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Headword: *)abasa/nistos
Adler number: alpha,21
Translated headword: untested
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning someone/something] unexercised or unexamined, unscrutinized. The word comes from the test of the goldsmith's stone, on which they scrutinize gold.[1] Aelian in his On Providence used the word 'untested' to mean 'without pain'.[2]
Greek Original:
*)abasa/nistos: a)gu/mnastos h)\ a)nece/tastos, a)doki/mastos. ei)/rhtai de\ a)po\ th=s basa/nou th=s xrusoxoi+kh=s li/qou, e)n h(=| dokima/zousi to\ xrusi/on. e)xrh/sato de\ *ai)liano\s e)n tw=| peri\ pronoi/as tw=| a)basa/nistos a)nti\ tou= a)/neu o)du/nhs.
= Synagoge alpha4 (Lexica Segueriana 3.14); Photius, Lexicon alpha30 Theodoridis; perhaps ultimately derived in part from Phrynichus (Praeparatio rhetorica fr. 39 de Borries); cf. Hesychius alpha89 and a cluster of related entries: alpha 2276, Hesychius alpha4899, Synagoge alpha589, Photius alpha1845.
[1] ba/sanos can mean both the touchstone itself and the testing process. See beta 139, and cf. beta 137.
[2] Aelian fr.9 Hercher (= 9 Domingo-Forasté). The version of the entry at Synagoge alpha4 includes the information that this is from the third book of the work in question.
Keywords: athletics; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; law; philosophy; rhetoric; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:58:18.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 20 January 2001@11:28:32.
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes) on 21 January 2001@05:35:01.
William Hutton (tweaked translation, expanded notes, added keywords, set status) on 27 August 2007@05:12:39.
William Hutton (Updates references in footnotes.) on 11 November 2007@07:10:05.
William Hutton (typo) on 8 February 2008@02:59:18.
Jennifer Benedict (added keyword) on 23 March 2008@00:55:08.
David Whitehead (typos) on 19 December 2011@06:11:54.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:31:43.
David Whitehead (cosmetics; another keyword) on 2 April 2015@08:51:56.

Headword: *(abrai=s
Adler number: alpha,73
Translated headword: delicate
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] gentle, dainty.[1] Aelian [writes]: "them placing [half-beams] upon very delicate couches and mattresses adorned with some magnificent weaving."[2]
Greek Original:
*(abrai=s: a(palai=s, truferai=s. *ai)liano/s: e)pi\ kli/nais ma/la a(brai=s kai\ strwmnai=s u(/fei tini\ u(perhfa/nw| kekosmhme/nais e)piqe/ntas.
cf. generally alpha 70.
[1] The headword is dative plural of this adjective, presumably extracted from the quotation given.
[2] A truncated version of Aelian fr. 53h Domingo-Forasté (50 Hercher); more fully at delta 75, and see also upsilon 290.
Keywords: daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:29:17.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, added keyword, set status) on 31 January 2001@13:01:14.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 1 February 2001@03:53:15.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 19 December 2011@09:25:52.
Catharine Roth (updated reference) on 28 January 2012@18:56:48.
David Whitehead (another x-ref; cosmetics) on 17 January 2014@04:28:35.

Headword: *)agaqoklh=s
Adler number: alpha,117
Translated headword: Agathokles, Agathocles
Vetting Status: high
This man became tyrant [of Syracuse] and, as Timaeus says, in his early youth was a common prostitute, ready [to give himself] to the most debauched, a jackdaw, a buzzard,[1] presenting his backside to all who wanted it. When he died, says [Timaeus], his wife cried out to him in lamentation, "What [did] I not [carnally do to] you? And what [did] you not [reciprocate to] me?"[2] That nature had endowed Agathokles with great advantages is clear. For escaping the wheel, the smoke[of the kiln and] the clay,[3] he came to Syracuse, at about the age of eighteen, and in a short time, starting from such beginnings, he became master of the whole of Sicily, exposed the Carthaginians to extreme dangers, and finally, having grown old in the role of dynast, ended his life with the title of king.[4]
Greek Original:
*)agaqoklh=s: ou(=tos e)ge/neto tu/rannos kai\, w(/s fhsi *ti/maios, kata\ th\n prw/thn h(liki/an koino\s po/rnos, e(/toimos toi=s a)kratesta/tois, koloio\s, trio/rxhs, pa/ntwn tw=n boulome/nwn toi=s o)/pisqen e)/mprosqen gegonw/s. o(\s o(/te a)pe/qane, th\n gunai=ka fhsi\ kataklaiome/nhn au)to\n ou(/tw qrhnei=n: ti/ d' ou)k e)gw\ se/; ti/ d' ou)k e)me\ su/; o(/ti de\ e)k fu/sews a)na/gkh mega/la proterh/mata gegone/nai peri\ to\n *)agaqokle/a, tou=to dh=lon. ei)s ga\r ta\s *surakou/sas paregenh/qh feu/gwn to\n troxo\n, to\n kapno\n, to\n phlo\n, peri/ te th\n h(liki/an o)ktwkai/deka e)/th gegonw\s, kai\ meta/ tina xro/non o(rmhqei\s u(po\ toiau/ths u(poqe/sews, ku/rios me\n e)genh/qh pa/shs *sikeli/as, megi/stois de\ kindu/nois perie/sthse *karxhdoni/ous, te/los e)gghra/sas th=| dunastei/a|, kate/streye to\n bi/on basileu\s prosagoreuo/menos.
360-289 BCE; he ruled Syracuse from 317-289. See generally OCD(4) p.36, under Agathocles(1).
The entry presents a semi-verbatim and mildly abridged extract from Polybius (12.15.2-7: web address 1 below), who is in turn citing, disapprovingly, Timaeus of Tauromenium (FGrH 566 F124b).
[1] On this passage K.J. Dover, Greek Homosexuality (London 1978) p.103 writes: 'The jackdaw here probably sybolises impudence and shamelessness; the buzzard, in Greek triorkhes, having three testicles, presumably symbolises insatiable lust, which is assumed to characterise the true pornos'. Cf. tau 995, where the first part of this quotation reappears.
[2] Probably Theoxene, the daughter or stepdaughter of Ptolemy I Soter and the third wife of Agathokles. See F.W. Walbank, A historical commentary on Polybius (Oxford, 1967) v.2 p.361.
[3] His father owned a large pottery. See Diodorus 19.2.7; 20.63.4. As with equivalent figures in (e.g.) late-C5 Athens, such as Kleon, we see here the conceit that those whose wealth lay in manufacture would actually participate in (and be debased by) the actual manufacturing.
[4] Agathokles assumed the title of king in 305. See Diodorus 20.54.1.
Berve, H., Die Herrschaft des Agathokles (Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1953)
Agathokles(15) in RE 1.1 748-757
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; constitution; daily life; ethics; gender and sexuality; historiography; history; politics; trade and manufacture; women; zoology
Translated by: David Whitehead on 10 February 2001@10:07:49.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 6 June 2001@00:10:30.
Tony Natoli (Modified translation, added notes and bibliography, raised status.) on 12 August 2001@02:19:21.
David Whitehead (restorative and other cosmetics) on 17 September 2002@05:10:41.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@10:59:41.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 20 November 2005@10:37:08.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 26 March 2008@00:30:36.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 22 December 2011@06:16:09.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:23:59.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 1 January 2015@23:51:52.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 17 February 2018@23:14:40.

Headword: *)/agalma
Adler number: alpha,131
Translated headword: decoration, delight, ornament, statue
Vetting Status: high
Anything in which someone takes delight.[1]
"And he [A] gives silver, so that he [B] might complete the statue with the utmost artisanry, adding the size and prescribing the nature of the stone."[2]
Greek Original:
*)/agalma: pa=n e)f' w(=| tis a)ga/lletai. kai\ di/dwsin a)rgu/rion, i(/na e)kponh/sh| to\ a)/galma a)/kras te/xnhs, prosqei\s to\ me/geqos kai\ proseipw\n th=s li/qou th\n fu/sin.
See also alpha 132, alpha 133, alpha 135, alpha 136.
[1] Again under alpha 133. Also in Photius, other lexica, and various scholia (e.g. to Homer, Odyssey 8.509, and Aristophanes, Wasps 303).
[2] Aelian fr. 65b Domingo-Forasté (part of 62 Hercher), on an unscrupulous (but unnamed) sculptor.
Keywords: art history; comedy; definition; economics; epic; ethics; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 June 2000@01:06:06.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@09:59:18.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 18 February 2011@06:57:00.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords; tweaks) on 23 December 2011@03:46:34.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 2) on 28 January 2012@19:11:34.

Headword: *)aga/lmata
Adler number: alpha,133
Translated headword: delights, ornaments, statues
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] the likenesses of the gods, and anything that is decorative in some way. Homer [writes]: "but it is stored away as a delight for the king."[1] And Hesiod calls a necklace an "ornament";[2] but Pindar uses this term for the decoration on a tomb,[3] and Euripides uses it for the adornments for corpses.[4]
Also something in which someone takes delight.[5]
Also [sc. a term for] image, wooden statue, delight, beauty, ornament, source of pride, palm leaves,[6] [human] statues, [honorific?] inscriptions.
Paintings and [human] statues are also called agalmata.[7]
agalmation [is] the diminutive form.
Greek Original:
*)aga/lmata: ta\ tw=n qew=n mimh/mata, kai\ pa/nta ta\ ko/smou tino\s mete/xonta. *(/omhros: basilh=i+ de\ kei=tai a)/galma. kai\ *(hsi/odos to\n o(/rmon a)/galma kalei=: *pi/ndaros de\ th\n e)pi\ ta/fou sth/lhn ou(/tw kalei=, *eu)ripi/dhs to\n e)pi\ nekroi=s ko/smon. kai\ e)f' w(=| tis a)ga/lletai. kai\ to\ ei)/dwlon, bre/tas, xa/rma, kallonh\, ko/smos, kau/xhma, qalloi\, a)ndria/ntes, e)pigrafai/. *)aga/lmata de\ kai\ ta\s grafa\s kai\ tou\s a)ndria/ntas le/gousin. *)agalma/tion de\ u(pokoristikw=s.
The (neuter) headword is the plural of alpha 131 (and cf. alpha 132). It is perhaps, though not necessarily, quoted from somewhere.
[1] Homer, Iliad 4.144 (web address 1), on an ivory cheek-piece for a horse.
[2] This fragment of Hesiod (142 Merkelbach-West, 233 Rzach) is not known from any other source. It may pertain to the story of Europa in the Catalogue of Women.
[3] Pindar, Nemean Odes 10.125 (67 Bowra): web address 2.
[4] Euripides, Alcestis 613: web address 3.
[5] Already at alpha 131.
[6] Used as prizes for victors in competition.
[7] Same material in Photius (Lexicon alpha92 Theodoridis) and elsewhere; cf. Kassel-Austin, PCG II p.365 (on Antiphanes fr.102).
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3
Keywords: art history; athletics; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; mythology; poetry; religion; trade and manufacture; tragedy
Translated by: William Hutton on 12 January 1999@12:39:04.
Vetted by:
Ross Scaife ✝ (cosmetics) on 29 June 2000@22:39:50.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 17 February 2003@05:54:38.
Jennifer Benedict (cleaned up links) on 26 March 2008@01:00:28.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@04:07:43.
David Whitehead (expanded n.7) on 16 August 2013@07:56:54.
David Whitehead (expanded n.7; another keyword) on 22 December 2014@04:58:33.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 6 November 2016@12:23:04.

Headword: *)agalmatopoioi/
Adler number: alpha,135
Translated headword: statue-makers, sculptors
Vetting Status: high
That is, craftsmen; these [are] in the strict sense Lysippus, Polycleitus, Pheidias.[1]
Greek Original:
*)agalmatopoioi/: toute/sti xeirourgoi/: ou(=toi a)kribei=s *lu/sippos, *polu/kleitos, *feidi/as.
The headword, a nominative plural, is presumably quoted from somewhere; perhaps Herodotus 2.46.2, but it may just be an internal cross-reference to chi 266.
[1] Or meaning these three are outstandingly precise (as, apparently, at chi 266).
See web address 1, web address 2, and web address 3 for information on these three sculptors of the C5 and (Lysippus) C4 BC.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3
Keywords: art history; biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: William Hutton on 9 February 2000@02:47:56.
Vetted by:
William Hutton on 26 June 2000@09:07:25.
Ross Scaife ✝ on 26 June 2000@09:42:10.
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented note) on 16 July 2001@08:47:30.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 26 March 2008@01:01:13.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 27 March 2008@07:43:05.
David Whitehead (typo) on 23 December 2011@03:54:40.
William Hutton (updated links) on 18 August 2013@02:32:18.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note) on 19 August 2013@00:40:55.

Headword: *)/agis, *)/agidos
Adler number: alpha,239
Translated headword: Agis, (genitive) Agidos
Vetting Status: high
The son of Pausanias.[1] This man, during an invasion of Mantinean territory once, besieged them and, having turned the flow of the river[2] against the wall, he weakened it; for it was of unbaked brick, which is more secure against siege-engines than baked brick or stones. For those break and jump out of their fittings, whereas unbaked brick is not affected in the same way. It is, though, destroyed by water, no less than beeswax is by the sun.
Greek Original:
*)/agis, *)/agidos. o( *pausani/ou. ou(=tos e)mbalw/n pote e)s th\n *mantineikh\n, au)tou\s me\n kate/kleise, to\n de\ pararre/onta potamo\n e)s to\ tei=xos paratre/yas pare/lusen: h)=n ga\r e)c w)mh=s pli/nqou, h(/tis pro\s me\n ta\s e(lepo/leis a)sfaleste/ra e)sti\ th=s o)pth=s kai\ tw=n li/qwn. oi( me\n ga\r kata/gnuntai kai\ e)kphdw=si tw=n a(rmoni/wn: h( de\ w)mh\ pli/nqos ou)x o(moi/ws ponei=. dialu/etai de\ u(po\ u(/datos ou)x h(=sson h)\ u(po\ h(li/ou khro/s.
[1] This patronymic, together with the episode about to be related, makes it clear that the Suda is in error: the Spartan king in question here was Agesipolis I (reigned 395-380 BCE). The source, followed very closely, is Pausanias 8.8.7-8 (web address 1); again at pi 1777.
[2] The R.Ophis.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; history; military affairs; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg ✝ on 24 November 1998@14:16:39.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added notes) on 18 September 2000@10:33:32.
David Whitehead (added cross-reference and more keywords; cosmetics) on 23 October 2001@06:25:59.
David Whitehead on 4 January 2012@04:46:01.
Catharine Roth (added a link) on 22 November 2020@00:46:28.

Headword: *)agkw/n
Adler number: alpha,249
Translated headword: elbow
Vetting Status: high
"In the royal palace of Gelimer was a building full of darkness, which the Carthaginians used to call [the] Elbow; therein were thrown all toward whom the tyrant was ill-disposed. There, in the time of Belisarius, happened to be confined many traders from the east about to be destroyed by the tyrant at that time, whom the guard of the prison released."[1]
"And he placed the siege-engines in the way that seemed most timely, and he hit both the wall-angles [angkones] and the trenches from both sides."[2]
Also [sc. attested is] a)gkw=nes, a certain part of the house.[3]
Another meaning of a)gkw=nes is everything that, in a dream, fixes the well-ordered aspect of life.[4]
*)agkw=nes [are] also the prominences of rivers, the ones at the banks.
"It was not possible to sail through to the stream ahead because of the size of the descending prominences which it was necessary for those dragging the ships to bend round."[5]
Also [sc. attested is] a)gkw=nes, [in the sense of] the heights of the mountains. "Some of you seek out the [western] heights, and some the eastern, going toward the evil exit of the man."[6]
And [there is] a proverbial expression: wiping one's nose with the elbow.[7]
Bion the philosopher said: "my father was a freed slave, wiping his nose with his elbow;" it indicated clearly the saltfish-importer.[8]
See another proverbial expression, 'sweet bend' [in a river, etc.].[9]
Greek Original:
*)agkw/n: e)n th=| basilikh=| au)lh=| tou= *geli/meros oi)/khma h)=n sko/tous a)na/plewn, o(\ dh\ *)agkw=na e)ka/loun oi( *karxhdo/nioi: e)/nqa e)neba/llonto a(/pantes oi(=s a)\n xalepai/noi o( tu/rannos. e)ntau=qa e)pi\ *belisari/ou polloi\ kaqeirgme/noi e)tu/gxanon tw=n e(w/|wn e)mpo/rwn, ou(\s me/llontas kat' e)kei=no kairou= a)nairei=sqai u(po\ tou= tura/nnou o( fu/lac tou= desmwthri/ou a)pe/luse. kai\ dieti/qei ta\s mhxana\s h(=| ma/lista e)do/kei kai/rion, a)gkw=nas te kai\ ta/frous e)ba/leto e(kate/rwqen. kai\ *)agkw=nes, me/ros ti th=s oi)ki/as. a)gkw=nes de\ kai\ pa/nta ta\ prosphsso/mena kat' o)/nar to\ ko/smion tou= bi/ou shmai/nei. *)agkw=nes kai\ ai( tw=n potamw=n e)coxai\, ai( para\ tai=s o)/xqais. ou) dunato\n h)=n pro\s a)nti/on to\n r(ou=n a)naplei=n dia\ to\ me/geqos tw=n prospipto/ntwn a)gkw/nwn, ou(\s e)/dei ka/mptein pare/lkontas ta\s nau=s. kai\ *)agkw=nas, ta\s a)/kras tw=n o)rw=n. oi( de\ spei/rousin a)gkw=nas, oi( d' a)nthli/ous zhtei=t' i)o/ntes t' a)ndro\s e)/codon kakh/n. kai\ paroimi/a: tw=| a)gkw=ni a)pomusso/menos. *bi/wn fhsi\n o( filo/sofos: e)mou= o( path\r me\n h)=n a)peleu/qeros, tw=| a)gkw=ni a)pomusso/menos: diedh/lou de\ to\n tarixe/mporon. zh/tei kai\ a)/llhn paroimi/an, to\ gluku\s a)gkw/n.
[1] An abridgement of Procopius, History of the Wars of Justinian 3.20.4-7.
[2] From an unidentifiable military narrative. (For the headword in this sense see LSJ s.v., II.)
[3] For this gloss, cf. iota 552.
[4] Artemidorus 1.74; cf. omicron 349.
[5] Quotation unidentifiable.
[6] Sophocles, Ajax 805-6 (web address 1); the first adjective is garbled here.
[7] cf. Mantissa Proverbiorum 3.31 and the quotation which follows here.
[8] Diogenes Laertius 4.46.
[9] gamma 316.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: architecture; biography; chronology; daily life; dreams; economics; ethics; food; geography; historiography; history; imagery; military affairs; philosophy; proverbs; science and technology; trade and manufacture; tragedy
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg ✝ on 24 November 1998@13:57:02.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (supplied headword; added notes; augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@04:02:29.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@08:29:24.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 20 November 2005@10:40:36.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 February 2011@08:38:56.
Catharine Roth (tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 February 2011@01:08:42.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 4 January 2012@05:46:10.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 30 December 2014@00:14:19.

Headword: *)/agkuran
Adler number: alpha,258

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