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Headword: Ἄβρωνος βίος
Adler number: alpha,98
Translated headword: Abron's life
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. A proverbial phrase] In reference to those who live extravagantly; for Abron became rich among the Argives. Or also from the [adjective] habros ["delicate"].[1]
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] Abroneios ["Abronian"].[2]
Greek Original:
Ἄβρωνος βίος: ἐπὶ τῶν πολυτελῶν: Ἄβρων γὰρ παρ' Ἀργείοις ἐγένετο πλούσιος. ἢ καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἁβροῦ. καὶ Ἀβρώνειος.
Notes:
[1] cf. Zenobius 1.4.
[2] Attested here only.
Keywords: aetiology; biography; daily life; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; geography; proverbs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:47:19.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added keyword, set status) on 1 February 2001@22:55:06.
David Whitehead (added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 24 April 2002@03:46:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 21 December 2011@06:44:57.

Headword: Ἀβυδηνὸν ἐπιφόρημα
Adler number: alpha,100
Translated headword: Abydene dessert, Abudene dessert
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Whenever something unpleasant happens as a result of someone having shown up at the wrong time, we are accustomed to call it an "Abydene dessert." This is because the people of Abydos,[1] whenever they entertain a fellow-citizen or a foreigner, bring their children around to be admired after the ointments and the crowns. Those in attendance are disturbed by both the nurses clamoring and the children screaming. Hence it has become customary to say the foregoing.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀβυδηνὸν ἐπιφόρημα: ὅταν ἀκαίρως τινὸς ἐπιφανέντος ἀηδία τις ᾖ, εἰώθαμεν λέγειν Ἀβυδηνὸν ἐπιφόρημα. διὰ τὸ τοὺς Ἀβυδηνοὺς, ὅταν τινὰ τῶν πολιτῶν ἢ ξένων ἑστιῶσι, μετὰ τὸ μύρον καὶ τοὺς στεφάνους τὰ παιδία περιφέρειν φιληθησόμενα. τῶν τε τιθηνῶν θορυβουσῶν τῶν τε παιδίων κεκραγότων ἐνοχλεῖσθαι τοὺς παρόντας. ἀφ' οὗ εἴθισται λέγειν τὸ προκείμενον.
Notes:
[1] A city on the Asiatic shore of the Hellespont: see alpha 101.
[2] See also Zenobius 1.4 and other paroemiographers. For a different explanation (involving taxes and harbor dues) see Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 14.641A [14.47 Kaibel], citing Aristeides, On Proverbs.
Keywords: aetiology; children; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; food; geography; imagery; proverbs; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 25 August 1998@19:00:52.
Vetted by:
Eric Nelson on 31 December 1999@22:59:16.
David Whitehead (modified translation; added note) on 11 January 2001@07:21:18.
David Whitehead (added another note) on 11 January 2001@07:58:10.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 November 2005@07:49:41.
Jennifer Benedict (title tags, cosmeticule) on 25 March 2008@23:59:40.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 21 December 2011@06:54:39.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@07:30:33.
David Whitehead (tweaked a ref) on 14 January 2015@03:15:50.

Headword: Ἄβυδος
Adler number: alpha,101
Translated headword: Abudos, Abydos, Abydus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A city.[1]
The word is applied to an informant [συκοφάντης ] because of the common belief that the people of Abudos were informers.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] an adverb, Ἀβυδόθι , [meaning] in Abudos.[3]
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] ἄΒυδον φλυαρίαν ["Abudos nonsense"], [meaning] great [nonsense].[4]
And [sc. attested is] Ἀβυδηνὸς , [meaning] he [who comes] from Abudos.[5]
Greek Original:
Ἄβυδος: πόλις. ἐπὶ συκοφάντου τάττεται ἡ λέξις, διὰ τὸ δοκεῖν συκοφάντας εἶναι τοὺς Ἀβυδηνούς. καὶ ἐπίρρημα, Ἀβυδόθι, ἐν Ἀβύδῳ. καὶ Ἄβυδον φλυαρίαν, τὴν πολλήν. καὶ Ἀβυδηνὸς, ὁ ἀπὸ Ἀβύδου.
Notes:
[1] = Lexicon Ambrosianum 82, according to Adler. In fact two cities of this name are known: one on the Asiatic shore of the Hellespont (Barrington Atlas map 51 grid G4; present-day Maltepe) and Abydos/Ebot in Upper Egypt (Barrington Atlas map 77 grid F4); without much doubt, the former is meant here. (In Hesychius alpha23 the gloss is fuller -- 'a Trojan city of the Hellespont'. Latte regards the entry as prompted by Homer, Iliad 2.836, accusative case, although similar wording appears in a late scholion to Iliad 17.584, where the adverbial derivative ἀβυδόθι appears -- see n. 3 below). See also alpha 100, sigma 465, and generally OCD(4) s.v.
[2] = the first sentence of Pausanias the Atticist alpha3 and Photius alpha63 Theodoridis; cf. also Zenobius 1.1, s.v. Ἀβυδηνὸν ἐπιφόρημα (alpha 100), and Kassel-Austin, PCG III.2 p.376 on Aristophanes fr. 755. See generally sigma 1330, sigma 1331, sigma 1332.
[3] Probably from commentary to Homer, Iliad 17.584, the only literary attestation of this adverb prior to Musaeus Grammaticus (5/6 CE); cf. Apollonius Dyscolus On Adverbs 2.1.1.164.
[4] = Synagoge Codex B alpha44, but in the better mss of Photius (Lexicon alpha64 Theodoridis) the adjective (in a nominative-case entry) is ἄβυθος ('bottomless'), surely correctly; cf. alpha 104. The ultimate source may be Plato, Parmenides 130D, though there too the text is uncertain: perhaps εἴς τιν' ἄβυθον φλυαρίαν (web address 1), though the alternatives include εἴς τινα βῦθον φλυαρίας . On the adjective ἄβυθος, a synonym for ἄβυσσος, see the LSJ entry at web address 2.
[5] There are many literary attestations of this form of the ethnic adjective (nominative singular masculine), beginning with Herodotus 4.138. For an instance in the Suda see pi 71.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; geography; law; philosophy; proverbs
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 21 November 1998@13:59:06.
Vetted by:
Eric Nelson on 31 December 1999@21:07:09.
Ross Scaife ✝ (fixed keywords) on 2 March 2000@17:48:48.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; replaced existing note; cosmetics) on 11 January 2001@08:05:35.
Jennifer Benedict (added links, betacode fix, cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@00:03:03.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 18 April 2011@14:40:09.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 25 April 2011@04:09:51.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 December 2011@09:19:59.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1) on 1 February 2012@05:52:37.
David Whitehead (expansions to notes) on 16 August 2013@07:33:01.
William Hutton (augmented notes) on 4 July 2014@08:19:58.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:21:46.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 3 September 2014@23:35:15.
David Whitehead (expanded n.2) on 22 December 2014@09:26:49.

Headword: Ἄβυσσον
Adler number: alpha,104
Translated headword: abyss
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] that which not even a deep [βυθός ] can contain; but Ionians pronounce βυθός as βυσσός .[1]
From which also βυσσοδομεύειν ["to build in the deep"] appears to be said,[2] from the verb δύνω ["I sink"] [meaning] I enter upon secretly, with a change [of initial consonant] [giving] βύω , βύσω , βέβυσμαι , βέβυσαι , [and the nouns] βυσός and ἀβύσσος [meaning] where no-one enters because of its depth.[3]
Aristophanes in Frogs [writes]: "for immediately you will come to a huge lake, an absolute abyss."[4] And he also uses the word in the neuter: "they shall not make peace while the measureless [ἄβυσσον ] silver is with the goddess on the Acropolis." For 1,000 talents were stored on the Acropolis.[5]
"Abyss" is what the Holy Scripture calls the watery substance. So since the land is surrounded on all sides by waters [and] by great and small seas, David naturally called this [i.e., abyss] the earth's surrounding garment.[6] Also, "abyss calls to abyss", the same prophet says,[7] meaning figuratively military divisions and the excessive size of the multitude.[8]
"I was under water as [if] in a kind of abyss."[9]
So an abyss [is] a great amount of water.
Greek Original:
Ἄβυσσον: ἣν οὐδὲ βυθὸς χωρῆσαι δύναται: Ἴωνες δὲ τὸν βυθὸν βυσσόν φασιν. ὅθεν δοκεῖ λέγεσθαι καὶ βυσσοδομεύειν, παρὰ τὸ δύνω, τὸ ὑπεισέρχομαι, κατὰ τροπὴν βύω, βύσω, βέβυσμαι, βέβυσαι, βυσὸς καὶ ἀβύσσος, οὗ οὐδεὶς εἰσέρχεται διὰ τὸ βάθος. Ἀριστοφάνης Βατράχοις: εὐθὺς γὰρ ἐπὶ λίμνην μεγάλην ἥξεις πάνυ ἄβυσσον. καὶ οὐδετέρως φησὶν ὁ αὐτός: ἕως ἂν ᾖ τὸ ἀργύριον τὸ ἄβυσσον παρὰ τῇ θεῷ, οὐκ εἰρηνεύσουσιν. ἐν γὰρ τῇ ἀκροπόλει χίλια τάλαντα ἀπέκειτο. Ἄβυσσον καλεῖ τὴν ὑγρὰν οὐσίαν ἡ θεία γραφή. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἡ γῆ πανταχόθεν ὕδασι περιέχεται μεγάλοις καὶ μικροῖς πελάγεσιν, εἰκότως περιβόλαιον αὐτῆς εἴρηκεν ὁ Δαβίδ. καὶ, ἄβυσσος ἄβυσσον ἐπικαλεῖται, ὁ αὐτὸς προφήτης φησίν: τὰ στρατιωτικὰ λέγων τάγματα καὶ τὴν τοῦ πλήθους ὑπερβολὴν τροπικῶς. ὡς ἐν ἀβύσσῳ τινὶ ὑποβρύχιος ἐγενόμην. Ἄβυσσος οὖν ὑδάτων πλῆθος πολύ.
Notes:
See also alpha 105.
[1] This comment on Ionian pronunciation comes from the scholiast on Aristophanes, Frogs 138, quoted later in the entry.
[2] In Homer, Odyssey, where βυσσοδομεύω occurs most frequently, it has the sense "brood over."
[3] cf. Etymologicum Magnum 4.44. These are principal parts of the verb βύω , which means "to stuff," followed by βυσός , which does not exist according to LSJ. Probably this is a mistake for βυσσός , "depth of the sea" (cf. beta 598, βυσσόν ). The Suda generally has little concern for the distinction between single and double consonants. The author thus seems to propose a very dubious etymology: that ἀ-βυσσος literally means "unstuffable" -- i.e., unable to be entered. [Ms M (= Marcianus 448) omits this sentence.]
[4] Aristophanes, Frogs 137-8 (web address 1).
[5] "Silver" [ἀργύριον ] is a neuter noun in Greek, while lake [λίμνη ] in the previous sentence is feminine; the point is that the same form ἄβυσσον is used with both. The sentence quoted here is actually part of a scholion to Aristophanes, Lysistrata 173 (web address 2); Aristophanes uses the phrase τὸ ἀργύριον τὸ ἄβυσσον in that line itself.
[6] Psalm 103:6 LXX. See again under pi 1083.
[7] Psalm 41:8 LXX.
[8] Referring to the continuation of Psalm 41:8 LXX, "all thy waves and thy billows are gone over me" (KJV).
[9] From Theodoret's commentary (PG 80.1173) on Psalm 41:8 LXX.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: Christianity; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; epic; geography; history; imagery; military affairs; proverbs; religion
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 21 November 1998@17:02:02.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, augmented note, added keywords, set status) on 5 February 2001@11:48:31.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@08:11:37.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; cosmetics) on 4 July 2003@08:14:49.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added links; cosmetics) on 14 December 2003@15:22:17.
David Whitehead (modified translation and notes 6-9) on 28 April 2004@11:16:41.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding) on 26 March 2008@00:15:00.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 19 April 2011@18:23:25.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 25 April 2011@04:11:52.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation and note, after consulting with the translator) on 26 April 2011@17:14:37.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 22 December 2011@03:45:27.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 21 November 2014@10:58:29.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 21 November 2014@11:44:30.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:36:21.

Headword: Ἀγαθά
Adler number: alpha,108
Translated headword: goods, goodies
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Xenophon used the word of foodstuffs and drinks which bring enjoyment and good cheer.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] "Good Things Kilikon" - with "has" omitted. Kilikon [is] a proper name. He was wealthy.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθά: ἐπὶ τῶν πρὸς ἀπόλαυσιν καὶ εὐωχίαν σιτίων καὶ ποτῶν ἐχρήσατο Ξενοφῶν τῇ λέξει. καὶ Ἀγαθὰ Κιλίκων, λείπει τὸ ἔχει. Κιλίκων δὲ ὄνομα κύριον. εὔπορος δὲ ἦν.
Notes:
[1] Xenophon, Anabasis 4.4.9 (web address 1 below).
[2] This is only one possible explanation of the proverbial phrase. For another, probably better one - with another version of the name (Killikon: apparently authentic, as it derives from Aristophanes, Peace 363 [web address 2 below]) - see kappa 1610; but note also kappa 223 and pi 2040 on "Kallikon".
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: aetiology; biography; daily life; definition; economics; ethics; food; historiography; proverbs
Translated by: David Whitehead on 10 February 2001@09:14:18.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added links, set status) on 8 June 2001@01:15:16.
David Whitehead (added keywords) on 17 September 2002@05:00:27.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@00:19:27.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 27 March 2008@07:18:17.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 22 December 2011@03:59:55.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 23 December 2011@18:41:14.

Headword: Ἀγαθῶν ἀγαθίδες
Adler number: alpha,123
Translated headword: skeins of good things
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The proverb is used in the comic poets in reference to a lot of good things.[1]
Also [sc. attested is] 'sea of good things', in reference to an abundance of good things.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] 'anthills of good things', in reference to an abundance of good fortune.[3]
Also [sc. attested is] 'heap of good things', in reference to an abundance of good things and a lot of good fortune.[4]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθῶν ἀγαθίδες: τάττεται ἡ παροιμία παρὰ τοῖς κωμικοῖς ἐπὶ τῶν πολλῶν ἀγαθῶν. καὶ Ἀγαθῶν θάλασσα, ἐπὶ πλήθους ἀγαθῶν. καὶ Ἀγαθῶν μυρμηκίαι, ἐπὶ πλήθους εὐδαιμονίας. καὶ Ἀγαθῶν σωρὸς, ἐπὶ πλήθους ἀγαθῶν καὶ πολλῆς εὐδαιμονίας.
Notes:
The wordplay of the headword phrase ἀγαθῶν ἀγαθίδες is hard to render in English. 'Bundles of bounties' might do.
[1] (Same material in Photius.) Again at alpha 2601; and see also nu 77 and tau 147.
[2] Again at pi 2049.
[3] Comica adespota fr. 827 Kock, now 796 K.-A.
[4] cf. Apostolius 1.5, etc.
Keywords: comedy; daily life; ethics; imagery; proverbs; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 1 April 2001@00:28:16.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes; minor cosmetics) on 2 April 2001@03:44:41.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; tweaks and cosmetics) on 22 December 2006@08:09:36.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 22 December 2011@07:28:42.
David Whitehead (corrected a ref) on 16 March 2012@07:56:43.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 December 2014@04:31:45.
David Whitehead (coding) on 12 July 2015@03:58:05.

Headword: Ἀγαθώνιος
Adler number: alpha,125
Translated headword: Agathonios, Agathonius
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A proper name.[1]
[The man] who was king of Tartessos.[2]
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] "Agathon's pipe-playing": the soft and relaxed [kind]; alternatively that which is neither loose nor harsh, but temperate and very sweet.[3]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθώνιος: ὄνομα κύριον. ὃς ἐβασίλευσε τῆς Ταρτησσοῦ. καὶ Ἀγαθώνιος αὔλησις: ἡ μαλακὴ καὶ ἐκλελυμένη: ἢ ἡ μήτε χαλαρὰ, μήτε πικρὰ, ἀλλ' εὔκρατος καὶ ἡδίστη.
Notes:
[1] Herodotus 1.163 gives it as Arganthonios (text at web address 1). See also tau 137.
[2] In southern Spain; probably the Biblical Tarshish. See generally tau 137 and OCD(4) s.v. (p.1433).
[3] Zenobius 1.2. On Agathon (an Athenian poet of the late C5 BC) and his reputation for softness see alpha 124; and on his aulos music, M.L. West, Ancient Greek Music (Oxford 1992) 354-5.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; daily life; definition; ethics; geography; historiography; history; imagery; meter and music; proverbs; tragedy
Translated by: David Whitehead on 10 February 2001@09:33:27.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added link) on 25 April 2002@11:17:50.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 17 September 2002@05:14:00.
Catharine Roth (cross-reference, italics, keyword) on 18 September 2006@18:09:26.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 22 December 2011@07:42:50.
David Whitehead on 22 December 2011@07:43:09.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:34:58.

Headword: Ἀγαθοὶ δ' ἀριδάκρυες ἄνδρες
Adler number: alpha,126
Translated headword: tearful men are good
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
In reference to those who are strongly inclined toward pity.
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθοὶ δ' ἀριδάκρυες ἄνδρες: ἐπὶ τῶν σφόδρα πρὸς ἔλεον ῥεπόντων.
Note:
Same entry in Photius, and the same or very similar ones in the paroemiographers. This version of the proverb is the second half of a line of hexameter verse (complete with the particle δ' ); there are slight variants in (e.g.) the scholia to Homer, Iliad 1.349.
Keywords: daily life; epic; ethics; poetry; proverbs
Translated by: William Hutton on 1 April 2001@00:57:53.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords) on 2 April 2001@04:49:39.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 12 October 2005@08:02:14.
David Whitehead (augmented note; another keyword) on 22 December 2011@07:50:50.

Headword: Ἀγκών
Adler number: alpha,249
Translated headword: elbow
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
"In the royal palace of Gelimer was a building full of darkness, which the Carthaginians used to call [the] Elbow; therein were thrown all toward whom the tyrant was ill-disposed. There, in the time of Belisarius, happened to be confined many traders from the east about to be destroyed by the tyrant at that time, whom the guard of the prison released."[1]
"And he placed the siege-engines in the way that seemed most timely, and he hit both the wall-angles [angkones] and the trenches from both sides."[2]
Also [sc. attested is] ἀγκῶνες , a certain part of the house.[3]
Another meaning of ἀγκῶνες is everything that, in a dream, fixes the well-ordered aspect of life.[4]
Ἀγκῶνες [are] also the prominences of rivers, the ones at the banks.
"It was not possible to sail through to the stream ahead because of the size of the descending prominences which it was necessary for those dragging the ships to bend round."[5]
Also [sc. attested is] ἀγκῶνες , [in the sense of] the heights of the mountains. "Some of you seek out the [western] heights, and some the eastern, going toward the evil exit of the man."[6]
And [there is] a proverbial expression: wiping one's nose with the elbow.[7]
Bion the philosopher said: "my father was a freed slave, wiping his nose with his elbow;" it indicated clearly the saltfish-importer.[8]
See another proverbial expression, 'sweet bend' [in a river, etc.].[9]
Greek Original:
Ἀγκών: ἐν τῇ βασιλικῇ αὐλῇ τοῦ Γελίμερος οἴκημα ἦν σκότους ἀνάπλεων, ὃ δὴ Ἀγκῶνα ἐκάλουν οἱ Καρχηδόνιοι: ἔνθα ἐνεβάλλοντο ἅπαντες οἷς ἂν χαλεπαίνοι ὁ τύραννος. ἐνταῦθα ἐπὶ Βελισαρίου πολλοὶ καθειργμένοι ἐτύγχανον τῶν ἑῴων ἐμπόρων, οὓς μέλλοντας κατ' ἐκεῖνο καιροῦ ἀναιρεῖσθαι ὑπὸ τοῦ τυράννου ὁ φύλαξ τοῦ δεσμωτηρίου ἀπέλυσε. καὶ διετίθει τὰς μηχανὰς ᾗ μάλιστα ἐδόκει καίριον, ἀγκῶνας τε καὶ τάφρους ἐβάλετο ἑκατέρωθεν. καὶ Ἀγκῶνες, μέρος τι τῆς οἰκίας. ἀγκῶνες δὲ καὶ πάντα τὰ προσπησσόμενα κατ' ὄναρ τὸ κόσμιον τοῦ βίου σημαίνει. Ἀγκῶνες καὶ αἱ τῶν ποταμῶν ἐξοχαὶ, αἱ παρὰ ταῖς ὄχθαις. οὐ δυνατὸν ἦν πρὸς ἀντίον τὸν ῥοῦν ἀναπλεῖν διὰ τὸ μέγεθος τῶν προσπιπτόντων ἀγκώνων, οὓς ἔδει κάμπτειν παρέλκοντας τὰς ναῦς. καὶ Ἀγκῶνας, τὰς ἄκρας τῶν ὀρῶν. οἱ δὲ σπείρουσιν ἀγκῶνας, οἱ δ' ἀντηλίους ζητεῖτ' ἰόντες τ' ἀνδρὸς ἔξοδον κακήν. καὶ παροιμία: τῷ ἀγκῶνι ἀπομυσσόμενος. Βίων φησὶν ὁ φιλόσοφος: ἐμοῦ ὁ πατὴρ μὲν ἦν ἀπελεύθερος, τῷ ἀγκῶνι ἀπομυσσόμενος: διεδήλου δὲ τὸν ταριχέμπορον. ζήτει καὶ ἄλλην παροιμίαν, τὸ γλυκὺς ἀγκών.
Notes:
[1] An abridgement of Procopius, History of the Wars of Justinian 3.20.4-7.
[2] From an unidentifiable military narrative. (For the headword in this sense see LSJ s.v., II.)
[3] For this gloss, cf. iota 552.
[4] Artemidorus 1.74; cf. omicron 349.
[5] Quotation unidentifiable.
[6] Sophocles, Ajax 805-6 (web address 1); the first adjective is garbled here.
[7] cf. Mantissa Proverbiorum 3.31 and the quotation which follows here.
[8] Diogenes Laertius 4.46.
[9] gamma 316.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: architecture; biography; chronology; daily life; dreams; economics; ethics; food; geography; historiography; history; imagery; military affairs; philosophy; proverbs; science and technology; trade and manufacture; tragedy
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg on 24 November 1998@13:57:02.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (supplied headword; added notes; augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@04:02:29.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@08:29:24.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 20 November 2005@10:40:36.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 February 2011@08:38:56.
Catharine Roth (tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 February 2011@01:08:42.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 4 January 2012@05:46:10.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 30 December 2014@00:14:19.

Headword: Ἀγναπτότατος βάτος αὖος
Adler number: alpha,273
Translated headword: stiffest dried skate
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to one who is harsh and obstinate by temperament.
Greek Original:
Ἀγναπτότατος βάτος αὖος: ἐπὶ τοῦ σκληροῦ καὶ αὐθάδους τὸν τρόπον.
Note:
For discussion see alpha 340, where the entry is repeated (in correct alphabetical context).
Keywords: daily life; ethics; food; imagery; proverbs; zoology
Translated by: Roger Travis on 6 October 2000@12:59:16.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, set status) on 18 June 2001@02:18:24.
David Whitehead (modified headword, translation, note) on 18 June 2001@04:40:42.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 5 January 2012@04:57:59.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 9 April 2015@08:33:55.

Headword: Ἀγνοεῖ δ' ἀράχνη παῖδας ὡς παιδεύεται
Adler number: alpha,277
Translated headword: a spider knows not how she educates her children.
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[A spider knows not how she educates her children.] For having nurtured them she has died at the hands of her dearest ones. [Sc. A proverbial saying] in reference to those who look after something against their own interest.
Greek Original:
Ἀγνοεῖ δ' ἀράχνη παῖδας ὡς παιδεύεται. θρέψασα γὰρ τέθνηκε πρὸς τῶν φιλτάτων: ἐπὶ τῶν καθ' ἑαυτῶν τι πραγματευομένων.
Note:
cf. Diogenianus 1.70 and other paroemiographers
Keywords: children; daily life; ethics; proverbs; zoology
Translated by: Roger Travis on 6 October 2000@13:05:58.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@05:56:55.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 November 2005@07:50:46.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 5 January 2012@05:07:34.

Headword: Ἁγνότερος πηδαλίου
Adler number: alpha,281
Translated headword: purer than a steering-oar
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to those who have lived pure lives; to the extent that the steering-oar is always in the sea.
Greek Original:
Ἁγνότερος πηδαλίου: ἐπὶ τῶν ἁγνῶς βεβιωκότων: παρ' ὅσον ἐν θαλάττῃ διὰ παντός ἐστι τὸ πηδάλιον.
Notes:
Diogenianus 1.11 and other paroemiographers.
Presumably this proverb's effect turns on the purificatory properties of salt.
On the steering oars -- always in pairs -- of ancient ships, see pi 1493 and pi 1494, and generally Lionel Casson, Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World (Baltimore & London 1971) 224-8.
Keywords: daily life; ethics; proverbs; science and technology
Translated by: Roger Travis on 23 October 2000@13:17:56.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note; added keywords; cosmetics) on 12 February 2001@07:10:49.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@07:24:45.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 9 April 2015@08:40:55.

Headword: Ἀγόμενος διὰ φρατέρων κύων μαστιγοῦται
Adler number: alpha,292
Translated headword: a dog led through phratry-members is whipped
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[no gloss]
Greek Original:
Ἀγόμενος διὰ φρατέρων κύων μαστιγοῦται.
Note:
For phratries see gamma 146, gamma 147, phi 692 phi 693, phi 694, and generally OCD(4) s.v. (pp.1141-2). As a proverb (cf. Macarius Chrysocephalus 1.15) the phrase presumably concerns admission to phratries and the exposure of fraudulent attempts at this.
Keywords: daily life; ethics; law; proverbs; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 16 March 2001@16:38:49.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 17 March 2001@05:25:58.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 5 January 2012@08:36:28.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@02:54:46.

Headword: Ἀγορὰ Κερκώπων
Adler number: alpha,301
Translated headword: market of Kerkopes
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
They[1] were in Ephesus. Herakles bound them on the orders of Omphale, but he shrunk from killing them since their mother begged him. The proverb is spoken in reference to ill-behaved and knavish people.
Greek Original:
Ἀγορὰ Κερκώπων: οὗτοι ἐν Ἐφέσῳ ἦσαν, οὓς ἔδησεν Ἡρακλῆς, Ὀμφάλης κελευούσης: οὓς ἀποκτεῖναι ᾐδέσθη, τῆς μητρὸς δεηθείσης. ἡ δὲ παροιμία εἴρηται ἐπὶ τῶν κακοήθων καὶ πονηρῶν ἀνθρώπων.
Note:
[1] That is, the Kerkopes (for whom cf. e.g. kappa 1410); they were "a race of mischievous dwarfs connected by legend with Heracles" (LSJ s.v.). For the story see Apollodoros 2.6.3 (web address 1 below). For the phrase "market of Kerkopes" as meaning "knaves' market" see Diogenes Laertius 9.114; also Zenobius 1.5 and other paroemiographers.
Reference:
OCD(4) pp.1038-9 (s.v. Omphale)
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: daily life; definition; ethics; gender and sexuality; geography; mythology; proverbs; women; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 29 October 2000@23:02:14.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note; added bibliography) on 30 October 2000@03:13:39.
Catharine Roth (Cosmetic.) on 2 February 2001@21:35:39.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@11:04:40.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@09:24:07.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 6 January 2012@01:12:04.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@02:55:53.

Headword: Ἄγουσιν ἑορτὴν οἱ κλέπται
Adler number: alpha,317
Translated headword: the thieves are keeping festival.
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The expression [is] very charming and suitably witty in accordance with the charm of comedy. It signifies those who steal with impunity.
Greek Original:
Ἄγουσιν ἑορτὴν οἱ κλέπται: χαριεστάτη ἡ σύνταξις καὶ ἱκανῶς πεπαισμένη κατὰ τὴν κωμῳδικὴν χάριν. σημαίνει δὲ τοὺς ἀδεῶς κλέπτοντας.
Notes:
Longer entry in Photius (Lexicon alpha248 Theodoridis), where the source of the headword phrase is named as Cratinus (fr. 356 K.-A.).
In just one of the paroemiographers (Arsenius 1.18a); and see generally Tosi (cited under alpha 378) no.2221.
Keywords: comedy; daily life; ethics; religion
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 7 July 1999@10:55:21.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics; set status.) on 24 October 2000@11:39:16.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords) on 9 February 2003@08:49:58.
David Whitehead (expanded note; tweaks) on 6 January 2012@04:56:45.
David Whitehead (tweaked and expanded note) on 16 August 2012@08:10:41.
David Whitehead on 19 August 2013@04:06:42.

Headword: Ἀγωνάρχαι
Adler number: alpha,328
Translated headword: contest-judges
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Sophocles [writes]: "and lest any contest-judges or he who is my destroyer should give my arms to the Achaeans."[1]
Also [sc. attested is] a proverb: "a contest does not accept excuses."[2] It is applied to those who have not profited at all if they made excuses.
Also [sc. attested is] "a contest does not wait for a pretext."[3] The proverb [is used] in reference to those who are by nature lazy and neglectful; alternatively to those who do not believe the words of those making pretexts.
Greek Original:
Ἀγωνάρχαι: Σοφοκλῆς: καὶ τἀμὰ τεύχη μήτ' ἀγωνάρχαι τινὲς θήσουσ' Ἀχαιοῖς μήθ' ὁ λυμεὼν ἐμός. καὶ παροιμία: Ἀγὼν οὐ δέχεται σκήψεις. τάττεται ἐπὶ τῶν μηδὲν ὀνιναμένων εἰ σκήψαιντο. καὶ Ἀγὼν πρόφασιν οὐκ ἀναμένει. ἡ παροιμία ἐπὶ τῶν φύσει ῥᾳθύμων καὶ ἀμελῶν: ἢ ἐπὶ τῶν μὴ προσιεμένων τοὺς λόγους τῶν προφασιζομένων.
Notes:
[1] Sophocles, Ajax 572-3 (web address 1 below); again at lambda 839.
[2] (Also in the paroemiographers, e.g. Apostolius 1.25.) Possibly Contest, the divine personification of the agon (cf. Pausanias 5.26.3), though the apparently personifying language does not guarantee this. See further, next note.
[3] Used in Plato, Cratylus 421D (where a scholiast cited Aristophanes fr. 321 Kock as an earlier attestation of it) and Laws 751D. Also in the paroemiographers, e.g. Gregorius 1.11.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: athletics; comedy; daily life; ethics; philosophy; proverbs; religion; tragedy
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 18 March 2001@14:50:17.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented and modified notes; added keywords) on 19 March 2001@04:07:49.
Jennifer Benedict (Updated link to Perseus) on 11 March 2008@23:49:24.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 12 March 2008@04:23:38.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@06:29:38.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 7 January 2012@12:38:35.
David Whitehead (typo) on 16 June 2013@10:53:36.

Headword: Ἀγναπτότατος βάτος αὖος
Adler number: alpha,340
Translated headword: stiffest dried skate
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
In application to one harsh and obstinate by temperament.[1]
Greek Original:
Ἀγναπτότατος βάτος αὖος: ἐπὶ τοῦ σκληροῦ καὶ αὐθάδους τὸν τρόπον.
Note:
Copied to alpha 273, q.v. (in the correct alphabetical context). In both places the adjective is given as ἀγναπτότατος , most unfulled (of cloth) or unwashed; for "stiffest", ἀγναμπτότατος , which is surely correct, see Zenobius 1.16.
Keywords: daily life; ethics; proverbs; zoology
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 7 July 1999@14:04:04.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword; augmented note; added keyword) on 18 June 2001@04:37:29.
David Whitehead (tweaked note; more keywords) on 6 January 2012@07:09:39.

Headword: Ἀγρία μέλιττα
Adler number: alpha,352
Translated headword: wild bee
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to those who are exceedingly wicked and cruel.
Greek Original:
Ἀγρία μέλιττα: ἐπὶ τῶν σφόδρα πονηρῶν τε καὶ ὠμῶν.
Note:
cf. Macarius Chrysocephalus 1.24.
Keywords: daily life; ethics; proverbs; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:36:51.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@07:52:43.
David Whitehead (note; another keyword; tweaks) on 6 January 2012@08:26:15.

Headword: Ἄγριππος
Adler number: alpha,364
Translated headword: agrippos
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the wild olive.[1]
Also a proverb: "more barren than an agrippos".[2]
Greek Original:
Ἄγριππος: ἡ ἀγρία ἐλαία. καὶ παροιμία: ἀκαρπότερος ἀγρίππου.
Notes:
[1] So called by Spartans, according to alpha 806.
[2] Applied to the very poor, according to alpha 806.
Keywords: botany; definition; economics; proverbs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:48:41.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword, to differentiate it from gloss; added notes and keywords) on 13 February 2001@05:44:06.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 5 December 2005@08:46:41.
David Whitehead on 9 April 2015@10:51:41.

Headword: Ἀγροῦ πυγή
Adler number: alpha,371
Translated headword: rump of the country; fat of the land
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to the comfortably-off and those attending perseveringly to some kind of task.
Greek Original:
Ἀγροῦ πυγή: ἐπὶ τῶν λιπαρῶν καὶ ἐπιμόνως ᾡτινιοῦν ἔργῳ προσκαθημένων.
Notes:
The headword phrase is transmitted as ἀγροῦ πηγή , "fountain/spring of the country," in one paroemiographer (Arsenius 1.24b), but the πυγή version is otherwise standard: see Pausanias the Atticist alpha21; Hesychius alpha837; Photius, Lexicon alpha272 Theodoridis; Appendix Proverbiorum 1.4; Macarius Chrysocephalus 1.3. The phrase itself is taken to come from Old Attic Comedy: Archippus fr. 7 Demianczuk, now 29 Kassel-Austin.
As to its glossing, the Suda's λιπαρῶν (translated here as 'the comfortably-off') is elsewhere the adverb λιπαρῶς , i.e. the first of two adverbs which belong with the phrase as a whole.
Hesychius, citing Sophron, cites an alternative line of exegesis involving birds.
Keywords: agriculture; comedy; daily life; economics; imagery; proverbs; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 7 December 1998@18:47:51.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@09:56:18.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 14 April 2004@08:54:17.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:05:20.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 8 January 2012@10:34:36.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; augmented note and keywords) on 28 March 2014@07:33:03.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 2 January 2015@11:55:46.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 4 March 2016@00:33:46.

Headword: Ἀγροίκου μὴ καταφρόνει ῥήτορος
Adler number: alpha,378
Translated headword: don't despise a rustic rhetor
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Said] because one should not despise even worthless things.
Greek Original:
Ἀγροίκου μὴ καταφρόνει ῥήτορος: ὅτι μηδὲ τῶν εὐτελῶν χρὴ καταφρονεῖν.
Notes:
Comica adespota fr. 627 Kock, now 947 K.-A.; Zenobius 1.15; Tosi (below) no.2104, with later material.
For "rustic" cf. alpha 375, alpha 376, alpha 377, alpha 380.
Reference:
Renzo Tosi, Dictionnaire des sentences latines et grecques, tr. Rebecca Lenoir; Paris (Millon) 2010
Keywords: agriculture; comedy; daily life; proverbs; rhetoric
Translated by: David Whitehead on 7 June 2002@03:28:00.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth on 8 June 2002@14:10:33.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword) on 10 June 2003@04:22:51.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:07:28.
David Whitehead on 9 January 2012@04:12:59.
David Whitehead on 14 August 2012@08:36:49.
Catharine Roth (tweak) on 15 August 2012@01:46:49.
David Whitehead on 29 December 2014@03:37:41.
David Whitehead on 12 July 2015@03:59:06.

Headword: Ἄδακρυς πόλεμος
Adler number: alpha,422
Translated headword: tearless war, war without tears
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to those who succeed in their affairs without any risk and with great ease and against expectation.
Greek Original:
Ἄδακρυς πόλεμος: ἐπὶ τῶν ἔξω παντὸς κινδύνου καὶ ῥᾷστα καὶ παρ' ἐλπίδας τὰ πράγματα κατορθούντων.
Notes:
Zenobius 1.28 and other paroemiographers.
For the phrase in its literal military sense see Diodorus Siculus 15.72 (the priestess at Dodona foretells such a war for the Spartans against the Arkadians in 368 BCE); Plutarch, Agesilaos 33 (with "battle" rather than "war") on the same event.
cf. alpha 423.
Keywords: daily life; definition; ethics; historiography; history; imagery; military affairs; proverbs; women
Translated by: William Hutton on 31 October 2000@12:20:15.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords) on 29 April 2002@11:54:52.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 9 January 2012@09:35:57.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 30 October 2014@00:37:15.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 11 April 2015@09:01:17.

Headword: Ἀδάμ
Adler number: alpha,425
Translated headword: Adam
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The first human, he who was shaped by the hand of God and formed in the image and likeness of the Creator and Founder; he was also deemed worthy of a dwelling in Paradise. He could justly be called the first wise man, since he was the first likeness created and an image wrought by God, and also because he had a full share of all the graces that exist. And all the senses of the body and the soul he possessed in a pure and unadulterated state. For rays of a certain sort, so to speak, flashed from the soul of that man, rays teeming with divine thoughts and energies, and they coursed through all nature, accurately and unerringly anticipating the particular virtue of each thing. Those who judged him were not men, who often make judgments in an erroneous fashion, but the God of everything, who makes every decision and judgment correctly, and, before his mind was stirred to action, by the soul, which labors over such things and gives birth to ideas. And as Scripture says: "God made all the domesticated and wild animals and the things that crawl and the winged things, and he brought them before Adam to see what he would call them, and whatever Adam called them, that was their name."[1] And what is more perfectly clear than this statement and this testimony? What more sublime than this wisdom and this discrimination? He gave names to nature itself, as though prescribing the essence of each animal, without practice, without prior consideration, with no preparatory effort at the things which people take pains to learn. And although many, nay, innumerable species were brought before him no one has managed to change the name even of some insignificant animal, nor did anyone manage to attain even a fraction of his great wisdom and discrimination. Instead all humans scattered across the entire earth continue following his pronouncements unaltered. And the first-born one's surpassing judgment in all things did not stop there, but also extended to the varieties of seeds and plants and the uses of roots and herbs. And whatever in the way of prevention and treatment nature assigned to each of the living things he determined and made clear. He, the first to see woman, spoke about her not as with a human mouth. As though he were echoing some divine pronouncement he uttered incisively that celebrated and awe-inspiring saying: "this now is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh. She will be called woman, because she was taken out of her man."[2] He, moreover, is the one who assesses each thing and establishes rules, precise standards, and incontestable boundaries for all. His are the crafts and letters, his are rational and non-rational sciences, his are prophethoods, priesthoods, purifications and laws both written and unwritten; his are all discoveries and doctrines and whatever needs and regimens are essential for life. He is the first representation of mankind, the image summoned from God; all image-making among men starts out from him as a model, though more and more they sink to a level inferior to his blessed and God-like image, which had no starting point upon which one who molded or painted images after him might depend; to such an extent that the Abomination, the Apostate, the deceiving Devil toppled him from his original foundation and position and caused him to be borne headfirst into pit-like and unlit places which reach all the way down to the joyless recesses of Hades. And from this point human nature became caricatured and falsified and was stamped with the shapings and designs of the Tyrant. From this source that bastard wisdom had its beginnings, for divine wisdom had made its escape and had flown up toward heaven, whence it had previously started out. Whence the Imposter expropriated the name of God and dealt it out it in many directions, giving himself different names, such as "Kronos" and "Zeus", and -- the most wicked thing of all -- the Criminal even had the gall to drag down the blessed and ineffable nature [of God] and associate it with names that were female and unworthy of respect, such as those "Rheas" and "Aphrodites" and "Athenas" and thousands of others, and into strange forms and shapes of illogical things which the Creator of Evil and the Hatcher of Heresy invented and carved out. Hence the wretched tales of the Egyptians about Osiris and Typhon and Isis, and the chicanery of the Persian Magi, and the gymnosophistry and impertinent fantasies of the Brahmans, the fabled sayings of the Skythians and the orgies of the Thracians and the flutes and Corybantes of the Phyrgians. Hence the deceitful and damaging astrology of the Chaldaeans. Hence poetry, the midwife of lies, the pretentious diction of Greek storytelling. Hence Orpheus and Homer and that portrayer of improper begettings, Hesiod. Hence the reputation of Thales and the glorious Pythagoras and Socrates the wise and Plato, the much-ballyhooed pride of the Academy of the Athenians. Hence the Parmenideses and the Protagorases and the Zenos. Hence the Stoas, and the Areopaguses and the Epicureans. Hence the dirges and breast-beatings of the tragedians and the jestings and raillery of the comics. Hence the dishonest divinations of Loxias the liar[3] and the remaining shenanigans and omen-mongering of Greek sophistication. And lest I prolong my essay by getting caught up in rotten and malodorous myths, the Imposter, having taken the burden of the entirety of creation on himself, and having taken man under his control as though he were a slave, went through all that is below heaven and patrolled the earth and kept watch over everything like a hen on her eggs, as he himself says in his lying fashion. He thought that it was necessary to set his throne above the clouds of heaven and to be equal to the Highest One. But the only begotten Son of God, the primordial Word, took pity on mankind since it had been deceived by the serpent, removed himself from the lap of the Father and became flesh by the Holy Spirit and by the Holy Virgin and Mother of God, Mary. He defeated his rival through the hallowed cross and through his suffering and went down to the lowest reaches of the earth and from there dragged back the fallen first-formed one, restoring the primordial beauty to his image and the original worth to his nature. And at that point the entire regime and conformity of the Tyrant vanished, as the light of piousness beamed more brightly than the rays of the sun on the entirety of creation. From this light the godly wisdom once again shone through and gave voice to the tongues of the fishermen and made the unwise teachers of the wise. From this came the birth of thunder, as follows: "In the beginning was the word."[4] It flashed forth from heavenly clouds and thundered and brought light to the entire inhabited world. And through this light Paul is carried to the Third Heaven and sees the unseeable and hears the unspoken sayings and speeds across the entire earth like a bird bringing the Gospel of Jesus in mid air. Thence Peter named Christ the son of the living God, and he is entrusted with the keys of the kingdom of the heavens, so that he may open the entrance to the divine palace for those who believe and lock it against those who do not. Thence flocks of martyrs cast down idols and hasten readily toward their death, displaying their wounds as crowns and their blood as robes of purple, beautiful in victory. The first-formed one should be considered the one who directs this writing, in my opinion and judgment at any rate, as a river the spring and the sea, and roots and branches and shoots, and as the one who originates all human nature, the beginning offerings and the first-fruits.
From Adam until the flood: 2242 years; from the flood until the building of the tower [sc. of Babel], 525 years; from the building of the tower until Abraham, 425. From Abraham until the Exodus of the sons of Israel from Egypt, 430. From the Exodus until the building of the Temple of Solomon, 757 years. From the building of the temple until the captivity of Israel, 425. Altogether 4880 years.[5] From the captivity until king Alexander [sc. the Great], 318. From Alexander until Christ our God, 303. Altogether 5500 years.[6] From Christ until Constantine the Great, 318. From Constantine until Michael son of Theophilos, 555. The whole span altogether 6375 years.[7] From Michael to Romanos son of Constantine Porphyrogennetos ... years.[8] From Porphyrogennetos to the death of John Tzimiskes ... years.[9]
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] Adamiaios, [meaning he who is descended] from Adam.
Greek Original:
Ἀδάμ: ὁ πρῶτος ἄνθρωπος, ὁ χειρὶ θεοῦ πλασθεὶς καὶ κατὰ τὴν εἰκόνα καὶ ὁμοίωσιν μορφωθεὶς τοῦ δημιουργοῦ τε καὶ κτίσαντος, ὁ καὶ τιμηθεὶς τὴν εἰς παράδεισον οἴκησιν. οὗτος δικαίως ἂν πρῶτος καλοῖτο σοφὸς ὡς πρωτόκτιστον ἄγαλμα καὶ εἰκὼν οὖσα θεόγραφος, ὡς τῶν χαρίτων ὅλων ὑπάρχων ἀνάπλεως καὶ πάντα καθαρὰ καὶ ἀκίβδηλα περιφέρων τὰ ψυχῆς τε καὶ σώματος αἰσθητήρια. μαρμαρυγαὶ γάρ τινες, ὡς εἰπεῖν, ἐκ τῆς ἐκείνου ψυχῆς ἀπαστράπτουσαι καὶ θείων ἐννοιῶν τε καὶ ἐνεργειῶν πλήθουσαι κατὰ πᾶσαν εἰσέτρεχον φύσιν εὐστόχως καὶ ἀναμαρτήτως τὸ οἰκεῖον ἑκάστης πλεονέκτημα φθάνουσαι. ὃς οὐ παρὰ ἀνθρώπων ἐδοκιμάσθη τῶν τὰς κρίσεις πολλάκις ἐπισφαλῶς ποιουμένων, ἀλλὰ παρὰ τοῦ τῶν ὅλων θεοῦ τοῦ πᾶσαν γνῶσιν καὶ κρίσιν ὀρθῶς ποιουμένου καὶ πρὸ τοῦ τὰς ἐννοίας κινηθῆναι παρὰ τῆς ὠδινούσης τὰ τοιαῦτα ψυχῆς καὶ ἀποτικτούσης νοήματα. καὶ ᾗ φησιν ἡ γραφή: ἐποίησεν ὁ θεὸς πάντα τὰ κτήνη καὶ τὰ θηρία καὶ τὰ ἑρπετὰ καὶ πετεινὰ καὶ ἤγαγεν αὐτὰ πρὸς τὸν Ἀδὰμ ἰδεῖν, τί καλέσει αὐτά. καὶ ὃ ἐκάλεσεν Ἀδὰμ, τοῦτο ὄνομα αὐτῷ. τί τῆς φωνῆς ταύτης καὶ μαρτυρίας ἀριδηλότερον; τί τῆς σοφίας ταύτης καὶ διαγνώσεως ὑψηλότερον; ἐκάλεσεν ὀνόματα τὴν φύσιν αὐτὴν καὶ τὴν ὑπόστασιν ἑκάστου ζῴου ὥσπερ ὑπογραφόμενος, οὐ μελετήσας, οὐ προσκεψάμενος, οὐδέν τι προπεπονθὼς τῶν ὅσα μεταμανθάνουσιν ἄνθρωποι. καὶ πολλῶν καὶ ἀναρίθμων γενεῶν παραδραμουσῶν οὐκ ἴσχυσεν οὐδεὶς ὑπαλλάξαι κἂν τοῦ τυχόντος ζῴου τὸ ὄνομα, οὐδὲ τῆς ἐκείνου δράξασθαι μεγαλονοίας καὶ διαγνώσεως. μᾶλλον μὲν οὖν μένουσιν ἅπαντες οἱ κατὰ πᾶσαν ἐσπαρμένοι τὴν γῆν ἄνθρωποι τοῖς ἐκείνου στοιχοῦντες ἀμεταθέτοις θεσπίσμασι. καὶ οὐδὲ μέχρι τούτων ἔστη τοῦ πρωτογόνου ἀνθρώπου τὸ ὑπερβάλλον ἐν πᾶσιν ἀξίωμα, ἀλλὰ καὶ σπερμάτων καὶ φυτῶν διαφορὰς ῥιζῶν τε καὶ βοτανῶν δυνάμεις, καὶ ὅσα εἰς ἀντίληψιν καὶ θεραπείαν ἡ φύσις ἑκάστῳ προσαρμόττει τῶν ζῴων, διέκρινέ τε καὶ ἐσάφησεν. οὗτος καὶ τὴν γυναῖκα πρῶτος ἰδὼν οὐχ ὥσπερ ἐκ στόματος ἀνθρωπίνου περὶ ταύτης ἐφθέγξατο, ἀλλ' ὡς ἔκ τινος θείας ὀμφῆς ἐνηχούμενος εὐστόχως τὸ πολυύμνητον ἐκεῖνο καὶ θαυμαστὸν ἀπεφοίβασε λόγιον: τοῦτο νῦν ὀστοῦν ἐκ τῶν ὀστέων μου καὶ σὰρξ ἐκ τῆς σαρκός μου. αὕτη κληθήσεται γυνὴ, ὅτι ἐκ τοῦ ἀνδρὸς αὐτῆς ἐλήφθη. οὗτος τοίνυν ἐστὶν ὁ δοκιμάσας ἕκαστα καὶ πᾶσι κανόνας καὶ στάθμας ἀκριβεῖς καὶ ὅρους ἀναντιρρήτους ἐναρμο- σάμενος. τούτου τέχναι καὶ γράμματα, τούτου ἐπιστῆμαι λογικαί τε καὶ ἄλογοι, τούτου προφητεῖαι, ἱερουργίαι καὶ καθαρισμοὶ καὶ νόμοι γραπτοί τε καὶ ἄγραφοι, τούτου πάντα εὑρήματα καὶ διδάγματα, καὶ ὅσαι κατὰ τὸν βίον ἀναγκαῖαι χρεῖαί τε καὶ δίαιται. οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ πρῶτος ἀνδριὰς, τὸ θεόκλητον ἄγαλμα, ἀφ' οὗπερ ἀπευθύνονται πᾶσαι ἀνθρώπων ἀγαλματουργίαι, κἂν πρὸς τὸ ἧττον μᾶλλον καὶ μᾶλλον ἐκπίπτωσιν ἐκείνου τοῦ μακαρίου καὶ θεοειδοῦς ἀπεικάσματος μηδεμίαν ἔχοντος ἀφορμὴν, ἧς ἂν ἐπιλάβοιτο ὁ μετ' ἐκεῖνον διαπλαττόμενος ἢ ζῳγραφούμενος, ἕως ὁ παλαμναῖος καὶ ἀποστάτης καὶ πλάνος διάβολος τοῦτον ἐξεκύλισεν ἐκ τῆς οἰκείας ἱδρύσεώς τε καὶ στάσεως καὶ κατὰ τοῦ πρανοῦς εἴασε φέρεσθαι πρὸς βαραθρώδεις τινὰς καὶ ἀλαμπεῖς χώρους καὶ μέχρι τῶν ἀμειδήτων τοῦ ᾅδου κευθμώνων ἐγγίζοντας. κἀντεῦθεν ἤρξατο φύσις ἡ τῶν ἀνθρώπων παραχαράττεσθαι καὶ διακιβδηλεύεσθαι καὶ τυποῦσθαι τοῖς τοῦ τυράννου μορφώμασί τε καὶ σχήμασιν. ἐντεῦθεν ἡ νόθος σοφία τὰς ἀφορμὰς ἔλαβε, τῆς θείας δραπετευσάσης καὶ πρὸς οὐρανὸν ἀναπτάσης, ὅθεν τὸ πρότερον ἦν ἀφορμήσασα. ὅθεν ὁ πλάνος τὸ τοῦ θεοῦ σφετερισάμενος ὄνομα εἰς πολλὰ κατεμέρισε, Κρόνους τε καὶ Ζῆνας καὶ Ποσειδῶνας ἑαυτὸν μετακαλῶν: καὶ τὸ δὴ πάντων ἀνοσιώτατον, εἰς ὀνόματα θήλεά τε καὶ ἄσεμνα τὴν μακαρίαν καὶ ἄρρητον συγκατασπάσαι φύσιν ὁ ἀλιτήριος κατετόλμησεν, εἴς τε τὰς Ῥέας ἐκείνας καὶ Ἀφροδίτας καὶ Ἀθηνᾶς καὶ εἰς ἄλλας μυρίας καὶ ἀλλοκότους ἀλόγων ἰδέας τε καὶ μορφὰς, ἃς ὁ κακίας δημιουργὸς καὶ τὴν ἀποστασίαν νοσήσας ἐπέχρωσέ τε καὶ διεχάραξεν. ἐντεῦθεν Αἰγυπτίων τὰ περὶ Ὄσιριν καὶ Τυφῶνα καὶ Ἴσιν μοχθηρὰ διηγήματα καὶ Περσῶν μαγικὰ μαγγανεύματα καὶ Βραχμάνων γυμνοσοφιστίαι καὶ ἄκαιροι φαντασίαι καὶ ἡ θαυμαζομένη Σκυθῶν ῥῆσις καὶ τὰ Θρᾳκῶν ὄργια καὶ οἱ Φρυγῶν αὐλοὶ καὶ Κορύβαντες. ἐντεῦθεν ἡ Χαλδαίων ἀστρονομία ἡ σφαλερά τε καὶ πολυώδυνος. ἐντεῦθεν ἡ τοῦ ψεύδους λοχεύτρια ποίησις, ἡ τῶν Ἑλληνικῶν ληρημάτων σεμνομυθία. ἐντεῦθεν Ὀρφεύς τε καὶ Ὅμηρος καὶ ὁ τῶν ἀθεμίτων γονῶν ζῳγράφος Ἡσίοδος. ἐντεῦθεν ἡ Θάλητος δόξα καὶ ὁ κλεινὸς Πυθαγόρας καὶ ὁ σοφὸς Σωκράτης καὶ Πλάτων, τὸ τῆς Ἀθηναίων Ἀκαδημίας πολυθρύλητον σεμνολόγημα. ἐντεῦθεν οἱ Παρμενίδαι καὶ Πρωταγόραι καὶ Ζήνωνες. ἐντεῦθεν αἱ Στοαὶ καὶ οἱ Ἄρειοι πάγοι καὶ Ἐπικούρειοι. ἐντεῦθεν οἱ τραγῳδῶν θρῆνοι καὶ κοπετοὶ καὶ τὰ κωμικῶν παίγνια καὶ τωθάσματα. ἐντεῦθεν τὰ δολερὰ τοῦ Λοξίου καὶ ψευδηγόρου θεσπίσματα καὶ ἡ λοιπὴ τῶν Ἑλληνικῶν κομψευμάτων ἐρεσχελία καὶ τερατεία. καὶ ἵνα μὴ μακρὸν ἀποτείνω τὸν λόγον εἰς σαπρούς τε καὶ ὀδωδότας μύθους ἐνασχολούμενος, πᾶσαν εἰς ἑαυτὸν τὴν κτίσιν ὁ πλάνος ἐμφορτισάμενος καὶ λαβὼν ὑπὸ χεῖρα τὸν ἄνθρωπον ὡς ἀνδράποδον καὶ διερχόμενος τὴν ὑπ' οὐρανὸν καὶ περιπατῶν τὴν γῆν καὶ ὡς ὠὰ πάντα κατέχων, ὡς αὐτός πού φησιν ἀλαζονευόμενος, ᾤετο δεῖν τὸν ἑαυτοῦ θρόνον θήσειν ἐπάνω τῶν νεφελῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ ἔσεσθαι ὅμοιος τῷ Ὑψίστῳ. ἀλλ' ὁ τοῦ θεοῦ μονογενὴς υἱὸς καὶ λόγος ὁ προαιώνιος οἰκτείρας τὸν ἄνθρωπον ὡς ἠπατημένον ὑπὸ τοῦ δράκοντος ἐκ τῶν τοῦ πατρὸς κόλπων ἑαυτὸν ἐκένωσε καὶ σαρκωθεὶς ἐκ πνεύματος ἁγίου καὶ ἐκ τῆς ἁγίας παρθένου καὶ θεοτόκου Μαρίας, καὶ διὰ τοῦ τιμίου σταυροῦ καὶ τοῦ πάθους αὐτοῦ καταβαλὼν τὸν ἀντίπαλον καὶ καταβὰς εἰς τὰ κατώτατα μέρη τῆς γῆς ἐκεῖθεν εἵλκυσε τὸν παραπεσόντα πρωτόπλαστον, ἀποδοὺς τῇ εἰκόνι τὸ πρῶτον κάλλος καὶ τῇ φύσει τὸ ἀρχαῖον ἀξίωμα. κἀντεῦθεν ἠφάνισται πᾶσα ἡ τοῦ τυράννου δυναστεία καὶ συμμορφία τοῦ τῆς εὐσεβείας φωτὸς διαυγάσαντος πάσῃ τῇ κτίσει τῶν ἡλιακῶν μαρμαρυγῶν τηλαυγέστερον. ἐκ τούτου τοῦ φωτὸς ἡ κατὰ θεὸν σοφία πάλιν διέλαμψε καὶ γλώσσας ἁλιέων ἐστόμωσε καὶ τῶν σοφῶν διδασκάλους τοὺς ἀσόφους εἰργάσατο ἐντεῦθεν ὁ τῆς βροντῆς γόνος, τὸ: ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λόγος, ἐξ οὐρανίων νεφελῶν ἀπαστράψας ἐβρόντησε, καὶ πᾶσαν τὴν οἰκουμένην ἐλάμπρυνε. κἀκ τούτου τοῦ φωτὸς Παῦλος εἰς τρίτον οὐρανὸν ἀναφέρεται καὶ θεᾶται τὰ ἀθέατα καὶ τῶν ἀρρήτων ὑπακούει λογίων καὶ διατρέχει πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν ὡς πτηνὸς καὶ ἀέριος τὸν Ἰησοῦν εὐαγγελιζόμενος. ἐντεῦθεν ὁ Πέτρος τὸν Χριστὸν υἱὸν θεοῦ τοῦ ζῶντος ὠνόμασε καὶ τὰς κλεῖς τῆς τῶν οὐρανῶν πιστεύεται βασιλείας, ἵνα ἀνοίγῃ μὲν τοῖς πιστοῖς, ἀποκλείῃ δὲ τοῖς ἀπίστοις τῶν θείων ἀνακτόρων τὴν εἴσοδον. ἐντεῦθεν ἀγέλαι μαρτύρων καταβάλλουσιν εἴδωλα καὶ τρέχουσιν ἕτοιμοι πρὸς τὸν θάνατον, ὡς στεφάνους τὰς πληγὰς καὶ ὡς πορφύρας τὰ ἑαυτῶν αἵματα περιφέροντες οἱ καλλίνικοι. ἔστω γοῦν ὁ πρωτόπλαστος ἀρχηγὸς τοῦδε τοῦ γράμματος, κατά γε τὸν ἐμὸν ὅρον καὶ λόγον, ὡς ποταμὸς πηγή τε καὶ θάλαττα καὶ ῥίζα καὶ κλάδοι καὶ ὅρπηκες καὶ πάσης ὑπάρχων τῆς ἀνθρωπίνης φύσεως ἀπαρχὴ καὶ πρωτόλειον. ὅτι ἀπὸ Ἀδὰμ ἕως τοῦ κατακλυσμοῦ ἔτη #22βσμβ#. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ κατακλυσμοῦ ἕως τῆς πυργοποιί̈ας ἔτη φκε#. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς πυργοποιί̈ας ἕως τοῦ Ἀβραὰμ υκε#. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Ἀβραὰμ ἕως τῆς ἐξόδου τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραὴλ ἐξ Αἰγύπτου υλ#. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ἐξόδου ἕως τῆς οἰκοδομῆς τοῦ Σολομωντείου ναοῦ ἔτη ψνζ#. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς οἰκοδομῆς τοῦ ναοῦ ἕως τῆς αἰχμαλωσίας τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ υκε#. ὁμοῦ ἔτη #22δωπ#. ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς αἰχμαλωσίας ἕως Ἀλεξάνδρου βασιλέως τιη#. ἀπὸ δὲ Ἀλεξάνδρου ἕως Χριστοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν τγ#. ὁμοῦ ἔτη #22εφ#. ἀπὸ δὲ Χριστοῦ ἕως τοῦ μεγάλου Κωνσταντίνου τιη#. ἀπὸ δὲ Κωνσταντίνου μέχρι Μιχαὴλ υἱοῦ Θεοφίλου φνε#. ὁμοῦ τὰ πάντα ἔτη #22#2τοε#. ἀπὸ δὲ Μιχαὴλ ἕως Ῥωμανοῦ υἱοῦ Κωνσταντίνου τοῦ Πορφυρογεννήτου ἔτη ... ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Πορφυρογεννήτου ἕως τῆς τελευτῆς Ἰωάννου τοῦ Τζιμισκῆ ἔτη ... καὶ Ἀδαμιαῖος, ἀπὸ Ἀδάμ.
Notes:
The great bulk of this entry -- 104 lines out of 117 in the printed edition -- is a tour de force of polemic by an unidentifiable scholar quite outside the type of neutral reticence which characterises most of the contributors to the Suda (although Küster suggests a comparison with the entry on Job at iota 471). His self-styled "essay" (logos), unparalleled in this form and content elsewhere, is a tirade on two levels: explicitly, against the great men of pagan culture(s), and also implicitly, in that its determination to enhance the significance of Adam to extraordinary levels rests in part upon an almost Pelagian exculpation of him from the taint of original sin.
[1] A paraphrase of Genesis 1.20 and 2.19.
[2] Genesis 2.23; the wordplay between "man" and "wo-man" in English, is also present in the original Hebrew איש ʾīš and אישה ʾīššah, but not in the Greek.
[3] i.e. Apollo (lambda 673).
[4] John 1.1.
[5] The actual sum of the numbers given up to this point is 4804 (δωδ ) instead of the 4880 (δωπ ) of the mss.
[6] The actual sum of all the numbers given so far is 5432; adding merely the last two numbers to the previous summation yields 5528.
[7] 6373, counting from the last summation. The actual total of all individual numbers is 6305. (Up to this point the chronology is taken from George the Monk, Chronicon 804.1-20; and cf. generally phi 45. The two time-spans which now follow are odd, in that the chronology stops being linear.)
[8] Romanus (II) died in 963.
[9] John died in 976.
Keywords: art history; biography; botany; Christianity; chronology; comedy; epic; ethics; food; gender and sexuality; historiography; imagery; law; mythology; philosophy; poetry; proverbs; religion; tragedy; women; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 23 April 2001@15:37:44.
Vetted by:
Patrick T. Rourke (Cleaned up encoding issue) on 8 April 2002@12:19:19.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 8 April 2002@14:00:09.
Catharine Roth (raised status) on 5 May 2002@12:51:12.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew words.) on 31 October 2002@10:41:09.
David Whitehead (modified last paragraph of translation; corrected error in footnote numeration; cosmetics) on 10 June 2003@04:32:32.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@07:34:57.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 9 January 2012@10:28:35.
David Whitehead on 9 January 2012@10:58:50.
David Whitehead (added primary note) on 11 January 2012@11:10:07.
David Whitehead (my typo) on 11 January 2012@11:26:30.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 6 January 2013@23:16:27.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 17 January 2014@06:41:18.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:30:26.
Catharine Roth (cross-reference) on 28 January 2019@15:16:53.

Headword: Ἀδεές
Adler number: alpha,434
Translated headword: fearless, fright-free
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning something] safe, not frightening. As the proverb: "you fear a fear-free fear."[1] It is something said about those who fear things that are not frightening.
Greek Original:
Ἀδεές: ἀσφαλὲς, οὐ φοβερόν. ὡς ἡ παροιμία: ἀδεὲς δέδοικας δέος. λεγόμενόν τί ἐστιν ἐπὶ τῶν τὰ μὴ φοβερὰ φοβουμένων.
Notes:
Entry recast from Photius, Lexicon alpha328 Theodoridis, which has a fuller headword (ἀδεὲς δέος ) but does not initially gloss its adjective.
[1] See (e.g.) Plato, Symposium 198A.
Keywords: daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; philosophy; proverbs
Translated by: William Hutton on 6 November 2000@16:00:30.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 30 April 2002@05:07:35.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 10 January 2012@05:30:25.
David Whitehead on 19 August 2013@05:26:04.
David Whitehead (my typo) on 14 April 2015@11:17:12.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 14 April 2015@16:50:00.

Headword: Ἀδελφὸς παρείη
Adler number: alpha,442
Translated headword: may a brother be at hand
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Because it is preferable [to have] relatives [coming] to help in a time of crisis.
Greek Original:
Ἀδελφὸς παρείη: ὅτι προτιμητέον τοὺς οἰκείους εἰς βοήθειαν ἐν καιρῷ περιστάσεως.
Note:
cf. Diogenianus 1.91 and other paroemiographers.
Keywords: daily life; ethics; proverbs
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 19 March 2001@10:37:52.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added keywords) on 19 March 2001@12:24:07.
David Whitehead (added a note) on 14 April 2004@10:24:21.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 10 January 2012@05:51:39.

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