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Headword: Οὐάλης
Adler number: omicron,764
Translated headword: Valens
Vetting Status: high
[Valens], emperor of the Romans [1]; being a heretic[2] himself and also organizing the heretics, he lived in the ways of his own parents. When Tatianus[3] was governor of Alexandria, [Valens] sent away on exile bishops and presbyters and deacons and monks; and he tortured many a Christian and some of them he burned. All these things [were done] after Athanasius'[4] death. The orthodox of Constantinople, thinking that they would be pitied by Valens, sent to him an embassy, when he happened to be in Nicomedea, consisting of eighty priests and led by Theodoros and Kourbasos and Menedimos;[5] [Valens] ordered them to be burned along with their ship. And they were all burned down with the ship, and the ship endured until Dakibiza[6] and then it dissolved. At the time of loathsome Valens, a Loukios,[7] bishop of the Arian heresy, assaulted the Church straightway like a wolf; and Peter[8] fled to Rome. And Loukios did things even worse than those that had been done during the persecutions of the Gentiles; he sent three thousand [soldiers] throughout the desert to kill and plunder the holy men.[9]
Greek Original:
Οὐάλης, βασιλεὺς Ῥωμαίων: ὃς κακοδοξῶν καὶ συγκροτῶν τοὺς αἱρετικοὺς εἰς τὴν ὁδὸν τῶν ἰδίων πατέρων ἐπορεύετο. καὶ γὰρ ἐπισκόπους εἰς ἐξορίαν ἔπεμπε καὶ πρεσβυτέρους καὶ διακόνους καὶ μοναχούς, Τατιανοῦ τότε ἄρχοντος Ἀλεξανδρείας: καὶ πολλοὺς τῶν Χρι- στιανῶν ἐβασάνισε καί τινας πυρὶ παρέδωκε. ταῦτα δὲ πάντα μετὰ τὴν τελευτὴν Ἀθανασίου. οἱ οὖν ἐν Κωνσταντινουπόλει ὀρθόδοξοι ἐλεηθήσεσθαι νομίζοντες ὑπὸ Οὐάλεντος πρεσβείαν ἔστειλαν πρὸς αὐτὸν ἐν Νικομηδείᾳ τυγχάνοντα, πέμψαντες π# ἱερατικοὺς ἄνδρας, ὧν ἡγοῦντο Θεόδωρος καὶ Κουρβασὸς καὶ Μενέδιμος: οὓς ἅπαντας σὺν τῷ πλοίῳ ὑφαφθῆναι προσέταξε. καὶ πάντες σὺν τῇ νηὶ̈ κατεφλέχθησαν, μέχρι Δακιβίζων τοῦ πλοίου διαρκέσαντος κἀκεῖσε διαλυθέντος. ἐπὶ τοῦ βδελυροῦ Οὐάλεντος Λούκιός τις ἐπίσκοπος τῆς τῶν Ἀρειανῶν αἱρέσεως παραχρῆμα ὡς λύκος τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ ἐπεπήδησεν: ὁ δὲ Πέτρος εἰς τὴν Ῥώμην ἀπέφυγεν. ὁ δὲ Λούκιος τοσαῦτα ἐνεδείξατο, οἷα οὐδὲ ἐν τοῖς διωγμοῖς τῶν Ἑλλήνων ἐγένετο: τρεῖς γὰρ χιλιάδας ἀπέστειλε κατὰ τὴν ἔρημον ἀναιροῦντας καὶ πορθοῦντας τοὺς θεοσεβεῖς ἄνδρας.
[1] Of Pannonian descent (b. 328, emperor 364-378); his wife was Domnika and they had two daughters, Anastasia and Karossa (Theophanes Confessor, Chronographia 56-65), and a son, Galatius (Symeon Logothetes, Chronicon 99). Valens' reign is discussed in many chronographic and religious narrations of the Byzantine period: the earliest are those of Socrates Scholasticus (Historia Ecclesiastica 4-5) and Sozomenus (Historia Ecclesiastica 6.6-40). The sources for the Suda can be located at George the Monk, Chronicon breve 110.677-680, and Constantinus VII Porphyrogenitus, De virtutibus et vitiis 1.151.12-28. For a narrative and evaluation of the events during Valens' reign, see John Curran, 'From Jovian to Theodosius', in Cambridge Ancient History [edn.2] XIII, 80-101; also the De Imperatoribus Romanis entry at web address 1.
[2] Of the Arian heresy; Arianism was the first doctrinal dispute within Christianity after its official recognition by Constantine in 313, a heresy that denied the consubstantiality (ὁμοούσιον ) of the Father and the Son, thereby negating the Divinity of Jesus Christ. See also Henry Chadwick, 'Orthodoxy and heresy from the death of Constantine to the eve of the first council of Ephesus', CAH XIII [above], 561-600. In the Suda, see alpha 3834, alpha 3835.
[3] Flavius Eutolmius Tatianus, ἔπαρχος of Egypt, referred to in many inscriptions and papyri of the second half of the 4th century, e.g. P.Oxy. 1101.
[4] Athanasius the Great (293-373), Patriarch of Alexandria (328-373).
[5] The narrative of this embassy can also be found elsewhere; however the names Κουρβασός and Μενέδιμος are attested only here (a Κουρβᾶς occurs in a papyrus (SB 6662)). Other versions of the story appear in Sozomenus (6.14), Socrates Scholasticus (4.16), Constantinus VII Porphyrogenitus (1.151), George the Monk (110.677) and Theophanes Confessor (58.30); there we find the names Οὐρβασος or Οὐρβανος and Μενέδημος or Βενέδημος .
[6] Seaside fortress in Bithynia, on the road between Chalcedon and Nicomedea. Also attested as Δακίδιζος (feminine), Δακίδιζα (neuter plural or feminine singular) or Δακίβυζα (neuter plural). See also delta 29.
[7] Arian Patriarch of Alexandria after the death of Athanasius the Great.
[8] Peter II, orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria between 373 and 380.
[9] Referring to ascetics; the events are narrated in George the Monk (110.680-681). For a survey of this religious practice at the time, see Peter Brown, 'Asceticism: pagan and Christian', CAH XIII [above], 601-631.
Cameron A. – Garnsey P. (edd.), The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume XIII, The Late Empire, A.D. 337-425, Cambridge 1998
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; Christianity; chronology; ethics; geography; historiography; history; imagery; military affairs; religion
Translated by: Ioannis Doukas on 6 March 2007@16:09:21.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added link) on 7 March 2007@00:56:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 7 March 2007@03:19:48.
Catharine Roth (added cross-references) on 8 March 2007@11:36:21.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics; raised status) on 30 July 2013@09:10:25.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 10 November 2014@01:26:27.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 27 November 2014@23:53:54.
Catharine Roth (my typo) on 30 November 2014@23:43:37.


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