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Headword: Ἄβρα
Adler number: alpha,68
Translated headword: favorite
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Not simply a maidservant nor even the pretty maidservant is called [favorite], but a daughter of one of the house slaves and an honored one, whether born in the house or not. Menander in False Heracles [writes]: "the mother of these two sisters is dead. A concubine of their father's, who used to be their mother's favorite slave, is bringing them up."[1] In Sikyonian: "he bought a beloved slave instead and did not hand the slave over to his wife, but kept her apart, as is appropriate for a free woman."[2] In Faithless One: "I thought if the old man got the gold, he'd get himself a favorite slave right away."[3]
Iamblichus [writes]: "since this was difficult and something of a rarity, with the [woman] housekeeper on guard and another favorite slave-woman also present, he persuades the daughter to run away without her parents' knowledge."[4]
Greek Original:
Ἄβρα: οὔτε ἁπλῶς θεράπαινα οὔτε ἡ εὔμορφος θεράπαινα λέγεται, ἀλλ' οἰκότριψ γυναικὸς κόρη καὶ ἔντιμος, εἴτε οἰκογενὴς εἴτε μή. Μένανδρος Ψευδηρακλεῖ: μήτηρ τέθνηκε ταῖν ἀδελφαῖν ταῖν δυεῖν ταύταιν. τρέφει δὲ παλλακή τις τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτὰς, ἄβρα τῆς μητρὸς αὐτῶν γενομένη. Σικυωνίῳ: καὶ ἄβραν γὰρ ἀντωνούμενος ἐρωμένην, ταύτῃ μὲν οὐ παρέδωκ' ἔχειν, τρέφειν δὲ χωρὶς, ὡς ἐλευθέρᾳ πρέπει. Ἀπίστῳ: ὤμην εἰ τὸ χρυσίον λάβοι ὁ γέρων, θεράπαιναν εὐθὺς ἠγορασμένην ἄβραν ἔσεσθαι. Ἰάμβλιχος: ἐπεὶ δὲ τοῦτο χαλεπὸν ἦν καὶ σπάνιόν τι τὸ τῆς οἰκουροῦ φυλαττούσης καὶ ἄβρας τινὸς ἄλλης συμπαρούσης, ἀναπείθει τὴν κόρην λαθοῦσαν τοὺς γονεῖς ἀποδρᾶναι.
Notes:
The main part of this entry is also in Photius, Lexicon alpha50 Theodoridis (where the headword is plural); similar material in other lexica.
LSJ uses the rough breathing (ἅβρα ) for the word it defines specifically as 'favorite slave'. See web address 1 below.
[1] Menander fr. 520 Kock, 453 K.-Th., 411 K.-A.
[2] Menander fr. 438 Kock (1 Sandbach).
[3] Menander fr. 64 Kock, 58 K.-Th., 63 K.-A.
[4] Iamblichus, Babyloniaca fr. 56 Habrich.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; economics; ethics; gender and sexuality; philosophy; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:13:15.
Vetted by:
Shannon N. Byrne on 20 May 2000@18:59:03.
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added link) on 30 January 2001@23:04:27.
David Whitehead (added keyword) on 31 January 2001@04:33:38.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 24 April 2002@03:20:49.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 15 August 2007@10:03:18.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 25 March 2008@11:26:46.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 19 December 2011@09:03:54.
David Whitehead (updated refs) on 16 August 2013@07:04:59.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 24 December 2014@03:49:04.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 24 December 2014@06:54:57.

Headword: Ἀβρέας
Adler number: alpha,74
Translated headword: Abreas
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Proper name.
Greek Original:
Ἀβρέας: ὄνομα κύριον.
Note:
That of a "double-pay" soldier in Arrian, Anabasis 6.9-10.
Keywords: biography; definition; economics; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:29:50.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, cosmetics, set status) on 31 January 2001@13:02:23.
David Whitehead (added note and keywords) on 24 April 2002@03:26:41.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@07:43:43.
David Whitehead on 19 December 2011@09:27:40.

Headword: Ἀβρογάστης
Adler number: alpha,81
Translated headword: Abrogastes, Arbogast
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A Frank, who was fierce as flame from[1] strength of body and ruggedness of spirit; by happenstance second in rank to Baudo.[2] He was especially solid and complete in regard to self-control and made war on money, giving no quarter--for[3] he was no different from the common soldiers in terms of wealth at least. For this reason he seemed useful to the emperor Theodosius,[4] since he added to the manly and just manner of Valentinian[5] his own gravity, as a just and unswerving standard for the palace, not to do harm or wrong in any matters of the court.
Greek Original:
Ἀβρογάστης: Φράγγος, ὃς κατὰ ἀλκὴν σώματος καὶ θυμοῦ τραχύτητα φλογοειδὴς ἦν, δευτεραγωνιστὴς τυγχάνων Βαύδωνος. ἄλλως τε ἦν καὶ πρὸς σωφροσύνην πεπηγώς τε καὶ διηρθρωμένος καὶ πρὸς χρήματα πόλεμον πολεμῶν ἄσπονδον. διέφερε γοῦν τῶν εὐτελῶν στρατιωτῶν ὅσον γε εἰς πλοῦτον οὐδέν. καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ἐδόκει τῷ βασιλεῖ Θεοδοσίῳ χρήσιμος, ὅς γε πρὸς τὸν Οὐαλεντινιανοῦ τρόπον ἀρρενωπὸν ὄντα καὶ δίκαιον, καὶ τὸ παρ' ἑαυτοῦ βάρος ἐπετίθει, καθάπερ ὀρθὸν καὶ ἀστραβῆ τὸν κάνονα τοῖς βασιλείοις, πρὸς τὸ μηδὲν τῶν περὶ τὴν αὐλὴν παραβλάπτεσθαι ἢ ἁμαρτάνεσθαι.
Notes:
This entry -- which has been tentatively identified as a fragment (no.53 FHG; Blockley, Eunapius fr. 58.[1]) of the sophist and historian Eunapius of Sardis -- concerns the Frankish general Flavius Arbogastes (died 394). (The present headword 'Abrogastes' is a rare variant of, or error for, the name.)
[1] Causal κατά (LSJ s.v. IV).
[2] His predecessor (and, allegedly, father) Flavius Bauto.
[3] "Part proof" γοῦν (Denniston, p. 451).
[4] theta 144.
[5] omicron 762.
References:
Banchich, T.M. "Eunapius, Eustathius, and the Suda." AJP 109 (1988) 223-225
Blockley, R.C. The Fragmentary Classicising Historians of the Later Roman Empire: Eunapius, Olympiodorus, Priscus and Malchus. Vol. II. Liverpool: Francis Cairns, 1983.
Denniston, J.D. The Greek Particles. Second Edition. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1954.
Keywords: biography; economics; ethics; geography; historiography; history; medicine; military affairs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:34:42.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, modified translation, added keywords, set status) on 31 January 2001@16:29:34.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 1 February 2001@04:13:55.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 28 November 2005@08:20:03.
David Whitehead (tweaks to tr; augmented notes and keywords) on 20 December 2011@03:53:50.
Aaron Baker (Modified translation; added grammatical notes; added Blockly cite; added bibliography.) on 3 June 2015@22:23:43.
Aaron Baker (Added period after "Bauto.") on 3 June 2015@22:25:43.
Catharine Roth (coded Greek) on 3 June 2015@23:24:46.
Catharine Roth (added bibliography) on 27 January 2016@22:44:10.

Headword: Ἁβροδιαίτῃ
Adler number: alpha,82
Translated headword: with luxurious living
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] with a soft and dainty life.[1] Also [sc. attested is the related adjective] habrodiaitos: a softy, a soft-liver.[2]
"The lifestyle of the Romans [is] not inclined toward soft-living, especially since they are warlike and hard working."[3]
It also means someone living in affluence.
Also [sc. attested is] ἁβρότητι ["in luxury"]: [meaning] in softness, in daintiness.[4]
Greek Original:
Ἁβροδιαίτῃ: τρυφερᾷ ζωῇ καὶ ἁπαλῇ. καὶ Ἁβροδίαιτος: τρυφητὴς, τρυφερόβιος. τοῖς δὲ Ῥωμαίοις οὐκ ἐς τὸ ἁβροδίαιτον ὁ βίος: ἄλλως δὲ ὡς φιλοπόλεμοί τέ εἰσι καὶ φερέπονοι. σημαίνει δὲ καὶ τὸν πλουσίως ζῶντα. καὶ Ἁβρότητι: τρυφερότητι, ἁπαλότητι.
Notes:
[1] The primary headword -- a single word in the Greek (but described in LSJ s.v. as 'a faulty compound') -- and its glossing phrase are transmitted in the dative case here, but at Photius, Lexicon alpha52 Theodoridis, the editor prints them as nominatives.
[2] Same or similar material in other lexica.
[3] Menander Protector fr. 15.1 Blockley.
[4] Same material in other lexica; references at Photius alpha58 Theodoridis.
Keywords: daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; historiography; military affairs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:35:47.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Altered translation, set keywords and status) on 31 January 2001@23:01:03.
David Whitehead (modified note; cosmetics) on 1 February 2001@04:17:21.
David Whitehead (supplemented translation; augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 December 2011@04:06:41.
David Whitehead on 20 December 2011@04:07:24.
David Whitehead (updated a reference) on 3 January 2012@04:22:20.
David Whitehead (tweaked notes) on 16 August 2013@07:16:19.

Headword: Ἁβρὸς λειμὼν καὶ νοτερὸς καὶ εὐθαλής
Adler number: alpha,88
Translated headword: a meadow delicate and moist and flourishing
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
"All decked out as luxuriously as possible and in a manner that was amazing in terms of wealth, for someone, that is, who marvels at wealth."
Greek Original:
Ἁβρὸς λειμὼν καὶ νοτερὸς καὶ εὐθαλής. πάντας δὲ ὡς ἁβρότατά τε καὶ ἅμα ἐς ἔκπληξιν κατὰ πλοῦτον, τῷ γε δὴ πλοῦτον θαυμάζοντι, ἐσταλμένους.
Notes:
The precise relationship between the headword phrase -- a re-arranged version of part of Aelian fr. 126a Domingo-Forasté (123 Hercher), quoted in epsilon 3095 -- and the quotation which serves as its gloss is unclear, though the latter too has been suggested as coming from Aelian: so Adler at epsilon 3200. Adler regards the quotation here (lacking in ms S) as an interpolation from epsilon 3200.
The manuscripts and Photius read καινότερος "newer"; Markland (Jeremiah Markland, 1693–1776) emended to καὶ νοτερὸς by comparison with epsilon 3095.
Keywords: daily life; economics; ethics; geography; poetry
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:40:06.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, added note, set keywords and status) on 2 February 2001@14:37:55.
David Whitehead (modified note; cosmetics) on 4 February 2001@06:10:47.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 4 December 2005@08:32:15.
Catharine Roth (augmented note) on 28 April 2008@16:20:12.
Catharine Roth (augmented note) on 29 April 2008@11:53:20.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 21 December 2011@04:38:24.
Catharine Roth (updated reference) on 28 January 2012@19:07:49.

Headword: Ἄβρωνος βίος
Adler number: alpha,98
Translated headword: Abron's life
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. A proverbial phrase] In reference to those who live extravagantly; for Abron became rich among the Argives. Or also from the [adjective] habros ["delicate"].[1]
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] Abroneios ["Abronian"].[2]
Greek Original:
Ἄβρωνος βίος: ἐπὶ τῶν πολυτελῶν: Ἄβρων γὰρ παρ' Ἀργείοις ἐγένετο πλούσιος. ἢ καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἁβροῦ. καὶ Ἀβρώνειος.
Notes:
[1] cf. Zenobius 1.4.
[2] Attested here only.
Keywords: aetiology; biography; daily life; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; geography; proverbs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:47:19.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added keyword, set status) on 1 February 2001@22:55:06.
David Whitehead (added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 24 April 2002@03:46:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 21 December 2011@06:44:57.

Headword: Ἀβυδηνὸν ἐπιφόρημα
Adler number: alpha,100
Translated headword: Abydene dessert, Abudene dessert
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Whenever something unpleasant happens as a result of someone having shown up at the wrong time, we are accustomed to call it an "Abydene dessert." This is because the people of Abydos,[1] whenever they entertain a fellow-citizen or a foreigner, bring their children around to be admired after the ointments and the crowns. Those in attendance are disturbed by both the nurses clamoring and the children screaming. Hence it has become customary to say the foregoing.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀβυδηνὸν ἐπιφόρημα: ὅταν ἀκαίρως τινὸς ἐπιφανέντος ἀηδία τις ᾖ, εἰώθαμεν λέγειν Ἀβυδηνὸν ἐπιφόρημα. διὰ τὸ τοὺς Ἀβυδηνοὺς, ὅταν τινὰ τῶν πολιτῶν ἢ ξένων ἑστιῶσι, μετὰ τὸ μύρον καὶ τοὺς στεφάνους τὰ παιδία περιφέρειν φιληθησόμενα. τῶν τε τιθηνῶν θορυβουσῶν τῶν τε παιδίων κεκραγότων ἐνοχλεῖσθαι τοὺς παρόντας. ἀφ' οὗ εἴθισται λέγειν τὸ προκείμενον.
Notes:
[1] A city on the Asiatic shore of the Hellespont: see alpha 101.
[2] See also Zenobius 1.4 and other paroemiographers. For a different explanation (involving taxes and harbor dues) see Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 14.641A [14.47 Kaibel], citing Aristeides, On Proverbs.
Keywords: aetiology; children; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; food; geography; imagery; proverbs; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 25 August 1998@19:00:52.
Vetted by:
Eric Nelson on 31 December 1999@22:59:16.
David Whitehead (modified translation; added note) on 11 January 2001@07:21:18.
David Whitehead (added another note) on 11 January 2001@07:58:10.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 November 2005@07:49:41.
Jennifer Benedict (title tags, cosmeticule) on 25 March 2008@23:59:40.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 21 December 2011@06:54:39.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@07:30:33.
David Whitehead (tweaked a ref) on 14 January 2015@03:15:50.

Headword: Ἄβυσσον
Adler number: alpha,104
Translated headword: abyss
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] that which not even a deep [βυθός ] can contain; but Ionians pronounce βυθός as βυσσός .[1]
From which also βυσσοδομεύειν ["to build in the deep"] appears to be said,[2] from the verb δύνω ["I sink"] [meaning] I enter upon secretly, with a change [of initial consonant] [giving] βύω , βύσω , βέβυσμαι , βέβυσαι , [and the nouns] βυσός and ἀβύσσος [meaning] where no-one enters because of its depth.[3]
Aristophanes in Frogs [writes]: "for immediately you will come to a huge lake, an absolute abyss."[4] And he also uses the word in the neuter: "they shall not make peace while the measureless [ἄβυσσον ] silver is with the goddess on the Acropolis." For 1,000 talents were stored on the Acropolis.[5]
"Abyss" is what the Holy Scripture calls the watery substance. So since the land is surrounded on all sides by waters [and] by great and small seas, David naturally called this [i.e., abyss] the earth's surrounding garment.[6] Also, "abyss calls to abyss", the same prophet says,[7] meaning figuratively military divisions and the excessive size of the multitude.[8]
"I was under water as [if] in a kind of abyss."[9]
So an abyss [is] a great amount of water.
Greek Original:
Ἄβυσσον: ἣν οὐδὲ βυθὸς χωρῆσαι δύναται: Ἴωνες δὲ τὸν βυθὸν βυσσόν φασιν. ὅθεν δοκεῖ λέγεσθαι καὶ βυσσοδομεύειν, παρὰ τὸ δύνω, τὸ ὑπεισέρχομαι, κατὰ τροπὴν βύω, βύσω, βέβυσμαι, βέβυσαι, βυσὸς καὶ ἀβύσσος, οὗ οὐδεὶς εἰσέρχεται διὰ τὸ βάθος. Ἀριστοφάνης Βατράχοις: εὐθὺς γὰρ ἐπὶ λίμνην μεγάλην ἥξεις πάνυ ἄβυσσον. καὶ οὐδετέρως φησὶν ὁ αὐτός: ἕως ἂν ᾖ τὸ ἀργύριον τὸ ἄβυσσον παρὰ τῇ θεῷ, οὐκ εἰρηνεύσουσιν. ἐν γὰρ τῇ ἀκροπόλει χίλια τάλαντα ἀπέκειτο. Ἄβυσσον καλεῖ τὴν ὑγρὰν οὐσίαν ἡ θεία γραφή. ἐπεὶ οὖν ἡ γῆ πανταχόθεν ὕδασι περιέχεται μεγάλοις καὶ μικροῖς πελάγεσιν, εἰκότως περιβόλαιον αὐτῆς εἴρηκεν ὁ Δαβίδ. καὶ, ἄβυσσος ἄβυσσον ἐπικαλεῖται, ὁ αὐτὸς προφήτης φησίν: τὰ στρατιωτικὰ λέγων τάγματα καὶ τὴν τοῦ πλήθους ὑπερβολὴν τροπικῶς. ὡς ἐν ἀβύσσῳ τινὶ ὑποβρύχιος ἐγενόμην. Ἄβυσσος οὖν ὑδάτων πλῆθος πολύ.
Notes:
See also alpha 105.
[1] This comment on Ionian pronunciation comes from the scholiast on Aristophanes, Frogs 138, quoted later in the entry.
[2] In Homer, Odyssey, where βυσσοδομεύω occurs most frequently, it has the sense "brood over."
[3] cf. Etymologicum Magnum 4.44. These are principal parts of the verb βύω , which means "to stuff," followed by βυσός , which does not exist according to LSJ. Probably this is a mistake for βυσσός , "depth of the sea" (cf. beta 598, βυσσόν ). The Suda generally has little concern for the distinction between single and double consonants. The author thus seems to propose a very dubious etymology: that ἀ-βυσσος literally means "unstuffable" -- i.e., unable to be entered. [Ms M (= Marcianus 448) omits this sentence.]
[4] Aristophanes, Frogs 137-8 (web address 1).
[5] "Silver" [ἀργύριον ] is a neuter noun in Greek, while lake [λίμνη ] in the previous sentence is feminine; the point is that the same form ἄβυσσον is used with both. The sentence quoted here is actually part of a scholion to Aristophanes, Lysistrata 173 (web address 2); Aristophanes uses the phrase τὸ ἀργύριον τὸ ἄβυσσον in that line itself.
[6] Psalm 103:6 LXX. See again under pi 1083.
[7] Psalm 41:8 LXX.
[8] Referring to the continuation of Psalm 41:8 LXX, "all thy waves and thy billows are gone over me" (KJV).
[9] From Theodoret's commentary (PG 80.1173) on Psalm 41:8 LXX.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: Christianity; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; epic; geography; history; imagery; military affairs; proverbs; religion
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 21 November 1998@17:02:02.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, augmented note, added keywords, set status) on 5 February 2001@11:48:31.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@08:11:37.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; cosmetics) on 4 July 2003@08:14:49.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added links; cosmetics) on 14 December 2003@15:22:17.
David Whitehead (modified translation and notes 6-9) on 28 April 2004@11:16:41.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding) on 26 March 2008@00:15:00.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 19 April 2011@18:23:25.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 25 April 2011@04:11:52.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation and note, after consulting with the translator) on 26 April 2011@17:14:37.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 22 December 2011@03:45:27.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 21 November 2014@10:58:29.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 21 November 2014@11:44:30.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:36:21.

Headword: Ἄβυσσος
Adler number: alpha,105
Translated headword: abyss, pit
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
There was a shrine of Persephone, which guarded much gold from all ages[1] [and] kept it inviolate.[2] In this [shrine] there was a certain pit of gold, not visible to the general public [and] hidden[3] under ground.
Greek Original:
Ἄβυσσος: ἱερὸν ἦν τῆς Περσεφόνης πολὺν χρυσὸν ἐκ παντὸς τοῦ χρόνου πεφυλαγμένον ἄθικτον ἔχον. ἐν ᾧ χρυσός τις ἄβυσσος, ἀόρατος τοῖς πολλοῖς κατὰ γῆς κεκρυμμένος.
Notes:
For this headword see already alpha 104.
The pi 3232 entry on Pyrrhus (the C4/3 BCE king of Epirus: see generally OCD(4) p.1245) comprises a lengthy anecdotal extract on him from the Roman Antiquities of Dionysius of Halicarnassus (20.8-9); the present entry paraphrases part of it (20.9.2). The date is 276-275, when Pyrrhus was campaigning for a second time in southern Italy and Sicily.
[1] Literally, "of all time".
[2] Or "untouched".
[3] Or simply "situated" (pi 3232).
Keywords: architecture; biography; economics; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; religion
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 1 October 1999@23:13:45.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@08:44:13.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 19 December 2003@08:01:03.
David Whitehead (another x-ref; more keywords) on 22 December 2011@03:48:15.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:17:45.
William Hutton (tweaked translation on the basis of a suggestion of Brady Kiesling.) on 27 December 2016@10:22:00.

Headword: Ἀγαθά
Adler number: alpha,108
Translated headword: goods, goodies
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Xenophon used the word of foodstuffs and drinks which bring enjoyment and good cheer.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] "Good Things Kilikon" - with "has" omitted. Kilikon [is] a proper name. He was wealthy.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθά: ἐπὶ τῶν πρὸς ἀπόλαυσιν καὶ εὐωχίαν σιτίων καὶ ποτῶν ἐχρήσατο Ξενοφῶν τῇ λέξει. καὶ Ἀγαθὰ Κιλίκων, λείπει τὸ ἔχει. Κιλίκων δὲ ὄνομα κύριον. εὔπορος δὲ ἦν.
Notes:
[1] Xenophon, Anabasis 4.4.9 (web address 1 below).
[2] This is only one possible explanation of the proverbial phrase. For another, probably better one - with another version of the name (Killikon: apparently authentic, as it derives from Aristophanes, Peace 363 [web address 2 below]) - see kappa 1610; but note also kappa 223 and pi 2040 on "Kallikon".
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: aetiology; biography; daily life; definition; economics; ethics; food; historiography; proverbs
Translated by: David Whitehead on 10 February 2001@09:14:18.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added links, set status) on 8 June 2001@01:15:16.
David Whitehead (added keywords) on 17 September 2002@05:00:27.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@00:19:27.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 27 March 2008@07:18:17.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 22 December 2011@03:59:55.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 23 December 2011@18:41:14.

Headword: Ἄγαλμα
Adler number: alpha,131
Translated headword: decoration, delight, ornament, statue
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Anything in which someone takes delight.[1]
"And he [A] gives silver, so that he [B] might complete the statue with the utmost artisanry, adding the size and prescribing the nature of the stone."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἄγαλμα: πᾶν ἐφ' ᾧ τις ἀγάλλεται. καὶ δίδωσιν ἀργύριον, ἵνα ἐκπονήσῃ τὸ ἄγαλμα ἄκρας τέχνης, προσθεὶς τὸ μέγεθος καὶ προσειπὼν τῆς λίθου τὴν φύσιν.
Notes:
See also alpha 132, alpha 133, alpha 135, alpha 136.
[1] Again under alpha 133. Also in Photius, other lexica, and various scholia (e.g. to Homer, Odyssey 8.509, and Aristophanes, Wasps 303).
[2] Aelian fr. 65b Domingo-Forasté (part of 62 Hercher), on an unscrupulous (but unnamed) sculptor.
Keywords: art history; comedy; definition; economics; epic; ethics; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 June 2000@01:06:06.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@09:59:18.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 18 February 2011@06:57:00.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords; tweaks) on 23 December 2011@03:46:34.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 2) on 28 January 2012@19:11:34.

Headword: Ἀγάπιος
Adler number: alpha,158
Translated headword: Agapios, Agapius
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
This man was an Alexandrian by birth; raised from childhood amidst cultured discourse, he became a commentator on medical teachings and went to Byzantium where he established a very distinguished school. Relying on the magnitude of his talent and the favor of fortune, he became celebrated for his skill and amassed large amounts of money.
Greek Original:
Ἀγάπιος: οὗτος ἦν Ἀλεξανδρεὺς μὲν τὸ γένος: ἐκ παίδων δὲ λόγοις ἐντραφεὶς ἐλευθερίοις καὶ ἰατρικῶν μαθημάτων ἐξηγητὴς γεγονὼς ἀνελθὼν ἐς τὸ Βυζάντιον διατριβήν τε συνεπήξατο μάλα διαπρεπῆ, φύσεώς τε μεγέθει καὶ δεξιότητι τύχης χρησάμενος, ἔνδοξός τε ἐπὶ τῇ τέχνῃ γέγονε καὶ χρήματα μεγάλα συνείλοχεν.
Note:
Damascius, Life of Isidore fr. 330 Zintzen (298 Asmus, 107 Athanassiadi).
Keywords: biography; children; economics; ethics; geography; medicine; philosophy
Translated by: William Hutton on 9 April 2000@23:07:39.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@09:01:29.
David Whitehead (typo) on 22 October 2003@02:57:05.
Catharine Roth (augmented note, added keyword) on 22 November 2005@11:33:21.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@06:58:53.

Headword: Ἀγασικλῆς
Adler number: alpha,169
Translated headword: Agasikles, Agasicles
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A proper name. He is said to have bribed[1] the Halimousians, and for that reason, although he was a foreigner, to have been accorded [sc. Athenian] citizenship.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγασικλῆς: ὄνομα κύριον. ὃς λέγεται Ἁλιμουσίνοις συνδικάσαι καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ξένος ὢν ἐγγραφῆναι τῇ πολιτείᾳ.
Notes:
After the initial generic gloss, this entry is abridged from Harpokration s.v.
[1] Reading συνδεκάσαι for the transmitted συνδικάσαι ("to share in judging"). See LSJ s.v. συνδεκάζω at web address 1; see also n. 1 to alpha 1231.
[2] This is RE Agasikles 2; his claim to Athenian citizenship was contested in a speech by Dinarchus.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; constitution; definition; economics; ethics; history; law; politics; rhetoric
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 7 June 1999@11:24:47.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation, with explanatory note.) on 15 September 2000@06:18:36.
David Whitehead on 15 September 2000@06:20:34.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@11:01:00.
Jennifer Benedict (betacode, added link, cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@01:51:40.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 27 March 2008@08:39:44.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 July 2011@09:57:12.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 5 April 2015@21:47:43.

Headword: Ἀγείρει
Adler number: alpha,211
Translated headword: collects
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning he/she/it] gathers.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the participle] "those who collect".[2] "For their manner was sacred and nothing like those who collect [alms?]."[3]
And elsewhere: "wishing to go undetected, he shaves his head and his beard and puts on an Egyptian mantle, the sort that the attendants of Isis wear, and shaking a sistrum and going from one city to the next, and collecting [alms] in the name of the goddess and gratefully accepting necessary sustenance, as a drug against hunger".[4]
Greek Original:
Ἀγείρει: συνάγει. καὶ Ἀγείρουσιν. ὁ γὰρ τρόπος ἱερὸς ἦν καὶ οὐδὲν ἐοικὼς τοῖς ἀγείρουσιν. καὶ αὖθις: ὁ δὲ λαθεῖν θέλων ξυρεῖται τὴν κεφαλὴν καὶ τὸ γένειον, καὶ στολὴν Αἰγυπτίαν ἀναλαβὼν, ἣν οἱ τῆς Ἴσιδος θεραπευτῆρες ἤσθηνται, καὶ σεῖστρον ἐπισείων καὶ πόλιν ἐκ πόλεως ἀμείβων, καὶ τῇ θεῷ ἀγείρων καὶ ἀναγκαίας τροφὰς, λιμοῦ φάρμακα, ἀγαπητῶς λαμβάνων.
Notes:
[1] Same or similar entry in other lexica; references at Photius alpha140 Theodoridis. The headword must be quoted from somewhere.
[2] Dative plural ἀγείρουσιν , from the quotation which follows.
[3] Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 4.39.
[4] Aelian fr.124c Domingo-Forasté (121 Hercher); see also pi 2900, sigma 293.
Keywords: biography; clothing; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; food; geography; history; medicine; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 October 2000@13:45:00.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes; cosmetics) on 23 October 2000@06:33:06.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 6 July 2003@08:27:20.
David Whitehead (x-refs) on 2 May 2004@06:06:23.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 7 February 2011@09:53:06.
David Whitehead on 2 January 2012@09:46:30.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 4) on 28 January 2012@19:31:10.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@06:49:31.

Headword: Ἀγκών
Adler number: alpha,249
Translated headword: elbow
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
"In the royal palace of Gelimer was a building full of darkness, which the Carthaginians used to call [the] Elbow; therein were thrown all toward whom the tyrant was ill-disposed. There, in the time of Belisarius, happened to be confined many traders from the east about to be destroyed by the tyrant at that time, whom the guard of the prison released."[1]
"And he placed the siege-engines in the way that seemed most timely, and he hit both the wall-angles [angkones] and the trenches from both sides."[2]
Also [sc. attested is] ἀγκῶνες , a certain part of the house.[3]
Another meaning of ἀγκῶνες is everything that, in a dream, fixes the well-ordered aspect of life.[4]
Ἀγκῶνες [are] also the prominences of rivers, the ones at the banks.
"It was not possible to sail through to the stream ahead because of the size of the descending prominences which it was necessary for those dragging the ships to bend round."[5]
Also [sc. attested is] ἀγκῶνες , [in the sense of] the heights of the mountains. "Some of you seek out the [western] heights, and some the eastern, going toward the evil exit of the man."[6]
And [there is] a proverbial expression: wiping one's nose with the elbow.[7]
Bion the philosopher said: "my father was a freed slave, wiping his nose with his elbow;" it indicated clearly the saltfish-importer.[8]
See another proverbial expression, 'sweet bend' [in a river, etc.].[9]
Greek Original:
Ἀγκών: ἐν τῇ βασιλικῇ αὐλῇ τοῦ Γελίμερος οἴκημα ἦν σκότους ἀνάπλεων, ὃ δὴ Ἀγκῶνα ἐκάλουν οἱ Καρχηδόνιοι: ἔνθα ἐνεβάλλοντο ἅπαντες οἷς ἂν χαλεπαίνοι ὁ τύραννος. ἐνταῦθα ἐπὶ Βελισαρίου πολλοὶ καθειργμένοι ἐτύγχανον τῶν ἑῴων ἐμπόρων, οὓς μέλλοντας κατ' ἐκεῖνο καιροῦ ἀναιρεῖσθαι ὑπὸ τοῦ τυράννου ὁ φύλαξ τοῦ δεσμωτηρίου ἀπέλυσε. καὶ διετίθει τὰς μηχανὰς ᾗ μάλιστα ἐδόκει καίριον, ἀγκῶνας τε καὶ τάφρους ἐβάλετο ἑκατέρωθεν. καὶ Ἀγκῶνες, μέρος τι τῆς οἰκίας. ἀγκῶνες δὲ καὶ πάντα τὰ προσπησσόμενα κατ' ὄναρ τὸ κόσμιον τοῦ βίου σημαίνει. Ἀγκῶνες καὶ αἱ τῶν ποταμῶν ἐξοχαὶ, αἱ παρὰ ταῖς ὄχθαις. οὐ δυνατὸν ἦν πρὸς ἀντίον τὸν ῥοῦν ἀναπλεῖν διὰ τὸ μέγεθος τῶν προσπιπτόντων ἀγκώνων, οὓς ἔδει κάμπτειν παρέλκοντας τὰς ναῦς. καὶ Ἀγκῶνας, τὰς ἄκρας τῶν ὀρῶν. οἱ δὲ σπείρουσιν ἀγκῶνας, οἱ δ' ἀντηλίους ζητεῖτ' ἰόντες τ' ἀνδρὸς ἔξοδον κακήν. καὶ παροιμία: τῷ ἀγκῶνι ἀπομυσσόμενος. Βίων φησὶν ὁ φιλόσοφος: ἐμοῦ ὁ πατὴρ μὲν ἦν ἀπελεύθερος, τῷ ἀγκῶνι ἀπομυσσόμενος: διεδήλου δὲ τὸν ταριχέμπορον. ζήτει καὶ ἄλλην παροιμίαν, τὸ γλυκὺς ἀγκών.
Notes:
[1] An abridgement of Procopius, History of the Wars of Justinian 3.20.4-7.
[2] From an unidentifiable military narrative. (For the headword in this sense see LSJ s.v., II.)
[3] For this gloss, cf. iota 552.
[4] Artemidorus 1.74; cf. omicron 349.
[5] Quotation unidentifiable.
[6] Sophocles, Ajax 805-6 (web address 1); the first adjective is garbled here.
[7] cf. Mantissa Proverbiorum 3.31 and the quotation which follows here.
[8] Diogenes Laertius 4.46.
[9] gamma 316.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: architecture; biography; chronology; daily life; dreams; economics; ethics; food; geography; historiography; history; imagery; military affairs; philosophy; proverbs; science and technology; trade and manufacture; tragedy
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg on 24 November 1998@13:57:02.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (supplied headword; added notes; augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@04:02:29.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@08:29:24.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 20 November 2005@10:40:36.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 February 2011@08:38:56.
Catharine Roth (tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 February 2011@01:08:42.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 4 January 2012@05:46:10.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 30 December 2014@00:14:19.

Headword: Ἀγκυλοχείλης καὶ Ἀγκυλόχειλος
Adler number: alpha,255
Translated headword: crooked-beaked
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Bent-beaked, an epithet of the eagle, which has curved talons.[1] But in reference to Cleon [it means] having crooked hands for theft and seizure.
Greek Original:
Ἀγκυλοχείλης καὶ Ἀγκυλόχειλος: σκολιόχειλος, ἐπίθετον τοῦ ἀετοῦ, ἐπικαμπεῖς τὰς χηλὰς ἔχων. ἐπὶ δὲ Κλέωνος, ἀγκύλας τὰς χεῖρας ἔχων πρὸς τὸ κλέπτειν καὶ ἁρπάζειν.
Notes:
The headword actually presents two words (related to chi 225) that differ only in having different adjectival endings: ἀγκυλοχείλης and ἀγκυλόχειλος ; LSJ only documents the existence of the former.
[1] From the scholia to Aristophanes, Knights 197 (web address 1 below), where an adjective variously transmitted as ἀγκυλοχείλης or ἀγκυλοχήλης ('crooked clawed', from chi 276) is applied to Cleon (kappa 1731). The latter is what modern editors rightly print, but note that in late Greek the two words would have been homophones. See LSJ at ἀγκυλοχήλης (web address 2).
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; imagery; medicine; politics; zoology
Translated by: Roger Travis on 4 October 2000@11:53:19.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified headword and translation, augmented notes and added links, added keywords, set status) on 15 June 2001@09:32:39.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; restorative cosmetics) on 10 February 2003@09:16:21.
David Whitehead (tweaked notes; more keywords; cosmetics) on 1 June 2009@04:19:34.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 4 January 2012@08:56:26.

Headword: Ἀγνῶτας
Adler number: alpha,287
Translated headword: unknown
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning them] not being recognized.[1] "He brought a man unknown to me, who also happened to be unknown to him."[2]
"They had just left farming and entered into the danger of war, which was previously unknown to them."[3]
And elsewhere: "naming what was the price to give herself to an unknown man." Aelian says [this] in On Forethought.[4]
For agnos, [genitive] agnotos, [means] unknown [agnostos].
Greek Original:
Ἀγνῶτας: μὴ ἐπιγινωσκομένους. ἀγνῶτα δέ μοι προσεκόμιζεν ἄνθρωπον, ὃς καὶ ἑαυτοῦ ἀγνὼς ἐτύγχανεν ὤν. οἱ δὲ ἄρτι τῆς γεωργίας ἀφέμενοι, ἐς κίνδυνον τοῦ πολέμου κατέστησαν, ἀγνῶτα σφίσι τὰ πρότερα ὄντα. καὶ αὖθις: φάσκουσα εἶναι μίσθωμα τὸ ἑαυτὴν παραβαλεῖν ἀνδρὶ ἀγνῶτι. φησὶν Αἰλιανὸς ἐν τῷ Περὶ προνοίας. Ἀγνὼς γὰρ ἀγνῶτος, ὁ ἄγνωστος.
Notes:
The first part of this entry is also in Photius (alpha219 Theodoridis), the second part in other lexica.
[1] Masculine accusative plural, evidently quoted from somwhere (other than the quotation given); there are numerous possibilities.
[2] Quotation unidentifiable.
[3] Procopius, History of the Wars of Justinian 1.18.39.
[4] Aelian fr. 12b Domingo-Forasté (12 Hercher); again at mu 1123, pi 274, and pi 2648.
Keywords: agriculture; biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; gender and sexuality; historiography; history; military affairs; women
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 17 March 2001@23:31:54.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes; added keywords) on 18 March 2001@03:42:00.
David Whitehead (restorative cosmetics) on 22 December 2002@07:32:13.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@11:07:45.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 5 December 2005@08:41:06.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@07:57:28.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 4) on 28 January 2012@20:16:50.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@08:39:02.

Headword: Ἀγορά
Adler number: alpha,299
Translated headword: agora, assembly, market-place
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the [sc. place of] assembly, whence Nestor [is] an ἀγορητής ['agora-man'];[1] also the place where the wares are sold, and the wares themselves.
Greek Original:
Ἀγορά: ἡ ἐκκλησία, ὅθεν ὁ Νέστωρ ἀγορητής: καὶ ὁ τόπος, ἔνθα πιπράσκεται τὰ ὤνια, καὶ αὐτὰ τὰ ὤνια.
Notes:
From the scholia to Aristophanes, Acharnians 21, where the phrase 'in the agora' occurs (web address 1).
For the various senses of ἀγορά , see LSJ entry at web address 2.
[1] Homer uses this term of Nestor at Iliad 1.248 etc.; see also Aristophanes, Clouds 1057; and cf. alpha 313.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; epic; mythology
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 2 February 2001@21:14:22.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@07:02:00.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@09:16:28.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@11:37:25.
David Whitehead on 9 April 2015@08:56:25.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 9 April 2015@09:46:27.

Headword: Ἀγοράζειν
Adler number: alpha,300
Translated headword: to frequent the market-place; to market
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] to buy something and to spend time in [the] marketplace.[1]
Aristophanes in Wealth [sc. applies this verb] to what we customarily [say] for to buy. "And to market a dress for his sisters."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγοράζειν: τὸ ὠνεῖσθαί τι καὶ τὸ ἐν ἀγορᾷ διατρίβειν. Ἀριστοφάνης ἐν Πλούτῳ ἐπὶ τοῦ συνήθως ἡμῖν ἀντὶ τοῦ ὠνήσασθαι. καὶ ταῖς ἀδελφαῖς ἀγοράσαι χιτώνιον.
Notes:
[1] Same or similar glossing in other lexica; references at Photius alpha227 Theodoridis. Denominative verb from ἀγορά : LSJ entry at web address 1; cf. alpha 304 & alpha 305; also, for substance, alpha 299.
[2] Aristophanes, Plutus/Wealth 984 (web address 2), and scholia.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: clothing; comedy; daily life; definition; economics; trade and manufacture; women
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 2 February 2001@21:37:58.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@07:08:15.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@11:03:37.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, status) on 9 October 2005@16:15:08.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@09:20:06.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 5 January 2012@22:51:38.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@08:57:11.
Catharine Roth (tweak) on 25 July 2014@20:53:58.

Headword: Ἀγοράσαι
Adler number: alpha,304
Translated headword: to buy at market
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Hyperides [sc. uses this] to mean to purchase.[1]
They say ἀγοράσω , ἀγορῶ being sub-literate;[2] there are plenty of examples everywhere, but take for instance [one] of Aristophanes, from Aiolosikon: "but hurry, there was no need to wait, since I will buy everything that you ask for all at once, madam".[3] Also [sc. attested are] agorasmata, the things that have been bought.[4]
Greek Original:
Ἀγοράσαι: Ὑπερίδης τὸ ὠνήσασθαι. Ἀγοράσω λέγουσι, τὸ δ' ἀγορῶ βάρβαρον: παραδειγμάτων δὲ μεστὰ πάντα, εἰλήφθω δ' ὅμως Ἀριστοφάνους ἐξ Αἰολοσίκωνος: ἀλλ' ἄνυσον: οὐ μέλλειν ἐχρῆν, ὡς ἀγοράσω ἁπαξάπανθ' ὅσα κελεύεις, ὦ γύναι. καὶ Ἀγοράσματα αὐτὰ τὰ ἠγορασμένα.
Notes:
[1] From Harpokration s.v., citing Hyperides fr. 70 Jensen for this aorist infinitive of ἀγοράζω (cf. alpha 300); See also ἀγοράζει in For Lykophron 2.
[2] At issue here are two forms of the 1st person singular, future indicative active. The former (for which cf. alpha 305) is proper Attic form, the latter koine.
[3] Aristophanes fr. 2 Kock and K.-A.
[4] Attested in comedy and oratory.
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; rhetoric; trade and manufacture
Translated by: William Hutton on 30 October 2000@00:36:57.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and note; added note; cosmetics) on 30 October 2000@03:37:57.
David Whitehead (restorative and other cosmetics) on 17 February 2003@06:00:38.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@11:05:29.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; another keyword; tweaks) on 20 July 2011@04:12:46.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 22 December 2014@06:07:53.

Headword: Ἀγορᾶς ὥραν
Adler number: alpha,306
Translated headword: market's hour, market's time
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning the hour/time] not for selling things, but for the other transactions that go on in the marketplace at dawn, or indeed before the marketplace gets full.[1] Pherekrates [writes]: "always to drink and get drunk before the marketplace gets full".[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγορᾶς ὥραν: οὐ τῶν πωλουμένων, ἀλλὰ τῶν ἄλλων πράξεων τῶν κατ' ἀγορὰν ἕωθεν, ἢ καὶ πρὶν ἀγορὰν πεπληθέναι. Φερεκράτης: πίνειν ἀεὶ καὶ μεθύειν πρὶν ἀγορὰν πεπληθέναι.
Notes:
Same entry, but slightly fuller, in Photius (Lexicon alpha238 Theodoridis) and elsewhere; see further, next note.
[1] Theodoridis (above) prints Croenert's ἧκε for ἢ καί and thereby sees in this entry two fragments of Pherekrates (cf. next note) -- this first one being "he came at dawn before the marketplace gets full".
[2] Pherekrates fr. 29 Kock, now 34 K.-A. -- an extract which, as can readily be seen, connects with the glossing material rather than with the (proverbial?) phrase glossed. See also fr. 178 K.-A.
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; economics; ethics; food; trade and manufacture
Translated by: William Hutton on 30 October 2000@00:49:20.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 30 October 2000@04:42:52.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@11:06:53.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@09:42:55.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@09:05:47.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 24 December 2014@10:35:41.
David Whitehead (expanded n.2) on 26 December 2014@04:36:00.

Headword: Ἀγοραίαν δίκην
Adler number: alpha,307
Translated headword: agora lawsuit, forensic lawsuit
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the (?)defense plea.
Greek Original:
Ἀγοραίαν δίκην: τὴν δικαιολογίαν.
Notes:
An opaque entry, and made the more so because it appears in other lexica in different forms. In Photius (alpha231 Theodoridis) the lemma itself is the adjective only, i.e. δίκην is lacking; the Synagoge (alpha82) has δίκην as the first part of the gloss. All that seems certain, therefore, is that ἀγοραίαν (accusative singular) is quoted from somewhere.
The glossing term dikaiologia can mean either a defense plea or a forensic speech of any kind: see LSJ s.v.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; law; rhetoric
Translated by: William Hutton on 24 October 2000@12:05:09.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note) on 29 April 2002@07:22:51.
David Whitehead (expanded note; another keyword; cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@09:55:23.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@09:07:40.
William Hutton (augmented note) on 21 August 2013@10:09:58.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 3 September 2014@23:38:06.

Headword: Ἀγοραῖος νοῦς
Adler number: alpha,308
Translated headword: marketplace mind
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the one altogether cheap and vulgar and not elite or thoughtful.[1]
Also [sc. attested is] Agoraios Hermes. Aristophanes [writes]: "by Hermes Agoraios, I look and I perjure myself." That is, [Hermes] who is honored in a marketplace.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγοραῖος νοῦς: ὁ πανευτελὴς καὶ συρφετώδης καὶ οὐκ ἀπόρρητος οὐδὲ πεφροντισμένος. καὶ Ἀγοραῖος Ἑρμῆς: Ἀριστοφάνης. νὴ τὸν Ἑρμῆν τὸν Ἀγοραῖον κἀπιορκῶ γε βλέπων. τουτέστιν ὁ ἐν ἀγορᾷ τιμώμενος.
Notes:
See generally LSJ s.v. agoraios (web address 1) for texts further illustrating both of these disparate senses (and note the comment there: "the distinction ἀγόραιος vulgar, ἀγοραῖος public speaker, drawn by Ammonius [a C1/2 grammarian] etc. is probably fictitious"); cf. alpha 309. See further D. Whitehead, Hypereides: the forensic speeches (Oxford 2000) 287.
[1] Likewise or similarly in other lexica; references at Photius alpha233 Theodoridis.
[2] Aristophanes, Knights 297-8 (web address 2: the manuscript reading is "I perjure myself before those who are looking"), with scholion. The same epithet is attested, elsewhere, of Artemis, Athena and Zeus.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; economics; ethics; law; religion
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 9 March 2001@00:09:31.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 9 March 2001@03:12:41.
Catharine Roth (Added link and cross-reference.) on 9 March 2001@11:48:55.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 15 February 2007@10:33:05.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 15 February 2007@10:56:51.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@10:02:11.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 5 January 2012@22:53:49.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@09:09:54.

Headword: Ἀγώγιμον καὶ Ἀγώγιμος
Adler number: alpha,323
Translated headword: transporting, transportable
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning someone] taking, being taken. Being carried.
Also [sc. attested is] ἀγωγίμων , [meaning] merchants' cargoes.[1]
"To keep the merchants themselves safe from harm, and to salvage their cargoes."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγώγιμον καὶ Ἀγώγιμος: ἄγων, ἀγόμενος. φερόμενος. καὶ Ἀγωγίμων, φορτίων ἐμπορικῶν. αὐτοὺς μὲν τοὺς ἐμπόρους ἀπαθεῖς κακῶν ἀποσῶσαι, τὰ δὲ ἀγώγιμά σφισιν ἀνασώσασθαι.
Notes:
The headword phrase consists of the neuter and masculine forms (with the glosses attaching to the latter) of the same adjective.
Same or similar material in other lexica; references at Photius alpha308 and alpha309 Theodoridis.
[1] This genitive plural is evidently quoted from somewhere.
[2] Aelian fr. 195 Domingo-Forasté (192 Hercher).
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 11 June 1999@11:31:16.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added notes, raised status.) on 24 October 2000@11:46:21.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 9 February 2003@08:56:54.
David Whitehead (more notes and keywords; betacoding and other cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@05:36:01.
Catharine Roth (updated reference, added keyword) on 29 January 2012@22:36:16.
David Whitehead on 19 August 2013@04:16:28.

Headword: Ἀγωνιῶ
Adler number: alpha,334
Translated headword: I am in a torment
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] I am at risk;[1] also the [verb that means] I am afraid.
Polybius [writes]: "many of the inland cities joined the Romans, in a torment about their land forces."[2]
Also [sc. attested is the participle] ἀγωνιῶν ["being in a torment"], [meaning someone] fearing.
"Fearing the fickleness of the Celts and the plots against his life."[3]
"But he feared the soldiers, if the ration-money were to run out."[4]
Also [sc. attested in the plural] ἀγωνιῶντες , meaning rivalling. Isocrates [sc. uses the term].[5]
Greek Original:
Ἀγωνιῶ: κινδυνεύω: καὶ τὸ φοβοῦμαι. Πολύβιος: πολλαὶ δὲ πόλεις προσετίθεντο τῶν μεσογαίων τοῖς Ῥωμαίοις, ἀγωνιῶσαι τὰς πεζικὰς δυνάμεις. καὶ Ἀγωνιῶν, δεδιώς. ἀγωνιῶν δὲ τὴν ἀθεσίαν τῶν Κελτῶν καὶ τὰς ἐπιβουλὰς τὰς περὶ τὸ σῶμα. ἠγωνία δὲ τοὺς στρατιώτας, μὴ ἐπιλείπῃ τὰ ὀψώνια. καὶ Ἀγωνιῶντες, ἀντὶ τοῦ ἀγωνιζόμενοι. Ἰσοκράτης.
Notes:
[1] Likewise in other lexica.
[2] Polybius 1.20.6 (web address 1).
[3] Polybius 3.78.2 (web address 2); again at alpha 722.
[4] Polybius fr.(?) 94 Büttner-Wobst; Although Büttner-Wobst is reluctant to accept the attribution by Schweighäuser of this fragment to Polybius, he does note (p. 527) its acceptance by Dindorf.
[5] Isocrates 4.91 (web address 3), cited from Harpokration s.v.
Reference:
T. Büttner-Wobst, ed., Polybii Historiae, vol. IV, (Leipzig 1904)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; historiography; history; military affairs; rhetoric
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 20 March 2001@01:58:57.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword; completed and modified translation; added keywords; cosmetics) on 20 March 2001@07:02:52.
David Whitehead (restorative cosmetics) on 17 February 2003@07:42:12.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 27 November 2005@09:39:58.
Jennifer Benedict (Updated link to Perseus) on 11 March 2008@23:54:25.
David Whitehead (augmented n.4; another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@05:03:14.
David Whitehead (another note and keyword) on 9 April 2015@09:32:11.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 19 February 2018@19:50:33.
Ronald Allen (added links, added bibliography, supplemented notes) on 26 April 2018@00:15:25.
Ronald Allen (rearranged n4, cosmeticule in bibliography) on 5 June 2018@00:30:56.

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