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Headword: Ἄβελ
Adler number: alpha,30
Translated headword: Abel
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Son of Adam.[1] This man was chaste and just from the beginning and a shepherd of flocks; out of these he offered a sacrifice to God and was accepted, but was then killed because he was envied by his brother Cain.[2] Cain happened to be a farmer and after the judgement he lived worse, with groaning and trembling. For Abel, by dedicating the firstborn [of the flock] to God, recommended himself as more God-loving than self-loving,[3] and because this was a good choice, he was accepted. But Cain impiously kept his first-fruits for himself and gave the seconds to God, and for this reason was rightly rejected. For it says: "and after some days it happened that Cain offered from the fruits of the earth."[4] Cain was disgraced by the fact that the produce he offered was not the first-fruits but that which was some days old and second-best.
Greek Original:
Ἄβελ: υἱὸς Ἀδάμ. οὗτος παρθένος καὶ δίκαιος ὑπῆρχε καὶ ποιμὴν προβάτων: ἐξ ὧν καὶ θυσίαν τῷ θεῷ προσαγαγὼν καὶ δεχθεὶς ἀναιρεῖται, φθονηθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ Κάϊν. ὁ Κάϊν δὲ γεωργὸς τυγχάνων καὶ μετὰ τὴν δίκην χειρόνως βιώσας στένων καὶ τρέμων ἦν. ὁ γὰρ Ἄβελ τὰ πρωτότοκα τῷ θεῷ καθιερῶν φιλόθεον μᾶλλον ἢ φίλαυτον ἑαυτὸν συνίστη, ὅθεν καὶ διὰ τῆς ἀγαθῆς αὐτοῦ προαιρέσεως ἀπεδέχθη. ὁ δὲ Κάϊν δυσσεβῶς ἑαυτῷ ἀπονέμων τὰ πρωτογεννήματα, θεῷ δὲ τὰ δεύτερα, εἰκότως καὶ ἀπεβλήθη. φησὶ γάρ: καὶ ἐγένετο μεθ' ἡμέρας, προσήνεγκε Κάϊν ἀπὸ τῶν καρπῶν τῆς γῆς. ὥστε διὰ τοῦτο Κάϊν ἐλέγχεται, ὅτι μὴ τὰ ἀκροθίνια γεννήματα προσήνεγκε τῷ θεῷ, ἀλλὰ τὰ μεθ' ἡμέρας καὶ δεύτερα.
Notes:
George the Monk, Chronicon 6.10-7.16.
[1] alpha 425.
[2] kappa 27.
[3] Again at sigma 1580.
[4] Genesis 4:3.
Keywords: agriculture; biography; botany; Christianity; daily life; ethics; food; historiography; religion; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:57:27.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, keywords, set status) on 27 January 2001@12:23:00.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 27 February 2003@08:28:31.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 8 September 2003@06:15:32.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@10:57:50.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics; raised status) on 22 June 2011@07:14:12.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 29 August 2012@10:24:09.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 August 2013@01:03:34.

Headword: Ἀβληχρήν
Adler number: alpha,58
Translated headword: feeble
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] weak. For what is strong [is] βληχρόν .[1]
Aelian [writes]: "so she brought her life to an end gently and with a calm and feeble death, such as even Homer seems to me to praise."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀβληχρήν: ἀσθενῆ. βληχρὸν γὰρ τὸ ἰσχυρόν. Αἰλιανός: κατέστρεψεν οὖν τὸν βίον πράως τε καὶ σὺν γαλήνῃ καὶ ἀβληχρῷ θανάτῳ, ὅνπερ οὖν ἐπαινεῖν καὶ Ὅμηρος δοκεῖ μοι.
Notes:
The headword adjective is feminine accusative singular. It is extracted from Homer, Iliad 5.337, where it refers to Aphrodite's hand; cf. the scholia there.
[1] Same or similar glossing in other lexica (references at Photius alpha42 Theodoridis); and cf. beta 340. This seems to be an error, however: βληχρός is well attested as meaning "weak" by itself: see web address 1 for the LSJ entry. The lexica mistake the copulative alpha in the headword for an alpha privative.
[2] Aelian fr. 182d Domingo-Forasté (179 Hercher): cf. Homer, Odyssey 11.135 (web address 2 below). The preceding fragment, quoted at tau 596, shows that the subject is a woman.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; poetry; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:09:47.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, modified translation and notes, added keywords, set status) on 30 January 2001@08:53:17.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 4 September 2001@23:32:57.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 9 June 2003@08:00:49.
David Whitehead (typo) on 17 July 2003@03:43:18.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding, cosmetics) on 24 March 2008@17:16:29.
David Whitehead (added primary note and more keywords; tweaks) on 19 December 2011@08:20:09.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link and reference) on 28 January 2012@18:52:16.
Catharine Roth (tweaks, cross-reference, keyword) on 14 October 2012@01:44:40.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:49:04.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 17 January 2014@04:03:02.

Headword: Ἄβρα
Adler number: alpha,68
Translated headword: favorite
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Not simply a maidservant nor even the pretty maidservant is called [favorite], but a daughter of one of the house slaves and an honored one, whether born in the house or not. Menander in False Heracles [writes]: "the mother of these two sisters is dead. A concubine of their father's, who used to be their mother's favorite slave, is bringing them up."[1] In Sikyonian: "he bought a beloved slave instead and did not hand the slave over to his wife, but kept her apart, as is appropriate for a free woman."[2] In Faithless One: "I thought if the old man got the gold, he'd get himself a favorite slave right away."[3]
Iamblichus [writes]: "since this was difficult and something of a rarity, with the [woman] housekeeper on guard and another favorite slave-woman also present, he persuades the daughter to run away without her parents' knowledge."[4]
Greek Original:
Ἄβρα: οὔτε ἁπλῶς θεράπαινα οὔτε ἡ εὔμορφος θεράπαινα λέγεται, ἀλλ' οἰκότριψ γυναικὸς κόρη καὶ ἔντιμος, εἴτε οἰκογενὴς εἴτε μή. Μένανδρος Ψευδηρακλεῖ: μήτηρ τέθνηκε ταῖν ἀδελφαῖν ταῖν δυεῖν ταύταιν. τρέφει δὲ παλλακή τις τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτὰς, ἄβρα τῆς μητρὸς αὐτῶν γενομένη. Σικυωνίῳ: καὶ ἄβραν γὰρ ἀντωνούμενος ἐρωμένην, ταύτῃ μὲν οὐ παρέδωκ' ἔχειν, τρέφειν δὲ χωρὶς, ὡς ἐλευθέρᾳ πρέπει. Ἀπίστῳ: ὤμην εἰ τὸ χρυσίον λάβοι ὁ γέρων, θεράπαιναν εὐθὺς ἠγορασμένην ἄβραν ἔσεσθαι. Ἰάμβλιχος: ἐπεὶ δὲ τοῦτο χαλεπὸν ἦν καὶ σπάνιόν τι τὸ τῆς οἰκουροῦ φυλαττούσης καὶ ἄβρας τινὸς ἄλλης συμπαρούσης, ἀναπείθει τὴν κόρην λαθοῦσαν τοὺς γονεῖς ἀποδρᾶναι.
Notes:
The main part of this entry is also in Photius, Lexicon alpha50 Theodoridis (where the headword is plural); similar material in other lexica.
LSJ uses the rough breathing (ἅβρα ) for the word it defines specifically as 'favorite slave'. See web address 1 below.
[1] Menander fr. 520 Kock, 453 K.-Th., 411 K.-A.
[2] Menander fr. 438 Kock (1 Sandbach).
[3] Menander fr. 64 Kock, 58 K.-Th., 63 K.-A.
[4] Iamblichus, Babyloniaca fr. 56 Habrich.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; economics; ethics; gender and sexuality; philosophy; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:13:15.
Vetted by:
Shannon N. Byrne on 20 May 2000@18:59:03.
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added link) on 30 January 2001@23:04:27.
David Whitehead (added keyword) on 31 January 2001@04:33:38.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 24 April 2002@03:20:49.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 15 August 2007@10:03:18.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 25 March 2008@11:26:46.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 19 December 2011@09:03:54.
David Whitehead (updated refs) on 16 August 2013@07:04:59.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 24 December 2014@03:49:04.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 24 December 2014@06:54:57.

Headword: Ἁβραῖς
Adler number: alpha,73
Translated headword: delicate
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] gentle, dainty.[1] Aelian [writes]: "them placing [half-beams] upon very delicate couches and mattresses adorned with some magnificent weaving."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἁβραῖς: ἁπαλαῖς, τρυφεραῖς. Αἰλιανός: ἐπὶ κλίναις μάλα ἁβραῖς καὶ στρωμναῖς ὕφει τινὶ ὑπερηφάνῳ κεκοσμημέναις ἐπιθέντας.
Notes:
cf. generally alpha 70.
[1] The headword is dative plural of this adjective, presumably extracted from the quotation given.
[2] A truncated version of Aelian fr. 53h Domingo-Forasté (50 Hercher); more fully at delta 75, and see also upsilon 290.
Keywords: daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:29:17.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, added keyword, set status) on 31 January 2001@13:01:14.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 1 February 2001@03:53:15.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 19 December 2011@09:25:52.
Catharine Roth (updated reference) on 28 January 2012@18:56:48.
David Whitehead (another x-ref; cosmetics) on 17 January 2014@04:28:35.

Headword: Ἀβρίξαι
Adler number: alpha,79
Translated headword: to drop off, to nod off
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] to be drowsy after eating[1] or to fall asleep.
Greek Original:
Ἀβρίξαι: τὸ ἀπὸ βορᾶς νυστάξαι ἢ κοιμηθῆναι.
Notes:
Likewise in ps.-Zonaras. The headword, presumably quoted from somewhere, is an aorist active infinitive. LSJ proffers no suitable verb for it under alpha, but see the entry on βρίζω , 'to be sleepy, nod'. (Adler notes that after beta 542 ms F has the entry βρίζω: τὸ νυστάζω .)
[1] This much also occurs, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
Keywords: daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; food
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:33:30.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, set keywords and status) on 31 January 2001@13:22:44.
David Whitehead (modified headword; added note) on 27 February 2003@08:52:09.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 19 December 2011@09:53:30.
David Whitehead (expanded primary note) on 2 April 2015@10:50:15.

Headword: Ἁβροδιαίτῃ
Adler number: alpha,82
Translated headword: with luxurious living
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] with a soft and dainty life.[1] Also [sc. attested is the related adjective] habrodiaitos: a softy, a soft-liver.[2]
"The lifestyle of the Romans [is] not inclined toward soft-living, especially since they are warlike and hard working."[3]
It also means someone living in affluence.
Also [sc. attested is] ἁβρότητι ["in luxury"]: [meaning] in softness, in daintiness.[4]
Greek Original:
Ἁβροδιαίτῃ: τρυφερᾷ ζωῇ καὶ ἁπαλῇ. καὶ Ἁβροδίαιτος: τρυφητὴς, τρυφερόβιος. τοῖς δὲ Ῥωμαίοις οὐκ ἐς τὸ ἁβροδίαιτον ὁ βίος: ἄλλως δὲ ὡς φιλοπόλεμοί τέ εἰσι καὶ φερέπονοι. σημαίνει δὲ καὶ τὸν πλουσίως ζῶντα. καὶ Ἁβρότητι: τρυφερότητι, ἁπαλότητι.
Notes:
[1] The primary headword -- a single word in the Greek (but described in LSJ s.v. as 'a faulty compound') -- and its glossing phrase are transmitted in the dative case here, but at Photius, Lexicon alpha52 Theodoridis, the editor prints them as nominatives.
[2] Same or similar material in other lexica.
[3] Menander Protector fr. 15.1 Blockley.
[4] Same material in other lexica; references at Photius alpha58 Theodoridis.
Keywords: daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; historiography; military affairs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:35:47.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Altered translation, set keywords and status) on 31 January 2001@23:01:03.
David Whitehead (modified note; cosmetics) on 1 February 2001@04:17:21.
David Whitehead (supplemented translation; augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 December 2011@04:06:41.
David Whitehead on 20 December 2011@04:07:24.
David Whitehead (updated a reference) on 3 January 2012@04:22:20.
David Whitehead (tweaked notes) on 16 August 2013@07:16:19.

Headword: Ἁβρόν
Adler number: alpha,86
Translated headword: delicate
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
In Herodotus [sc. this means something] beautiful, stubborn, awe-inspiring, dainty.
Greek Original:
Ἁβρόν: παρὰ Ἡροδότῳ καλὸν, αὔθαδες, σεμνὸν, τρυφερόν.
Note:
The headword adjective is neuter nominative (and accusative) singular of alpha 87 (and cf. alpha 88), extracted here from Herodotus 1.71.4 (web address 1), and accompanied by ancient glosses on that passage. In fact, 'luxurious' or 'soft-living' would be more appropriate; cf. ἁβρότατοι in 4.104 (web address 2), and Powell s.v.
Reference:
J.E. Powell, A Lexicon to Herodotus. Hildesheim: George Olms 1977
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:38:32.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, augmented note, added bibliography and keywords, set status) on 1 February 2001@09:51:15.
William Hutton (Modified my own note, added links) on 1 February 2001@14:00:33.
David Whitehead (modified note; cosmetics) on 5 February 2003@09:50:33.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 December 2011@09:37:09.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 21 December 2011@01:53:17.

Headword: Ἁβρός
Adler number: alpha,87
Translated headword: delicate
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] bright, delicate, tender.[1]
In the Epigrams: "a cicada sat above a cithara delicately murmuring."[2]
"All the same that fellow is dainty and delicate and weakened by the softness of his body and depraved and with his hair done up like the most licentious little courtesans. And when he goes in to see the king his face and his curly hair are always delicately dripping [with perfume], and he takes as much money from the communal difficulties as would satisfy even the legendary Midas."[3]
Greek Original:
Ἁβρός: λαμπρὸς, τρυφερὸς, ἁπαλός. ἐν Ἐπιγράμμασιν: ἁβρὸν ἐπιτρύζων κιθάρας ὕπερ ἕζετο τέττιξ. ὅμως δὲ ὁ τρυφερὸς ἐκεῖνος καὶ ἁβρὸς καὶ ὑπὸ μαλακίας τοῦ σώματος κατεαγὼς καὶ λελυγισμένος καὶ τάς τε κόμας ἀναδούμενος, ὥσπερ αἱ τῶν ἑταιρίδων ἀσελγέστεραι, καὶ ἁβροσταγὲς ἔχων ἀεὶ τὸ μέτωπον καὶ τοὺς βοστρύχους, λαβὼν χρυσίον ἐκ τῶν κοινῶν συμφορῶν, ὅσον ἱκανὸν ἦν ἐμπλῆσαι καὶ τὸν ἐκ τοῦ μύθου Μίδαν, εἰσέρρει πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα.
Notes:
For this adjective see already alpha alpha 73 and alpha 86, and again alpha 88.
[1] Same glossing in other lexica; references at Photius alpha55 Theodoridis.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.54.7 (Paulus Silentarius).
[3] Attributed by Hemsterhuys to Eunapius; again (in part) at alpha 1860.
Keywords: biography; clothing; daily life; definition; ethics; gender and sexuality; historiography; imagery; mythology; poetry; women; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:39:27.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, augmented note, set keywords and status) on 2 February 2001@12:21:50.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@06:35:10.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 3 January 2006@10:26:40.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 December 2011@04:35:18.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 22 December 2011@19:16:16.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@07:18:56.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 17 January 2014@04:31:02.

Headword: Ἁβρὸς λειμὼν καὶ νοτερὸς καὶ εὐθαλής
Adler number: alpha,88
Translated headword: a meadow delicate and moist and flourishing
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
"All decked out as luxuriously as possible and in a manner that was amazing in terms of wealth, for someone, that is, who marvels at wealth."
Greek Original:
Ἁβρὸς λειμὼν καὶ νοτερὸς καὶ εὐθαλής. πάντας δὲ ὡς ἁβρότατά τε καὶ ἅμα ἐς ἔκπληξιν κατὰ πλοῦτον, τῷ γε δὴ πλοῦτον θαυμάζοντι, ἐσταλμένους.
Notes:
The precise relationship between the headword phrase -- a re-arranged version of part of Aelian fr. 126a Domingo-Forasté (123 Hercher), quoted in epsilon 3095 -- and the quotation which serves as its gloss is unclear, though the latter too has been suggested as coming from Aelian: so Adler at epsilon 3200. Adler regards the quotation here (lacking in ms S) as an interpolation from epsilon 3200.
The manuscripts and Photius read καινότερος "newer"; Markland (Jeremiah Markland, 1693–1776) emended to καὶ νοτερὸς by comparison with epsilon 3095.
Keywords: daily life; economics; ethics; geography; poetry
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:40:06.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, added note, set keywords and status) on 2 February 2001@14:37:55.
David Whitehead (modified note; cosmetics) on 4 February 2001@06:10:47.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 4 December 2005@08:32:15.
Catharine Roth (augmented note) on 28 April 2008@16:20:12.
Catharine Roth (augmented note) on 29 April 2008@11:53:20.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 21 December 2011@04:38:24.
Catharine Roth (updated reference) on 28 January 2012@19:07:49.

Headword: Ἁβροσύνη
Adler number: alpha,89
Translated headword: splendor
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] brightness.
Greek Original:
Ἁβροσύνη: φαιδρότης.
Notes:
The rare headword noun (also in other lexica, with the same gloss) is a poetic variant of ἁβρότης ; see LSJ s.v. Though it is attested in Sappho and elsewhere, its inclusion here seems to have been prompted by its occurrence in Euripides, Orestes 349 (so Latte on Hesychius s.v.); cf. the scholia there.
cf. generally alpha 86, alpha 87, alpha 88. For the glossing noun see also the gloss at pi 138.
Keywords: daily life; definition; poetry; tragedy
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:40:49.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified headword, cosmetics, set keywords & status) on 1 February 2001@21:30:02.
David Whitehead (x-refs) on 3 January 2005@10:39:54.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords) on 21 December 2011@04:44:38.
David Whitehead (tweaked note) on 1 February 2012@05:40:54.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 4 April 2015@08:08:49.

Headword: Ἁβροχίτων
Adler number: alpha,96
Translated headword: delicate-tunic'd
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning someone] wearing delicate things.
Greek Original:
Ἁβροχίτων: τρυφερὰ φορῶν.
Note:
Same entry in other lexica; references at Photius alpha60 Theodoridis. The headword adjective bears this meaning in e.g. Greek Anthology 9.538; however, the word is first attested in Aeschylus, Persians 543, of beds (accusative plural: web address 1 below).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: clothing; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry; tragedy
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:45:35.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, set keywords and status) on 1 February 2001@22:44:01.
David Whitehead (added note and keywords) on 27 February 2003@09:00:26.
Jennifer Benedict (added link, title tags) on 25 March 2008@12:02:09.
David Whitehead (expanded note; tweaks) on 21 December 2011@06:35:49.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@07:27:25.

Headword: Ἄβρων
Adler number: alpha,97
Translated headword: Abron, Habron
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Phrygian or Rhodian, grammarian, student of Tryphon,[1] sophist at Rome, the offspring of slaves, according to Hermippus.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἄβρων: Φρὺξ ἢ Ῥόδιος, γραμματικὸς, μαθητὴς Τρύφωνος, σοφιστεύσας ἐν Ῥώμῃ, γεγονὼς δὲ ἐκ δούλων, ὥς φησιν Ἕρμιππος.
Notes:
Presumably Habron (the aspirated version of the name is the more authentic), RE 8.2155 #4 (and OCD(4) s.v.), author of a treatise On the Pronoun in the C1 CE.
[1] Tryphon: tau 1115.
[2] For Hermippus see epsilon 3045. This is his fr. 73 FHG (3.52).
Reference:
R. Berndt, 'Die Fragmente des Grammatikers Habron', Berliner philologioscher Wochenschrift 35 (1915) 1452-1455, 1483
Keywords: biography; daily life; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; philosophy; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:46:35.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, keywords, set status) on 1 February 2001@22:49:38.
David Whitehead (modified headword; augmented notes and bibliography) on 2 February 2001@03:41:19.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, cross-reference) on 9 December 2009@17:25:23.
David Whitehead (added bibligraphy and another keyword) on 21 December 2011@06:41:35.
David Whitehead (expanded n.2) on 17 January 2014@04:59:58.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:16:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 1 January 2015@23:50:39.

Headword: Ἄβρωνος βίος
Adler number: alpha,98
Translated headword: Abron's life
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. A proverbial phrase] In reference to those who live extravagantly; for Abron became rich among the Argives. Or also from the [adjective] habros ["delicate"].[1]
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] Abroneios ["Abronian"].[2]
Greek Original:
Ἄβρωνος βίος: ἐπὶ τῶν πολυτελῶν: Ἄβρων γὰρ παρ' Ἀργείοις ἐγένετο πλούσιος. ἢ καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἁβροῦ. καὶ Ἀβρώνειος.
Notes:
[1] cf. Zenobius 1.4.
[2] Attested here only.
Keywords: aetiology; biography; daily life; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; geography; proverbs
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:47:19.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added keyword, set status) on 1 February 2001@22:55:06.
David Whitehead (added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 24 April 2002@03:46:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 21 December 2011@06:44:57.

Headword: Ἄβυδος
Adler number: alpha,101
Translated headword: Abudos, Abydos, Abydus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A city.[1]
The word is applied to an informant [συκοφάντης ] because of the common belief that the people of Abudos were informers.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] an adverb, Ἀβυδόθι , [meaning] in Abudos.[3]
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] ἄΒυδον φλυαρίαν ["Abudos nonsense"], [meaning] great [nonsense].[4]
And [sc. attested is] Ἀβυδηνὸς , [meaning] he [who comes] from Abudos.[5]
Greek Original:
Ἄβυδος: πόλις. ἐπὶ συκοφάντου τάττεται ἡ λέξις, διὰ τὸ δοκεῖν συκοφάντας εἶναι τοὺς Ἀβυδηνούς. καὶ ἐπίρρημα, Ἀβυδόθι, ἐν Ἀβύδῳ. καὶ Ἄβυδον φλυαρίαν, τὴν πολλήν. καὶ Ἀβυδηνὸς, ὁ ἀπὸ Ἀβύδου.
Notes:
[1] = Lexicon Ambrosianum 82, according to Adler. In fact two cities of this name are known: one on the Asiatic shore of the Hellespont (Barrington Atlas map 51 grid G4; present-day Maltepe) and Abydos/Ebot in Upper Egypt (Barrington Atlas map 77 grid F4); without much doubt, the former is meant here. (In Hesychius alpha23 the gloss is fuller -- 'a Trojan city of the Hellespont'. Latte regards the entry as prompted by Homer, Iliad 2.836, accusative case, although similar wording appears in a late scholion to Iliad 17.584, where the adverbial derivative ἀβυδόθι appears -- see n. 3 below). See also alpha 100, sigma 465, and generally OCD(4) s.v.
[2] = the first sentence of Pausanias the Atticist alpha3 and Photius alpha63 Theodoridis; cf. also Zenobius 1.1, s.v. Ἀβυδηνὸν ἐπιφόρημα (alpha 100), and Kassel-Austin, PCG III.2 p.376 on Aristophanes fr. 755. See generally sigma 1330, sigma 1331, sigma 1332.
[3] Probably from commentary to Homer, Iliad 17.584, the only literary attestation of this adverb prior to Musaeus Grammaticus (5/6 CE); cf. Apollonius Dyscolus On Adverbs 2.1.1.164.
[4] = Synagoge Codex B alpha44, but in the better mss of Photius (Lexicon alpha64 Theodoridis) the adjective (in a nominative-case entry) is ἄβυθος ('bottomless'), surely correctly; cf. alpha 104. The ultimate source may be Plato, Parmenides 130D, though there too the text is uncertain: perhaps εἴς τιν' ἄβυθον φλυαρίαν (web address 1), though the alternatives include εἴς τινα βῦθον φλυαρίας . On the adjective ἄβυθος, a synonym for ἄβυσσος, see the LSJ entry at web address 2.
[5] There are many literary attestations of this form of the ethnic adjective (nominative singular masculine), beginning with Herodotus 4.138. For an instance in the Suda see pi 71.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; geography; law; philosophy; proverbs
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 21 November 1998@13:59:06.
Vetted by:
Eric Nelson on 31 December 1999@21:07:09.
Ross Scaife ✝ (fixed keywords) on 2 March 2000@17:48:48.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; replaced existing note; cosmetics) on 11 January 2001@08:05:35.
Jennifer Benedict (added links, betacode fix, cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@00:03:03.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 18 April 2011@14:40:09.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 25 April 2011@04:09:51.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 December 2011@09:19:59.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1) on 1 February 2012@05:52:37.
David Whitehead (expansions to notes) on 16 August 2013@07:33:01.
William Hutton (augmented notes) on 4 July 2014@08:19:58.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:21:46.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 3 September 2014@23:35:15.
David Whitehead (expanded n.2) on 22 December 2014@09:26:49.

Headword: Ἀγαθά
Adler number: alpha,108
Translated headword: goods, goodies
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Xenophon used the word of foodstuffs and drinks which bring enjoyment and good cheer.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] "Good Things Kilikon" - with "has" omitted. Kilikon [is] a proper name. He was wealthy.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθά: ἐπὶ τῶν πρὸς ἀπόλαυσιν καὶ εὐωχίαν σιτίων καὶ ποτῶν ἐχρήσατο Ξενοφῶν τῇ λέξει. καὶ Ἀγαθὰ Κιλίκων, λείπει τὸ ἔχει. Κιλίκων δὲ ὄνομα κύριον. εὔπορος δὲ ἦν.
Notes:
[1] Xenophon, Anabasis 4.4.9 (web address 1 below).
[2] This is only one possible explanation of the proverbial phrase. For another, probably better one - with another version of the name (Killikon: apparently authentic, as it derives from Aristophanes, Peace 363 [web address 2 below]) - see kappa 1610; but note also kappa 223 and pi 2040 on "Kallikon".
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: aetiology; biography; daily life; definition; economics; ethics; food; historiography; proverbs
Translated by: David Whitehead on 10 February 2001@09:14:18.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added links, set status) on 8 June 2001@01:15:16.
David Whitehead (added keywords) on 17 September 2002@05:00:27.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@00:19:27.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 27 March 2008@07:18:17.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 22 December 2011@03:59:55.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 23 December 2011@18:41:14.

Headword: Ἀγαθὴ καὶ μάζα μετ' ἄρτον
Adler number: alpha,110
Translated headword: after bread a barley cake is good too
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
In reference to those who give or take second-best.[1]
Μάζα [barley cake] has an acute [accent]; for a circumflex does not occur before the position of a long vowel.[2] Aristophanes, though, gives μάζα a circumflex: "bring, bring a barley cake for the dung-beetle as quick as you can."[3]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθὴ καὶ μάζα μετ' ἄρτον: ἐπὶ τῶν τὰ δευτερεῖα διδόντων ἢ αἱρουμένων. μάζα ὀξεῖαν ἔχει: ἐπάνω γὰρ θέσει μακρᾶς περισπωμένη οὐ τίθεται: ὁ δὲ Ἀριστοφάνης περισπᾶ τὴν μάζαν: αἶρ' αἶρε μάζαν ὡς τάχιστα κανθάρῳ.
Notes:
All except the first sentence of this entry is reported by Adler as a marginal gloss in manuscripts A (= Parisinus 2625) and M (= Marcianus 448).
[1] cf. Zenobius 1.12.
[2] Yet in classical Attic, the final syllable is short, so the first syllable can have a circumflex: μᾶζα . See LSJ (web address 1).
[3] Aristophanes, Peace 1 (web address 2); again at alphaiota 280 and alphaiota 299. In the Aristophanes passage the word is not actually used for cakes of barley but for cakes of dung.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; food; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 30 March 2001@14:33:31.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; minor cosmetics) on 31 March 2001@03:05:31.
William Hutton (Augmented note) on 31 March 2001@08:40:31.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding, cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@00:25:33.
David Whitehead (modified end of translation; augmented note and keywords; cosmetics) on 27 March 2008@07:28:04.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, status) on 4 July 2011@19:14:38.

Headword: Ἀγαθοκλῆς
Adler number: alpha,117
Translated headword: Agathokles, Agathocles
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
This man became tyrant [of Syracuse] and, as Timaeus says, in his early youth was a common prostitute, ready [to give himself] to the most debauched, a jackdaw, a buzzard,[1] presenting his backside to all who wanted it. When he died, says [Timaeus], his wife cried out to him in lamentation, "What [did] I not [carnally do to] you? And what [did] you not [reciprocate to] me?"[2] That nature had endowed Agathokles with great advantages is clear. For escaping the wheel, the smoke[of the kiln and] the clay,[3] he came to Syracuse, at about the age of eighteen, and in a short time, starting from such beginnings, he became master of the whole of Sicily, exposed the Carthaginians to extreme dangers, and finally, having grown old in the role of dynast, ended his life with the title of king.[4]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθοκλῆς: οὗτος ἐγένετο τύραννος καὶ, ὥς φησι Τίμαιος, κατὰ τὴν πρώτην ἡλικίαν κοινὸς πόρνος, ἕτοιμος τοῖς ἀκρατεστάτοις, κολοιὸς, τριόρχης, πάντων τῶν βουλομένων τοῖς ὄπισθεν ἔμπροσθεν γεγονώς. ὃς ὅτε ἀπέθανε, τὴν γυναῖκα φησὶ κατακλαιομένην αὐτὸν οὕτω θρηνεῖν: τί δ' οὐκ ἐγὼ σέ; τί δ' οὐκ ἐμὲ σύ; ὅτι δὲ ἐκ φύσεως ἀνάγκη μεγάλα προτερήματα γεγονέναι περὶ τὸν Ἀγαθοκλέα, τοῦτο δῆλον. εἰς γὰρ τὰς Συρακούσας παρεγενήθη φεύγων τὸν τροχὸν, τὸν καπνὸν, τὸν πηλὸν, περί τε τὴν ἡλικίαν ὀκτωκαίδεκα ἔτη γεγονὼς, καὶ μετά τινα χρόνον ὁρμηθεὶς ὑπὸ τοιαύτης ὑποθέσεως, κύριος μὲν ἐγενήθη πάσης Σικελίας, μεγίστοις δὲ κινδύνοις περιέστησε Καρχηδονίους, τέλος ἐγγηράσας τῇ δυναστείᾳ, κατέστρεψε τὸν βίον βασιλεὺς προσαγορευόμενος.
Notes:
360-289 BCE; he ruled Syracuse from 317-289. See generally OCD(4) p.36, under Agathocles(1).
The entry presents a semi-verbatim and mildly abridged extract from Polybius (12.15.2-7: web address 1 below), who is in turn citing, disapprovingly, Timaeus of Tauromenium (FGrH 566 F124b).
[1] On this passage K.J. Dover, Greek Homosexuality (London 1978) p.103 writes: 'The jackdaw here probably sybolises impudence and shamelessness; the buzzard, in Greek triorkhes, having three testicles, presumably symbolises insatiable lust, which is assumed to characterise the true pornos'. Cf. tau 995, where the first part of this quotation reappears.
[2] Probably Theoxene, the daughter or stepdaughter of Ptolemy I Soter and the third wife of Agathokles. See F.W. Walbank, A historical commentary on Polybius (Oxford, 1967) v.2 p.361.
[3] His father owned a large pottery. See Diodorus 19.2.7; 20.63.4. As with equivalent figures in (e.g.) late-C5 Athens, such as Kleon, we see here the conceit that those whose wealth lay in manufacture would actually participate in (and be debased by) the actual manufacturing.
[4] Agathokles assumed the title of king in 305. See Diodorus 20.54.1.
References:
Berve, H., Die Herrschaft des Agathokles (Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1953)
Agathokles(15) in RE 1.1 748-757
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; constitution; daily life; ethics; gender and sexuality; historiography; history; politics; trade and manufacture; women; zoology
Translated by: David Whitehead on 10 February 2001@10:07:49.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 6 June 2001@00:10:30.
Tony Natoli (Modified translation, added notes and bibliography, raised status.) on 12 August 2001@02:19:21.
David Whitehead (restorative and other cosmetics) on 17 September 2002@05:10:41.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@10:59:41.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 20 November 2005@10:37:08.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 26 March 2008@00:30:36.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 22 December 2011@06:16:09.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:23:59.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 1 January 2015@23:51:52.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 17 February 2018@23:14:40.

Headword: Ἀγαθόν
Adler number: alpha,118
Translated headword: good
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
In general [it is] something beneficial, but in particular what is either identical with or not different from benefit; hence, both virtue itself and what participates in it are called "good" in three ways: as the good (i) from which [being benefited] results, [and (ii) according to which being benefited results,] as [virtuous] action and virtue,[1] and (iii) by whom [being benefited results], as the virtuous person who participates in virtue. Or [they define it [2]] in this fashion: the good is the perfection in accordance with nature of a rational being qua rational. And virtue is a thing of this sort, so that virtuous action as well as virtuous people participate [in the good]. Joy, cheerfulness and the like are byproducts [of virtue]. Furthermore, of goods, some are in the soul, others external, and others neither in the soul nor external. The ones in the soul are virtues and actions in accordance with them. The external ones are a virtuous fatherland, a virtuous friend, and their happiness. Those which are neither external nor in the soul are someone's being for himself virtuous and happy. Furthermore, of goods, some are final, others instrumental, and others both final and instrumental. Thus a friend and the benefits added by him are instrumental goods. But confidence, prudence, freedom, enjoyment, cheerfulness, freedom from distress, and every action in accordance with virtue are final. [Virtues] are instrumental and final: they are instrumental goods insofar as they produce happiness, and final [goods] insofar as they complete it in such a way as to become parts of it; for example a friend and freedom and enjoyment.[3] Furthermore, of the goods in the soul, some are conditions, others dispositions, and others neither conditions nor dispositions. Virtues are dispositions, pursuits conditions, and activities neither conditions nor dispositions. In general good children and a good old age are minor goods,[4] but knowledge is a simple good. And virtues are always present, but joy and taking a stroll for example not always. Every good is profitable, advantageous, binding, useful, serviceable, fine, beneficial, just, and choiceworthy.
That which is aimed at by all things is good.[5]
Thus that to which all things are referred but which is referred to nothing is good.[6]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθόν: κοινῶς μὲν τό τι ὄφελος, ἰδίως δὲ ἤτοι ταὐτὸν ἢ οὐχ ἕτερον ὠφελείας: ὅθεν αὐτήν τε τὴν ἀρετὴν καὶ τὸ μετέχον αὐτῆς ἀγαθὸν τριχῶς λέγεσθαι. οἷον τὸ ἀγαθὸν, ἀφ' οὗ συμβαίνει, ὡς τὴν πρᾶξιν καὶ τὴν ἀρετήν. ὑφ' οὗ δὲ, ὡς τὸν σπουδαῖον τὸν μετέχοντα τῆς ἀρετῆς. ἢ οὕτως: τὸ ἀγαθὸν, τὸ τέλειον κατὰ φύσιν λογικοῦ, ἢ ὡς λογικοῦ. τοιοῦτο δ' εἶναι τὴν ἀρετὴν ὡς μετέχοντα τάς τε πράξεις τὰς κατ' ἀρετὴν, καὶ τὸ σπουδαίους εἶναι. ἐπιγεννήματα δὲ τήν τε χαρὰν καὶ τὴν εὐφροσύνην καὶ τὰ παραπλήσια. ἔτι τῶν ἀγαθῶν τὰ μὲν εἶναι περὶ ψυχήν, τὰ δὲ ἐκτός, τὰ δὲ οὔτε περὶ ψυχὴν οὔτε ἐκτός. τὰ μὲν περὶ ψυχὴν ἀρετὰς καὶ τὰς κατὰ ταύτας πράξεις: τὰ δὲ ἐκτὸς τό τε σπουδαίαν ἔχειν πατρίδα καὶ σπουδαῖον φίλον καὶ τὴν τούτων εὐδαιμονίαν. τὰ δὲ οὐκ ἐκτὸς οὔτε περὶ ψυχὴν τὸ αὐτὸν ἑαυτῷ εἶναι σπουδαῖον καὶ εὐδαίμονα. ἔτι τῶν ἀγαθῶν τὰ μὲν εἶναι τελικά, τὰ δὲ ποιητικά, τὰ δὲ τελικὰ καὶ ποιητικά. τὸν μὲν οὖν φίλον καὶ τὰς ὑπ' αὐτοῦ προσγινομένας ὠφελείας ποιητικὰ εἶναι ἀγαθά: θάρσος δὲ καὶ φρόνημα καὶ ἐλευθερίαν καὶ τέρψιν καὶ εὐφροσύνην καὶ ἀλυπίαν καὶ πᾶσαν τὴν κατ' ἀρετὴν πρᾶξιν τελικά. ποιητικὰ δὲ καὶ τελικὰ, καθὸ μὲν ποιοῦσι τὴν εὐδαιμονίαν, ποιητικά ἐστιν ἀγαθά: καθὸ δὲ συμπληροῦσιν αὐτὴν, ὥστε μέρη αὐτῆς γενέσθαι, τελικά: οἷον φίλος καὶ ἐλευθερία καὶ τέρψις. ἔτι τῶν περὶ ψυχὴν ἀγαθῶν τὰ μέν εἰσιν ἕξεις, τὰ δὲ διαθέσεις, τὰ δὲ οὔτε ἕξεις οὔτε διαθέσεις. διαθέσεις μὲν αἱ ἀρεταί, ἕξεις δὲ τὰ ἐπιτηδεύματα, οὔτε δὲ ἕξεις οὔτε διαθέσεις αἱ ἐνέργειαι. κοινῶς τῶν ἀγαθῶν μικρὰ μέν ἐστιν εὐτεκνία καὶ εὐγηρία. ἁπλοῦν δέ ἐστιν ἀγαθὸν ἐπιστήμη. καὶ ἀεὶ μὲν παρόντα αἱ ἀρεταί, οὐκ ἀεὶ δὲ οἷον χαρὰ, περιπάτησις. πᾶν δὲ ἀγαθὸν λυσιτελὲς εἶναι καὶ συμφέρον καὶ δέον καὶ χρήσιμον καὶ εὔχρηστον καὶ καλὸν καὶ ὠφέλιμον καὶ δίκαιον καὶ αἱρετόν. ἀγαθὸν δέ ἐστι τὸ πᾶσιν ἐφετόν. ἀγαθὸν οὖν ἐστιν, εἰς ὃ πάντα ἀνήρτηται, αὐτὸ δὲ εἰς μηδέν.
Notes:
See also alpha 119, likewise a neuter singular.
This entry mostly reproduces Diogenes Laertius 7.94-98 (who supposedly is quoting an extract of Stoic ethics). The Suda text contains important omissions as well as different readings (the D.L. readings are, for the most part, much better).
[1] D.L. gives τὴν πρᾶξιν τὴν κατ' ἀρετήν , "the action according to virtue" or simply "the virtuous action", as a gloss on a second sense in which virtue and what participates in it are called "good": that according to which being benefited results.
[2] D.L. has ὁρίζονται , "they define", which makes clear that a new definition is being given here.
[3] This puzzling list of examples does not occur in D.L.
[4] The text given by Suda is misleading; D.L. gives ἀγαθῶν μικτά , "mixed goods", instead of ἀγαθῶν μικρά , "little goods".
[5] cf. Aristotle, Topica 1094a2-3, with Alexander of Aphrodisias's commentary 93.8.
[6] Plotinus, Enneads 1.7.1, 21-22 (identified by Henry [below] 157 n.2, as noted in Adler's addenda).
References:
J. Annas, The Morality of Happiness (Oxford: Oxford University Press) 1993
Henry, P. "Suidas, Le Larousse et le Littré de l'antiquité grecque." Les Etudes classiques (1937): 155-62
Keywords: children; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; philosophy
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 26 May 2000@18:40:04.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, modified translation, added keyword, sets status) on 6 June 2001@00:38:37.
William Hutton (Added betacoding) on 6 June 2001@00:44:50.
David Whitehead (added notes; cosmetics) on 16 January 2003@05:49:31.
David Hitchcock (Modified translation, added notes) on 24 December 2004@06:46:10.
David Hitchcock on 24 December 2004@06:51:54.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 12 October 2005@08:00:23.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 November 2005@07:50:17.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@00:37:50.
Catharine Roth (added note 6; cosmetics) on 22 May 2008@15:01:13.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 22 December 2011@06:23:36.
David Whitehead (expanded n.6) on 17 January 2014@05:26:23.

Headword: Ἀγαθῶν ἀγαθίδες
Adler number: alpha,123
Translated headword: skeins of good things
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The proverb is used in the comic poets in reference to a lot of good things.[1]
Also [sc. attested is] 'sea of good things', in reference to an abundance of good things.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] 'anthills of good things', in reference to an abundance of good fortune.[3]
Also [sc. attested is] 'heap of good things', in reference to an abundance of good things and a lot of good fortune.[4]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθῶν ἀγαθίδες: τάττεται ἡ παροιμία παρὰ τοῖς κωμικοῖς ἐπὶ τῶν πολλῶν ἀγαθῶν. καὶ Ἀγαθῶν θάλασσα, ἐπὶ πλήθους ἀγαθῶν. καὶ Ἀγαθῶν μυρμηκίαι, ἐπὶ πλήθους εὐδαιμονίας. καὶ Ἀγαθῶν σωρὸς, ἐπὶ πλήθους ἀγαθῶν καὶ πολλῆς εὐδαιμονίας.
Notes:
The wordplay of the headword phrase ἀγαθῶν ἀγαθίδες is hard to render in English. 'Bundles of bounties' might do.
[1] (Same material in Photius.) Again at alpha 2601; and see also nu 77 and tau 147.
[2] Again at pi 2049.
[3] Comica adespota fr. 827 Kock, now 796 K.-A.
[4] cf. Apostolius 1.5, etc.
Keywords: comedy; daily life; ethics; imagery; proverbs; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 1 April 2001@00:28:16.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes; minor cosmetics) on 2 April 2001@03:44:41.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; tweaks and cosmetics) on 22 December 2006@08:09:36.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 22 December 2011@07:28:42.
David Whitehead (corrected a ref) on 16 March 2012@07:56:43.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 December 2014@04:31:45.
David Whitehead (coding) on 12 July 2015@03:58:05.

Headword: Ἀγαθώνιος
Adler number: alpha,125
Translated headword: Agathonios, Agathonius
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A proper name.[1]
[The man] who was king of Tartessos.[2]
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] "Agathon's pipe-playing": the soft and relaxed [kind]; alternatively that which is neither loose nor harsh, but temperate and very sweet.[3]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθώνιος: ὄνομα κύριον. ὃς ἐβασίλευσε τῆς Ταρτησσοῦ. καὶ Ἀγαθώνιος αὔλησις: ἡ μαλακὴ καὶ ἐκλελυμένη: ἢ ἡ μήτε χαλαρὰ, μήτε πικρὰ, ἀλλ' εὔκρατος καὶ ἡδίστη.
Notes:
[1] Herodotus 1.163 gives it as Arganthonios (text at web address 1). See also tau 137.
[2] In southern Spain; probably the Biblical Tarshish. See generally tau 137 and OCD(4) s.v. (p.1433).
[3] Zenobius 1.2. On Agathon (an Athenian poet of the late C5 BC) and his reputation for softness see alpha 124; and on his aulos music, M.L. West, Ancient Greek Music (Oxford 1992) 354-5.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; daily life; definition; ethics; geography; historiography; history; imagery; meter and music; proverbs; tragedy
Translated by: David Whitehead on 10 February 2001@09:33:27.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added link) on 25 April 2002@11:17:50.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 17 September 2002@05:14:00.
Catharine Roth (cross-reference, italics, keyword) on 18 September 2006@18:09:26.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 22 December 2011@07:42:50.
David Whitehead on 22 December 2011@07:43:09.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:34:58.

Headword: Ἀγαθοὶ δ' ἀριδάκρυες ἄνδρες
Adler number: alpha,126
Translated headword: tearful men are good
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
In reference to those who are strongly inclined toward pity.
Greek Original:
Ἀγαθοὶ δ' ἀριδάκρυες ἄνδρες: ἐπὶ τῶν σφόδρα πρὸς ἔλεον ῥεπόντων.
Note:
Same entry in Photius, and the same or very similar ones in the paroemiographers. This version of the proverb is the second half of a line of hexameter verse (complete with the particle δ' ); there are slight variants in (e.g.) the scholia to Homer, Iliad 1.349.
Keywords: daily life; epic; ethics; poetry; proverbs
Translated by: William Hutton on 1 April 2001@00:57:53.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords) on 2 April 2001@04:49:39.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 12 October 2005@08:02:14.
David Whitehead (augmented note; another keyword) on 22 December 2011@07:50:50.

Headword: Ἀγαπῶ
Adler number: alpha,161
Translated headword: I love, I am satisfied with
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The 'I am satisfied with' [sense] takes a dative: "Being satisfied with the good things that he already had." [1] But [sc. also used] with an accusative: "thou shalt love God with all thy soul."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγαπῶ: τὸ ἀρκοῦμαι δοτικῇ: ἀγαπῶν τοῖς ὑπάρχουσιν αὐτῷ ἀγαθοῖς: αἰτιατικῇ δέ: ἀγαπήσεις τὸν θεὸν ἐξ ὅλης ψυχῆς.
Notes:
(A marginal addition, Adler reports, in ms A.)
See also alpha 150, alpha 159, alpha 160.
[1] ἀγαπῶν τοῖς ὑπαρχουσιν ἀγαθοῖς : Lysias 2.21 (web address 1) here omitting the crucial 'not' at the beginning of the phrase and adding an interpolated αὐτῷ .
[2] ἀγαπήσεις τὸν θεόν Deuteronomy 6:5 LXX.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 23 June 1999@12:58:02.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation and notes, added link, keywords, set status) on 26 June 2001@13:05:31.
David Whitehead (added keyword) on 3 February 2003@07:20:41.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 26 March 2008@01:29:26.
David Whitehead (another note; tweaks) on 23 December 2011@06:41:03.
Catharine Roth (corrected betacode) on 31 March 2015@01:17:24.
David Whitehead (x-refs) on 5 April 2015@10:08:02.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:37:29.

Headword: Ἀγγαρεία
Adler number: alpha,162
Translated headword: compulsory labour, corvee
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Surely "of pack mules".[1]
Also [sc. attested is] ἄγγαρος : [meaning] labourer, servant, porter; whence we speak of ἀγγαρεία [to describe] involuntary compulsion and service brought about by force.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγγαρεία: λίαν ἀγγάρων ἡμιόνων. καὶ Ἄγγαρος: ἐργάτης, ὑπηρέτης, ἀχθοφόρος: ὅθεν ἀγγαρείαν ἀνάγκην ἀκούσιον λέγομεν καὶ ἐκ βίας γινομένην ὑπηρεσίαν.
Notes:
For the (unglossed) headword, again under alpha 163, see generally LSJ s.v.; and cf. alpha 164, alpha 165 alpha 166.
[1] The force of λίαν is not self-evident here, but see generally LSJ s.v. (The remainder of the phrase might be a quotation, from Libanius, Oration 18.143.)
[2] Same or similar glossing in other lexica; references at Photius alpha94 Theodoridis.
Keywords: daily life; definition; ethics; rhetoric; zoology
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 23 June 1999@13:06:05.
Vetted by:
Shannon N. Byrne on 20 May 2000@18:26:56.
William Hutton (Cosmetics) on 28 June 2001@13:52:43.
William Hutton (Added notes) on 28 June 2001@14:04:48.
Anne Mahoney (make the Greek beta-code) on 6 July 2001@11:39:53.
David Whitehead (modified translation; cosmetics) on 11 July 2003@07:40:21.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@07:54:02.
David Whitehead (expanded n.2; tweaking) on 16 August 2013@08:28:08.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 31 March 2015@01:18:34.
Catharine Roth (betacode cosmeticule) on 5 April 2015@19:19:42.

Headword: Ἄγγαρος
Adler number: alpha,163
Translated headword: ἄγγαρος
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
and ἀγγαρεία , public and compulsory servitude.[1]
"For just as to him eating seemed to be a mere distraction, with nature as it were putting him into compulsory servitude [ἀγγαρευομένης ] when it came to food."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἄγγαρος: καὶ Ἀγγαρεία, ἡ δημοσία καὶ ἀναγκαία δουλεία. ὥσπερ γάρ τι αὐτῷ πάρεργον τὸ ἐσθίειν τῆς φύσεως αὐτὸν ἀγγαρευομένης περὶ τὰ βρώματα ἐφαίνετο εἶναι.
Notes:
See also alpha 162, alpha 164, alpha 165.
[1] Same glossing in Hesychius and elsewhere.
[2] An approximation of Procopius, Secret History 13.29, on Justinian.
Keywords: biography; daily life; definition; ethics; food; historiography; history; imagery
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 23 June 1999@13:07:47.
Vetted by:
Shannon N. Byrne on 20 May 2000@18:31:52.
William Hutton (Modified translation, added cross reference) on 28 June 2001@13:57:28.
William Hutton on 28 June 2001@13:59:24.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 3 February 2003@07:31:38.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding) on 26 March 2008@01:32:33.
David Whitehead (another note and keyword; tweaks) on 23 December 2011@07:59:50.

Headword: Ἄγγαροι
Adler number: alpha,165
Translated headword: messengers
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] those who carry letters in relays.[1] They are also [called] 'couriers' [ἀστάνδαι ].[2] The words [are] Persian. Aeschylus in Agamemnon [writes]: "beacon sent beacon hither with relaying fire."[3] The word is also used for conveyors of freight and more generally of inanimate objects and slaves. Also [sc. attested is] the [verb] ἀγγαροφορεῖν in reference to carrying burdens. And [the verb] ἀγγαρεύεσθαι means what we now speak of as being impressed to carry burdens and labor of that sort. Menander offers this example in the Sikyonios: "someone arriving by sea puts in? He is labelled an enemy. And if he has anything nice it's pressed into service [ἀγγαρεύεται ]."[4]
Greek Original:
Ἄγγαροι: οἱ ἐκ διαδοχῆς γραμματοφόροι. οἱ δὲ αὐτοὶ καὶ ἀστάνδαι. τὰ δὲ ὀνόματα Περσικά. Αἰσχύλος Ἀγαμέμνονι: φρυκτὸς δὲ φρυκτὸν δεῦρο ἀπ' ἀγγάρου πυρὸς ἔπεμπε. τίθεται τὸ ὄνομα καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν φορτηγῶν καὶ ὅλως τῶν ἀναισθήτων καὶ ἀνδραποδωδῶν. καὶ τὸ Ἀγγαροφορεῖν ἐπὶ τοῦ φορτία φέρειν. καὶ Ἀγγαρεύεσθαι καλοῦσιν ὥσπερ ἡμεῖς νῦν τὸ εἰς φορτηγίαν καὶ τοιαύτην τινὰ ὑπηρεσίαν ἄγεσθαι. Μένανδρος καὶ τοῦτο ἐν τῷ Σικυωνίῳ παρίστησιν: ὁ πλέων κατήχθη; κρίνεθ' οὗτος πολέμιος. ἐὰν ἔχῃ τὶ μαλακὸν, ἀγγαρεύεται.
Notes:
Same entry in Photius, similar ones elsewhere.
LSJ entry at web address 1. See also alpha 162, alpha 163, alpha 164.
[1] cf. Herodotus 3.126 (web address 2) and esp. 8.98 (web address 3).
[2] cf. alpha 4420. The word appears also at Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 3.122A (3.94 Kaibel); Eustathius Commentaries on Homer's Odyssey vol. 2 p. 189.6; Hesychius alpha7814; Plutarch, Alexander 18 (bis); De Alex. fort. virt. 326E; 340C.
[3] Aeschylus, Agamemnon 282f. (web address 4), where the mss have ἀγγέλου , an obvious gloss.
[4] Menander, Sikyonios fr.4 Sandbach [= fr 440 Kock].
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; history; military affairs; science and technology; tragedy; zoology
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 23 June 1999@13:13:42.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, modified translation, added cross-references, keywords, links, set status) on 5 July 2001@12:26:03.
William Hutton (Fixed faulty linksz) on 5 July 2001@12:31:12.
Catharine Roth (added keyword and link; cosmetic) on 5 July 2001@13:14:47.
Anne Mahoney (make the Greek beta-code) on 6 July 2001@11:37:41.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@09:14:56.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding, reordered links, cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@01:38:57.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 27 March 2008@08:32:31.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; tweaks and cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@08:14:35.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 12 August 2013@22:38:38.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 12 August 2013@23:22:50.
David Whitehead (tweaked a ref) on 14 January 2015@03:18:54.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 April 2015@23:40:43.

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