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Headword: *ou)a/lhs
Adler number: omicron,764
Translated headword: Valens
Vetting Status: high
[Valens], emperor of the Romans [1]; being a heretic[2] himself and also organizing the heretics, he lived in the ways of his own parents. When Tatianus[3] was governor of Alexandria, [Valens] sent away on exile bishops and presbyters and deacons and monks; and he tortured many a Christian and some of them he burned. All these things [were done] after Athanasius'[4] death. The orthodox of Constantinople, thinking that they would be pitied by Valens, sent to him an embassy, when he happened to be in Nicomedea, consisting of eighty priests and led by Theodoros and Kourbasos and Menedimos;[5] [Valens] ordered them to be burned along with their ship. And they were all burned down with the ship, and the ship endured until Dakibiza[6] and then it dissolved. At the time of loathsome Valens, a Loukios,[7] bishop of the Arian heresy, assaulted the Church straightway like a wolf; and Peter[8] fled to Rome. And Loukios did things even worse than those that had been done during the persecutions of the Gentiles; he sent three thousand [soldiers] throughout the desert to kill and plunder the holy men.[9]
Greek Original:
*ou)a/lhs, basileu\s *(rwmai/wn: o(\s kakodocw=n kai\ sugkrotw=n tou\s ai(retikou\s ei)s th\n o(do\n tw=n i)di/wn pate/rwn e)poreu/eto. kai\ ga\r e)pisko/pous ei)s e)cori/an e)/pempe kai\ presbute/rous kai\ diako/nous kai\ monaxou/s, *tatianou= to/te a)/rxontos *)alecandrei/as: kai\ pollou\s tw=n *xri- stianw=n e)basa/nise kai/ tinas puri\ pare/dwke. tau=ta de\ pa/nta meta\ th\n teleuth\n *)aqanasi/ou. oi( ou)=n e)n *kwnstantinoupo/lei o)rqo/docoi e)lehqh/sesqai nomi/zontes u(po\ *ou)a/lentos presbei/an e)/steilan pro\s au)to\n e)n *nikomhdei/a| tugxa/nonta, pe/myantes p# i(eratikou\s a)/ndras, w(=n h(gou=nto *qeo/dwros kai\ *kourbaso\s kai\ *mene/dimos: ou(\s a(/pantas su\n tw=| ploi/w| u(fafqh=nai prose/tace. kai\ pa/ntes su\n th=| nhi\+ katefle/xqhsan, me/xri *dakibi/zwn tou= ploi/ou diarke/santos ka)kei=se dialuqe/ntos. e)pi\ tou= bdelurou= *ou)a/lentos *lou/kio/s tis e)pi/skopos th=s tw=n *)areianw=n ai(re/sews paraxrh=ma w(s lu/kos th=| e)kklhsi/a| e)peph/dhsen: o( de\ *pe/tros ei)s th\n *(rw/mhn a)pe/fugen. o( de\ *lou/kios tosau=ta e)nedei/cato, oi(=a ou)de\ e)n toi=s diwgmoi=s tw=n *(ellh/nwn e)ge/neto: trei=s ga\r xilia/das a)pe/steile kata\ th\n e)/rhmon a)nairou=ntas kai\ porqou=ntas tou\s qeosebei=s a)/ndras.
[1] Of Pannonian descent (b. 328, emperor 364-378); his wife was Domnika and they had two daughters, Anastasia and Karossa (Theophanes Confessor, Chronographia 56-65), and a son, Galatius (Symeon Logothetes, Chronicon 99). Valens' reign is discussed in many chronographic and religious narrations of the Byzantine period: the earliest are those of Socrates Scholasticus (Historia Ecclesiastica 4-5) and Sozomenus (Historia Ecclesiastica 6.6-40). The sources for the Suda can be located at George the Monk, Chronicon breve 110.677-680, and Constantinus VII Porphyrogenitus, De virtutibus et vitiis 1.151.12-28. For a narrative and evaluation of the events during Valens' reign, see John Curran, 'From Jovian to Theodosius', in Cambridge Ancient History [edn.2] XIII, 80-101; also the De Imperatoribus Romanis entry at web address 1 (Noel Lenski).
[2] Of the Arian heresy; Arianism was the first doctrinal dispute within Christianity after its official recognition by Constantine in 313, a heresy that denied the consubstantiality (o(moou/sion) of the Father and the Son, thereby negating the Divinity of Jesus Christ. See also Henry Chadwick, 'Orthodoxy and heresy from the death of Constantine to the eve of the first council of Ephesus', CAH XIII [above], 561-600. In the Suda, see alpha 3834, alpha 3835.
[3] Flavius Eutolmius Tatianus, e)/parxos of Egypt, referred to in many inscriptions and papyri of the second half of the 4th century, e.g. P.Oxy. 1101.
[4] Athanasius the Great (293-373), Patriarch of Alexandria (328-373).
[5] The narrative of this embassy can also be found elsewhere; however the names *Kourbaso/s and *Mene/dimos are attested only here (a *Kourba=s occurs in a papyrus (SB 6662)). Other versions of the story appear in Sozomenus (6.14), Socrates Scholasticus (4.16), Constantinus VII Porphyrogenitus (1.151), George the Monk (110.677) and Theophanes Confessor (58.30); there we find the names *Ou)rbasos or *Ou)rbanos and *Mene/dhmos or *Bene/dhmos.
[6] Seaside fortress in Bithynia, on the road between Chalcedon and Nicomedea. Also attested as *Daki/dizos (feminine), *Daki/diza (neuter plural or feminine singular) or *Daki/buza (neuter plural). See also delta 29.
[7] Arian Patriarch of Alexandria after the death of Athanasius the Great.
[8] Peter II, orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria between 373 and 380.
[9] Referring to ascetics; the events are narrated in George the Monk (110.680-681). For a survey of this religious practice at the time, see Peter Brown, 'Asceticism: pagan and Christian', CAH XIII [above], 601-631.
Cameron A. – Garnsey P. (edd.), The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume XIII, The Late Empire, A.D. 337-425, Cambridge 1998
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; Christianity; chronology; ethics; geography; historiography; history; imagery; military affairs; religion
Translated by: Ioannis Doukas on 6 March 2007@16:09:21.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added link) on 7 March 2007@00:56:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 7 March 2007@03:19:48.
Catharine Roth (added cross-references) on 8 March 2007@11:36:21.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics; raised status) on 30 July 2013@09:10:25.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 10 November 2014@01:26:27.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 27 November 2014@23:53:54.
Catharine Roth (my typo) on 30 November 2014@23:43:37.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note) on 18 February 2021@00:13:51.


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