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Headword: *cenofw=n
Adler number: xi,48
Translated headword: Xenophon
Vetting Status: high
A pupil of Socrates,[1] he campaigned against the Persians when he went up with Cyrus against his brother Artaxerxes. Cyrus had been set up by his father Darius as viceroy of Asia after Tissaphernes. After Darius' death, Artaxerxes was reluctant to kill Cyrus, who had been slandered by Tissaphernes, and released him when his mother Parysatis interceded for him and preserved his army for him.[2] To make war on Tissaphernes, he assembled a force and determined to campaign against his brother. 400 left Cyrus,[3] and out of the members of the expedition 3500 hoplites and dependents fled. Xenophon went up with them. So he assembled 100,000 barbarians and journeyed against the Pisidians. When he passed through the tribes against which he was pretending to campaign, the Greeks understood that the army was [sc. being sent] against the king, and they shrank from the march up-country. But when Clearchus said that retreat was impossible if Cyrus did not take part, they went together.[4] Cyrus died battling bare-headed against Tissaphernes even though Clearchus had advised him not to fight. The Greeks under Clearchus' command chose Ariaeus as king,[5] but he declined. King [Artaxerxes] then cut off Cyrus' head and hand, and sent to the Greeks, requesting their weapons as if they had been vanquished, but they did not hand them over.[6] Deceitfully Tissaphernes violates his oaths and betrays to the king the Greeks, including Clearchus and Meno, whom he kills.[7] And Xenophon takes command of them and defeats everyone. Ten thousand who survived went to Thrace and hired themselves out to king Seuthes.[8]
Greek Original:
*cenofw=n, *swkra/tous maqhth/s, e)strateu/sato e)pi\ *pe/rsas *ku/rw| sunanelqw\n e)pi\ to\n a)delfo\n *)artace/rchn. o( *ku=ros de\ h)=n meta\ *tissafe/rnhn u(/parxos u(po\ *darei/ou tou= patro\s tw=n e)n th=| *)asi/a| katasta/s. meta\ de\ to\n *darei/ou qa/naton *ku=ron *)artace/rchs diablhqe/nta u(po\ *tissafe/rnous a)nairei=n me/llwn a)fh=ke, *parusa/tidos th=s mhtro\s paraithsame/nhs au)to\n kai\ th\n stratia\n au)tw=| fulaca/shs. o( de\ w(s *tissafe/rnei polemw=n h)/qroise du/namin kai\ e)pi\ to\n a)delfo\n e)/gnw strateu/ein. u# de\ kate/lipon to\n *ku=ron kai\ e)/fugon e)k tw=n sustrateusa/ntwn o(pli=tai kai\ peltastai\ #22gf#. *cenofw=n de\ sunane/bh. de/ka ou)=n barba/rwn muria/das sunaqroi/sas w(s e)pi\ *pisi/das dh=qen e)poreu/eto. w(s de\ ta\ e)/qnh dih=lqen, e)f' a(\ strateu/ein proefasi/zeto, sune/ntes oi( *(/ellhnes e)pi\ basile/a ei)=nai th\n stratei/an w)/knoun th\n a)na/basin. *klea/rxou de\ ei)po/ntos th\n u(postrofh\n a)/poron ei)=nai, *ku/rou mh\ sunairome/nou, sunh/|esan. *ku=ros de\ gumnh=| th=| kefalh=| pro\s *tissafe/rnhn maxo/menos, kai/toi *klea/rxou a)pagoreu/ontos au)tw=| mh\ polemei=n, a)pe/qanen. oi( de\ *(/ellhnes u(po\ *klea/rxw| tetagme/noi *)ariai=on proeba/llonto basile/a e(autw=n, o( de\ parh|th/sato. basileu\s de\ th\n tou= *ku/rou kefalh\n kai\ th\n xei=ra a)poko/yas toi=s *(/ellhsin e)/pempe, zhtw=n ta\ o(/pla w(s para\ nenikhme/nwn: oi( de\ ou)k e)/dosan. do/lw| de\ *tissafe/rnhs paraba\s tou\s o(/rkous prodi/dwsi basilei= tou\s *(/ellhnas kai\ *kle/arxon kai\ *me/nwna, ou(\s a)nairei=. kai\ *cenofw=n au)tw=n strathgei= kai\ pa/ntas nika=|. e)lqo/ntes de\ ei)s *qra/|khn e)mi/sqwsan e(autou\s *seu/qh| tw=| basilei= mu/rioi diaswqe/ntes.
For Xenophon see already xi 47. The source of the present entry's material is unknown (though Adler believed it was the same as that of xi 54, q.v.).
[1] Socrates: sigma 829.
[2] Perhaps 'satrapy' rather than 'army': see again pi 504.
[3] In order to make this tally better with the information provided by Xenophon himself, K. Muenscher, Xenophon in der griechisch-römischen Literatur (Leipzig 1920) 221-2 proposed a textual supplement here: "400 left [the king and went to] Cyrus". Adler (following S. Lindstam, Eranos 24 (1926) 121-2) rejected this; but it has recently been revived by Sarah B. Pomeroy, Xenophon, Oeconomicus: a social and historical commentary (Oxford 1994) 250-1.
[4] See again omega 51.
[5] Cyrus's second-in-command at Kounaxa (Xenophon, Anabasis 1.8.5).
[6] No object noun is explicit with e)/pempe. The original translation of this entry gave one, 'them', i.e. Cyrus' head and (right) hand -- which were indeed cut off (Xenophon, Anabasis 1.10.1; Ctesias FGrH 699 F16.64, Photius' summary; Plutarch, Artaxerxes 13.2) and perhaps impaled (Anabasis 3.1.17, in a speech of Xenophon himself). However, Prof. Tim Rood, who supplied these references, suggests (to DW) that for Artaxerxes to have sent Cyrus' body-parts to the Greeks, along with his demands, would have been unlikely behaviour on his part -- giving away such a prized possession to his enemies. (Contrast Polyaenus 7.16.1, where it is to his mother Parysatis that he sends the head of the hated Tissaphernes.) The revised translation takes account of this point. (Parallels for e)/pempe ... zhtw=n, with envoys or suchlike as tacit object, are numerous: see e.g. Herodotus 3.44.2, e)/pempe ... dehso/menos; Thucydides 7.8.1, e)/pempe ... a)gge/llwn; Xenophon, Hellenica 5.2.38, e)/pempe ... dida/skwn; and cf. generally LSJ s.v. pe/mpw, I.4.
[7] Xenophon, Anabasis 2.5-6 has a full account of this, including obituaries of all five (sic) generals.
[8] sigma 270.
Keywords: biography; ethics; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; philosophy; religion; women
Translated by: James L. P. Butrica ✝ on 15 February 2000@12:15:01.
Vetted by:
Joseph L. Rife (added keywords) on 12 September 2000@02:06:12.
David Whitehead (added notes and keywords; minor cosmetics) on 5 April 2001@05:11:20.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 30 August 2007@06:12:48.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 19 June 2013@03:24:36.
David Whitehead (expanded n.2) on 3 April 2014@04:36:27.
David Whitehead (tweaks to tr; more notes) on 14 March 2016@06:17:44.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 14 March 2016@23:12:38.
David Whitehead (another tweak to tr; further expansion of a note) on 24 March 2016@04:57:56.


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