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 23 June 1999@13:06:05.
Vetted by:
Shannon N. Byrne on 20 May 2000@18:26:56.
William Hutton (Cosmetics) on 28 June 2001@13:52:43.
William Hutton (Added notes) on 28 June 2001@14:04:48.
Anne Mahoney (make the Greek beta-code) on 6 July 2001@11:39:53.
David Whitehead (modified translation; cosmetics) on 11 July 2003@07:40:21.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@07:54:02.
David Whitehead (expanded n.2; tweaking) on 16 August 2013@08:28:08.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 31 March 2015@01:18:34.
Catharine Roth (betacode cosmeticule) on 5 April 2015@19:19:42.

Headword: *)/aggaroi
Adler number: alpha,165
Translated headword: messengers
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] those who carry letters in relays.[1] They are also [called] 'couriers' [a)sta/ndai].[2] The words [are] Persian. Aeschylus in Agamemnon [writes]: "beacon sent beacon hither with relaying fire."[3] The word is also used for conveyors of freight and more generally of inanimate objects and slaves. Also [sc. attested is] the [verb] a)ggaroforei=n in reference to carrying burdens. And [the verb] a)ggareu/esqai means what we now speak of as being impressed to carry burdens and labor of that sort. Menander offers this example in the Sikyonios: "someone arriving by sea puts in? He is labelled an enemy. And if he has anything nice it's pressed into service [a)ggareu/etai]."[4]
Greek Original:
*)/aggaroi: oi( e)k diadoxh=s grammatofo/roi. oi( de\ au)toi\ kai\ a)sta/ndai. ta\ de\ o)no/mata *persika/. *ai)sxu/los *)agame/mnoni: frukto\s de\ frukto\n deu=ro a)p' a)gga/rou puro\s e)/pempe. ti/qetai to\ o)/noma kai\ e)pi\ tw=n forthgw=n kai\ o(/lws tw=n a)naisqh/twn kai\ a)ndrapodwdw=n. kai\ to\ *)aggaroforei=n e)pi\ tou= forti/a fe/rein. kai\ *)aggareu/esqai kalou=sin w(/sper h(mei=s nu=n to\ ei)s forthgi/an kai\ toiau/thn tina\ u(phresi/an a)/gesqai. *me/nandros kai\ tou=to e)n tw=| *sikuwni/w| pari/sthsin: o( ple/wn kath/xqh; kri/neq' ou(=tos pole/mios. e)a\n e)/xh| ti\ malako\n, a)ggareu/etai.
Notes:
Same entry in Photius, similar ones elsewhere.
LSJ entry at web address 1. See also alpha 162, alpha 163, alpha 164.
[1] cf. Herodotus 3.126 (web address 2) and esp. 8.98 (web address 3).
[2] cf. alpha 4420. The word appears also at Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 3.122A (3.94 Kaibel); Eustathius Commentaries on Homer's Odyssey vol. 2 p. 189.6; Hesychius alpha7814; Plutarch, Alexander 18 (bis); De Alex. fort. virt. 326E; 340C.
[3] Aeschylus, Agamemnon 282f. (web address 4), where the mss have a)gge/lou, an obvious gloss.
[4] Menander, Sikyonios fr.4 Sandbach [= fr 440 Kock].
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; history; military affairs; science and technology; tragedy; zoology
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 23 June 1999@13:13:42.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, modified translation, added cross-references, keywords, links, set status) on 5 July 2001@12:26:03.
William Hutton (Fixed faulty linksz) on 5 July 2001@12:31:12.
Catharine Roth (added keyword and link; cosmetic) on 5 July 2001@13:14:47.
Anne Mahoney (make the Greek beta-code) on 6 July 2001@11:37:41.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@09:14:56.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding, reordered links, cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@01:38:57.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 27 March 2008@08:32:31.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; tweaks and cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@08:14:35.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 12 August 2013@22:38:38.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 12 August 2013@23:22:50.
David Whitehead (tweaked a ref) on 14 January 2015@03:18:54.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 April 2015@23:40:43.

Headword: *)/agauros
Adler number: alpha,176
Translated headword: wastrel
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A dandy; but some [say] a good-for-nothing; [used] by Ionians [to mean] a pauper, but by Attic writers [to mean] a fop.
Greek Original:
*)/agauros: o( komyo/s: oi( de\ kako/s: u(po\ *)iw/nwn de\ a)/poros, u(po\ de\ *)attikw=n trufero/s.
Note:
Similar entries in Hesychius and, especially, Etymologicum Magnum 6.30-34 -- though there the headword is oxytone a)gauro/s. LSJ too (web address 1 below) gives it thus, and understands it as gau=ros [gamma 77, gamma 78] 'with a euphon., stately, proud'; used of a bull in Hesiod, Theogony 832. However, sense 2 there is 'Ion., euphem. for a beggar'.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; poetry; zoology
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 4 June 1999@14:57:53.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@09:23:02.
Jennifer Benedict (Added link, cosmeticule) on 26 March 2008@01:58:58.
David Whitehead (expanded note; more keywords) on 23 December 2011@09:30:36.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link, coding) on 5 April 2015@23:12:45.

Headword: *)/age dh=ta
Adler number: alpha,180
Translated headword: hey there
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] come now, you there, over here.[1]
And [there is] an epigram addressed to Diogenes the Cynic: "' Hey, Diogenes, tell [us], what fate took you to Hades?' 'A dog's bite took me'".[2]
But the epigram [sc. illustrates the idiom] in short form.
Greek Original:
*)/age dh=ta: fe/re, ko/mize, deu=ro. kai\ e)pi/gramma ei)s *dioge/nhn to\n *ku/na: *dio/genes, a)/ge, le/ge, ti/s e)/labe/ se mo/ros e)s *)/ai+dos; e)/labe/ me kuno\s o)da/c. to\ de\ e)pi/gramma dia\ braxe/wn.
Notes:
[1] Likewise in other lexica; references at Photius alpha135 Theodoridis.
[2] Diogenes Laertius 6.79 = Greek Anthology 7.116; cf. again delta 1141, omicron 28. The original reads "a dog's savage bite" (kuno\s a)/grion o)da/c).
Keywords: biography; definition; philosophy; poetry; zoology
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 7 June 1999@11:32:12.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added cross-reference and keywords.) on 25 January 2001@01:34:50.
David Whitehead (modified translation and references; added keyword; cosmetics) on 25 January 2001@03:37:10.
Jennifer Benedict (beta-typo, title tagging) on 26 March 2008@02:00:59.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 27 March 2008@08:43:48.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 29 December 2011@06:26:24.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@06:06:59.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 5 April 2015@10:19:56.

Headword: *)agela/rxhs
Adler number: alpha,183
Translated headword: herd-leader
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The leader of the herd of oxen.
Greek Original:
*)agela/rxhs: o( th=s a)ge/lhs tw=n bow=n a)/rxwn.
Notes:
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
LSJ s.v. (web address 1) shows both this literal meaning and the extended one of any kind of leader.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; imagery; military affairs; zoology
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 23 June 1999@13:19:29.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note) on 11 February 2001@09:50:50.
Catharine Roth (augmented note, raised status) on 15 October 2007@01:23:17.
David Whitehead (tweaked note; more keywords) on 15 October 2007@03:11:25.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 26 March 2008@02:02:18.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 29 December 2011@06:36:16.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 29 December 2011@11:39:20.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link, coding) on 5 April 2015@23:22:25.

Headword: *)agelai=os
Adler number: alpha,187
Translated headword: ordinary
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] no-account fellow [i)diw/ths]. Or the lead animal in the herd.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the genitive plural] "of a)gelai=oi", of no-account fellows, of rustics.
"Such-and-such is likely enough of [= in] ordinary men". Meaning common ones.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] "of a)gelai=oi", of the random masses. It would be used metaphorically from animals in herds or from fish,[3] which they say feed lavishly and in schools [a)gelhdo/n].[4]
Greek Original:
*)agelai=os: i)diw/ths. h)\ o( e)n a)ge/lh| dia/gwn. kai\ *)agelai/wn, i)diwtw=n, r(embwdw=n. tw=n a)gelai/wn e)/oiken a)nqrw/pwn ei)=nai o( toiou=tos. a)nti\ tou= eu)telw=n. kai\ *)agelai/wn, tw=n pollw=n kai\ tuxo/ntwn. ei)/h d' a)\n e)k metafora=s tw=n a)gelai/wn zw/|wn h)\ a)po\ tw=n i)xqu/wn, ou(\s bo/skesqai r(u/dhn kai\ a)gelhdo/n fasin.
Notes:
The closest comparanda for this entry in its entirety are found in the Platonic Lexicon ascribed to Timaeus (971b.10); Synagoge (Codex B) alpha99; Photius, Lexicon alpha134 and alpha141 Theodoridis; none of these matches up precisely, however. Snippets evidently from the same source appear elsewhere, as noted below.
[1] For the distinction see already alpha 186. Thus far the entry = Synagoge alpha49; cf. Aelius Dionysius alpha17; Eudemus 3.20; Hesychius alpha424, omicron3.
[2] Julian, Oration 7 (205D), where "such-and-such" = the invention of myth. The glosses (minus the quotation) in this and the previous sentence are paralleled in Etymologicum Gudianum 4.3 and Etymologicum Magnum 7.41.
[3] cf. alpha 189.
[4] The reference is probably to Herodotus 2.93.1, where both i)xqu/es a)gelai=oi and the adverb a)gelhdo/n (alpha 191) appear (see web address 1). This etymological information also appears in Harpokration alpha8 Keaney (4.13 Dindorf) as well as in some of the sources cited above.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography; imagery; rhetoric; zoology
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 23 June 1999@13:23:22.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@09:44:27.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 18 October 2005@05:38:36.
Catharine Roth (betacode typos) on 12 October 2007@01:13:40.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, added betacode, augmented note, raised status) on 12 October 2007@19:46:19.
Catharine Roth (added link) on 12 October 2007@22:34:25.
William Hutton (Augmented and modified notes) on 12 November 2007@06:25:26.
William Hutton (cosmetics) on 5 August 2009@13:42:54.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 29 December 2011@06:55:10.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 29 December 2011@11:48:32.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@06:16:07.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 3 September 2014@23:37:00.

Headword: *)agelaiw/n
Adler number: alpha,188
Translated headword: pasture
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the herd's place.
Greek Original:
*)agelaiw/n: o( to/pos th=s a)ge/lhs.
Note:
This noun is attested only in lexicography (besides here, in ps.-Zonaras and, according to Adler, the Ambrosian Lexicon), but cf. generally alpha 183, alpha 186, alpha 187, etc.
Keywords: agriculture; definition; geography; zoology
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 4 June 1999@15:21:21.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note) on 25 April 2002@09:49:13.
Catharine Roth (augmented note, added keywords, raised status) on 12 October 2007@01:00:34.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@06:17:58.
David Whitehead (my typo) on 5 April 2015@10:26:30.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 April 2015@23:26:17.

Headword: *)agelai=oi i)xqu/es
Adler number: alpha,189
Translated headword: fish in schools
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] those which are paltry and small.
Greek Original:
*)agelai=oi i)xqu/es: oi( eu)telei=s kai\ mikroi/.
Note:
See note 4 to alpha 187. The gloss here (for which cf. Hesychius alpha423) appears to be a misinterpretation of the Herodotean phrase.
Keywords: definition; historiography; zoology
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 4 June 1999@15:23:18.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@09:51:31.
Catharine Roth (augmented note, raised status) on 12 October 2007@22:34:56.
David Whitehead (tweaked note) on 29 December 2011@07:04:59.
David Whitehead on 16 June 2013@08:47:11.

Headword: *)agelhdo/n
Adler number: alpha,191
Translated headword: gregariously, herd-fashion, in a herd
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
An adverb.
Greek Original:
*)agelhdo/n: e)pi/rrhma.
Notes:
First in Homer, Iliad 16.160 (in a simile, of wolves: web address 1); see also e.g. Herodotus 2.93 (of fish: web address 2).
Similar entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon; and see also Hesychius s.v., where Latte confidently asserts that the headword is extracted from the Septuagint (2 Maccabees 3.18).
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; historiography; imagery; religion; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 10 April 2000@23:26:12.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords) on 11 February 2001@10:25:39.
Catharine Roth (added links and keywords, augmented note) on 12 October 2007@01:11:01.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 29 December 2011@11:52:26.
David Whitehead (expanded note; another keyword) on 1 February 2012@06:03:32.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@06:20:54.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 5 April 2015@10:28:56.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 April 2015@23:29:30.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:39:13.

Headword: *)agelh/ths bou=s
Adler number: alpha,192
Translated headword: herding ox
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] one from a herd.
Greek Original:
*)agelh/ths bou=s: o( e)c a)ge/lhs.
Note:
Same glossing in ps.-Zonaras and, according to Adler, the Ambrosian Lexicon. The headword phrase, possibly a quotation, is otherwise unattested.
Keywords: definition; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 10 April 2000@23:33:09.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 11 February 2001@10:28:34.
Catharine Roth (augmented note) on 12 October 2007@01:05:41.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@06:22:33.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 April 2015@23:31:09.

Headword: *)age/lhfin
Adler number: alpha,193
Translated headword: in a herd
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] from/out of the herd.
Greek Original:
*)age/lhfin: e)k th=s a)ge/lhs.
Note:
The gloss reflects the context of this adverb at its first attested appearance, in Homer, Iliad 2.480-1: a bull in a herd of cattle stands out from it (web address 1). Similar glosses appear in a scholion on this verse, as well as in Hesychius (alpha438) and, according to Adler, the Ambrosian Lexicon.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; imagery; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 10 April 2000@23:54:35.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords) on 11 February 2001@10:36:49.
Catharine Roth (augmented note) on 12 October 2007@01:02:51.
Catharine Roth on 12 October 2007@01:03:21.
Catharine Roth (added link and keyword) on 12 October 2007@01:17:02.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@06:24:25.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 5 April 2015@10:30:27.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 April 2015@23:32:16.

Headword: *)agerwxi/a
Adler number: alpha,202
Translated headword: haughtiness, manliness, nobility
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Arrogance.[1]
"The Scythians are supercilious and exceedingly haughty."[2]
By virtue of being exceedingly boastful or by virtue of being exceedingly honored.[3]
Also [sc. attested is] a)ge/rwxos, [meaning] honorable, manly.[4]
Agathias [writes]: "mounting a horse who was very obedient to the rein and noble, and not the sort to leap and prance in uncontrolled fashion."[5]
And elsewhere: "how he might be reputable and honorable to those who came later."[6]
Or a)ge/rwxos, [meaning] the boastful person.[7]
Greek Original:
*)agerwxi/a: u(perhfani/a. o(/ti oi( *sku/qai ei)si\n u(peroptikoi\ kai\ li/an a)ge/rwxoi. para\ to\ a)/gan au)xei=n h)\ para\ to\ a)/gan gerouxei=n. *)age/rwxos, e)/ntimos, a)ndrei=os. *)agaqi/as: i(/ppou e)piba\s eu)hniwta/tou te kai\ a)gerw/xou kai\ oi(/ou ou)k a)/takta e)ca/llesqai kai\ skirta=n. kai\ au)=qis: w(s a)\n e)/soito eu)kleh\s toi=s mete/peita kai\ a)ge/rwxos. h)\ *)age/rwxos, o( a)lazw/n.
Notes:
The ambiguity of this concept, which the entry illustrates, is also noted in LSJ.
[1] Same glossing in Photius and other lexica.
[2] Quotation unidentifiable.
[3] Either way, an etymological gloss (paralleled in Etymologicum Magnum 7.47) on the adjective cognate with the headword; it assumes a link with the adverb a)/gan.
[4] Same or similar glossing in other lexica.
[5] Agathias, Histories 1.21.
[6] Quotation unidentifiable.
[7] Same glossing, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; geography; historiography; history; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 17 October 2000@10:07:47.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@10:27:02.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 30 December 2011@07:20:45.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 30 December 2011@16:59:45.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 10 July 2015@23:14:41.

Headword: *)agh=lai
Adler number: alpha,217
Translated headword: to celebrate, to glorify
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] to honor a god with celebrations. Thus Eupolis in Demes [writes]: "now we too should dedicate to these the twin woolly wreaths[1] and approach in celebration. Hail everyone, we welcome [you]!"[2] Aristophanes in Peace [writes]: "and with holy sacrifices and grand processions we all, on our own, glorify you, mistress, always".[3] Hermippus in Breadsellers [writes]: "come now, glorify the same gods I do and burn the incense, now that your son has been saved".[4]
Greek Original:
*)agh=lai: timh=sai qeo\n a)glai/+ais. ou(/tws *eu)/polis *dh/mois: a)naqw=men nu=n xh(mei=s tou/tois ta\s ditta\s ei)resiw/nas kai\ prosagh/lwmen e)pelqo/ntes. xai/rete pa/ntes, dexo/mesqa. *)aristofa/nhs *ei)rh/nh|: kai/ se qusi/aisin i(erai=si proso/dois te mega/lais i)di/a| pa/ntes, w)= po/tni', a)galou=men h(mei=s a)ei/. *(/ermippos *)artopw/lisi: fe/re nu=n a)gh/lw tou\s qeou\s oi(/ous e)gw\ kai\ qumia/sw tou= te/knou seswsme/nou.
Notes:
Same or similar material in other lexica; references at Photius alpha163 Theodoridis (and see also alpha164). The headword is the aorist infinitive of the verb a)ga/llw, probably quoted from Euripides, Medea 1027; cf. the scholia there.
See also alpha 218.
[1] On the role of woolly wreathes in ancient ritual see LSJ (web address 1) and epsiloniota 184, pi 1304, delta 589. A Homeric "epigram" is also called ei)resiw/nh and designed to accompany the procession (omicron 251 [note 35]).
[2] Eupolis fr. 119 Kock, now 131 K.-A. (using, in fact, a compound of the headword verb).
[3] An approximation of Aristophanes, Peace 396-398.
[4] Hermippus fr. 8 Kock (and K.-A.).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry; religion; tragedy; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 October 2000@22:35:49.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes; cosmetics) on 18 January 2001@05:57:23.
Robert Dyer (Added new note 1 and Web address. Minor spelling chnge.) on 23 January 2002@15:54:18.
Tony Natoli (Corrected link to LSJ) on 4 November 2006@20:28:46.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 5 November 2006@04:19:34.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 3 January 2012@08:47:48.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@07:06:18.
David Whitehead (updated 2 refs) on 23 December 2014@08:30:14.

Headword: *)/aghma
Adler number: alpha,219
Translated headword: division, guard, force, troop
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the king's advancing force of elephants and horses and infantry. But some [sc. say that this term means] the best part of the Macedonian battle array;[1] strong in weaponry and in the conditioning of their bodies.[2]
Greek Original:
*)/aghma: to\ proi+o\n tou= basile/ws ta/gma e)lefa/ntwn kai\ i(/ppwn kai\ pezw=n. oi( de\ to\ a)/riston th=s *makedonikh=s sunta/cews: krataio\n o(pli/sei kai\ swma/twn eu)eci/a|.
Notes:
See also alpha 220.
[1] Same or similar material in other lexica; references at Photius alpha165 Theodoridis.
[2] This last clause (not in the other lexica) is perhaps a quotation; if so, it is unidentifiable.
Keywords: definition; history; medicine; military affairs; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 October 2000@23:07:28.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes; cosmetics) on 26 April 2002@05:51:00.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 3 January 2012@09:14:08.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@07:11:41.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 April 2015@03:11:13.

Headword: *(agi/zwn
Adler number: alpha,235
Translated headword: sanctifying
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning one who is] making a sacrifice. "Come, making a cattle sacrifice at the hearth."[1]
Also [sc. attested is the related participle] a(giasqe/ntwn, [meaning] rites having been performed.[2]
Also [sc. attested is the form] a(gia/zw, [used] with an accusative.[3]
Greek Original:
*(agi/zwn: a(gia/zwn. bou/quton e(sti/an a(gi/zwn i(/kou. kai\ *(agiasqe/ntwn, a)fierwqe/ntwn. kai\ *(agia/zw, ai)tiatikh=|.
Notes:
The headword, extracted from the quotation given, is present participle, masculine nominative singular, of a(gi/zw; LSJ entry at web address 1.
[1] Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus 1495 (web address 2), with scholion.
[2] So too in other lexica. This aorist passive participle in the masculine/neuter genitive plural is evidently quoted from somewhere.
[3] cf. alpha 232, alpha 233, alpha 240.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry; religion; tragedy; zoology
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg ✝ on 24 November 1998@14:14:16.
Vetted by:
Anne Mahoney on 25 June 2000@10:55:39.
Catharine Roth (Added headword translation, link, keywords.) on 18 February 2001@19:47:49.
Catharine Roth (Added cross-reference.) on 18 February 2001@19:50:11.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 26 April 2002@06:16:17.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 23 July 2003@06:49:18.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; tweaks and cosmetics) on 4 January 2012@04:21:14.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@07:44:51.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 9 April 2015@07:17:33.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 22 November 2020@00:36:15.

Headword: *)/agkesi
Adler number: alpha,245
Translated headword: [in] forests
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning in] tree-filled and wooded places.[1]
In the Epigrams: "with this he slays wild beasts in beast-breeding forests".[2]
Greek Original:
*)/agkesi: sunde/ndrois kai\ u(lw/desi to/pois. e)n *)epigra/mmasi: qhrobolei= tou/tw| d' a)/gkesi qhroto/kois.
Notes:
The headword is dative plural of alpha 248. It is perhaps extracted from the quotation given, though not demonstrably so; there are other extant possibilities in e.g. Theocritus and Oppian.
[1] For this glossing cf. the scholia to Homer, Iliad 18.321, where a)/gke' occurs.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.186.4 (Diocles), dedications to Pan by three brothers; cf. Gow and Page (230-231).
Reference:
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: The Garland of Philip and Some Contemporary Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge, 1968)
Keywords: botany; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; poetry; religion; zoology
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg ✝ on 24 November 1998@14:04:48.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword, notes, keywords; cosmetics) on 12 February 2001@04:42:05.
Catharine Roth (Added cross-reference.) on 4 March 2001@22:35:12.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 4 January 2012@05:13:03.
David Whitehead (expanded note; cosmetics) on 9 April 2015@07:42:49.
David Whitehead (coding) on 7 July 2015@02:50:08.
Ronald Allen (expanded n.2, added bibliography, added keyword) on 2 November 2018@18:01:43.

Headword: *)agkra/tos e)lau/nonta
Adler number: alpha,250
Translated headword: riding hard
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Xenophon [has this] in place of 'riding fast'.[1]
Greek Original:
*)agkra/tos e)lau/nonta: *cenofw=n, a)nti\ tou= pa/nu e)lau/nonta.
Notes:
Same or similar entry in other lexica (references at Photius alpha184 Theodoridis); and see again at alpha 2543.
[1] Xenophon, Art of Horsemanship 8.10, a)na\ kra/tos e)lau/nonta. See also Anabasis 1.8.1, e)lau/nwn a)na\ kra/tos.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; history; military affairs; zoology
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg ✝ on 24 November 1998@13:53:54.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword; modified translation; augmented note; cosmetics) on 9 October 2000@07:33:05.
David Whitehead (augmented note; added keywords; cosmetics) on 9 March 2001@09:49:44.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 4 January 2012@05:40:03.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@08:01:45.

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