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Headword: Ξενοφῶν
Adler number: xi,48
Translated headword: Xenophon
Vetting Status: high
A pupil of Socrates,[1] he campaigned against the Persians when he went up with Cyrus against his brother Artaxerxes. Cyrus had been set up by his father Darius as viceroy of Asia after Tissaphernes. After Darius' death, Artaxerxes was reluctant to kill Cyrus, who had been slandered by Tissaphernes, and released him when his mother Parysatis interceded for him and preserved his army for him.[2] To make war on Tissaphernes, he assembled a force and determined to campaign against his brother. 400 left Cyrus,[3] and out of the members of the expedition 3500 hoplites and dependents fled. Xenophon went up with them. So he assembled 100,000 barbarians and journeyed against the Pisidians. When he passed through the tribes against which he was pretending to campaign, the Greeks understood that the army was [sc. being sent] against the king, and they shrank from the march up-country. But when Clearchus said that retreat was impossible if Cyrus did not take part, they went together.[4] Cyrus died battling bare-headed against Tissaphernes even though Clearchus had advised him not to fight. The Greeks under Clearchus' command chose Ariaeus as king,[5] but he declined. King [Artaxerxes] then cut off Cyrus' head and hand, and sent to the Greeks, requesting their weapons as if they had been vanquished, but they did not hand them over.[6] Deceitfully Tissaphernes violates his oaths and betrays to the king the Greeks, including Clearchus and Meno, whom he kills.[7] And Xenophon takes command of them and defeats everyone. Ten thousand who survived went to Thrace and hired themselves out to king Seuthes.[8]
Greek Original:
Ξενοφῶν, Σωκράτους μαθητής, ἐστρατεύσατο ἐπὶ Πέρσας Κύρῳ συνανελθὼν ἐπὶ τὸν ἀδελφὸν Ἀρταξέρξην. ὁ Κῦρος δὲ ἦν μετὰ Τισσαφέρνην ὕπαρχος ὑπὸ Δαρείου τοῦ πατρὸς τῶν ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ καταστάς. μετὰ δὲ τὸν Δαρείου θάνατον Κῦρον Ἀρταξέρξης διαβληθέντα ὑπὸ Τισσαφέρνους ἀναιρεῖν μέλλων ἀφῆκε, Παρυσάτιδος τῆς μητρὸς παραιτησαμένης αὐτὸν καὶ τὴν στρατιὰν αὐτῷ φυλαξάσης. ὁ δὲ ὡς Τισσαφέρνει πολεμῶν ἤθροισε δύναμιν καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν ἀδελφὸν ἔγνω στρατεύειν. υ# δὲ κατέλιπον τὸν Κῦρον καὶ ἔφυγον ἐκ τῶν συστρατευσάντων ὁπλῖται καὶ πελτασταὶ #22γφ#. Ξενοφῶν δὲ συνανέβη. δέκα οὖν βαρβάρων μυριάδας συναθροίσας ὡς ἐπὶ Πισίδας δῆθεν ἐπορεύετο. ὡς δὲ τὰ ἔθνη διῆλθεν, ἐφ' ἃ στρατεύειν προεφασίζετο, συνέντες οἱ Ἕλληνες ἐπὶ βασιλέα εἶναι τὴν στρατείαν ὤκνουν τὴν ἀνάβασιν. Κλεάρχου δὲ εἰπόντος τὴν ὑποστροφὴν ἄπορον εἶναι, Κύρου μὴ συναιρομένου, συνῄεσαν. Κῦρος δὲ γυμνῇ τῇ κεφαλῇ πρὸς Τισσαφέρνην μαχόμενος, καίτοι Κλεάρχου ἀπαγορεύοντος αὐτῷ μὴ πολεμεῖν, ἀπέθανεν. οἱ δὲ Ἕλληνες ὑπὸ Κλεάρχῳ τεταγμένοι Ἀριαῖον προεβάλλοντο βασιλέα ἑαυτῶν, ὁ δὲ παρῃτήσατο. βασιλεὺς δὲ τὴν τοῦ Κύρου κεφαλὴν καὶ τὴν χεῖρα ἀποκόψας τοῖς Ἕλλησιν ἔπεμπε, ζητῶν τὰ ὅπλα ὡς παρὰ νενικημένων: οἱ δὲ οὐκ ἔδοσαν. δόλῳ δὲ Τισσαφέρνης παραβὰς τοὺς ὅρκους προδίδωσι βασιλεῖ τοὺς Ἕλληνας καὶ Κλέαρχον καὶ Μένωνα, οὓς ἀναιρεῖ. καὶ Ξενοφῶν αὐτῶν στρατηγεῖ καὶ πάντας νικᾷ. ἐλθόντες δὲ εἰς Θρᾴκην ἐμίσθωσαν ἑαυτοὺς Σεύθῃ τῷ βασιλεῖ μύριοι διασωθέντες.
For Xenophon see already xi 47. The source of the present entry's material is unknown (though Adler believed it was the same as that of xi 54, q.v.).
[1] Socrates: sigma 829.
[2] Perhaps 'satrapy' rather than 'army': see again pi 504.
[3] In order to make this tally better with the information provided by Xenophon himself, K. Muenscher, Xenophon in der griechisch-römischen Literatur (Leipzig 1920) 221-2 proposed a textual supplement here: "400 left [the king and went to] Cyrus". Adler (following S. Lindstam, Eranos 24 (1926) 121-2) rejected this; but it has recently been revived by Sarah B. Pomeroy, Xenophon, Oeconomicus: a social and historical commentary (Oxford 1994) 250-1.
[4] See again omega 51.
[5] Cyrus's second-in-command at Kounaxa (Xenophon, Anabasis 1.8.5).
[6] No object noun is explicit with ἔπεμπε . The original translation of this entry gave one, 'them', i.e. Cyrus' head and (right) hand -- which were indeed cut off (Xenophon, Anabasis 1.10.1; Ctesias FGrH 699 F16.64, Photius' summary; Plutarch, Artaxerxes 13.2) and perhaps impaled (Anabasis 3.1.17, in a speech of Xenophon himself). However, Prof. Tim Rood, who supplied these references, suggests (to DW) that for Artaxerxes to have sent Cyrus' body-parts to the Greeks, along with his demands, would have been unlikely behaviour on his part -- giving away such a prized possession to his enemies. (Contrast Polyaenus 7.16.1, where it is to his mother Parysatis that he sends the head of the hated Tissaphernes.) The revised translation takes account of this point. (Parallels for ἔπεμπε ... ζητῶν , with envoys or suchlike as tacit object, are numerous: see e.g. Herodotus 3.44.2, ἔπεμπε ... δεησόμενος ; Thucydides 7.8.1, ἔπεμπε ... ἀγγέλλων ; Xenophon, Hellenica 5.2.38, ἔπεμπε ... διδάσκων ; and cf. generally LSJ s.v. πέμπω , I.4.
[7] Xenophon, Anabasis 2.5-6 has a full account of this, including obituaries of all five (sic) generals.
[8] sigma 270.
Keywords: biography; ethics; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; philosophy; religion; women
Translated by: James L. P. Butrica ✝ on 15 February 2000@12:15:01.
Vetted by:
Joseph L. Rife (added keywords) on 12 September 2000@02:06:12.
David Whitehead (added notes and keywords; minor cosmetics) on 5 April 2001@05:11:20.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 30 August 2007@06:12:48.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 19 June 2013@03:24:36.
David Whitehead (expanded n.2) on 3 April 2014@04:36:27.
David Whitehead (tweaks to tr; more notes) on 14 March 2016@06:17:44.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 14 March 2016@23:12:38.
David Whitehead (another tweak to tr; further expansion of a note) on 24 March 2016@04:57:56.


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