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Headword: Ἄβελ
Adler number: alpha,30
Translated headword: Abel
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Son of Adam.[1] This man was chaste and just from the beginning and a shepherd of flocks; out of these he offered a sacrifice to God and was accepted, but was then killed because he was envied by his brother Cain.[2] Cain happened to be a farmer and after the judgement he lived worse, with groaning and trembling. For Abel, by dedicating the firstborn [of the flock] to God, recommended himself as more God-loving than self-loving,[3] and because this was a good choice, he was accepted. But Cain impiously kept his first-fruits for himself and gave the seconds to God, and for this reason was rightly rejected. For it says: "and after some days it happened that Cain offered from the fruits of the earth."[4] Cain was disgraced by the fact that the produce he offered was not the first-fruits but that which was some days old and second-best.
Greek Original:
Ἄβελ: υἱὸς Ἀδάμ. οὗτος παρθένος καὶ δίκαιος ὑπῆρχε καὶ ποιμὴν προβάτων: ἐξ ὧν καὶ θυσίαν τῷ θεῷ προσαγαγὼν καὶ δεχθεὶς ἀναιρεῖται, φθονηθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ Κάϊν. ὁ Κάϊν δὲ γεωργὸς τυγχάνων καὶ μετὰ τὴν δίκην χειρόνως βιώσας στένων καὶ τρέμων ἦν. ὁ γὰρ Ἄβελ τὰ πρωτότοκα τῷ θεῷ καθιερῶν φιλόθεον μᾶλλον ἢ φίλαυτον ἑαυτὸν συνίστη, ὅθεν καὶ διὰ τῆς ἀγαθῆς αὐτοῦ προαιρέσεως ἀπεδέχθη. ὁ δὲ Κάϊν δυσσεβῶς ἑαυτῷ ἀπονέμων τὰ πρωτογεννήματα, θεῷ δὲ τὰ δεύτερα, εἰκότως καὶ ἀπεβλήθη. φησὶ γάρ: καὶ ἐγένετο μεθ' ἡμέρας, προσήνεγκε Κάϊν ἀπὸ τῶν καρπῶν τῆς γῆς. ὥστε διὰ τοῦτο Κάϊν ἐλέγχεται, ὅτι μὴ τὰ ἀκροθίνια γεννήματα προσήνεγκε τῷ θεῷ, ἀλλὰ τὰ μεθ' ἡμέρας καὶ δεύτερα.
Notes:
George the Monk, Chronicon 6.10-7.16.
[1] alpha 425.
[2] kappa 27.
[3] Again at sigma 1580.
[4] Genesis 4:3.
Keywords: agriculture; biography; botany; Christianity; daily life; ethics; food; historiography; religion; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:57:27.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, keywords, set status) on 27 January 2001@12:23:00.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 27 February 2003@08:28:31.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 8 September 2003@06:15:32.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@10:57:50.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics; raised status) on 22 June 2011@07:14:12.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 29 August 2012@10:24:09.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 August 2013@01:03:34.

Headword: Ἀγελαιών
Adler number: alpha,188
Translated headword: pasture
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the herd's place.
Greek Original:
Ἀγελαιών: ὁ τόπος τῆς ἀγέλης.
Note:
This noun is attested only in lexicography (besides here, in ps.-Zonaras and, according to Adler, the Ambrosian Lexicon), but cf. generally alpha 183, alpha 186, alpha 187, etc.
Keywords: agriculture; definition; geography; zoology
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 4 June 1999@15:21:21.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note) on 25 April 2002@09:49:13.
Catharine Roth (augmented note, added keywords, raised status) on 12 October 2007@01:00:34.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@06:17:58.
David Whitehead (my typo) on 5 April 2015@10:26:30.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 April 2015@23:26:17.

Headword: Ἄγειν καὶ φέρειν
Adler number: alpha,209
Translated headword: to plunder and to pillage
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Marauding and despoiling. But ἀγειν [can mean], without distinction, both to carry away things, even from dead bodies, and to gather [them].[1]
"When [Baian] crossed to the land opposite the stream, immediately he set fire to the villages of the Slavs and laid waste to their fields. He plundered and pillaged everything, and at that point none of the barbarians there dared to come to blows with him; instead they took refuge in the most overgrown and sheltered parts of the woods".[2]
Greek Original:
Ἄγειν καὶ φέρειν: τὸ λῃστεύειν καὶ ἁρπάζειν. ἄγειν δὲ καὶ ἀπάγειν χρήματα καὶ ἐπὶ ἀψύχων καὶ κομίζειν ἀδιαφόρως. ὁ δὲ ἐπεὶ ἐπεραιώθη ἐς τὸ κατ' ἀντικρὺ τοῦ ῥείθρου, παραχρῆμα τάς τε κώμας ἐνεπίμπρα τῶν Σκλαβηνῶν καὶ ἐσίνετο τοὺς ἀγροὺς, ἦγέ τε καὶ ἔφερεν ἅπαντα, οὐδενός πω τῶν ἐκεῖσε βαρβάρων θαρρήσαντός οἱ εἰς χεῖρας ἐλθεῖν, εἰς τὰ λάσια καὶ κατηρεφῆ τῆς ὕλης καταπεφευγότων.
Notes:
[1] Same or similar material in other lexica; references at Photius alpha139 Theodoridis. For the idiom, see also alpha 293 and epsilon 427.
[2] Part of Menander Protector fr. 21 Blockley. For the Slavs (Sklavenoi) see generally sigma 634.
Keywords: agriculture; biography; definition; geography; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 October 2000@13:28:47.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 23 October 2000@06:18:52.
David Whitehead (added x-ref and keyword) on 5 December 2003@10:27:09.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:01:12.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; augmented and updated notes; more keywords) on 3 January 2012@04:35:39.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@06:46:28.
Catharine Roth (cross-references) on 17 December 2016@01:01:54.

Headword: Ἀγνῶτας
Adler number: alpha,287
Translated headword: unknown
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning them] not being recognized.[1] "He brought a man unknown to me, who also happened to be unknown to him."[2]
"They had just left farming and entered into the danger of war, which was previously unknown to them."[3]
And elsewhere: "naming what was the price to give herself to an unknown man." Aelian says [this] in On Forethought.[4]
For agnos, [genitive] agnotos, [means] unknown [agnostos].
Greek Original:
Ἀγνῶτας: μὴ ἐπιγινωσκομένους. ἀγνῶτα δέ μοι προσεκόμιζεν ἄνθρωπον, ὃς καὶ ἑαυτοῦ ἀγνὼς ἐτύγχανεν ὤν. οἱ δὲ ἄρτι τῆς γεωργίας ἀφέμενοι, ἐς κίνδυνον τοῦ πολέμου κατέστησαν, ἀγνῶτα σφίσι τὰ πρότερα ὄντα. καὶ αὖθις: φάσκουσα εἶναι μίσθωμα τὸ ἑαυτὴν παραβαλεῖν ἀνδρὶ ἀγνῶτι. φησὶν Αἰλιανὸς ἐν τῷ Περὶ προνοίας. Ἀγνὼς γὰρ ἀγνῶτος, ὁ ἄγνωστος.
Notes:
The first part of this entry is also in Photius (alpha219 Theodoridis), the second part in other lexica.
[1] Masculine accusative plural, evidently quoted from somwhere (other than the quotation given); there are numerous possibilities.
[2] Quotation unidentifiable.
[3] Procopius, History of the Wars of Justinian 1.18.39.
[4] Aelian fr. 12b Domingo-Forasté (12 Hercher); again at mu 1123, pi 274, and pi 2648.
Keywords: agriculture; biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; gender and sexuality; historiography; history; military affairs; women
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 17 March 2001@23:31:54.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes; added keywords) on 18 March 2001@03:42:00.
David Whitehead (restorative cosmetics) on 22 December 2002@07:32:13.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@11:07:45.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 5 December 2005@08:41:06.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@07:57:28.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 4) on 28 January 2012@20:16:50.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@08:39:02.

Headword: Ἀγόνων χοῶν
Adler number: alpha,297
Translated headword: [than] unfruitful drink-offerings
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
It is used in two ways.[1]
The Theologian says [this]; that is, [more pious] than the offerings which are poured for the dead and are therefore unfruitful.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] ἀγονία , barrenness.[3]
"That Artemis was angered and that she attacked with sterility of the earth as punishment."[4]
Greek Original:
Ἀγόνων χοῶν. διφορεῖται ὁ Θεολόγος φησί: τουτέστι τῶν ἐπὶ τοῖς νεκροῖς χεομένων καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ἀγόνων. καὶ Ἀγονία, ἡ ἀφορία. τὴν Ἄρτεμιν μηνίσαι καὶ μετελθεῖν δικαιοῦσαν αὐτὴν γῆς ἀγονίᾳ.
Notes:
[1] This comment (a single word in the Greek; in ms A only, Adler reports) perhaps refers to the active and passive senses of the adjective ("not bearing" and "not born"): see LSJ entry at web address 1, and again at alpha 337.
[2] Scholion on Gregory of Nazianzus (PG 36.378b), who does use the headword phrase.
[3] See already alpha 295.
[4] Aelian fr. 49d Domingo-Forasté (46 Hercher); cf. delta 1079.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: aetiology; agriculture; botany; Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; religion
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 12 February 2001@11:03:29.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Raised status) on 12 February 2001@19:54:21.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@08:08:46.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; augmented note 2) on 14 April 2004@07:29:21.
David Whitehead (tweak) on 25 July 2006@07:01:45.
David Whitehead (another x-ref; more keywords; cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@09:03:04.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 4) on 29 January 2012@22:33:54.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1; cosmetics) on 9 April 2015@08:51:08.

Headword: Ἄγραυλοι
Adler number: alpha,341
Translated headword: field-dwelling
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] those passing the night or camping in a field.[1]
Greek Original:
Ἄγραυλοι: οἱ ἐν ἀγρῷ διανυκτερεύοντες ἢ αὐλιζόμενοι.
Notes:
Same or similar entry in other lexica; references at Photius alpha250 Theodoridis. The headword is nominative plural of the adjective ἄγραυλος (see generally LSJ s.v.) and is quoted either from Homer, Odyssey 10.410 (heifers) or from Hesiod, Theogony 26 (shepherds) -- both of which have glosses, in their scholia, very like the present one.
[1] Or: "in the countryside".
Keywords: agriculture; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 30 September 1998@16:58:13.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword; added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@08:23:56.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@07:22:59.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 19 August 2013@04:29:22.

Headword: Ἀγρεία ἀοιδή
Adler number: alpha,350
Translated headword: rustic song
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The rural [kind].[1]
"He stretched the hide down a rustic plane tree." In the Epigrams.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] ἀγρεῖος , [meaning] the yokel, the ignoramus.[3]
Or someone from the country.
Aristophanes in Clouds [writes]: "you are rustic and clumsy."[4]
The rustic and possessor of a large beard.[5]
And elsewhere: "it's particularly vulgar to see a poet who is rustic and hairy."[6]
Greek Original:
Ἀγρεία ἀοιδή: ἡ ἀγροικική. τὸ σκύτος ἀγρείης τ' εἴνε κατὰ πλατάνου. ἐν Ἐπιγράμμασι. καὶ Ἀγρεῖος, ὁ ἄγροικος, ὁ ἀμαθής. ἢ ὁ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀγροῦ. Ἀριστοφάνης Νεφέλαις: ἀγρεῖος εἶ καὶ σκαιός. ὁ ἄγροικος καὶ μέγαν πώγωνα ἔχων. καὶ αὖθις: ἄλλως τ' ἄμουσόν ἐστι ποιητὴν ἰδεῖν ἀγρεῖον ὄντα καὶ δασύν.
Notes:
[1] The headword phrase is presumably quoted from somewhere.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.35.2 (Leonidas of Tarentum), a rustic dedication to Pan; cf. Gow and Page, vol. I (122) and vol. II (356-357); cf. further extracts from this epigram at alpha 325, alphaiota 210, gamma 73, lambda 189, rho 72, and tau 264. The plane tree of the epigram, πλάτανος , is almost certainly the Old World or Asiatic Plane, Platanus orientalis, whose range extends from Asia into Greece and the eastern Mediterranean; cf. Raven (24, 70).
[3] From the scholia to Aristophanes, Clouds 655, about to be quoted.
[4] Aristophanes, Clouds 655.
[5] From the scholia to Aristophanes, Thesmophoriazusae 160, about to be quoted.
[6] Aristophanes, Thesmophoriazusae 159-160 (copied here from alpha 1633).
References:
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge 1965)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge 1965)
J.E. Raven, Plants and Plant Lore in Ancient Greece, (Oxford 2000)
Keywords: agriculture; botany; clothing; comedy; definition; ethics; meter and music; poetry; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:33:29.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added keywords; cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@09:09:20.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:02:12.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@08:01:32.
David Whitehead (x-ref) on 6 January 2012@08:05:59.
Ronald Allen (tweaked translation, expanded n.2, added bibliography, added cross-references, added keyword) on 8 November 2018@20:53:37.
Ronald Allen (better wording n.2) on 15 November 2018@18:19:23.

Headword: Ἀγρεῖφνα
Adler number: alpha,351
Translated headword: rake, harrow
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A farm tool, with which they collect hay. "Alkimos [dedicated] his toothless rake and a share of a noise-loving shovel bereft of its olivewood handle."[1]
Greek Original:
Ἀγρεῖφνα: γεωργικὸν ἐργαλεῖον, δι' οὗ συνάγουσι τὸν χόρτον. ἄλκιμος ἀγρεῖφναν κενοδόντιδα καὶ φιλοδούπου φάρσος ἅμα στελεοῦ χῆρον ἐλαϊνέου.
Notes:
Feminine noun, also found in the form ἀγρίφη (alpha 365).
[1] An approximation of Greek Anthology 6.297.1-2 (Phanias), a dedication of agricultural implements to Athena, again (in part) at phi 116; cf. Gow and Page, vol. I (162-163) and vol. II (470-471); cf. further extracts from this epigram at alpha 3945 and kappa 2794. The opening word is a proper name. Here the translation adopts Toup's emendation (cf. Gow and Page, vol. I, 162) and reads ἄμας [cf. alpha 1574] for the Suda's ἅμα ; cf. phi 116. The verb is supplied in translation here from line 6.
References:
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge 1965)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge 1965)
Keywords: agriculture; botany; daily life; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; poetry; religion; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:34:30.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@08:27:51.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@11:08:14.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; added primary note and more keywords; cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@08:20:25.
David Whitehead on 6 January 2012@08:21:15.
David Whitehead on 8 January 2012@09:17:43.
Ronald Allen (betacode typo n.1, expanded and rearranged n.1, added bibliography, added cross-references, added keywords) on 22 December 2018@23:31:13.
Ronald Allen (my punctuation error n.1) on 25 December 2018@12:59:02.

Headword: Ἀγρίδιον
Adler number: alpha,355
Translated headword: little field
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[no gloss]
Greek Original:
Ἀγρίδιον.
Notes:
The diminutive of ἀγρός ; see generally LSJ s.v.
The equivalent entry in Hesychius does include glossing: κωμάριον , χωρίον .
Keywords: agriculture; dialects, grammar, and etymology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:39:14.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword; added note; cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@07:28:34.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 8 January 2012@07:48:17.

Headword: Ἀγρίφη
Adler number: alpha,365
Translated headword: rake, harrow
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] a fork,[1] a farm tool with multiple protrusions.
Greek Original:
Ἀγρίφη: δίκελλα, σκεῦος γεωργικὸν πολύγομφον.
Notes:
See already alpha 351, with a simpler gloss. The additions in the present one are also in Eudemus; it is not certain that they reflect any real grasp of what this tool looked like.
[1] Or, mattock, pickaxe; cf. delta 1087.
Keywords: agriculture; daily life; dialects, grammar, and etymology; science and technology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:49:24.
Vetted by:
Shannon N. Byrne on 20 May 2000@18:55:28.
David Whitehead (modified translation; added note and keyword) on 16 July 2001@09:40:06.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@11:08:39.
David Whitehead (expanded notes; tweaking) on 9 April 2015@11:00:02.

Headword: Ἀγρολέτειρα
Adler number: alpha,366
Translated headword: land-waster
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. An epithet of] Artemis.
Greek Original:
Ἀγρολέτειρα: ἡ Ἄρτεμις.
Note:
Attested as such only here and in some other lexica; elsewhere applied to (e.g.) locusts.
Keywords: agriculture; imagery; religion; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:50:05.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@06:54:26.
David Whitehead (modified and augmented note; augmented keywords) on 14 April 2004@08:42:25.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:02:58.
David Whitehead (tweaked note) on 8 January 2012@09:19:28.

Headword: Ἀγρονόμοι
Adler number: alpha,368
Translated headword: country-dwellers
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Those living in the country.[1]
"Singing cicada drunk on dewdrops, you celebrate the country-dwelling Muse who sings in solitude." In the Epigrams.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγρονόμοι: οἱ ἐν ἀγροῖς διάγοντες. ἠχήεις τέττιξ δροσεραῖς σταγόνεσι μεθυσθεὶς, ἀγρόνομον μέλπεις μοῦσαν ἐρημολάλον. ἐν Ἐπιγράμμασι.
Notes:
[1] The headword is nominative plural masculine or feminine, but the glosses are unambiguously masculine. Up to this point the entry = an entry in the rhetorical lexicon of Eudemus (4b.47 Niese), Synagoge (Codex B) alpha195, Photius alpha270. Hesychius alpha825 has the same headword and gloss in the genitive case. The source for the lemma is unknown, though its presence in Eudemus suggests a rhetorical source. It occurs in Homer, Odyssey 6.106, but as a feminine adjective, and is accordingly given feminine glosses in the scholia.
[2] Greek Anthology 7.196.1-2 (Meleager [Author, Myth]), an invitation to a cicada to make music; cf. Gow and Page, vol. I (220) and vol. II (616-617). A further quotation from this epigram appears at kappa 2232. LaPenna theorized (93-112) that the rural setting and the singing cicada, among other thematic coincidences, showed that Meleager drew upon Plato, Phaedrus 229A-230C and 259 (web address 1) for inspiration. But there are also inconsistencies, such as the cicada's inebriation from drinking dewdrops, which appears to be novel in the epigram (Gow and Page, vol. II 616). Consequently, neither these authors (ibid.) nor Dorsey (138) were convinced by LaPenna's argument.
References:
Niese, B., ed. (1922) ”Excerpta ex Eudemi codice Parisino n. 2635," Philologus, suppl. 15.
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge 1965)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge 1965)
A. LaPenna, "Marginalia et Hariolationes Philologae," Maia 5 (1952)
D.F. Dorsey, "The Cicada's Song in Anthologia Palatina vii. 196," Classical Review 20 (June 1970) 137-139
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: agriculture; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; food; imagery; meter and music; philosophy; poetry; rhetoric; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:51:42.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@09:57:11.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:03:50.
Catharine Roth (augmented notes, raised status) on 23 May 2008@11:10:31.
David Whitehead (augmented n.1; another keyword) on 25 May 2008@06:49:49.
William Hutton (modified notes, typo, added keywords) on 22 July 2009@15:39:42.
David Whitehead (tweaked note; more keywords) on 8 January 2012@09:21:35.
William Hutton (updated reference) on 21 August 2013@10:12:23.
Ronald Allen (expanded n.2, added bibliography items, added keywords) on 26 December 2018@22:23:10.

Headword: Ἀγρότας
Adler number: alpha,369
Translated headword: countrymen, rurals
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] rustics.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the nominative singular] ἀγρότης ["countryman"], [meaning] he who lives in the country.
"But you were bent over like a drunken countryman."[2] And in the Epigrams: "the three kinsmen dedicated these nets, o rural Pan, each from a different hunt."[3] But the feminine form [is] ἀγρότις . In the Epigrams: "Teucer the Arab dedicated a lion's skin and his own rustic spear."[4]
Greek Original:
Ἀγρότας: ἀγροίκους. καὶ Ἀγρότης: ὁ ἐν ἀγρῷ διαιτώμενος. ἀλλ' ὡς πάροινος ἀγρότης ἀνεκλίθης. καὶ ἐν Ἐπιγράμμασι: οἱ τρισσοί τοι ταῦτα τὰ δίκτυα θῆκαν ὅμαιμοι ἀγρότα Πὰν, ἄλλος ἄλλης ἀπ' ἀγρεσίης. θηλυκὸν δὲ Ἀγρότις. ἐν Ἐπιγράμμασι: ἄνθετο δέρμα λέοντος Τεῦκρος Ἄραψ, καὐτὴν ἀγρότιν αἰγανέαν.
Notes:
The headword is a masculine noun in the accusative plural, evidently quoted from somewhere. Here, the first two quotations provide, respectively, instances of the nominative singular and of the genitive singular (the latter in Ionic and epic form).
[1] Same glossing in other lexica; references at Photius alpha271 Theodoridis.
[2] From beta 457.
[3] Greek Anthology 6.13.1-2 (Leonidas of Tarentum), already at alpha 347 and (in part) at omicron 234; a fowler, a hunter, and a fisherman dedicate nets to Pan; cf. Gow and Page, vol. I (122) and vol. II (356).
[4] Greek Anthology 6.57.3-4 (Paul the Silentiary); cf. alphaiota 18 and kappa 1144.
References:
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge 1965)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge 1965)
Keywords: agriculture; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; poetry; religion; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:55:32.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; added keywords; cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@09:51:55.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:04:22.
Catharine Roth (tweaks, cosmetics, cross-reference) on 29 October 2009@10:02:12.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 8 January 2012@09:30:35.
David Whitehead on 19 August 2013@04:40:43.
David Whitehead (my typo) on 9 April 2015@11:10:11.
Ronald Allen (expanded primary note, expanded and rearranged n.3, added bibliography) on 18 December 2018@12:37:09.
Catharine Roth (expanded note 4) on 18 December 2018@13:34:22.

Headword: Ἀγροῦ πυγή
Adler number: alpha,371
Translated headword: rump of the country; fat of the land
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to the comfortably-off and those attending perseveringly to some kind of task.
Greek Original:
Ἀγροῦ πυγή: ἐπὶ τῶν λιπαρῶν καὶ ἐπιμόνως ᾡτινιοῦν ἔργῳ προσκαθημένων.
Notes:
The headword phrase is transmitted as ἀγροῦ πηγή , "fountain/spring of the country," in one paroemiographer (Arsenius 1.24b), but the πυγή version is otherwise standard: see Pausanias the Atticist alpha21; Hesychius alpha837; Photius, Lexicon alpha272 Theodoridis; Appendix Proverbiorum 1.4; Macarius Chrysocephalus 1.3. The phrase itself is taken to come from Old Attic Comedy: Archippus fr. 7 Demianczuk, now 29 Kassel-Austin.
As to its glossing, the Suda's λιπαρῶν (translated here as 'the comfortably-off') is elsewhere the adverb λιπαρῶς , i.e. the first of two adverbs which belong with the phrase as a whole.
Hesychius, citing Sophron, cites an alternative line of exegesis involving birds.
Keywords: agriculture; comedy; daily life; economics; imagery; proverbs; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 7 December 1998@18:47:51.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@09:56:18.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 14 April 2004@08:54:17.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:05:20.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 8 January 2012@10:34:36.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; augmented note and keywords) on 28 March 2014@07:33:03.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 2 January 2015@11:55:46.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 4 March 2016@00:33:46.

Headword: Ἀγροικίζω
Adler number: alpha,375
Translated headword: I am a boor
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Also [sc. attested is the related adjective] ἄγροικος , [meaning] senseless, ill-tempered; harsh and uneducated, or someone living in the country.[1]
But it is as a metaphor that some define rusticness as harshness of character; for "harshness" is properly applied to bodies.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀγροικίζω. καὶ Ἄγροικος, ἄφρων, δύσκολος: σκληρὸς καὶ ἀπαίδευτος, ἢ ὁ ἐν ἀγρῷ κατοικῶν. κατὰ μεταφορὰν δὲ ὁρίζονταί τινες τὴν ἀγροικίαν σκληρότητα ἤθους: ἡ γὰρ σκληρότης κυρίως ἐπὶ σωμάτων.
Notes:
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
[1] (cf. already alpha 369.) Same material in other lexica, including Timaeus' Platonic Lexicon, and cf. also the scholia to Aristophanes, Clouds 43.
[2] From Alexander of Aphrodisias, Commentaries on Aristotle's Topics 324.9-12.
Keywords: agriculture; daily life; definition; ethics; imagery; philosophy
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 March 1999@17:27:05.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added note and keyword) on 16 July 2001@10:16:22.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:05:48.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 18 October 2005@05:39:18.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 9 January 2012@04:04:01.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 21 December 2014@23:37:05.

Headword: Ἄγροικος ἐξ ἄστεος
Adler number: alpha,376
Translated headword: a rustic out of town
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
He did not make this juxtaposition idly. For he is not ashamed to call himself rustic: he insults himself as foolish and rustic in various ways; rather, first of all he is unaware that he is demonstrating his own wealth. For if he were not very rich, his wife would not have chosen him or boasted about the glory of the family and her amusements in town. We are accustomed to think badly of country-dwellers. Then he uses this antithesis that subjects him to his wife: for men always think they are masters of women. He guarantees this by the antithesis: he says he is rustic and his wife is citified. And no wonder that if a man minds his own business and lives moderately, some city girl will come along, take advantage of his rural ways, and make him her slave.
Greek Original:
Ἄγροικος ἐξ ἄστεος: οὐκ ἀργῶς τῇ παραθέσει νῦν ἐχρήσατο: οὐ γὰρ ὀνειδίσαι βουλόμενος ἑαυτὸν ἄγροικον καλεῖ: ἀνόητον γὰρ καὶ ἄγροικον παντάπασι διαβάλλειν ἑαυτόν: ἀλλὰ πρῶτον μὲν διὰ τούτου λεληθότως τὴν εὐπορίαν παρίστησι τὴν ἑαυτοῦ. οὐ γὰρ ἂν, εἰ μὴ πάνυ ἦν πλούσιος, ἐπεδικάσατο ἂν αὐτοῦ ἡ γυνὴ καὶ τῇ δόξῃ αὐχοῦσα τοῦ γένους καὶ τῇ ἐν ἄστει διατριβῇ. ἀδοξεῖν γὰρ εἰώθαμεν ἐπὶ τοῖς ἀγροίκοις. ἔπειτα δὲ κἀκείνην θεραπεύει τὴν ἀντίθεσιν τὸ ὑποτετάχθαι αὐτὸν τῇ γυναικί: δεσπόζειν γὰρ εἰώθασιν οἱ ἄνδρες τῶν γυναικῶν. ὁ δὲ τῇ ἀντιπαραθέσει καὶ τοῦτο ἐπιστώσατο, φήσας ἄγροικον αὐτὸν εἶναι, τὴν δὲ γυναῖκα πολιτικήν. θαυμαστὸν γὰρ οὐδὲν, εἰ ἄνθρωπον ἰδιοπράγμονα καὶ μέτριον τοὺς τρόπους διὰ τὴν ἐπὶ τῆς ἀγροικίας διαίταν γύναιον ὑπέταξε πολιτικὸν καὶ κατεδουλώσατο.
Note:
From the scholia to Aristophanes, Clouds 47, where the headword phrase occurs: Strepsiades is comparing himself and his city-bred wife.
Keywords: agriculture; comedy; daily life; economics; ethics; gender and sexuality; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 March 1999@17:28:52.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (added nothing) on 26 May 2000@13:34:35.
Ross Scaife ✝ (testing) on 21 June 2001@11:05:36.
David Whitehead (modified note; augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 5 February 2003@10:04:36.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:06:19.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 4 December 2005@08:33:26.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 9 January 2012@04:09:09.

Headword: Ἄγροικος ὀργήν
Adler number: alpha,377
Translated headword: boorish in anger
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Litigious, choleric, prone to anger. Aristophanes [writes]: "for we have a master who is boorish in anger."[1]
Also [sc. attested is] ἀγροίτης , [meaning] the country man.
Greek Original:
Ἄγροικος ὀργήν: φιλόδικος, ἀκρόχολος, εἰς ὀργὴν εὔκολος. Ἀριστοφάνης: νῶιν γάρ ἐστι δεσπότης ἄγροικος ὀργήν. καὶ Ἀγροίτης, ὁ ἀγρός.
Note:
[1] Aristophanes, Knights 40-41, with scholion.
Keywords: agriculture; comedy; definition; ethics; law
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 March 1999@17:30:25.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 13 February 2001@06:05:09.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:06:56.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 1 January 2006@09:43:55.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 9 January 2012@04:10:59.

Headword: Ἀγροίκου μὴ καταφρόνει ῥήτορος
Adler number: alpha,378
Translated headword: don't despise a rustic rhetor
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Said] because one should not despise even worthless things.
Greek Original:
Ἀγροίκου μὴ καταφρόνει ῥήτορος: ὅτι μηδὲ τῶν εὐτελῶν χρὴ καταφρονεῖν.
Notes:
Comica adespota fr. 627 Kock, now 947 K.-A.; Zenobius 1.15; Tosi (below) no.2104, with later material.
For "rustic" cf. alpha 375, alpha 376, alpha 377, alpha 380.
Reference:
Renzo Tosi, Dictionnaire des sentences latines et grecques, tr. Rebecca Lenoir; Paris (Millon) 2010
Keywords: agriculture; comedy; daily life; proverbs; rhetoric
Translated by: David Whitehead on 7 June 2002@03:28:00.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth on 8 June 2002@14:10:33.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword) on 10 June 2003@04:22:51.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:07:28.
David Whitehead on 9 January 2012@04:12:59.
David Whitehead on 14 August 2012@08:36:49.
Catharine Roth (tweak) on 15 August 2012@01:46:49.
David Whitehead on 29 December 2014@03:37:41.
David Whitehead on 12 July 2015@03:59:06.

Headword: Ἀγροιώτης
Adler number: alpha,380
Translated headword: rustic
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The farming people, the one[s] in the country.[1]
"To this rustic, single-storthynx Priapos."[2] For a storthynx is the point of the spear or the iron [part] of a missile.[3]
But the feminine form [is] ἀγροιῶτις with an "i".
Greek Original:
Ἀγροιώτης: ὁ γεωργικὸς λεὼς, ὁ ἐν ἀγρῷ. ἀγροιώτᾳ τῷδε μονοστόρθυγγι Πριήπῳ. στόρθυγξ γὰρ τὸ ἄκρον τοῦ δόρατος ἢ τὸ τοῦ βέλους σιδήριον. θηλυκῶς δὲ Ἀγροιῶτις διὰ τοῦ ι.
Notes:
The headword adjective ἀγροιώτης is illustrated (in its Doric form) by the quotation given.
[1] This second gloss also occurs, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.22.5 (Zonas), a dedication to Priapus by an unnamed custodian of an orchard, quoted more fully at pi 2275; cf. Gow and Page (vol. I, 380-381; and vol. II, 413-414) and further extracts from this epigram at alpha 4049, alpha 2663, pi 1555, pi 2275, and rho 318. Gow and Page (vol. II, 414) note that the headword -- used attributively in the epigram in the dative singular -- is also an epithet for Priapus (Priapos; cf. pi 2275, pi 2276, and pi 2277).
[3] From sigma 1144. Despite this military gloss, however, "single-storthynx" has another meaning in the poem: "carved out of a single block" (LSJ s.v.).
References:
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: The Garland of Philip and Some Contemporary Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge, 1968)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: The Garland of Philip and Some Contemporary Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge, 1968)
Keywords: agriculture; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; military affairs; poetry; religion; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 March 1999@17:48:50.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 13 February 2001@06:20:52.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@11:09:04.
David Whitehead (more notes; another keyword) on 9 January 2012@04:19:40.
Ronald Allen (expanded n.2, added bibliography, added cross-references, added keyword) on 21 November 2018@22:49:29.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 22 November 2018@01:42:15.
Ronald Allen (further expanded n.2, added cross-references) on 23 November 2018@22:13:33.

Headword: Ἀδηλώσας
Adler number: alpha,460
Translated headword: having disguised, having obfuscated
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning he] having made [someone or something] unrecognizable.
"Having disguised himself with a dirty cloak and taken a scythe as a worker on the land would [sc. wear/carry ...]."[1]
Greek Original:
Ἀδηλώσας: ἀγνώριστον ποιήσας. ὁ δὲ ἀδηλώσας ἑαυτὸν πιναρᾷ στολῇ καὶ λαβὼν δρέπανον ὡς ἂν γῆς ἐργάτης.
Notes:
The headword is aorist active participle (masculine nominative singular) of the verb ἀδηλόω . It is probably (though not demonstrably) extracted from the quotation which follows.
[1] Quotation not identified by Adler, beyond the suggestion that it be attributed to Aelian. In fact Favuzzi [see under alpha 1518] 53-54, citing earlier work by Bruhn and others, plausibly regards it as the first half of a passage of Aelian (about Kodros) that continues at chi 208 (q.v.).
Keywords: agriculture; biography; clothing; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; history; mythology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 19 March 2001@10:52:04.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 20 March 2001@03:32:38.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; augmented notes and keywords) on 13 August 2006@08:18:38.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 21 February 2011@05:11:55.
David Whitehead (tweaked and expanded n.1) on 9 October 2011@06:52:18.
David Whitehead on 10 January 2012@07:36:34.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 19 April 2015@10:49:36.

Headword: Ἀδώνιδος κῆποι
Adler number: alpha,517
Translated headword: Adonis' gardens
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Made] out of lettuce and fennel, which they used to sow in earthenware pots. They apply the proverb to the superficial and shallow.[1]
Adonis' gardens: in reference to things that are untimely and transitory and have not taken root.[2]
Greek Original:
Ἀδώνιδος κῆποι: ἐκ θριδάκων καὶ μαράθρων, ἅπερ κατέσπειρον ἐν ὀστράκοις. χρῶνται δ' ἐπὶ τῶν ἐπιπολαίων καὶ κούφων τῇ παροιμίᾳ. Ἀδώνιδος κῆποι: ἐπὶ τῶν ἀώρων καὶ ὀλιγοχρονίων καὶ μὴ ἐρριζωμένων.
Notes:
See already alpha 514 (and under alpha 515), and again alpha 807.
For the Adonis festival (celebrated by women in Athens and elsewhere) which lies behind this entry, see in brief W. Burkert, Greek Religion (Harvard UP) 177; OCD(4) p.12.
[1] Similar material in Photius and Hesychius.
[2] From the scholia to Plato, Phaedrus 276B; cf. Diogenianus 1.14.
Reference:
Marcel Detienne, The Gardens of Adonis (1977; edn.2, 1994)
Keywords: agriculture; botany; daily life; definition; ethics; mythology; philosophy; proverbs; religion; women
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 16 March 2001@23:58:31.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added note, bibliography, keywords) on 17 March 2001@08:02:03.
Catharine Roth (added italics and keyword) on 9 October 2005@00:22:07.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 11 January 2012@08:05:36.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@03:07:40.

Headword: Ἀεὶ γεωργὸς ἐς νέωτα πλούσιος
Adler number: alpha,608
Translated headword: a farmer is always rich tomorrow
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. A proverbial saying] in reference to those always nurturing a hope of escaping terrors, but falling into the same ones again.
Greek Original:
Ἀεὶ γεωργὸς ἐς νέωτα πλούσιος: ἐπὶ τῶν ἐλπίδι μὲν ἀεὶ τρεφομένων ἀπαλλάττεσθαι τῶν δεινῶν, τοῖς αὐτοῖς δὲ πάλιν περιπιπτόντων.
Notes:
Philemon fr. 82 Kock, now 85 Kassel-Austin; also in Photius; and see Zenobius 2.43. (For 'tomorrow' cf. nu 241.)
This sentiment, which breathes a belief and trust in the future, is a common simile in ancient poetry. Besides Philemon (above), witness e.g. Tibullus: "credula vitam/ spes fovet et fore cras semper ait melius."(Tib. Elegies vi. 19 - 20).
Reference:
Tibullus. Elegies II, ed. Paul Murgatroyd. Oxford: Clarendon 1994, 94
Keywords: agriculture; comedy; daily life; economics; imagery; poetry; proverbs
Translated by: Carl Widstrand on 2 February 2000@11:49:27.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword, translation, notes; added keywords) on 14 February 2001@04:07:01.
David Whitehead (augmented note) on 6 March 2003@10:18:16.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@10:58:19.
Catharine Roth (added keyword) on 19 October 2005@11:32:49.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 20 October 2005@03:12:26.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 August 2006@04:52:01.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 12 January 2012@08:08:54.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 1 January 2015@07:45:00.

Headword: Ἀθέρες
Adler number: alpha,719
Translated headword: chaff, stalks
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A type of grain.
Greek Original:
Ἀθέρες: εἶδος σπέρματος.
Notes:
Same entry in ps.-Zonaras and, according to Adler, the Ambrosian Lexicon (703); more informatively in e.g. Apollonius' Homeric Lexicon. The headword, nominative plural of the masculine noun ἀθήρ , might be quoted from somewhere but, in an entry of this kind, does not have to have been.
Actually the stalks of cereals like wheat or barley. Mentioned from Hesiod onwards; see e.g. Xenophon, Oeconomicus 18.1 ("chaff and stalks") at web address 1 below.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: agriculture; botany; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; food; poetry
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 16 February 2000@17:48:14.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 14 May 2002@07:42:46.
Jennifer Benedict (added link and keyword) on 19 March 2008@14:37:19.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 19 January 2012@06:15:52.
David Whitehead on 1 May 2015@09:09:35.

Headword: Ἀθηναίων δυσβουλία
Adler number: alpha,732
Translated headword: Athenians' ill-counsel
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to those who prosper against expectations and undeservedly.[1]
For taking decisions badly is practiced by Athenians; Athena offers to turn that which has been decided badly to good; and this was a local saying. Also Eupolis [writes]: "better to be prosperous than to think well."[2] And Aristophanes in Clouds [writes]: "for they say that ill counsel comes to this city, but in whatever things you err, the gods will turn them for the better".[3]
The Athenians are said to be autochthonous, [as are] Arcadians and Aeginetans and Thebans, either since they were the first to work the soil [chthon], namely the earth, or on account of their not being incomers.[4]
Greek Original:
Ἀθηναίων δυσβουλία: ἐπὶ τῶν παρ' ἐλπίδας καὶ ἀναξίως εὐτυχούντων. τὸ γὰρ κακῶς βουλεύεσθαι Ἀθηναίοις ἤσκητο: τὴν δὲ Ἀθηνᾶν παρασχεῖν τὸ κακῶς βουλευθὲν ἀποκλῖναι καλῶς: καὶ ἦν τοῦτο λεγόμενον ἐπιχώριον. καὶ Εὔπολις: ὡς εὐτυχεῖν μᾶλλον ἢ καλῶς φρονεῖν. καὶ Ἀριστοφάνης Νεφέλαις: φασὶ γὰρ δυσβουλίαν τῇδε τῇ πόλει προσεῖναι. ταῦτα μέντοι τοὺς θεοὺς ἅττ' ἂν ὑμεῖς ἐξαμάρτητε, ἐπὶ τὸ βέλτιον τρέπειν. ὅτι αὐτόχθονες οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι ἐλέγοντο καὶ Ἀρκάδες καὶ Αἰγινῆται καὶ Θηβαῖοι, ἢ ἐπεὶ τὴν χθόνα, ἤτοι τὴν γῆν, ἀργὴν οὖσαν πρῶτοι εἰργάσαντο, ἢ διὰ τὸ μὴ εἶναι αὐτοὺς ἐπήλυδας.
Notes:
[1] Mantissa Proverbiorum 1.3. (For 'ill-counsel' alone, see delta 1601.)
[2] Eupolis fr. 205 Kock, now 219 K.-A.
[3] Aristophanes, Clouds 587-9 (web address 1 below), with scholion; cf. gamma 195.
[4] This additional material, inappropriate here, comes from alpha 4536.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: aetiology; agriculture; comedy; daily life; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; geography; history; proverbs; religion
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 5 November 2000@21:07:57.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword, translation, keywords; added note; cosmetics) on 6 November 2000@04:49:26.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 9 October 2005@11:16:31.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 14 May 2006@06:38:05.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 20 January 2012@04:15:23.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 21 January 2012@01:26:43.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 30 December 2014@00:16:09.
David Whitehead on 30 December 2014@02:57:21.
David Whitehead on 31 December 2014@03:06:19.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 1 May 2015@10:14:10.

Headword: Ἀθηρηλοιγός
Adler number: alpha,736
Translated headword: chaff-consuming
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Referring to] the winnowing-fan, the thing that is destroying the chaff.
Greek Original:
Ἀθηρηλοιγός: τὸ πτύον τὸ τοὺς ἀθέρας ὀλοθρεῦον.
Note:
Similarly in other lexica, including Apollonius' Homeric Lexicon. From the scholia to Homer, Odyssey 11.128 (web address 1 below), where the headword occurs; again at 23.275 (web address 2 below).
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: agriculture; botany; daily life; definition; epic; imagery
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 4 December 1999@15:57:33.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 15 June 2001@06:17:09.
Jennifer Benedict (added links) on 19 March 2008@14:44:51.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 20 January 2012@04:25:51.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 21 January 2012@00:41:10.
David Whitehead on 1 May 2015@10:40:34.

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