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Headword: *(abro/s
Adler number: alpha,87
Translated headword: delicate
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] bright, delicate, tender.[1]
In the Epigrams: "a cicada sat above a cithara delicately murmuring."[2]
"All the same that fellow is dainty and delicate and weakened by the softness of his body and depraved and with his hair done up like the most licentious little courtesans. And when he goes in to see the king his face and his curly hair are always delicately dripping [with perfume], and he takes as much money from the communal circumstances as would satisfy even the legendary Midas."[3]
Greek Original:
*(abro/s: lampro\s, trufero\s, a(palo/s. e)n *)epigra/mmasin: a(bro\n e)pitru/zwn kiqa/ras u(/per e(/zeto te/ttic. o(/mws de\ o( trufero\s e)kei=nos kai\ a(bro\s kai\ u(po\ malaki/as tou= sw/matos kateagw\s kai\ lelugisme/nos kai\ ta/s te ko/mas a)nadou/menos, w(/sper ai( tw=n e(tairi/dwn a)selge/sterai, kai\ a(brostage\s e)/xwn a)ei\ to\ me/twpon kai\ tou\s bostru/xous, labw\n xrusi/on e)k tw=n koinw=n sumforw=n, o(/son i(kano\n h)=n e)mplh=sai kai\ to\n e)k tou= mu/qou *mi/dan, ei)se/rrei pro\s to\n basile/a.
For this adjective see already alpha 70, alpha 73, and alpha 86, and again alpha 88.
[1] Same glossing in other lexica; references at Photius alpha55 Theodoridis.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.54.7 (Paulus Silentiarius). Find further extracts from this epigram, in which a cicada sustains the note from a broken string, at alpha 2994, kappa 2368, lambda 73, pi 670, tau 877, and omega 28.
[3] Attributed by Hemsterhuys to Eunapius; again (in part) at alpha 1860.
Keywords: biography; clothing; daily life; definition; ethics; gender and sexuality; historiography; imagery; mythology; poetry; women; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:39:27.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, augmented note, set keywords and status) on 2 February 2001@12:21:50.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@06:35:10.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 3 January 2006@10:26:40.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 December 2011@04:35:18.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 22 December 2011@19:16:16.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@07:18:56.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 17 January 2014@04:31:02.
Ronald Allen (augmented n.2, added cross-references) on 24 July 2023@19:24:42.
Ronald Allen (typo n.2, corrected cross-reference) on 28 July 2023@11:23:53.
Catharine Roth (cross-reference) on 29 March 2024@23:08:01.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 29 March 2024@23:17:26.

Headword: *(abroxi/twn
Adler number: alpha,96
Translated headword: delicate-tunic'd
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning someone] wearing delicate things.
Greek Original:
*(abroxi/twn: trufera\ forw=n.
Same entry in other lexica; references at Photius alpha60 Theodoridis. The headword adjective bears this meaning in e.g. Greek Anthology 9.538; however, the word is first attested in Aeschylus, Persians 543, of beds (accusative plural: web address 1 below).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: clothing; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry; tragedy
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:45:35.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, set keywords and status) on 1 February 2001@22:44:01.
David Whitehead (added note and keywords) on 27 February 2003@09:00:26.
Jennifer Benedict (added link, title tags) on 25 March 2008@12:02:09.
David Whitehead (expanded note; tweaks) on 21 December 2011@06:35:49.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@07:27:25.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 29 March 2024@23:30:17.

Headword: *)age/lios
Adler number: alpha,195
Translated headword: Agelios, Agelius
Vetting Status: high
This man was bishop of Constantinople during the reign of Valens.[1] He lived an apostolic life, for he always went about unshod and wore only a single tunic, in observance of what the Gospel says.[2]
Greek Original:
*)age/lios: ou(=tos e)pi\ *ou)a/lentos h)=n *kwnstantinoupo/lews e)pi/skopos, bi/on a)postoliko\n biou/s. a)nupo/dhtos ga\r dio/lou dih=gen, e(ni/ te xitw=ni e)ke/xrhto, to\ tou= eu)aggeli/ou fula/ttwn r(hto/n.
See again under mu 207.
[1] Agelius was a Novatian, persecuted for accepting the homoousian doctrine. For the emperor Valens, see omicron 764.
[2] Socrates, Ecclesiastical History 4.9.3 (translation at web address 1).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; Christianity; chronology; clothing; ethics; geography; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 11 April 2000@00:02:16.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added notes and link) on 4 March 2002@13:30:20.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@09:54:59.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 3 October 2005@07:11:09.
Catharine Roth (augmented note, added keyword, raised status) on 12 October 2007@23:02:42.
David Whitehead (another x-ref; another keyword) on 29 December 2011@07:30:01.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 29 December 2011@12:11:37.

Headword: *)agei/rei
Adler number: alpha,211
Translated headword: collects
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning he/she/it] gathers.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the participle] "those who collect".[2] "For their manner was sacred and nothing like those who collect [alms?]."[3]
And elsewhere: "wishing to go undetected, he shaves his head and his beard and puts on an Egyptian mantle, the sort that the attendants of Isis wear, and shaking a sistrum and going from one city to the next, and collecting [alms] in the name of the goddess and gratefully accepting necessary sustenance, as a drug against hunger".[4]
Greek Original:
*)agei/rei: suna/gei. kai\ *)agei/rousin. o( ga\r tro/pos i(ero\s h)=n kai\ ou)de\n e)oikw\s toi=s a)gei/rousin. kai\ au)=qis: o( de\ laqei=n qe/lwn curei=tai th\n kefalh\n kai\ to\ ge/neion, kai\ stolh\n *ai)gupti/an a)nalabw\n, h(\n oi( th=s *)/isidos qerapeuth=res h)/sqhntai, kai\ sei=stron e)pisei/wn kai\ po/lin e)k po/lews a)mei/bwn, kai\ th=| qew=| a)gei/rwn kai\ a)nagkai/as trofa\s, limou= fa/rmaka, a)gaphtw=s lamba/nwn.
[1] Same or similar entry in other lexica; references at Photius alpha140 Theodoridis. The headword must be quoted from somewhere.
[2] Dative plural a)gei/rousin, from the quotation which follows.
[3] Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 4.39.
[4] Aelian fr.124c Domingo-Forasté (121 Hercher); see also pi 2900, sigma 293.
Keywords: biography; clothing; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; food; geography; history; medicine; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 October 2000@13:45:00.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes; cosmetics) on 23 October 2000@06:33:06.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 6 July 2003@08:27:20.
David Whitehead (x-refs) on 2 May 2004@06:06:23.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 7 February 2011@09:53:06.
David Whitehead on 2 January 2012@09:46:30.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 4) on 28 January 2012@19:31:10.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@06:49:31.

Headword: *(agistei/as
Adler number: alpha,242
Translated headword: rituals
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning those] of holiness, of cleansing, of service.
Greek Original:
*(agistei/as: a(giwsu/nhs, kaqaro/thtos, latrei/as.
LSJ entry at web address 1; and cf. generally alpha 234.
Same material in other lexica (references at Photius alpha176 Theodoridis), and also in the scholia to Plato, Axiochus 371D, where the headword -- accusative plural, not genitive singular -- occurs.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; philosophy; religion
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg ✝ on 24 November 1998@14:18:45.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added headword translation, note, keywords, and link.) on 18 February 2001@20:06:16.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note and keyword) on 9 June 2003@09:51:41.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 4 January 2012@04:55:36.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@07:55:03.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 22 November 2020@00:51:21.

Headword: *)agnu/qes
Adler number: alpha,289
Translated headword: loom-weights
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] the stones of the loom.
Greek Original:
*)agnu/qes: oi( li/qoi tou= i(stou=.
Same or similar entry in some other lexica and grammars, though with the accentuation a)gnu=qes . The word does not seem to have an Indo-European etymology, and Chantraine s.v. suggests that it may be borrowed.
LSJ entry at web address 1.
OCD(4) pp.1446-7 (s.v. "textile production", by J.P. Wild)
P. Chantraine, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque, ed. 2, Paris 2009
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: clothing; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; science and technology
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 26 February 2001@00:45:26.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added bibliography and keyword) on 26 February 2001@03:10:55.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@08:09:41.
Catharine Roth (expanded note) on 5 January 2012@19:23:13.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@08:41:33.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@02:53:24.
Catharine Roth (added bibliography) on 4 August 2014@22:42:42.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 4 August 2014@22:44:38.

Headword: *)aggoph/nia
Adler number: alpha,298
Translated headword: angopenia
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] the honeycombs of bees.[1]
That is, woven vessels; like xruseoph/nhta ["gold-woven"].[2]
Greek Original:
*)aggoph/nia: ta\ tw=n melissw=n khri/a. toute/stin a)ggei=a u(fanta/: w(s to\ xruseoph/nhta.
[1] The headword, a single compound word in the Greek, is attested only in the Suda and, with the same glossing phrase, Hesychius alpha397; LSJ entry at web address 1. The second element of the compound could be related to ph=nos "web" and ph/nh "woof, bobbin-thread." The first part comes from a/ggos "vessel."
[2] For this adjective (attested in e.g. Euripides, Orestes 840) see LSJ s.v.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: clothing; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; trade and manufacture; tragedy; zoology
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 2 February 2001@20:59:41.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@06:54:04.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 5 January 2012@09:10:25.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 9 April 2015@08:53:36.

Headword: *)agora/zein
Adler number: alpha,300
Translated headword: to frequent the market-place; to market
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] to buy something and to spend time in [the] marketplace.[1]
Aristophanes in Wealth [sc. applies this verb] to what we customarily [say] for to buy. "And to market a dress for his sisters."[2]
Greek Original:
*)agora/zein: to\ w)nei=sqai/ ti kai\ to\ e)n a)gora=| diatri/bein. *)aristofa/nhs e)n *plou/tw| e)pi\ tou= sunh/qws h(mi=n a)nti\ tou= w)nh/sasqai. kai\ tai=s a)delfai=s a)gora/sai xitw/nion.
[1] Same or similar glossing in other lexica; references at Photius alpha227 Theodoridis. Denominative verb from a)gora/: LSJ entry at web address 1; cf. alpha 304 & alpha 305; also, for substance, alpha 299.
[2] Aristophanes, Plutus/Wealth 984 (web address 2), and scholia.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: clothing; comedy; daily life; definition; economics; trade and manufacture; women
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 2 February 2001@21:37:58.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@07:08:15.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@11:03:37.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, status) on 9 October 2005@16:15:08.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@09:20:06.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 5 January 2012@22:51:38.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@08:57:11.
Catharine Roth (tweak) on 25 July 2014@20:53:58.

Headword: *)agoranomi/as
Adler number: alpha,302
Translated headword: market-supervisorship, market-supervisorships
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] auditorship/s. The term is applied to those who oversee sales in the cities.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the related concrete noun] "market-supervisors" [agoranomoi]: the officials who manage the sales in the marketplace [sc. in Athens].[2]
Aristophanes in Acharnians [writes]: "as market-supervisors of the market I appoint the three who were chosen by lot, the thongs from Leprous."[3] That is, straps, whips. For in olden days the auditors of the marketplace used to beat people with whips. And "leprous" [leprou/s] some explain as [sc. wordplay] from the verb lepein, that is, "to beat"; others from Lepreon a small town of the Peloponnese which Callimachus also mentions in the Hymns: "citadel of Kaukones, which is called Lepreion."[4] Others still [sc. derive it] from mangy cattle, since the hides of mangy cattle are tough. Still others because the Megarians, with whom he[5] is making a treaty, have mangy bodies. But better to say that [sc. there is] a place called Leproi outside the [Athenian] town-center where the tanners' shops were. There is also a mention of this in Birds: "why then do you settle [in] Helian Lepreon."[6]
Also [sc. attested is the the verb] "I supervise markets" [a)goranomw=]; [used] with a genitive.
Greek Original:
*)agoranomi/as: logisti/as. ei)/rhtai de\ e)pi\ tw=n e)piskopou/ntwn ta\ tw=n po/lewn w)/nia. kai\ *)agorano/moi, oi( ta\ kata\ th\n a)gora\n w)/nia dioikou=ntes a)/rxontes. *)aristofa/nhs *)axarneu=sin: a)gorano/mous de\ th=s a)gora=s kaqi/stamai trei=s tou\s laxo/ntas, tou\s d' i(ma/ntas e)k leprw=n. toute/sti lw/rous, fragge/lia. to\ ga\r palaio\n fragge/lois e)/tupton oi( logistai\ th=s a)gora=s. leprw=n de\ oi( me\n a)po\ tou= le/pein, o(/ e)sti tu/ptein: oi( de\ a)po\ *lepre/ou poli/smatos th=s *peloponnh/sou, h(=s me/mnhtai kai\ *kalli/maxos e)n *(/umnois: *kaukw/nwn ptoli/eqron, o(\ *le/preion pefa/tistai. oi( de\ e)k leprw=n bow=n, dia\ to\ ta\ e)k leprw=n bow=n de/rmata i)sxura\ ei)=nai. oi( de\ o(/ti oi( *megarei=s leproi\ to\ sw=ma, pro\s ou(\s spe/ndetai. a)/meinon de\ le/gein, o(/ti to/pos e)/cw tou= a)/steos *leproi\ kalou/menos, e)/nqa ta\ bursei=a h)=n. ou(= kai\ e)n *)/ornisi me/mnhtai: ti/ d' ou)=n to\n h(/lion *le/preon oi)ki/zete. kai\ *)agoranomw=: genikh=|.
The headword -- evidently extracted from somewhere -- and primary gloss are either genitive singulars or accusative plurals.
[1] Likewise in other lexica; references at Photius alpha228 Theodoridis.
[2] From Harpokration s.v., commenting on Demosthenes 24.112 and also citing ?Aristotle, Ath.Pol. 51.1.
[3] Aristophanes, Acharnians 723-4 (web address 1), followed here by comment from the scholia there; cf. lambda 291.
[4] Callimachus, Hymn to Zeus 39.
[5] Dikaiopolis, that is, the speaker of the quotation.
[6] What seems to be a very mangled quotation from Aristophanes, Birds 150. A more correct quotation might be translated as "Why do you two not go and settle in Lepreon in Elis?" This would seem to be a reference to the Peloponnesian Lepreon and not to a Leproi outside Athens. See web address 2 below for the text of Aristophanes (and cf. lambda 288, lambda 289).
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: clothing; comedy; constitution; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; history; law; medicine; poetry; rhetoric; trade and manufacture; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 30 October 2000@00:03:30.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics; raised status) on 30 October 2000@03:28:23.
David Whitehead (restorative cosmetics) on 22 December 2002@09:24:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@11:02:46.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@03:58:52.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 6 January 2012@01:19:18.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 18 August 2013@09:01:32.
Catharine Roth (removed a link, added cross-references) on 19 April 2020@20:16:13.

Headword: *)agrei/a a)oidh/
Adler number: alpha,350
Translated headword: rustic song
Vetting Status: high
The rural [kind].[1]
"He stretched the hide down a rustic plane tree." In the Epigrams.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] a)grei=os, [meaning] the yokel, the ignoramus.[3]
Or someone from the country.
Aristophanes in Clouds [writes]: "you are rustic and clumsy."[4]
The rustic and possessor of a large beard.[5]
And elsewhere: "it's particularly vulgar to see a poet who is rustic and hairy."[6]
Greek Original:
*)agrei/a a)oidh/: h( a)groikikh/. to\ sku/tos a)grei/hs t' ei)/ne kata\ plata/nou. e)n *)epigra/mmasi. kai\ *)agrei=os, o( a)/groikos, o( a)maqh/s. h)\ o( a)po\ tou= a)grou=. *)aristofa/nhs *nefe/lais: a)grei=os ei)= kai\ skaio/s. o( a)/groikos kai\ me/gan pw/gwna e)/xwn. kai\ au)=qis: a)/llws t' a)/mouso/n e)sti poihth\n i)dei=n a)grei=on o)/nta kai\ dasu/n.
[1] The headword phrase is presumably quoted from somewhere.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.35.2 (Leonidas of Tarentum), a rustic dedication to Pan; cf. Gow and Page, vol. I (122) and vol. II (356-357); cf. further extracts from this epigram at alpha 325, alphaiota 210, gamma 73, lambda 189, rho 72, and tau 264. The plane tree of the epigram, pla/tanos, is almost certainly the Old World or Asiatic Plane, Platanus orientalis, whose range extends from Asia into Greece and the eastern Mediterranean; cf. Raven (24, 70).
[3] From the scholia to Aristophanes, Clouds 655, about to be quoted.
[4] Aristophanes, Clouds 655.
[5] From the scholia to Aristophanes, Thesmophoriazusae 160, about to be quoted.
[6] Aristophanes, Thesmophoriazusae 159-160 (copied here from alpha 1633).
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge 1965)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge 1965)
J.E. Raven, Plants and Plant Lore in Ancient Greece, (Oxford 2000)
Keywords: agriculture; botany; clothing; comedy; definition; ethics; meter and music; poetry; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:33:29.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added keywords; cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@09:09:20.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:02:12.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@08:01:32.
David Whitehead (x-ref) on 6 January 2012@08:05:59.
Ronald Allen (tweaked translation, expanded n.2, added bibliography, added cross-references, added keyword) on 8 November 2018@20:53:37.
Ronald Allen (better wording n.2) on 15 November 2018@18:19:23.

Headword: *)adhlw/sas
Adler number: alpha,460
Translated headword: having disguised, having obfuscated
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning he] having made [someone or something] unrecognizable.
"Having disguised himself with a dirty cloak and taken a scythe as a worker on the land would [sc. wear/carry ...]."[1]
Greek Original:
*)adhlw/sas: a)gnw/riston poih/sas. o( de\ a)dhlw/sas e(auto\n pinara=| stolh=| kai\ labw\n dre/panon w(s a)\n gh=s e)rga/ths.
The headword is aorist active participle (masculine nominative singular) of the verb a)dhlo/w. It is probably (though not demonstrably) extracted from the quotation which follows.
[1] Quotation not identified by Adler, beyond the suggestion that it be attributed to Aelian. In fact Favuzzi [see under alpha 1518] 53-54, citing earlier work by Bruhn and others, plausibly regards it as the first half of a passage of Aelian (about Kodros) that continues at chi 208 (q.v.).
Keywords: agriculture; biography; clothing; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; history; mythology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 19 March 2001@10:52:04.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 20 March 2001@03:32:38.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; augmented notes and keywords) on 13 August 2006@08:18:38.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 21 February 2011@05:11:55.
David Whitehead (tweaked and expanded n.1) on 9 October 2011@06:52:18.
David Whitehead on 10 January 2012@07:36:34.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 19 April 2015@10:49:36.

Headword: *)adia/skeuon
Adler number: alpha,476
Translated headword: unequipped
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] unadorned, unoutfitted.[1]
"Taking an unequipped horse and inconspicuousness armouring, he drove [them?] at a march against the enemy".[2]
Greek Original:
*)adia/skeuon: a)ko/smhton, a)nepime/lhton. o( de\ labw\n i(/ppon a)dia/skeuon kai\ kaqoplismo\n a)nepi/fanton, ba/dhn prosh/launen pro\s tou\s polemi/ous.
The headword is either masculine accusative singular or neuter nominative/accusative singular of this adjective; the former if, as seems probable, it is extracted from the quotation which follows.
[2] Quotation, transmitted (in Adler's view) via the Excerpta Constantini Porphyrogeniti, unidentifiable (but perhaps from Arrian, Parthica: see Roos p.57).
Keywords: biography; clothing; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; history; military affairs; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 23 October 1999@03:35:45.
Vetted by:
William Hutton on 21 November 1999@13:22:33.
William Hutton on 21 November 1999@13:23:21.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 25 January 2001@04:42:20.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 13 August 2006@09:04:12.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 15 February 2010@21:46:15.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 10 January 2012@09:53:44.
David Whitehead on 23 April 2015@11:14:07.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 24 April 2015@01:23:23.

Headword: *(/a|dou kunh=n
Adler number: alpha,510
Translated headword: Hades' helmet
Vetting Status: high
See under "helmet".[1]
Greek Original:
*(/a|dou kunh=n: zh/tei e)n tw=| kunh=.
[1] kappa 2698. For the helmet of Hades (which rendered the wearer invisible) see pi 1372 and LSJ s.v. kune/h, paragraph 2.
Keywords: clothing; military affairs; mythology
Translated by: Sean M. Redmond on 25 October 1999@16:52:53.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note; changed keyword; cosmetics) on 13 February 2001@08:38:44.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 14 August 2006@08:15:39.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 2 January 2012@21:47:36.

Headword: *)ae/tios
Adler number: alpha,571
Translated headword: Aetios, Aetius
Vetting Status: high
From Antioch in Syria,[1] the teacher of Eunomios,[2] he happened [to be] of poor and lower-class parentage. His father was one of those in the army who were faring rather poorly; when he had just sent that son away, he died. So he [Aetios] having come to the extreme of difficulty took himself to goldsmithing and became very skillful. But when his nature yearned for better studies, he turned to logical theories. And he joined Paulinos right when that man had recently arrived at Antioch from Tyre. He still attended him [as a student] in the time of Constantine, displaying a great force of impiety in his disputations with his opponents, and few men could withstand him. After Paulinos died, when Eulalius held the see as twenty-third [in succession] from the apostles,[3] many of those who had been shamed by Aetios thought it a terrible thing to have been defeated by a man who was a newcomer and a craftsman: they banded together and drove him out of Antioch. Being driven out he came to Anazarbos.[4] And he, so full of every ability, brought forth fruits better than his given circumstances. He did not at all stop disputing them, although he was poorly dressed and lived as he happened to be able.[5]
This man was a heresiarch,[6] who was called an atheist in the time of Constantine the Great. He believed the same things as Arius and applauded the same doctrine, but he separated himself from the Arians. Aetios was a heretical[7] man earlier and he passionately hastened to advocate the dogma of Arius, for when he had learned a little in Alexandria he departed. And upon arrival in Antioch in Syria (for he was from that place) he was made a deacon by Leontios, who was bishop at the time. And he shouted at[8] those who met him, discoursing from the Categories of Aristotle and setting right the contentious arguments.[9] He also patched together letters to the emperor Constantine. But even though he said the same things as the Arianists, he nevertheless, although agreeing with those people, was thought a heretic by his own familiars who were unable to understand the complexity of the arguments. And on account of this he was expelled from their church and he himself decided [it was best] not to have dealings with them.[10] And now because of that there are men who were then called "Aetianists" but now "Eunomians". For Eunomios who was his secretary and was taught by him in the heretical doctrine assumed the leadership of this faction.
Greek Original:
*)ae/tios: e)c *)antioxei/as th=s *suri/as, dida/skalos *eu)nomi/ou, a)po\ penixrw=n kai\ eu)telw=n gone/wn tugxa/nwn. o( de\ path\r au)tw=| tw=n e)n stratia=| dusprage/steron e)nhnegme/nwn geno/menos, e)teqnh/kei komidh=| pai=da tou=ton a)fei/s. au)to\s de\ ei)s e)/sxaton a)pori/as h(/kwn, e)pi\ xrusoxoi/+an e)xw/rhsen a)kro/tato/s te e)ge/neto. e)pei\ de\ h( fu/sis au)tw=| meizo/nwn w)re/geto maqhma/twn, pro\s logika\s qewri/as e)tra/peto. kai\ dh=ta suggi/netai *pauli/nw| a)rti/ws a)po\ th=s *tu/rou ei)s *)antio/xeian a)fikome/nw|: e)/ti kata\ tou\s *kwnstanti/nou xro/nous tou/tou h)kroa=to, pollh\n e)pieikw=s fai/nwn th=s a)sebei/as th\n r(w/mhn ei)s ta\s pro\s tou\s diaferome/nous zhth/seis: kai\ ou)x u(po/statos h)/dh toi=s polloi=s h)=n. e)pei\ de\ *pauli=nos e)teqnh/kei, *eu)lali/ou tri/tou kai\ ei)kostou= a)po\ tw=n a)posto/lwn e)/xontos to\n qro/non, polloi\ tw=n u(po\ tou= *)aeti/ou e)legxome/nwn deino\n poihsa/menoi pro\s a)ndro\s dhmiourgou= kai\ ne/ou kata\ kra/tos e)lau/nesqai, susta/ntes e)ch/lasan au)to\n th=s *)antioxei/as. e)celaqei\s de\ ei)s th\n *)ana/zarbon a)fiknei=tai. o( de\ h)/dh ta/xista duna/mews pa/shs pimpla/menos mei/zous a)ei\ tw=n dedome/nwn a)formw=n ei)se/fere tou\s karpou/s. o( de\ ou)de\n e)pau/eto tou\s me\n diele/gxwn, fau/lws de\ a)mpisxo/menos kai\ w(s e)/tuxe zw=n. ou(=tos ai(resia/rxhs h)=n, o(\s kai\ a)/qeos e)peklh/qh e)pi\ tou= mega/lou *kwnstanti/nou. ta\ au)ta\ me\n ou)=n e)fro/nei *)arei/w| kai\ th\n au)th\n sunekro/tei do/can: pro\s de\ a)reiani/zontas diekri/neto. h)=n de\ kai\ pro/teron ai(retiko\s a)/nqrwpos *)ae/tios kai\ tw=| *)arei/ou do/gmati diapu/rws sunhgorei=n e)/speuden: e)n ga\r th=| *)alecandrei/a| mikra\ paideuqei\s a)nazeu/gnusi. kai\ katalabw\n th\n e)n *suri/a| *)antio/xeian, e)nteu=qen ga\r h)=n, u(po\ *leonti/ou tou= to/te th=s *)antioxei/as e)pisko/pou xeirotonei=tai dia/konos. eu)qu\s ou)=n sunecefw/nei tou\s e)ntugxa/nontas e)k tw=n *)aristote/lous kathgoriw=n dialego/menos, tou\s e)ristikou\s katwrqwkw\s lo/gous. e)pistola/s te suneka/ttue pro\s basile/a *kwnsta/ntion. a)ll' ei) ta\ au)ta\ toi=s a)reiani/zousin e)/legen, o(/mws u(po\ tw=n oi)kei/wn ou) duname/nwn sunie/nai to\ periskele\s tw=n logismw=n w(s ai(retiko\s o( o(mo/frwn au)toi=s e)nomi/zeto. kai\ dia\ tou=to e)kdiwxqei\s th=s au)tw=n e)kklhsi/as e)/docen au)to\s mh\ bou/lesqai koinwnei=n au)toi=s. kai\ nu=n ei)sin e)c e)kei/nou oi( to/te me\n *)aetianoi\ nu=n de\ *eu)nomianoi\ lego/menoi. *eu)no/mios ga\r taxugra/fos w)\n e)kei/nou kai\ u(p' au)tw=| paideuqei\s th\n ai(retikh\n le/cin tou= sti/fous tou/tou proe/sth.
See Catholic Encyclopedia entry on Eunomianism at web address 1.
[1] Syrian Antioch (cf. alpha 2692 and OCD(4) s.v. Antioch(1)) is on the River Orontes (cf. omicron 622), near present-day Antakya, Turkey, some 20km inland from the eastern Mediterranean coast (Barrington Atlas map 67 grid D4). The qualifier (again later in the entry) is used because there was more than one city of that name, e.g. one in Pisidia (in west-central Asia Minor; near the modern-day city of Yalvaç, Turkey; Barrington Atlas map 62 grid F5).
[2] Eunomios: epsilon 3598.
[3] Eulalius was patriarch of Antioch for five months in the year 332.
[4] Anazarbos: alpha 1866.
[5] Philostorgius, Historia ecclesiastica III.15b, pp.44-47 Bidez-Winkelmann. Philostorgius himself had Arian sympathies, and presents a more favorable view of Aetius than does Socrates Scholaticus, in what follows here.
[6] The rest of the Suda entry is based on Socrates, Historia ecclesiastica 2.35. See translation at web address 2.
[7] Socrates says "contentious" (e)ristiko/s).
[8] Socrates says "he astounded them by his strange language" (e)cenofw/nei).
[9] This clause is not in Socrates.
[10] Socrates says that Aetios pretended to have decided for himself to break his association with the Arianists.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; Christianity; chronology; clothing; economics; ethics; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; philosophy; religion; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 3 May 2001@16:36:40.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (modified translation, added references) on 3 May 2001@22:32:14.
Catharine Roth (Added link.) on 7 May 2001@20:06:41.
Catharine Roth (modified translation) on 8 May 2001@01:14:02.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 17 February 2002@23:19:35.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords; restorative and other cosmetics) on 10 June 2003@05:36:28.
Catharine Roth (augmented reference) on 28 November 2004@23:37:53.
Catharine Roth (added keyword) on 2 October 2005@01:41:21.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 17 August 2006@00:57:43.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 31 December 2011@17:50:58.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 12 January 2012@06:00:52.
David Whitehead (another note) on 28 April 2015@02:41:46.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 28 April 2015@10:40:42.
Ronald Allen (added map notes and cross-references) on 5 April 2018@23:43:19.
Catharine Roth (modified translation, added a link) on 7 April 2018@18:24:07.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 7 April 2018@18:27:27.
Catharine Roth (expanded notes) on 7 April 2018@18:42:27.
Catharine Roth (recent tweaks inspired by Ron Allen's suggestions) on 7 April 2018@18:45:44.

Headword: *)/ai+dos kunh=
Adler number: alpha,675
Translated headword: Hades' dog-skin [helmet]
Vetting Status: high
A proverb[1] [directed] toward those concealing themselves with certain devices. For such was the dog-skin [helmet] of Hades, which Perseus used when he cut the throat of the Gorgon.[2]
Greek Original:
*)/ai+dos kunh=: paroimi/a pro\s tou\s e)pikru/ptontas e(autou\s dia/ tinwn mhxanhma/twn. toiau/th ga\r h( tou= *(/a|dou kunh=, h(=| *perseu\s xrhsa/menos th\n *gorgo/na e)deiroto/mhsen.
See also alpha 676. A "helmet" of the kind in question allegedly owed its name to being made of dogskin.
[1] Zenobius 1.41.
[2] cf. generally gamma 390.
Keywords: aetiology; clothing; daily life; mythology; proverbs; trade and manufacture; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 16 March 2001@20:55:04.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note and keywords) on 17 March 2001@06:44:15.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 17 March 2008@08:17:58.
Jennifer Benedict (tweak to notes) on 17 March 2008@10:02:52.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 13 January 2012@08:51:38.

Headword: *)/ai+dos kunh=
Adler number: alpha,676
Translated headword: Hades' dog-skin [helmet]
Vetting Status: high
Aristophanes [writes]: "take for my sake the shadow-shaggy Hades helmet from Hieronymos." The proverb[1] was [sc. originally] said about those who are invisible. But now about those who grow their hair exceedingly long. For this Hieronymos was a melic and tragic poet [who was] deviant and unkempt, because he wrote roles that were too sentimental and used fearful masks; he seemed to be (?)applauded.[2] He was mocked for growing his hair all long: wherefore comedically [Aristophanes] said he is Hades' dog-skin, since he has long hair.
Greek Original:
*)/ai+dos kunh=: *)aristofa/nhs: la/be d' e)mou= g' e(/neka par' *(ierwnu/mou skotodasupukno/trixa th\n *)/ai+dos kunh=n. e)pi\ tw=n a)fanw=n ei)/rhtai h( paroimi/a. nu=n de\ e)pi\ tw=n a)/gan komw/ntwn. ou(=tos ga\r o( *(ierw/numos melw=n h)=n poihth\s kai\ tragw|do\s a)nw/malos kai\ a)noikono/mhtos, dia\ to\ a)/gan e)mpaqei=s gra/fein u(poqe/seis kai\ foberoi=s proswpei/ois xrh=sqai: e)do/kei krotei=sqai. e)kwmw|dei=to de\ w(s pa/nu komw=n: dio/per *)/ai+dos kunh=n e)/fh au)to\n kwmw|dikw=s, w(s koureiw=nta.
Aristophanes, Acharnians 388-390 (web address 1 below), with scholia. Modern editors prefer tin to the transmitted th\n, i.e. "a" rather than "the" helmet.)
On Hieronymos son of Xenophantes see also kappa 1768, where he is given similar attributes but, apparently in error, under the headword Kleitos (Clitus). He apparently also wrote comedies and dithyrambs.
[1] See under alpha 675.
[2] The sense of the multi-meaning verb krotei=sqai here is unclear.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; clothing; comedy; daily life; ethics; gender and sexuality; imagery; military affairs; mythology; poetry; proverbs; stagecraft; trade and manufacture; tragedy
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 17 March 2001@23:54:36.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 18 March 2001@03:57:02.
Robert Dyer (added cross reference, raised status) on 25 February 2002@10:16:17.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 28 September 2005@18:13:50.
Jennifer Benedict (updated link) on 16 March 2008@16:01:31.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 17 March 2008@08:11:06.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 13 January 2012@09:00:16.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 17 January 2012@00:13:28.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 1 May 2015@06:48:46.

Headword: *)aqhna=s a)/galma do/ru kratei=
Adler number: alpha,727
Translated headword: Athena's statue holds a spear
Vetting Status: high
Because of the steadfastness and masculinity [sc. of such an attribute]; likewise also a shield, from her turning-away every treachery through her wisdom; for [wisdom] is [close] to intelligence. And they gave her a helmet because of her being the invisible[1] summit of wisdom; also an olive-tree, as being of the purest essence; for the olive-tree [is] the stuff of a man. And they gave her a Gorgon on her breast because of the swiftness of her intelligence.[2]
Greek Original:
*)aqhna=s a)/galma do/ru kratei=: dia\ to\ staqero\n kai\ a)ndrei=on: o(moi/ws kai\ a)spi/da para\ to\ pa=san e)piboulh\n dia\ th=s sofi/as a)pwqei=sqai: h( au)th\ ga/r e)sti tw=| nw=|. kai\ perikefalai/an dido/asin au)th=| dia\ to\ ei)=nai th=s sofi/as to\ a)kro/taton a)qe/aton: kai\ e)lai/an, w(s kaqarwta/ths ou)si/as ou)/shs: fwto\s ga\r u(/lh h( e)lai/a. kai\ gorgo/nhn dido/asin e)pi\ tou= sth/qous au)th=| dia\ to\ taxu\ tou= nou=.
ps.-Codinus, Patria Constantinopoleos 2.3 (Preger, Scriptores originum Constantinopolitanarum 152).
See already alpha 132.
[1] Or: secret.
[2] cf. gamma 394, gamma 395.
Keywords: art history; botany; clothing; imagery; military affairs; mythology; religion; women
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 3 February 2000@00:22:31.
Vetted by:
Edmund P. Cueva on 14 March 2000@06:34:55.
Edmund P. Cueva on 14 March 2000@06:36:23.
David Whitehead (added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 20 May 2002@03:54:47.
David Whitehead (added note) on 11 July 2003@06:50:02.
David Whitehead (tweaks to tr; updated ref) on 19 January 2012@07:30:04.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 8 August 2013@16:29:33.
Catharine Roth on 9 August 2013@01:02:17.
David Whitehead on 1 May 2015@09:46:55.

Headword: *)aqh/naios
Adler number: alpha,731
Translated headword: Athenaios, Athenaeus
Vetting Status: high
Of Naucratis.[1] Grammarian. Lived in the time of Marcus. He wrote a book with the title Deipnosophists, in which he records how many of the ancients had a reputation for munificence in giving banquets.[2]
Alexander the Great, after that naval victory over the Spartans and after he had fortified the Peiraeus, sacrificed a hecatomb and feasted all the Athenians.[3] And after his Olympic victory Alcibiades gave a feast for the whole festival.[4] Leophron did the same at the Olympic games.[5] And Empedocles of Acragas, being a Pythagorean and an abstainer from animal food, when he won an Olympic victory made an ox out of incense, myrrh and expensive perfumes and divided it among those who came to the festival. And Ion of Chios, when he won a victory in the tragic competition at Athens, gave every Athenian a jar of Chian [sc. wine].[6] And Tellias of Acragas, a hospitable man, when 500 horsemen were billeted with him during the winter, gave each of them a cloak and tunic.[7] [It is on record] that Charmus of Syracuse used to utter little verses and proverbs for every one of the dishes served at his banquets. Clearchus of Soli calls the poem Deipnology, others Opsology, Chrysippus Gastronomy, others The Life of Luxury [Hedypatheia].[8] [It is on record] that in Plato's symposium there were 28 diners.
Greek Original:
*)aqh/naios, *naukrati/ths, grammatiko\s, gegonw\s e)pi\ tw=n xro/nwn *ma/rkou. e)/graye bibli/on o)/noma *deipnosofistai/: e)n w(=| mnhmoneu/ei, o(/soi tw=n palaiw=n megaloyu/xws e)/docan e(stia=n. o( me/gas *)ale/candros ka)kei/nhn nikh/sas naumaxi/an *lakedaimoni/ous kai\ teixi/sas to\n *peiraia= kai\ e(kato/mbhn qu/sas pa/ntas ei(sti/asen *)aqhnai/ous. kai\ *)alkibia/dhs *)olu/mpia nikh/sas th\n panh/gurin a(/pasan ei(sti/ase. to\ au)to\ kai\ *leo/frwn *)olumpia/si. kai\ *)empedoklh=s o( *)akraganti=nos, *puqagoriko\s w)\n kai\ e)myu/xwn a)pexo/menos, *)olu/mpia nikh/sas, e)k libanwtou= kai\ smu/rnhs kai\ tw=n polutelw=n a)rwma/twn bou=n a)napla/sas die/neime toi=s ei)s th\n panh/gurin a)panth/sasi. kai\ o( *xi=os *)/iwn tragw|di/an nikh/sas *)aqh/nhsin e(ka/stw| tw=n *)aqhnai/wn e)/dwke *xi=on kera/mion. kai\ o( *)akraganti=nos *telli/as filo/cenos w)\n katalu/sasi/ pote f# i(ppeu=sin w(/ra| xeimw=nos, e)/dwken e(ka/stw| xitw=na kai\ i(ma/tion. o(/ti *xa/rmos o( *surakou/sios ei)s e(/kaston tw=n e)n toi=s dei/pnois paratiqeme/nwn stixi/dia kai\ paroimi/as e)/lege. *kle/arxos de\ o( *soleu\s deipnologi/an kalei= to\ poi/hma, a)/lloi o)yologi/an, *xru/sippos gastronomi/an, a)/lloi h(dupa/qeian. o(/ti e)n tw=| sumposi/w| *pla/twnos kh# h)=san daitumo/nes.
Fl. c. AD 200. See generally RE Athenaios(22); NP Athenaios(3); OCD4 Athenaeus(1); Olson (2006), vii.
[1] In Egypt (see nu 58).
[2] cf. delta 359, sigma 1397. What follows is excerpted from Athenaeus 1.3D-4A [1.5 Kaibel], 4E (epit.).
[3] Two of Athenaeus' examples (3D) have been run together here (and again at alpha 1123): the 'naval victory over the Spartans' refers to Conon's victory at Cnidus (394 BC).
[4] cf. alpha 1280 (end).
[5] Athenaeus says (3E) that Simonides wrote a victory ode commemorating this (PMG 515, and Olson, 2006, 15 n.34).
[6] cf. iota 487 (end) and chi 314. On "Chian" and other wines with specific (though not necessarily simple) city-connections see A. Dalby, "Topikos Oinos", in D. Harvey and J. Wilkins (eds.), The Rivals of Aristophanes (London 2000) 397-405.
[7] cf. tau 272.
[8] cf. chi 132. The poem in question was in fact by Archestratus of Gela; see discussion of the title (most probably Hedypatheia) in S. D. Olson and A. Sens (eds.), Archestratos of Gela: Greek Culture and Cuisine in the Fourth Century BCE(Oxford 2000) xxii-xxiv.
D. Braund and J. Wilkins, eds. Athenaeus and his World. Exeter, 2000
S.D. Olson, Athenaeus: The Learned Banqueters (Loeb Classical Library: 2006-)
Keywords: architecture; athletics; biography; chronology; clothing; economics; food; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; philosophy; proverbs; religion; tragedy
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 7 July 1999@14:13:15.
Vetted by:
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added transliteration to headword) on 14 August 2000@14:39:21.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 15 June 2001@06:09:35.
David Whitehead (augmented note 6) on 3 August 2001@10:02:27.
David Whitehead (augmented initial note; added bibliography; cosmetics) on 11 October 2002@03:28:29.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added italics; cosmetics) on 12 February 2005@22:01:08.
Aikaterini Oikonomopoulou (Augmented and corrected notes; added bibliography) on 21 February 2008@14:05:08.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 22 February 2008@04:03:13.
David Whitehead (tweaked bibliographical item) on 20 January 2012@04:12:30.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 19 January 2014@07:25:01.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@08:24:54.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 22 November 2014@22:08:06.
David Whitehead (expanded a ref) on 14 January 2015@03:48:39.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 May 2022@22:39:13.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 18 May 2023@01:58:35.

Headword: *)akerseko/mhs
Adler number: alpha,839
Translated headword: unshorn-haired
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning someone] not shearing[1] the hair.
Greek Original:
*)akerseko/mhs: th\n ko/mhn mh\ keiro/menos.
Likewise in Hesychius alpha2335 (and, post-Suda, Etymologicum Magnum 46.25). From the scholia to Homer, Iliad 20.39, where the headword is applied to Apollo.
Not cutting the hair would imply eternal youth; see generally LSJ s.v. Boys before puberty in ancient Greece did not cut their hair short.
See also alpha 855.
[1] Either cutting short or cutting off.
Keywords: clothing; daily life; definition; epic; mythology; religion
Translated by: Robert Dyer on 17 December 2001@02:48:05.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (augmented note) on 28 February 2002@14:01:45.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 23 December 2002@11:24:31.
David Whitehead (expanded and rearranged notes) on 24 January 2012@03:45:22.
David Whitehead on 24 January 2012@05:47:12.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 6 May 2015@09:30:21.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 6 May 2015@23:34:41.

Headword: *)akeireko/mhs
Adler number: alpha,855
Translated headword: unshorn-haired
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning someone] not shearing the hair.
Greek Original:
*)akeireko/mhs: th\n ko/mhn mh\ keiro/menos.
See alpha 839 and the notes there. This version too is found as an epithet of Apollo.
Keywords: clothing; daily life; definition; poetry; religion
Translated by: Robert Dyer on 5 June 2000@09:18:00.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 28 February 2002@14:04:14.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 23 December 2002@11:27:27.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 24 January 2012@05:49:16.
David Whitehead (cosmetic) on 9 May 2015@05:28:36.

Headword: *)ako/louqon
Adler number: alpha,918
Translated headword: consequent, following on, in conformity
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] similar.
"The outcome results [sc. in a manner] following on from the first operations".[1]
Also [sc. attested is the related aorist participle] a)kolouqh/sas ["he having followed up"], [meaning] he having brought about similarly. "The Roman, having followed up while the Celt was still raising his shield, brought up his sword from below and sliced his flank from groin to navel".[2]
And Polybius [writes]: "the others he honored with golden robes and with spears, wishing there to be a proclamation, in words, following on their deeds".[3]
"Following on" is that which is required to exist by another thing; but "conflicting" [maxo/menon] [is] that which is not required.[4]
Greek Original:
*)ako/louqon: o(/moion. a)ko/louqon a)pe/bh to\ te/los tai=s prote/rais e)nergei/ais. kai\ *)akolouqh/sas, o(moi/ws diapraca/menos. o( de\ *(rwmai=os, e)/ti metewri/zontos tou= *keltou= to\ o(/plon, a)kolouqh/sas ka/twqen u(pofe/rei to\ ci/fos, kai\ diakei/rei pa=san a)po\ tou= boubw=nos e(/ws o)mfalou= th\n lago/na. kai\ *polu/bios: tou\s de\ e)ti/mhse xrusoi=s u(fa/smasin kai\ lo/gxais, boulo/menos a)ko/louqon ei)=nai toi=s e)/rgois th\n dia\ tw=n lo/gwn e)paggeli/an. a)ko/louqo/n e)stin, o(\ a)nagkai=on ei)=nai tw=| e(te/rw| ei)=nai: maxo/menon de\ o(\ a)nagkai=on mh\ ei)=nai.
The headword, neuter singular of this adjective, is presumably extracted from the first quotation given.
[1] Polybius fr. 97 Büttner-Wobst. Büttner-Wobst notes that Schweighäuser attributed this fragment to Polybius (p. 527).
[2] Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities 15.1.3 (web address 1).
[3] Polybius fr. 3 Büttner-Wobst.
[4] Alexander of Aphrodisias, Commentaries on Aristotle's Topica 93.9-10; cf. mu 310.
T. Büttner-Wobst, ed., Polybii Historiae, vol. IV, (Leipzig 1904)
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; clothing; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography; history; medicine; military affairs; philosophy
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 7 November 2000@16:30:10.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added note and keyword) on 8 November 2000@03:42:52.
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; restorative and other cosmetics) on 4 June 2002@07:35:50.
David Whitehead (tweaked hw and tr; augmented notes and keywords; betacoding and other cosmetics) on 26 January 2012@07:59:29.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 4 May 2012@23:37:47.
David Whitehead (x-ref) on 21 January 2014@04:46:40.
David Whitehead (corrected a ref) on 13 May 2015@10:33:25.
Ronald Allen (augmented n.1 and n.3, added bibliography, added link) on 5 May 2018@16:48:31.
Ronald Allen (enforced bibliographic form) on 8 June 2018@00:17:30.

Headword: *)/akouron
Adler number: alpha,940
Translated headword: untrimmed, unshaven
Vetting Status: high
"[o] people-hater, lover of monarchy, and [...] wearing woolly fringes and keeping your beard untrimmed!" Aristophanes says [this].[1]
Greek Original:
*)/akouron: miso/dhme, monarxi/as e)rasta\, kai\ forw=n kra/speda stemma/twn, th/n q' u(ph/nhn a)/kouron tre/fwn. *)aristofa/nhs fhsi/.
The headword, accusative singular of this adjective, is extracted from the quotation given
[1] Aristophanes, Wasps 474-6 (abridged: "siding with Brasidas and" is omitted; see web address 1 below), again at mu 1125.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: clothing; comedy; daily life; dialects, grammar, and etymology; politics
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 21 March 2001@19:36:29.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note; cosmetics) on 22 March 2001@05:12:35.
David Whitehead on 22 March 2001@05:20:06.
Catharine Roth (updated link, added keyword) on 17 October 2011@01:34:57.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 17 October 2011@03:26:04.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 5 February 2012@18:18:27.

Headword: *)akro/drua
Adler number: alpha,1001
Translated headword: fruits
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] tree-borne crops,[1] all crops which grow on trees.[2]
"They threw [things] at them, one a Persian cloak, another fruits".[3]
Greek Original:
*)akro/drua: karpoi\ dendrikoi\, pa/ntes oi( tw=n de/ndrwn karpoi/. e)pe/rripton de\ au)toi=s [o(] me\n ka/ndun, o( de\ a)kro/drua.
The headword, neuter plural, is perhaps extracted from the quotation given (though Latte on Hesychius s.v. asserts the source to be the Septuagint: Song of Solomon 7.14). The noun itself, which can mean fruits in general as here, more exactly implies ones grown high up.
[1] (sc. As opposed to the ground.) Glossing thus far as in Photius and elsewhere.
[2] As in the scholia to Plato, Critias 115B.
[3] Iamblichus, Babyloniaca fr. 19 (ed. Habrich); more fully at sigma 673.
Keywords: agriculture; botany; clothing; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; food; geography; history; religion
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 5 March 2000@02:55:09.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added notes and keyword; cosmetics) on 26 January 2001@05:53:52.
Joseph L. Rife (translation, note, keyword) on 10 September 2001@04:46:52.
Joseph L. Rife on 10 September 2001@14:34:39.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; another keyword) on 29 March 2006@08:05:28.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 31 January 2012@09:10:17.
David Whitehead (expanded primary note; another keyword) on 1 February 2012@06:37:15.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 26 April 2012@01:30:03.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 19 August 2013@09:01:36.
David Whitehead on 15 August 2015@07:57:10.

Headword: *)akro/komoi
Adler number: alpha,1005
Translated headword: crown-haired
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning men] wearing their hair moderately, or to excess, or wearing it on the crowns of the head.
Greek Original:
*)akro/komoi: metri/ws komw=ntes, h)\ li/an, h)\ ta\ a)/kra th=s kefalh=s komw=ntes.
Same or similar entry in other lexica. The headword, masculine nominative plural of this adjective, comes from Homer, Iliad 4.533. It is an epithet (there and subsequently) of the Thracians, who wore their hair in topknots on the crowns of their heads, or shaved their heads except for the crown.
Keywords: clothing; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; geography
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 5 March 2000@09:56:39.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; augmented note; added keywords) on 5 June 2002@07:55:52.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 29 March 2006@08:10:36.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 31 January 2012@09:30:39.
David Whitehead on 22 May 2015@03:12:41.

Headword: *)ale/candros
Adler number: alpha,1121
Translated headword: Alexander, Alexandros
Vetting Status: high
The son of Philip and Olympias, who was king of the Macedonians from age 18 and died at 33 years of age.[1]
This man was "very beautiful in body and very devoted to hard work and very acute, very courageous in judgement and very ambitious and very adventurous and very concerned for the divine; also very restrained as regards the pleasures of the body, but very keen on what judgement commended; very clever at discerning what was necessary, even when it was yet unclear, very successful in inferring from observations what was likely to follow, and very skilled at marshalling and equipping an army."[2]
"And he was very suited for every good. In addition he was moderate and god-fearing. For once, after he had become so angry with the Thebans that he enslaved the inhabitants and razed the city [itself] to its foundations, he did not make light of reverence to the gods concerning the capture of the city; no, he took especial care that there should not be an involuntary sin concerning the shrines and the [religious] precincts as a whole."[3]
"The grandiloquence of Alexander did not seem more like a kind of arrogance than confidence in danger."[4]
Alexander fell in love with Roxane, the daughter of Oxyartos the Bactrian, "whom those serving with Alexander say was the most beautiful of the Asian women after the wife of Dareios. And [they say that] when he had seen her Alexander fell in love with her; and [that] although he was in love with her he did want to violate her as if she were a war captive, but did not think her unworthy to take in marriage. And I myself rather approve this action of Alexander and do not censure it. And then this wife of Dareios, who was called the most beautiful of the women in Asia, either he did make an amorous approach to her or he controlled himself, although he was young and at the very height of good fortune, when men do outrageous things. He respected her and spared her, showing much restraint, and at the same time ambition for good repute which was not misplaced. And there is a story going around, that Dareios' eunuch who guarded his wife ran back to him. And Dareios, when he saw him, first asked whether his daughters were alive and his sons and his wife and his mother. He learned they were alive, and that they were called queens, and about the care being taken of them and how his wife was behaving sensibly. At these things Dareios raised his hands to heaven and prayed thus: 'O Zeus, king, to whom it was given to order the affairs of kings among men, guard my rule over the Persians and the Medes as you see fit. But if I myself cannot be king of Asia any more, then give my rule to no one but Alexander'. Thus even enemies are not indifferent to virtuous deeds." Thus says Arrian.[5]
"Nearchos says that [Alexander] was pained by some of his friends, who were carrying him while he was ill, for running a personal risk in advance of his army; for these things were not for a general, but for a soldier. And it seems to me that Alexander was irritated with these words, because he knew they were true and that he had laid himself open to censure. And yet his eagerness in battle and love of glory made him like men overcome by any other form of pleasure, and he was not strong enough to keep away from dangers."[6]
"Alexander the Macedonian lived a marvelous life. His handling of conflicts lent a guaranteed trustworthiness to what he said. For you cannot find a man in this whole orb of the world having the advantage in such great achievements. For he spent time with the best men, and in written accounts is found not inferior to those who are praised to the skies; and in matters of war he accomplished things that were more marvelous than believable. And having gone to war against Dareios, he prevailed victorious over him. And that man begged him to come to a reconciliation, and even gave him his daughter Roxane in a covenant of marriage. Having subdued all races he lost his mind and succumbed to the pleasures of the body, putting on Persian dress and being attended by myriad youths, and using 300 concubines, so that he changed the entire Macedonian royal way of life into Persian ways and annulled those of his own people. Later, arriving in India, he was caught by queen Kandake in the clothes of a private individual and she said to him: 'Alexander, king: you took the world and you are overcome by a woman?' And he made peace with her and kept her country from harm."[7]
"The same [Alexander] encountered men who had been captured long ago by the Persians in Greece and had had their hands cut off, and he showed them kindness with great gifts and cheered them. Arriving at the lake in Alexandria he threw away his diadem, and with so much water crashing down only scarcely swam safe across to land. And he was given poison by his own general Cas[s]ander and was convulsed; and thus, at [a time of] such great successes, ended his life."[8]
Greek Original:
*)ale/candros, o( *fili/ppou kai\ *)olumpia/dos, basileu/sas *makedo/nwn a)po\ e)niautw=n ih#, teleuth/sas de\ e)tw=n lg#. ou(=tos h)=n to/ te sw=ma ka/llistos kai\ filoponw/tatos kai\ o)cu/tatos, th\n gnw/mhn a)ndreio/tatos kai\ filotimo/tatos kai\ filokinduno/tatos kai\ tou= qei/ou e)pimele/statos, h(donw=n te tw=n me\n tou= sw/matos e)gkrate/statos, tw=n de\ th=s gnw/mhs e)painoume/nwn a(plou/statos: cunidei=n de\ to\ de/on, e)/ti e)n tw=| a)fanei= o)/n, deino/tatos kai\ e)k tw=n fainome/nwn to\ ei)ko\s cumbalei=n e)pituxe/statos kai\ ta/cai stratia\n kai\ o(pli/sai dahmone/statos. kai\ pro\s pa=n kalo\n e)pithdeio/tatos. pro\s tou/tois h)=n e)pieikh\s kai\ qeosebh/s. o)rgisqei\s ga/r pote *qhbai/ois e)pi\ tosou=ton, w(/ste tou\s me\n oi)kh/toras e)candrapodi/sasqai, th\n de\ po/lin e)s e)/dafos kataska/yai, th=s ge pro\s tou\s qeou\s eu)sebei/as ou)k w)ligw/rhse peri\ th\n kata/lhyin th=s po/lews: a)lla\ plei/sthn e)poih/sato pro/noian u(pe\r tou= mh\ d' a)kou/sion a(ma/rthma gene/sqai peri\ ta\ i(era\ kai\ kaqo/lou ta\ teme/nh. o(/ti to\ megalh/goron tou= *)aleca/ndrou ou)x u(pe/rogkon ma=llo/n ti h)\ eu)qarse\s e)n toi=s kindu/nois e)fai/neto. *(rwca/nhs de\ h)ra/sqh o( *)ale/candros th=s *)ocua/rtou tou= *baktrianou=, h(\n dh\ kalli/sthn tw=n *)asianw=n gunaikw=n le/gousin o)fqh=nai oi( cu\n *)aleca/ndrw| strateu/santes meta/ ge th\n *darei/ou gunai=ka. kai\ tau/thn i)do/nta *)ale/candron ei)s e)/rwta e)lqei=n au)th=s: e)rasqe/nta de\ ou)k e)qelh=sai u(bri/sai kaqa/per ai)xma/lwton, a)lla\ gh=mai ga\r ou)k a)paciw=sai. kai\ tou=to e)gw\ *)aleca/ndrou e)painw= ma=llo/n ti h)\ me/mfomai. kai/toi th=s ge *darei/ou gunaiko/s, h(\ kalli/sth dh\ e)le/geto tw=n e)n th=| *)asi/a| gunaikw=n, h)\ ou)k h)=lqen e)s e)piqumi/an h)\ kartero\s au(tou= e)ge/neto, ne/os te w)\n kai\ ta\ ma/lista e)n a)kmh=| th=s eu)tuxi/as, o(po/te u(bri/zousin a)/nqrwpoi. o( de\ kath|de/sqh te kai\ e)fei/sato swfrosu/nh| te pollh=| diaxrw/menos, kai\ do/chs a(/ma a)gaqh=s ou)k a)to/pw| e)fe/sei. kai\ toi/nun kai\ lo/gos kate/xei, a)podra/nta e)lqei=n para\ *darei=on to\n eu)nou=xon to\n fu/laka au)tw=| th=s gunaiko/s. kai\ tou=ton w(s ei)=den o( *darei=os, prw=ta me\n puqe/sqai, ei) zw=sin au)tw=| ai( pai=des kai\ oi( ui(oi\ kai\ h( gunh\ kai\ h( mh/thr. w(s de\ zw/sas te e)pu/qeto, kai\ basi/lissai o(/ti kalou=ntai, kai\ peri\ th=s qerapei/as, kai\ w(s swfronei= h( gunh\ au)tou=: e)pi\ tou/tois a)natei=nai to\n *darei=on e)s to\n ou)rano\n ta\s xei=ras kai\ eu)/casqai w(=de: a)ll' w)= *zeu= basileu=, o(/tw| e)pite/traptai ta\ basile/wn pra/gmata ne/mein e)n a)nqrw/pois, su\ nu=n ma/lista me\n e)moi\ fu/lacon *persw=n te kai\ *mh/dwn th\n a)rxh/n, w(/sper ou)=n kai\ e)/dwkas: ei) de\ dh\ e)gw\ ou)k e)/ti soi basileu\s th=s *)asi/as, su\ de\ mhdeni\ a)/llw| o(/ti mh\ *)aleca/ndrw| paradou=nai to\ e)mo\n kra/tos. ou(/tws ou)de\ pro\s tw=n polemi/wn a)/ra a)melei=tai o(/sa sw/frona e)/rga. ou(/tw fhsi\n *)arriano/s. *ne/arxos de/ fhsin, o(/ti xalepoi\ au)tw=| tw=n fi/lwn e)ge/nonto, o(/soi e)ko/mizon au)to\n a)rrwstou=nta, o(/ti au)to\s pro\ th=s stratia=s kinduneu/oi: ou) ga\r strathgou= tau=ta, a)lla\ stratiw/tou ei)=nai. kai/ moi dokei= a)/xqesqai *)ale/candros toi=sde toi=s lo/gois, o(/ti a)lhqei=s te o)/ntas e)gi/nwske kai\ au(to\n u(pai/tion th=| e)pitimh/sei. kai\ o(/mws u(po\ me/nous te tou= e)n tai=s ma/xais kai\ tou= e)/rwtos th=s do/chs, kaqa/per oi( a)/llhs tino\s h(donh=s e)chttw/menoi, ou) kartero\s h)=n a)pe/xesqai tw=n kindu/nwn. o(/ti *)ale/candros o( *makedw\n qaumasto\n bi/on e)bi/wse: pi/stin de\ toi=s ei)rhme/nois e)xe/gguon h( tw=n a)gw/nwn pare/sxe pra=cis. ou)de\ ga/r e)stin eu(rei=n e)n panti\ tw=| tou= ko/smou ku/klw| e(/na a)/ndra, tosou/tois katorqw/masi pleonektou=nta. toi=s te ga\r a)ri/stois sumfoith/sas a)ndra/sin, ei)/s te lo/gous ou) mei/wn tw=n ei)s a)/kron e)painoume/nwn eu(re/qh: pro/s te ta\ pole/mia dielqw/n, qaumasta\ ma=llon h)\ peiqou=s a)/cia diepra/cato. kai\ pro\s *darei=on to\n *persw=n basile/a suna/yas po/lemon, tou=ton katakra/tos nika=|. ka)kei=nos ai)tei=tai ei)s diallaga\s e)lqei=n, kai\ dou=nai au)tw=| kai\ th\n qugate/ra *(rwca/nhn pro\s ga/mou koinwni/an. o( au)to\s pa/nta ta\ e)/qnh katastreya/menos diefqa/rh to\n nou=n kai\ pro\s ta\s tou= sw/matos h(dona\s diwli/sqhse, *persikh/n te stolh\n e)ndusa/menos, muri/ois de\ ne/ois doruforou/menos, t# te pallakai=s xrw/menos, w(s th\n *makedonikh\n pa=san tw=n basile/wn sunh/qeian ei)s *pe/rsas metaruqmi/sai, kai\ tw=n i)di/wn tina\s diablhqe/ntas a)nelei=n. u(/steron de\ ei)s *)indi/an a)fiko/menos u(po\ *kanda/khs th=s basili/sshs sunelh/fqh e)n i)diw/tou sxh/mati. kai\ ei)=pen au)tw=|, *)ale/candre basileu=, to\n ko/smon pare/labes kai\ u(po\ gunaiko\s sunesxe/qhs; kai\ ei)rh/nhn pro\s au)th\n e)poih/sato kai\ th\n xw/ran au)th=s a)blabh= diefu/lacen. o(/ti o( au)to\s a)ndra/sin e)ne/tuxen u(po\ *persw=n pa/lai e)n *(ella/di lhfqei=sin, h)krwthriasme/nois ta\s xei=ras, ou(\s mega/lais dwreai=s e)filofronh/sato kai\ paremuqh/sato. ei)s de\ th\n li/mnhn th\n e)n *)alecandrei/a| a)fiko/menos to\ dia/dhma a)pe/balen, o)/mbrou pollou= katarrage/ntos kai\ mo/lis e)pi\ th\n gh=n dienh/cato. kai\ u(po\ *kasa/ndrou tou= i)di/ou strathgou= fa/rmakon deca/menos e)spara/xqh: kai\ ou(/tws e)pi\ tosou/tois katorqw/masi to\n bi/on meth/llacen.
Alexander III ("the Great") of Macedon, reigned 336-323 BCE. See also alpha 1122, alpha 1123, and generally Brian Bosworth in OCD(4) pp.56-58. The present entry on him, after the introductory statement, brings together extracts from Arrian and other sources.
[1] A rounded-up version of the 32 years and 8 months given by Arrian, Anabasis 7.28.1 (from Aristoboulos).
[2] Arrian, Anabasis 7.28.1-2.
[3] Quotation (on this celebrated episode of 335 BCE) unidentifiable.
[4] Arrian, Anabasis 3.10.2.
[5] Arrian, Anabasis 4.19.5-20.3. Dr Nick Nicholas reports: The Rime of Alexander (AD 1519), a vernacular Greek version of the Alexander Romance, cites this anecdote directly from the Suda (epilogue, vv. 27-55): "that's what I've read; for I have seen it written in a fine book, in the historian Souidas" (vv. 31-32).
[6] Arrian, Anabasis 6.13.4.
[7] John of Antioch fr. 41 FHG (4.555), now 74 Roberto; cf. delta 74.
[8] John of Antioch fr. 42 FHG (4.555), now 77 Roberto.
Keywords: biography; chronology; clothing; ethics; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; history; medicine; military affairs; religion; women
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 8 May 2000@11:22:51.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation and notes; added bibliography and keywords; cosmetics) on 27 January 2001@10:02:16.
David Whitehead (added note) on 27 January 2001@10:08:57.
David Whitehead (added keyword) on 12 June 2002@05:25:09.
Catharine Roth (addition to note 5 from Nick Nicholas; another keyword) on 15 October 2008@12:02:22.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 17 October 2008@00:39:55.
David Whitehead (added primary note and more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 3 February 2012@06:48:15.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@04:13:46.
David Whitehead (updated 2 more refs; x-ref) on 29 January 2015@03:05:42.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 29 May 2015@11:13:20.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 30 March 2019@23:52:16.


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