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Headword: *fra/gmata
Adler number: phi,683
Translated headword: fences, defences
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] protective elements.[1]
In the Epigrams: "he nailed to the lofty pine the eight-pointed defences of its forehead."[2] He is speaking about the hind's horns.[3]
Greek Original:
*fra/gmata: a)sfali/smata. e)n *)epigra/mmasi: ta\ d' o)kta/riza metw/pwn fra/gmaq' u(pe\r kranaa\n a(=los e)/pace pi/tun. ta\ ke/rata le/gei th=s e)la/fou.
The headword, neuter plural, is perhaps extracted from the quotation given, though there are other possibilities such as Plato, Politicus 279D.
[1] cf. generally phi 695 (and rho 64). Different glossing in Hesychius phi816.
[2] Greek Anthology 6.110.3-4 (Leonidas of Tarentum or Mnasalces), a hunter mounts the horns of a deer he killed onto a pine tree; cf. Gow and Page (vol. I, 137), (vol. II, 393), and further extracts from this epigram at mu 314 and sigma 160. On the attribution of the epigram, see mu 314 note. The adjective o)kta/riza (spelled o)kta/rriza by Gow and Page (vol. I, 137)), is found nowhere else. The neologism's literal meaning is "eight-rooted", but in a context of depicting a deer's antlers the sense of "eight-pointed" must be the epigrammatist's intention; cf. Gow and Page (vol. II, 393).
[3] The Suda lexicographer has read the epigram correctly: The antlers that the hunter fixed upon the pine allegedly came off the head of a hind. The LSJ (s.v. e)/lafos, web address 1) identifies the victim as a Red Deer, Cervis elaphus, the females of which species are hornless. At Greek Anthology 6.111 (Antipater of Sidon) there is yet another antlered hind; cf. Gow and Page (vol. II, 70). The LSJ (op. cit.) points out that with the feminine article indicating a hind rather than a hart, as in these epigrams, the usage is in fact employed generically. Nonetheless, not in nature, but in ancient Greek myth and folklore, horned female deer do exist; an example is the Ceryneian Hind, captured by Herakles as part of his third labor; cf. Apollodorus Library 2.5.3 (web address 2).
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge 1965)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge 1965)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: botany; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; medicine; mythology; philosophy; poetry; trade and manufacture; zoology
Translated by: David Whitehead on 11 November 2010@05:51:42.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, status) on 12 November 2010@22:17:57.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 15 November 2010@03:23:24.
David Whitehead on 17 December 2013@09:48:05.
Ronald Allen (expanded n.2, added bibliography, added cross-references, added keyword) on 24 May 2021@20:23:43.
Ronald Allen (added note, added keywords, added links) on 26 May 2021@17:10:57.


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