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Headword: Abel
Adler number: alpha,30
Translated headword: Abel
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Son of Adam.[1] This man was chaste and just from the beginning and a shepherd of flocks; out of these he offered a sacrifice to God and was accepted, but was then killed because he was envied by his brother Cain.[2] Cain happened to be a farmer and after the judgement he lived worse, with groaning and trembling. For Abel, by dedicating the firstborn [of the flock] to God, recommended himself as more God-loving than self-loving,[3] and because this was a good choice, he was accepted. But Cain impiously kept his first-fruits for himself and gave the seconds to God, and for this reason was rightly rejected. For it says: "and after some days it happened that Cain offered from the fruits of the earth."[4] Cain was disgraced by the fact that the produce he offered was not the first-fruits but that which was some days old and second-best.
Greek Original:
Abel: huios Adam. houtos parthenos kai dikaios hupêrche kai poimên probatôn: ex hôn kai thusian tôi theôi prosagagôn kai dechtheis anaireitai, phthonêtheis hupo tou adelphou autou Kaïn. ho Kaïn de geôrgos tunchanôn kai meta tên dikên cheironôs biôsas stenôn kai tremôn ên. ho gar Abel ta prôtotoka tôi theôi kathierôn philotheon mallon ê philauton heauton sunistê, hothen kai dia tês agathês autou proaireseôs apedechthê. ho de Kaïn dussebôs heautôi aponemôn ta prôtogennêmata, theôi de ta deutera, eikotôs kai apeblêthê. phêsi gar: kai egeneto meth' hêmeras, prosênenke Kaïn apo tôn karpôn tês gês. hôste dia touto Kaïn elenchetai, hoti mê ta akrothinia gennêmata prosênenke tôi theôi, alla ta meth' hêmeras kai deutera.
Notes:
George the Monk, Chronicon 6.10-7.16.
[1] alpha 425.
[2] kappa 27.
[3] Again at sigma 1580.
[4] Genesis 4:3.
Keywords: agriculture; biography; botany; Christianity; daily life; ethics; food; historiography; religion; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:57:27.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, keywords, set status) on 27 January 2001@12:23:00.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 27 February 2003@08:28:31.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 8 September 2003@06:15:32.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@10:57:50.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics; raised status) on 22 June 2011@07:14:12.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 29 August 2012@10:24:09.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 August 2013@01:03:34.

Headword: Agelaiôn
Adler number: alpha,188
Translated headword: pasture
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the herd's place.
Greek Original:
Agelaiôn: ho topos tês agelês.
Note:
This noun is attested only in lexicography (besides here, in ps.-Zonaras and, according to Adler, the Ambrosian Lexicon), but cf. generally alpha 183, alpha 186, alpha 187, etc.
Keywords: agriculture; definition; geography; zoology
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 4 June 1999@15:21:21.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note) on 25 April 2002@09:49:13.
Catharine Roth (augmented note, added keywords, raised status) on 12 October 2007@01:00:34.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@06:17:58.
David Whitehead (my typo) on 5 April 2015@10:26:30.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 April 2015@23:26:17.

Headword: Agein kai pherein
Adler number: alpha,209
Translated headword: to plunder and to pillage
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Marauding and despoiling. But a)gein [can mean], without distinction, both to carry away things, even from dead bodies, and to gather [them].[1]
"When [Baian] crossed to the land opposite the stream, immediately he set fire to the villages of the Slavs and laid waste to their fields. He plundered and pillaged everything, and at that point none of the barbarians there dared to come to blows with him; instead they took refuge in the most overgrown and sheltered parts of the woods".[2]
Greek Original:
Agein kai pherein: to lêisteuein kai harpazein. agein de kai apagein chrêmata kai epi apsuchôn kai komizein adiaphorôs. ho de epei eperaiôthê es to kat' antikru tou rheithrou, parachrêma tas te kômas enepimpra tôn Sklabênôn kai esineto tous agrous, êge te kai epheren hapanta, oudenos pô tôn ekeise barbarôn tharrêsantos hoi eis cheiras elthein, eis ta lasia kai katêrephê tês hulês katapepheugotôn.
Notes:
[1] Same or similar material in other lexica; references at Photius alpha139 Theodoridis. For the idiom, see also alpha 293 and epsilon 427.
[2] Part of Menander Protector fr. 21 Blockley. For the Slavs (Sklavenoi) see generally sigma 634.
Keywords: agriculture; biography; definition; geography; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 October 2000@13:28:47.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 23 October 2000@06:18:52.
David Whitehead (added x-ref and keyword) on 5 December 2003@10:27:09.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:01:12.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; augmented and updated notes; more keywords) on 3 January 2012@04:35:39.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@06:46:28.
Catharine Roth (cross-references) on 17 December 2016@01:01:54.

Headword: Agnôtas
Adler number: alpha,287
Translated headword: unknown
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning them] not being recognized.[1] "He brought a man unknown to me, who also happened to be unknown to him."[2]
"They had just left farming and entered into the danger of war, which was previously unknown to them."[3]
And elsewhere: "naming what was the price to give herself to an unknown man." Aelian says [this] in On Forethought.[4]
For agnos, [genitive] agnotos, [means] unknown [agnostos].
Greek Original:
Agnôtas: mê epiginôskomenous. agnôta de moi prosekomizen anthrôpon, hos kai heautou agnôs etunchanen ôn. hoi de arti tês geôrgias aphemenoi, es kindunon tou polemou katestêsan, agnôta sphisi ta protera onta. kai authis: phaskousa einai misthôma to heautên parabalein andri agnôti. phêsin Ailianos en tôi Peri pronoias. Agnôs gar agnôtos, ho agnôstos.
Notes:
The first part of this entry is also in Photius (alpha219 Theodoridis), the second part in other lexica.
[1] Masculine accusative plural, evidently quoted from somwhere (other than the quotation given); there are numerous possibilities.
[2] Quotation unidentifiable.
[3] Procopius, History of the Wars of Justinian 1.18.39.
[4] Aelian fr. 12b Domingo-Forasté (12 Hercher); again at mu 1123, pi 274, and pi 2648.
Keywords: agriculture; biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; gender and sexuality; historiography; history; military affairs; women
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 17 March 2001@23:31:54.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes; added keywords) on 18 March 2001@03:42:00.
David Whitehead (restorative cosmetics) on 22 December 2002@07:32:13.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@11:07:45.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 5 December 2005@08:41:06.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@07:57:28.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 4) on 28 January 2012@20:16:50.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@08:39:02.

Headword: Agonôn choôn
Adler number: alpha,297
Translated headword: [than] unfruitful drink-offerings
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
It is used in two ways.[1]
The Theologian says [this]; that is, [more pious] than the offerings which are poured for the dead and are therefore unfruitful.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] a)goni/a, barrenness.[3]
"That Artemis was angered and that she attacked with sterility of the earth as punishment."[4]
Greek Original:
Agonôn choôn. diphoreitai ho Theologos phêsi: toutesti tôn epi tois nekrois cheomenôn kai dia touto agonôn. kai Agonia, hê aphoria. tên Artemin mênisai kai metelthein dikaiousan autên gês agoniai.
Notes:
[1] This comment (a single word in the Greek; in ms A only, Adler reports) perhaps refers to the active and passive senses of the adjective ("not bearing" and "not born"): see LSJ entry at web address 1, and again at alpha 337.
[2] Scholion on Gregory of Nazianzus (PG 36.378b), who does use the headword phrase.
[3] See already alpha 295.
[4] Aelian fr. 49d Domingo-Forasté (46 Hercher); cf. delta 1079.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: aetiology; agriculture; botany; Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; religion
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 12 February 2001@11:03:29.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Raised status) on 12 February 2001@19:54:21.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@08:08:46.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; augmented note 2) on 14 April 2004@07:29:21.
David Whitehead (tweak) on 25 July 2006@07:01:45.
David Whitehead (another x-ref; more keywords; cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@09:03:04.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 4) on 29 January 2012@22:33:54.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1; cosmetics) on 9 April 2015@08:51:08.

Headword: Agrauloi
Adler number: alpha,341
Translated headword: field-dwelling
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] those passing the night or camping in a field.[1]
Greek Original:
Agrauloi: hoi en agrôi dianuktereuontes ê aulizomenoi.
Notes:
Same or similar entry in other lexica; references at Photius alpha250 Theodoridis. The headword is nominative plural of the adjective a)/graulos (see generally LSJ s.v.) and is quoted either from Homer, Odyssey 10.410 (heifers) or from Hesiod, Theogony 26 (shepherds) -- both of which have glosses, in their scholia, very like the present one.
[1] Or: "in the countryside".
Keywords: agriculture; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 30 September 1998@16:58:13.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword; added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@08:23:56.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@07:22:59.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 19 August 2013@04:29:22.

Headword: Agreia aoidê
Adler number: alpha,350
Translated headword: rustic song
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The rural [kind].[1]
"He stretched the hide down a rustic plane tree." In the Epigrams.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] a)grei=os, [meaning] the yokel, the ignoramus.[3]
Or someone from the country.
Aristophanes in Clouds [writes]: "you are rustic and clumsy."[4]
The rustic and possessor of a large beard.[5]
And elsewhere: "it's particularly vulgar to see a poet who is rustic and hairy."[6]
Greek Original:
Agreia aoidê: hê agroikikê. to skutos agreiês t' eine kata platanou. en Epigrammasi. kai Agreios, ho agroikos, ho amathês. ê ho apo tou agrou. Aristophanês Nephelais: agreios ei kai skaios. ho agroikos kai megan pôgôna echôn. kai authis: allôs t' amouson esti poiêtên idein agreion onta kai dasun.
Notes:
[1] The headword phrase is presumably quoted from somewhere.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.35.2 (Leonidas of Tarentum), a rustic dedication to Pan; cf. Gow and Page, vol. I (122) and vol. II (356-357); cf. further extracts from this epigram at alpha 325, alphaiota 210, gamma 73, lambda 189, rho 72, and tau 264. The plane tree of the epigram, pla/tanos, is almost certainly the Old World or Asiatic Plane, Platanus orientalis, whose range extends from Asia into Greece and the eastern Mediterranean; cf. Raven (24, 70).
[3] From the scholia to Aristophanes, Clouds 655, about to be quoted.
[4] Aristophanes, Clouds 655.
[5] From the scholia to Aristophanes, Thesmophoriazusae 160, about to be quoted.
[6] Aristophanes, Thesmophoriazusae 159-160 (copied here from alpha 1633).
References:
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge 1965)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge 1965)
J.E. Raven, Plants and Plant Lore in Ancient Greece, (Oxford 2000)
Keywords: agriculture; botany; clothing; comedy; definition; ethics; meter and music; poetry; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:33:29.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added keywords; cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@09:09:20.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:02:12.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@08:01:32.
David Whitehead (x-ref) on 6 January 2012@08:05:59.
Ronald Allen (tweaked translation, expanded n.2, added bibliography, added cross-references, added keyword) on 8 November 2018@20:53:37.
Ronald Allen (better wording n.2) on 15 November 2018@18:19:23.

Headword: Agreiphna
Adler number: alpha,351
Translated headword: rake, harrow
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A farm tool, with which they collect hay. "Alkimos [dedicated] his toothless rake and a share of a noise-loving shovel bereft of its olivewood handle."[1]
Greek Original:
Agreiphna: geôrgikon ergaleion, di' hou sunagousi ton chorton. alkimos agreiphnan kenodontida kai philodoupou pharsos hama steleou chêron elaïneou.
Notes:
Feminine noun, also found in the form a)gri/fh (alpha 365).
[1] An approximation of Greek Anthology 6.297.1-2 (Phanias), a dedication of agricultural implements to Athena, again (in part) at phi 116; cf. Gow and Page, vol. I (162-163) and vol. II (470-471); cf. further extracts from this epigram at alpha 3945 and kappa 2794. The opening word is a proper name. Here the translation adopts Toup's emendation (cf. Gow and Page, vol. I, 162) and reads a)/mas [cf. alpha 1574] for the Suda's a(/ma; cf. phi 116. The verb is supplied in translation here from line 6.
References:
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge 1965)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge 1965)
Keywords: agriculture; botany; daily life; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; poetry; religion; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:34:30.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@08:27:51.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@11:08:14.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; added primary note and more keywords; cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@08:20:25.
David Whitehead on 6 January 2012@08:21:15.
David Whitehead on 8 January 2012@09:17:43.
Ronald Allen (betacode typo n.1, expanded and rearranged n.1, added bibliography, added cross-references, added keywords) on 22 December 2018@23:31:13.
Ronald Allen (my punctuation error n.1) on 25 December 2018@12:59:02.

Headword: Agridion
Adler number: alpha,355
Translated headword: little field
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[no gloss]
Greek Original:
Agridion.
Notes:
The diminutive of a)gro/s; see generally LSJ s.v.
The equivalent entry in Hesychius does include glossing: kwma/rion, xwri/on.
Keywords: agriculture; dialects, grammar, and etymology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:39:14.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword; added note; cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@07:28:34.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 8 January 2012@07:48:17.

Headword: Agriphê
Adler number: alpha,365
Translated headword: rake, harrow
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] a fork,[1] a farm tool with multiple protrusions.
Greek Original:
Agriphê: dikella, skeuos geôrgikon polugomphon.
Notes:
See already alpha 351, with a simpler gloss. The additions in the present one are also in Eudemus; it is not certain that they reflect any real grasp of what this tool looked like.
[1] Or, mattock, pickaxe; cf. delta 1087.
Keywords: agriculture; daily life; dialects, grammar, and etymology; science and technology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:49:24.
Vetted by:
Shannon N. Byrne on 20 May 2000@18:55:28.
David Whitehead (modified translation; added note and keyword) on 16 July 2001@09:40:06.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@11:08:39.
David Whitehead (expanded notes; tweaking) on 9 April 2015@11:00:02.

Headword: Agroleteira
Adler number: alpha,366
Translated headword: land-waster
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. An epithet of] Artemis.
Greek Original:
Agroleteira: hê Artemis.
Note:
Attested as such only here and in some other lexica; elsewhere applied to (e.g.) locusts.
Keywords: agriculture; imagery; religion; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:50:05.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@06:54:26.
David Whitehead (modified and augmented note; augmented keywords) on 14 April 2004@08:42:25.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:02:58.
David Whitehead (tweaked note) on 8 January 2012@09:19:28.

Headword: Agronomoi
Adler number: alpha,368
Translated headword: country-dwellers
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Those living in the country.[1]
"Singing cicada drunk on dewdrops, you celebrate the country-dwelling Muse who sings in solitude." In the Epigrams.[2]
Greek Original:
Agronomoi: hoi en agrois diagontes. êchêeis tettix droserais stagonesi methustheis, agronomon melpeis mousan erêmolalon. en Epigrammasi.
Notes:
[1] The headword is nominative plural masculine or feminine, but the glosses are unambiguously masculine. Up to this point the entry = an entry in the rhetorical lexicon of Eudemus (4b.47 Niese), Synagoge (Codex B) alpha195, Photius alpha270. Hesychius alpha825 has the same headword and gloss in the genitive case. The source for the lemma is unknown, though its presence in Eudemus suggests a rhetorical source. It occurs in Homer, Odyssey 6.106, but as a feminine adjective, and is accordingly given feminine glosses in the scholia.
[2] Greek Anthology 7.196.1-2 (Meleager [Author, Myth]), an invitation to a cicada to make music; cf. Gow and Page, vol. I (220) and vol. II (616-617). A further quotation from this epigram appears at kappa 2232. LaPenna theorized (93-112) that the rural setting and the singing cicada, among other thematic coincidences, showed that Meleager drew upon Plato, Phaedrus 229A-230C and 259 (web address 1) for inspiration. But there are also inconsistencies, such as the cicada's inebriation from drinking dewdrops, which appears to be novel in the epigram (Gow and Page, vol. II 616). Consequently, neither these authors (ibid.) nor Dorsey (138) were convinced by LaPenna's argument.
References:
Niese, B., ed. (1922) ”Excerpta ex Eudemi codice Parisino n. 2635," Philologus, suppl. 15.
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge 1965)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge 1965)
A. LaPenna, "Marginalia et Hariolationes Philologae," Maia 5 (1952)
D.F. Dorsey, "The Cicada's Song in Anthologia Palatina vii. 196," Classical Review 20 (June 1970) 137-139
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: agriculture; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; food; imagery; meter and music; philosophy; poetry; rhetoric; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:51:42.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@09:57:11.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:03:50.
Catharine Roth (augmented notes, raised status) on 23 May 2008@11:10:31.
David Whitehead (augmented n.1; another keyword) on 25 May 2008@06:49:49.
William Hutton (modified notes, typo, added keywords) on 22 July 2009@15:39:42.
David Whitehead (tweaked note; more keywords) on 8 January 2012@09:21:35.
William Hutton (updated reference) on 21 August 2013@10:12:23.
Ronald Allen (expanded n.2, added bibliography items, added keywords) on 26 December 2018@22:23:10.

Headword: Agrotas
Adler number: alpha,369
Translated headword: countrymen, rurals
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] rustics.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the nominative singular] a)gro/ths ["countryman"], [meaning] he who lives in the country.
"But you were bent over like a drunken countryman."[2] And in the Epigrams: "the three kinsmen dedicated these nets, o rural Pan, each from a different hunt."[3] But the feminine form [is] a)gro/tis. In the Epigrams: "Teucer the Arab dedicated a lion's skin and his own rustic spear."[4]
Greek Original:
Agrotas: agroikous. kai Agrotês: ho en agrôi diaitômenos. all' hôs paroinos agrotês aneklithês. kai en Epigrammasi: hoi trissoi toi tauta ta diktua thêkan homaimoi agrota Pan, allos allês ap' agresiês. thêlukon de Agrotis. en Epigrammasi: antheto derma leontos Teukros Araps, kautên agrotin aiganean.
Notes:
The headword is a masculine noun in the accusative plural, evidently quoted from somewhere. Here, the first two quotations provide, respectively, instances of the nominative singular and of the genitive singular (the latter in Ionic and epic form).
[1] Same glossing in other lexica; references at Photius alpha271 Theodoridis.
[2] From beta 457.
[3] Greek Anthology 6.13.1-2 (Leonidas of Tarentum), already at alpha 347 and (in part) at omicron 234; a fowler, a hunter, and a fisherman dedicate nets to Pan; cf. Gow and Page, vol. I (122) and vol. II (356).
[4] Greek Anthology 6.57.3-4 (Paul the Silentiary); cf. alphaiota 18 and kappa 1144.
References:
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge 1965)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge 1965)
Keywords: agriculture; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; poetry; religion; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:55:32.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; added keywords; cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@09:51:55.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:04:22.
Catharine Roth (tweaks, cosmetics, cross-reference) on 29 October 2009@10:02:12.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 8 January 2012@09:30:35.
David Whitehead on 19 August 2013@04:40:43.
David Whitehead (my typo) on 9 April 2015@11:10:11.
Ronald Allen (expanded primary note, expanded and rearranged n.3, added bibliography) on 18 December 2018@12:37:09.
Catharine Roth (expanded note 4) on 18 December 2018@13:34:22.

Headword: Agrou pugê
Adler number: alpha,371
Translated headword: rump of the country; fat of the land
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to the comfortably-off and those attending perseveringly to some kind of task.
Greek Original:
Agrou pugê: epi tôn liparôn kai epimonôs hôitinioun ergôi proskathêmenôn.
Notes:
The headword phrase is transmitted as a)grou= phgh/, "fountain/spring of the country," in one paroemiographer (Arsenius 1.24b), but the pugh/ version is otherwise standard: see Pausanias the Atticist alpha21; Hesychius alpha837; Photius, Lexicon alpha272 Theodoridis; Appendix Proverbiorum 1.4; Macarius Chrysocephalus 1.3. The phrase itself is taken to come from Old Attic Comedy: Archippus fr. 7 Demianczuk, now 29 Kassel-Austin.
As to its glossing, the Suda's liparw=n (translated here as 'the comfortably-off') is elsewhere the adverb liparw=s, i.e. the first of two adverbs which belong with the phrase as a whole.
Hesychius, citing Sophron, cites an alternative line of exegesis involving birds.
Keywords: agriculture; comedy; daily life; economics; imagery; proverbs; zoology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 7 December 1998@18:47:51.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 16 July 2001@09:56:18.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 14 April 2004@08:54:17.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:05:20.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 8 January 2012@10:34:36.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; augmented note and keywords) on 28 March 2014@07:33:03.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 2 January 2015@11:55:46.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 4 March 2016@00:33:46.

Headword: Agroikizô
Adler number: alpha,375
Translated headword: I am a boor
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Also [sc. attested is the related adjective] a)/groikos, [meaning] senseless, ill-tempered; harsh and uneducated, or someone living in the country.[1]
But it is as a metaphor that some define rusticness as harshness of character; for "harshness" is properly applied to bodies.[2]
Greek Original:
Agroikizô. kai Agroikos, aphrôn, duskolos: sklêros kai apaideutos, ê ho en agrôi katoikôn. kata metaphoran de horizontai tines tên agroikian sklêrotêta êthous: hê gar sklêrotês kuriôs epi sômatôn.
Notes:
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
[1] (cf. already alpha 369.) Same material in other lexica, including Timaeus' Platonic Lexicon, and cf. also the scholia to Aristophanes, Clouds 43.
[2] From Alexander of Aphrodisias, Commentaries on Aristotle's Topics 324.9-12.
Keywords: agriculture; daily life; definition; ethics; imagery; philosophy
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 March 1999@17:27:05.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added note and keyword) on 16 July 2001@10:16:22.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:05:48.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 18 October 2005@05:39:18.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 9 January 2012@04:04:01.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 21 December 2014@23:37:05.

Headword: Agroikos ex asteos
Adler number: alpha,376
Translated headword: a rustic out of town
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
He did not make this juxtaposition idly. For he is not ashamed to call himself rustic: he insults himself as foolish and rustic in various ways; rather, first of all he is unaware that he is demonstrating his own wealth. For if he were not very rich, his wife would not have chosen him or boasted about the glory of the family and her amusements in town. We are accustomed to think badly of country-dwellers. Then he uses this antithesis that subjects him to his wife: for men always think they are masters of women. He guarantees this by the antithesis: he says he is rustic and his wife is citified. And no wonder that if a man minds his own business and lives moderately, some city girl will come along, take advantage of his rural ways, and make him her slave.
Greek Original:
Agroikos ex asteos: ouk argôs têi parathesei nun echrêsato: ou gar oneidisai boulomenos heauton agroikon kalei: anoêton gar kai agroikon pantapasi diaballein heauton: alla prôton men dia toutou lelêthotôs tên euporian paristêsi tên heautou. ou gar an, ei mê panu ên plousios, epedikasato an autou hê gunê kai têi doxêi auchousa tou genous kai têi en astei diatribêi. adoxein gar eiôthamen epi tois agroikois. epeita de kakeinên therapeuei tên antithesin to hupotetachthai auton têi gunaiki: despozein gar eiôthasin hoi andres tôn gunaikôn. ho de têi antiparathesei kai touto epistôsato, phêsas agroikon auton einai, tên de gunaika politikên. thaumaston gar ouden, ei anthrôpon idiopragmona kai metrion tous tropous dia tên epi tês agroikias diaitan gunaion hupetaxe politikon kai katedoulôsato.
Note:
From the scholia to Aristophanes, Clouds 47, where the headword phrase occurs: Strepsiades is comparing himself and his city-bred wife.
Keywords: agriculture; comedy; daily life; economics; ethics; gender and sexuality; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 March 1999@17:28:52.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (added nothing) on 26 May 2000@13:34:35.
Ross Scaife ✝ (testing) on 21 June 2001@11:05:36.
David Whitehead (modified note; augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 5 February 2003@10:04:36.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:06:19.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 4 December 2005@08:33:26.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 9 January 2012@04:09:09.

Headword: Agroikos orgên
Adler number: alpha,377
Translated headword: boorish in anger
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Litigious, choleric, prone to anger. Aristophanes [writes]: "for we have a master who is boorish in anger."[1]
Also [sc. attested is] a)groi/ths, [meaning] the country man.
Greek Original:
Agroikos orgên: philodikos, akrocholos, eis orgên eukolos. Aristophanês: nôin gar esti despotês agroikos orgên. kai Agroitês, ho agros.
Note:
[1] Aristophanes, Knights 40-41, with scholion.
Keywords: agriculture; comedy; definition; ethics; law
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 March 1999@17:30:25.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 13 February 2001@06:05:09.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:06:56.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 1 January 2006@09:43:55.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 9 January 2012@04:10:59.

Headword: Agroikou kataphronei rhêtoros
Adler number: alpha,378
Translated headword: don't despise a rustic rhetor
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Said] because one should not despise even worthless things.
Greek Original:
Agroikou mê kataphronei rhêtoros: hoti mêde tôn eutelôn chrê kataphronein.
Notes:
Comica adespota fr. 627 Kock, now 947 K.-A.; Zenobius 1.15; Tosi (below) no.2104, with later material.
For "rustic" cf. alpha 375, alpha 376, alpha 377, alpha 380.
Reference:
Renzo Tosi, Dictionnaire des sentences latines et grecques, tr. Rebecca Lenoir; Paris (Millon) 2010
Keywords: agriculture; comedy; daily life; proverbs; rhetoric
Translated by: David Whitehead on 7 June 2002@03:28:00.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth on 8 June 2002@14:10:33.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword) on 10 June 2003@04:22:51.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@06:07:28.
David Whitehead on 9 January 2012@04:12:59.
David Whitehead on 14 August 2012@08:36:49.
Catharine Roth (tweak) on 15 August 2012@01:46:49.
David Whitehead on 29 December 2014@03:37:41.
David Whitehead on 12 July 2015@03:59:06.

Headword: Agroiôtês
Adler number: alpha,380
Translated headword: rustic
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The farming people, the one[s] in the country.[1]
"To this rustic, single-storthynx Priapos."[2] For a storthynx is the point of the spear or the iron [part] of a missile.[3]
But the feminine form [is] a)groiw=tis with an "i".
Greek Original:
Agroiôtês: ho geôrgikos leôs, ho en agrôi. agroiôtai tôide monostorthungi Priêpôi. storthunx gar to akron tou doratos ê to tou belous sidêrion. thêlukôs de Agroiôtis dia tou i.
Notes:
The headword adjective a)groiw/ths is illustrated (in its Doric form) by the quotation given.
[1] This second gloss also occurs, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.22.5 (Zonas), a dedication to Priapus by an unnamed custodian of an orchard, quoted more fully at pi 2275; cf. Gow and Page (vol. I, 380-381; and vol. II, 413-414) and further extracts from this epigram at alpha 4049, alpha 2663, pi 1555, pi 2275, and rho 318. Gow and Page (vol. II, 414) note that the headword -- used attributively in the epigram in the dative singular -- is also an epithet for Priapus (Priapos; cf. pi 2275, pi 2276, and pi 2277).
[3] From sigma 1144. Despite this military gloss, however, "single-storthynx" has another meaning in the poem: "carved out of a single block" (LSJ s.v.).
References:
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: The Garland of Philip and Some Contemporary Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge, 1968)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: The Garland of Philip and Some Contemporary Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge, 1968)
Keywords: agriculture; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; military affairs; poetry; religion; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 March 1999@17:48:50.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 13 February 2001@06:20:52.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@11:09:04.
David Whitehead (more notes; another keyword) on 9 January 2012@04:19:40.
Ronald Allen (expanded n.2, added bibliography, added cross-references, added keyword) on 21 November 2018@22:49:29.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 22 November 2018@01:42:15.
Ronald Allen (further expanded n.2, added cross-references) on 23 November 2018@22:13:33.

Headword: Adêlôsas
Adler number: alpha,460
Translated headword: having disguised, having obfuscated
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning he] having made [someone or something] unrecognizable.
"Having disguised himself with a dirty cloak and taken a scythe as a worker on the land would [sc. wear/carry ...]."[1]
Greek Original:
Adêlôsas: agnôriston poiêsas. ho de adêlôsas heauton pinarai stolêi kai labôn drepanon hôs an gês ergatês.
Notes:
The headword is aorist active participle (masculine nominative singular) of the verb a)dhlo/w. It is probably (though not demonstrably) extracted from the quotation which follows.
[1] Quotation not identified by Adler, beyond the suggestion that it be attributed to Aelian. In fact Favuzzi [see under alpha 1518] 53-54, citing earlier work by Bruhn and others, plausibly regards it as the first half of a passage of Aelian (about Kodros) that continues at chi 208 (q.v.).
Keywords: agriculture; biography; clothing; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; history; mythology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 19 March 2001@10:52:04.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 20 March 2001@03:32:38.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; augmented notes and keywords) on 13 August 2006@08:18:38.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 21 February 2011@05:11:55.
David Whitehead (tweaked and expanded n.1) on 9 October 2011@06:52:18.
David Whitehead on 10 January 2012@07:36:34.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 19 April 2015@10:49:36.

Headword: Adônidos kêpoi
Adler number: alpha,517
Translated headword: Adonis' gardens
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Made] out of lettuce and fennel, which they used to sow in earthenware pots. They apply the proverb to the superficial and shallow.[1]
Adonis' gardens: in reference to things that are untimely and transitory and have not taken root.[2]
Greek Original:
Adônidos kêpoi: ek thridakôn kai marathrôn, haper katespeiron en ostrakois. chrôntai d' epi tôn epipolaiôn kai kouphôn têi paroimiai. Adônidos kêpoi: epi tôn aôrôn kai oligochroniôn kai mê errizômenôn.
Notes:
See already alpha 514 (and under alpha 515), and again alpha 807.
For the Adonis festival (celebrated by women in Athens and elsewhere) which lies behind this entry, see in brief W. Burkert, Greek Religion (Harvard UP) 177; OCD(4) p.12.
[1] Similar material in Photius and Hesychius.
[2] From the scholia to Plato, Phaedrus 276B; cf. Diogenianus 1.14.
Reference:
Marcel Detienne, The Gardens of Adonis (1977; edn.2, 1994)
Keywords: agriculture; botany; daily life; definition; ethics; mythology; philosophy; proverbs; religion; women
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 16 March 2001@23:58:31.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added note, bibliography, keywords) on 17 March 2001@08:02:03.
Catharine Roth (added italics and keyword) on 9 October 2005@00:22:07.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 11 January 2012@08:05:36.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@03:07:40.

Headword: Aei geôrgos es neôta plousios
Adler number: alpha,608
Translated headword: a farmer is always rich tomorrow
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. A proverbial saying] in reference to those always nurturing a hope of escaping terrors, but falling into the same ones again.
Greek Original:
Aei geôrgos es neôta plousios: epi tôn elpidi men aei trephomenôn apallattesthai tôn deinôn, tois autois de palin peripiptontôn.
Notes:
Philemon fr. 82 Kock, now 85 Kassel-Austin; also in Photius; and see Zenobius 2.43. (For 'tomorrow' cf. nu 241.)
This sentiment, which breathes a belief and trust in the future, is a common simile in ancient poetry. Besides Philemon (above), witness e.g. Tibullus: "credula vitam/ spes fovet et fore cras semper ait melius."(Tib. Elegies vi. 19 - 20).
Reference:
Tibullus. Elegies II, ed. Paul Murgatroyd. Oxford: Clarendon 1994, 94
Keywords: agriculture; comedy; daily life; economics; imagery; poetry; proverbs
Translated by: Carl Widstrand on 2 February 2000@11:49:27.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword, translation, notes; added keywords) on 14 February 2001@04:07:01.
David Whitehead (augmented note) on 6 March 2003@10:18:16.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@10:58:19.
Catharine Roth (added keyword) on 19 October 2005@11:32:49.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 20 October 2005@03:12:26.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 August 2006@04:52:01.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 12 January 2012@08:08:54.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 1 January 2015@07:45:00.

Headword: Atheres
Adler number: alpha,719
Translated headword: chaff, stalks
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A type of grain.
Greek Original:
Atheres: eidos spermatos.
Notes:
Same entry in ps.-Zonaras and, according to Adler, the Ambrosian Lexicon (703); more informatively in e.g. Apollonius' Homeric Lexicon. The headword, nominative plural of the masculine noun a)qh/r, might be quoted from somewhere but, in an entry of this kind, does not have to have been.
Actually the stalks of cereals like wheat or barley. Mentioned from Hesiod onwards; see e.g. Xenophon, Oeconomicus 18.1 ("chaff and stalks") at web address 1 below.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: agriculture; botany; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; food; poetry
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 16 February 2000@17:48:14.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 14 May 2002@07:42:46.
Jennifer Benedict (added link and keyword) on 19 March 2008@14:37:19.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 19 January 2012@06:15:52.
David Whitehead on 1 May 2015@09:09:35.

Headword: Athênaiôn dusboulia
Adler number: alpha,732
Translated headword: Athenians' ill-counsel
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. A proverbial phrase] in reference to those who prosper against expectations and undeservedly.[1]
For taking decisions badly is practiced by Athenians; Athena offers to turn that which has been decided badly to good; and this was a local saying. Also Eupolis [writes]: "better to be prosperous than to think well."[2] And Aristophanes in Clouds [writes]: "for they say that ill counsel comes to this city, but in whatever things you err, the gods will turn them for the better".[3]
The Athenians are said to be autochthonous, [as are] Arcadians and Aeginetans and Thebans, either since they were the first to work the soil [chthon], namely the earth, or on account of their not being incomers.[4]
Greek Original:
Athênaiôn dusboulia: epi tôn par' elpidas kai anaxiôs eutuchountôn. to gar kakôs bouleuesthai Athênaiois êskêto: tên de Athênan paraschein to kakôs bouleuthen apoklinai kalôs: kai ên touto legomenon epichôrion. kai Eupolis: hôs eutuchein mallon ê kalôs phronein. kai Aristophanês Nephelais: phasi gar dusboulian têide têi polei proseinai. tauta mentoi tous theous hatt' an humeis examartête, epi to beltion trepein. hoti autochthones hoi Athênaioi elegonto kai Arkades kai Aiginêtai kai Thêbaioi, ê epei tên chthona, êtoi tên gên, argên ousan prôtoi eirgasanto, ê dia to mê einai autous epêludas.
Notes:
[1] Mantissa Proverbiorum 1.3. (For 'ill-counsel' alone, see delta 1601.)
[2] Eupolis fr. 205 Kock, now 219 K.-A.
[3] Aristophanes, Clouds 587-9 (web address 1 below), with scholion; cf. gamma 195.
[4] This additional material, inappropriate here, comes from alpha 4536.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: aetiology; agriculture; comedy; daily life; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; geography; history; proverbs; religion
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 5 November 2000@21:07:57.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword, translation, keywords; added note; cosmetics) on 6 November 2000@04:49:26.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 9 October 2005@11:16:31.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 14 May 2006@06:38:05.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 20 January 2012@04:15:23.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 21 January 2012@01:26:43.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 30 December 2014@00:16:09.
David Whitehead on 30 December 2014@02:57:21.
David Whitehead on 31 December 2014@03:06:19.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 1 May 2015@10:14:10.

Headword: Athêrêloigos
Adler number: alpha,736
Translated headword: chaff-consuming
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Referring to] the winnowing-fan, the thing that is destroying the chaff.
Greek Original:
Athêrêloigos: to ptuon to tous atheras olothreuon.
Note:
Similarly in other lexica, including Apollonius' Homeric Lexicon. From the scholia to Homer, Odyssey 11.128 (web address 1 below), where the headword occurs; again at 23.275 (web address 2 below).
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: agriculture; botany; daily life; definition; epic; imagery
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 4 December 1999@15:57:33.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 15 June 2001@06:17:09.
Jennifer Benedict (added links) on 19 March 2008@14:44:51.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 20 January 2012@04:25:51.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 21 January 2012@00:41:10.
David Whitehead on 1 May 2015@10:40:34.

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