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Headword: *)wrige/nhs
Adler number: omega,182
Translated headword: Origen
Vetting Status: high
[Origen],[1] also [called] Adamantius,[2] was a most illustrious man and consummately trained[3] in all fields of knowledge. He became a disciple of the philosopher Ammonius, surnamed Saccas,[4] who possessed the loftiest competence in philosophy. Consequently, his knowledge of philosophic thought was bolstered greatly by his teacher,[5] for Origen was constantly immersed in Plato, and in the works of Numenius[6] and Cronius,[7] Apollophanes,[8] Longinus,[9] Moderatus, [10] and Nicomachus.[11] He also devoted himself to the writings of the luminaries among the Pythagoreans. So too, he read the books of Chaeremon[12] and the Stoic thinker Cornutus,[13] from whom he learned allegorical technique[14] integral to interpreting the Greek mysteries. He had an altogether remarkable knowledge of philosophical doctrines, not only secular[15] but sacred: especially ours; that is, Christian doctrine.
What indeed can be said about the blessed nature of that near-immortal?[16] For this man had such command of dialectics, geometry, mathematics, grammar, and rhetoric, as well as the doctrines of all philosophical systems that he attracted thoroughly devoted disciples, explaining to them -- system by system -- the many intricacies and interrelationships pertaining to each.[17] Even Porphyry,[18] the raving anti-Christian, mentions Origen and his genius: "But this kind of absurdity is attributable to a man whom I, in fact, met when I was still quite young. He was very famous and is still so because of the works he left behind. I refer[19] to Origen, whose renown is trumpeted loudly among teachers in these disciplines. And this testimony about the man is the same from foreigners and, notably, from detractors." These things were said by Porphyry in the third book of his writings against the Christians.[20] Although truthful about the man's training, a blatant lie about the rest (for what wouldn't an anti-Christian maniac[21] be capable of?) where he says that Origen defected from the Greeks and Ammonius veered from a God-fearing life to that of a heathen. But enough of such talk; rather, on to illuminating Origen's superb command of Greek learning.[22] As to this acumen, he writes the following in a certain letter defending himself against those who faulted him for his zeal in these matters: "As I was devoted to the word of God, and because the fame of our expertise was spreading widely, sometimes heretics and sometimes those skilled in Greek thought, especially philosophy, would come to me. It seemed appropriate to examine the doctrines of the heretics and the claims made by these philosophers to speak the truth."[23] Just so did he write in defense of his training.
During this period, even Mamaea,[24] the mother of the Roman emperor Alexander, met and conversed with Origen in Antioch, and was instructed by him in the Word. The start of his Commentaries on divine Scripture dates to that time, after Ambrose[25] in particular urged him to undertake this enterprise not only through endless prodding and appeals to the man but with the provision of unlimited resources. Thus, more than seven stenographers were on call to take his dictation, shift-changing with one another at designated intervals; and no fewer were the number of copyists, along with young women skilled in penning a final text. Ambrose supplied abundant resources to meet all their needs. Far beyond that, he imbued Origen with exceeding enthusiasm through his own study of God's pronouncements,[26] and a zeal which gave Origen special inspiration in preparing his Commentaries. Moreover, Origen directed such diligence toward divine Scripture that he made a thorough study of Hebrew -- contrary to the proclivity of his times.[27]
So too, along side the translations rendered by the Seventy,[28] he arrayed other versions to fashion a single work. I am referring to the versions of Aquila of Pontus and Theodotion and Symmachus,[29] a member of the Ebionites[30] (a sect whose heresy is in believing Christ a mere man). These Ebionites prepared a recension of the Gospel of Matthew,[31] through which they rabidly assert their ideology. In like manner, he arrayed the fifth, sixth, and seventh versions.[32] From the history of Eusebius Pamphili concerning Origen.
Origen subjected the divine words to such meticulous scrutiny that he personally gathered only original manuscripts in the actual Hebrew; tracked down versions by other translators besides the Seventy; and apart from the war-horse translations of Aquila and Symmachus and Theodotion, discovered certain others -- from what nooks I do not know -- but which, although having disappeared long ago, he managed to track down and uncover. Moreover, in the Hexapla[33] text of Psalms, he inserted, after these four well-known versions, not only a fifth but also a sixth and a seventh translation. Regarding one of which he remarks that it was found at Jericho in a large storage jar.[34] Gathering them into a single work, he subsected them into clauses, comparing and contrasting one with another, and with the Hebrew text itself. He has left us copies of the Hexapla (as it is called), and prepared separately a version that contains Aquila and Symmachus and Theodotion together with the Seventy in the Tetrapla.[35]
Having commented on every aspect of canonical Scripture, he left behind such a vast and pervasive body of work that from it would be derived thereafter the foundation for all teachings of the Church. So much so that the theologian Gregory,[36] pronounced: "Origen is the whetstone of us all." He provided a great service not only to our Church but to those outside it, heretics as well as philosophers, taught by him virtually the entire panoply of learning -- secular philosophy in addition to things sacred. For he would introduce to the study of philosophy all whom he saw to be adept, imbuing them with geometry and arithmetic, and the other basic subjects. Then he would usher them on to philosophical systems, presenting these doctrines in detail, each element so adroitly that by this time he was heralded as an eminent philosopher, even among the Greeks themselves.
Witness to his prowess in these endeavors are the Greek philosophers themselves who flourished in his day, in whose treatises we find frequent mention of the man -- sometimes dedicating the work to him, sometimes submitting their own work to his judgment, as to a master.
While Origen was in the course of his usual tasks at Caesarea, not only did many locals call upon him for instruction, but streams of foreigners left their homelands seeking his guidance. Especially renown among them we note Theodorus, who was the very man famous in our day as the bishop Gregory Thaumaturgus,[37] and his brother Athenodorus. Although they were passionately devoted to Greek and Roman scholarship, Origen stirred in them a love of divine philosophy and persuaded them to give up their former devotion in favor of rigorous theological study.[38] After studying five full years, they made such great progress in divine matters that, although still young, both were considered deserving of the episcopate over the Pontic[39] churches.
During this period, the Commentaries on Isaiah and likewise those on Ezekiel were being composed by Origen. As to these works, there are thirty volumes on the third part of Isaiah up to the vision of the beasts in the wilderness,[40] and twenty-five on Ezekiel, which were the only ones he wrote on the entire work of this prophet. He was sixty years old[41] when he completed these labors -- concerning which the blessed martyr Pamphilus devoted his life in witness.[42] His Commentaries on the Gospel of John indicate that he composed the first five parts while still in Alexandria; however, only twenty-two volumes of this treatise, which encompassed the entire Gospel, have survived. He also composed twelve commentaries on Genesis, commentaries on the first twenty-five Psalms, and on Lamentations as well. Moreover, there are those works entitled On the Resurrection[43] and First Principles.[44] He also wrote compilations called the Stromateis,[45] ten in number, which he composed during the reign of Alexander.
In his discourse on the first Psalm, Origen presented a catalogue of the holy books that comprise the Old Testament, commenting in effect: "It must be clearly understood that there are twenty-two canonical books, as the Jews attest, matching the number of letters in their alphabet."[46] So he adds, saying: "These are the twenty-two books according to the Jews: Genesis or Barhsiq,[47] which means 'In the beginning', and the subsequent sequence."
Origen remained a clarion voice up to the period of Gallus and Volusianus;[48] that is, until be was sixty-nine years of age.[49] He enjoyed final sleep in Tyre, where he was also interred. His father Leonides had been perfected by martydom through Christ.[50]
Greek Original:
*)wrige/nhs, o( kai\ *)adama/ntios, a)nh\r e)llogimw/tatos kai\ kata\ pa=san paidei/an ei)s a)/kron e)chskhme/nos: a)kroath\s geno/menos *)ammwni/ou tou= filoso/fou, tou= e)pi/klhn *sakka=, tou= plei/sthn e)pi/dosin e)pi\ filosofi/a| e)sxhko/tos. dia/ toi tou=to kai\ ei)s th\n tw=n lo/gwn e)mpeiri/an pollh\n para\ tou= didaska/lou th\n w)fe/leian e)klhrw/sato: sunh=n te ga\r a)ei\ tw=| *pla/twni o( proeirhme/nos a)nh/r, toi=s te *noumhni/ou kai\ *kroni/ou, *)apollofa/nous te kai\ *loggi/nou kai\ *modera/tou, *nikoma/xou te kai\ tw=n e)n toi=s *puqagorei/ois e)llogi/mwn a)ndrw=n w(mi/lei suggra/mmasin. e)xrh=to de\ kai\ *xairh/monos tou= *stwi+kou= *kornou/tou te bi/blois: par' w(=n to\n metalhptiko\n tw=n par' *(/ellhsi musthri/wn e)/gnw tro/pon. kai\ a(pacaplw=s pollh\n e)/sxe th\n e)pisth/mhn tw=n e)n filosofi/a| dogma/twn, ou) mo/non tw=n *(ellhnikw=n, a)lla\ kai\ tw=n qei/wn te kai\ h(mete/rwn, toute/sti tw=n *xristianw=n. kai\ ti/ a)/n tis le/goi peri\ th=s e)kei/nou mikrou= dei=n a)qana/tou kai\ makari/as fu/sews; o(/ti per dialektikh/n, gewmetrikh/n, a)riqmhtikh/n, mousikh/n, grammatikh\n kai\ r(htorikh\n kai\ pa/ntwn tw=n filoso/fwn ta\ do/gmata ou(/tws e)ce/maqen, w(/ste spoudasta\s tw=n kosmikw=n pragma/twn a)kroata\s e)sxhke/nai kai\ e)chgei=sqai au)toi=s e(ka/stote sundroma/s te polla\s pro\s au)to\n gi/nesqai. tou= de/ ge *)wrige/nous kai\ th=s megalofui/+as au)tou= kai\ *porfu/rios o( kata\ *xristianw=n lutth/sas mnhmoneu/ei kai/ fhsin: o( de\ tro/pos th=s a)topi/as e)c a)ndro/s, w(=| ka)gw\ komidh= ne/os w)\n tetu/xhka sfo/dra eu)dokimh/santos kai\ e)/ti eu)dokimou=ntos di' w(=n katale/loipe suggramma/twn, pareilh/fqw *)wrige/nhs, ou(= kle/os para\ toi=s didaska/lois tou/tw| tw=n lo/gwn me/ga diade/dotai. kai\ au(=tai me\n ai( para\ tw=n e)/cwqen marturi/ai tou= a)ndro/s, kai\ ma/lista tw=n e)xqrw=n. tau=ta *porfuri/w| kata\ to\ tri/ton su/ntagma tw=n grafe/ntwn au)tw=| kata\ *xristianw=n ei)/rhtai, e)palhqeu/santi me\n peri\ th=s tou= a)ndro\s a)skh/sews, yeusame/nw| de\ safw=s peri\ tw=n loipw=n [ti/ ga\r ou)k e)/mellen o( kata\ *xristianw=n manei/s;]: e)n oi(=s au)to\n me/n fhsin e)c *(ellh/nwn metati/qesqai, to\n d' *)ammw/nion e)k bi/ou tou= kata\ qeose/beian e)pi\ to\n e)qniko\n e)kpesei=n. tau=ta me\n ei)s para/stasin th=s *)wrige/nous kai\ peri\ ta\ *(ellh/nwn maqh/mata polupeiri/as, peri\ h(=s pro/s tinas memyame/nous au)tw=| dia\ th\n peri\ e)kei=na spoudh\n a)pologou/menos e)n e)pistolh=| tini tau=ta gra/fei: e)pei\ de\ a)nakeime/nw| moi tw=| lo/gw|, th=s fh/mhs diatrexou/shs peri\ th=s e(/cews h(mw=n, prosh/|esan o(te\ me\n ai(retikoi/, o(te\ de\ a)po\ tw=n *(ellhnikw=n maqhma/twn, kai\ ma/lista tw=n e)n filosofi/a|, e)/docen e)ceta/sai ta/ te tw=n ai(retikw=n do/gmata, kai\ ta\ u(po\ tw=n filoso/fwn peri\ a)lhqei/as le/gein e)paggello/mena. kai\ tau=ta me\n toiau=ta peri\ th=s a)skh/sews a)pologoume/nw| ei)/rhtai. kata\ tou=ton dh\ to\n xro/non kai\ h( *)aleca/n- drou tw=n *(rwmai/wn basile/ws mh/thr *mamai/a ei)s lo/gous *)wrige/nei sunh=lqen e)n *)antioxei/a| kai\ par' au)tou= kathxh/qh to\n lo/gon. e)c e)kei/nou de\ tou= xro/nou tw=n ei)s ta\s qei/as grafa\s u(pomnhma/twn e)ge/neto a)rxh/, *)ambrosi/ou ei)s ta\ ma/lista parormw=ntos au)to\n muri/ais o(/sais ou) protropai=s tai=s dia\ lo/gwn kai\ paraklh/sesin au)tou= mo/non, a)lla\ kai\ a)fqonwta/tais tw=n e)pithdei/wn xorhgi/ais. taxugra/foi te ga\r au)tw=| plei/ous h)\ e(pta\ to\n a)riqmo\n parh=san u(pagoreu/onti, xro/nois tetagme/nois a)llh/lous a)mei/bontes, bibliogra/foi te ou)x h(/ttous a(/ma kai\ ko/rais e)pi\ tw=| kalligrafei=n h)skhme/nais: w(=n a(pa/ntwn th\n de/ousan tw=n e)pithdei/wn a)/fqonon xorhgi/an o( *)ambro/sios paresth/sato: nai\ mh\n kai\ e)n th=| peri\ ta\ qei=a lo/gia a)skh/sei te kai\ spoudh=| proqumi/an a)/faton au)tw=| suneise/feren, h(=| kai\ ma/lista au)to\n proe/trepen e)pi\ th\n tw=n u(pomnhma/twn su/ntacin. tosau/thn de\ e)/sxe spoudh\n peri\ ta\s qei/as grafa/s, w(/ste kai\ th\n *(ebrai+kh\n dia/lekton, e)nantioume/nhn th=| te h(liki/a| kai\ th=| oi)kei/a| fu/sei, e)kmaqei=n, kai\ di/xa tw=n o# e(rmhneutw=n a)/llas e)kdo/seis ei)s e(\n sunagagei=n, *)aku/la le/gw tou= *pontikou= kai\ *qeodoti/wnos kai\ *summa/xou tw=n *)ebiwnai/wn [ai(/resis de/ e)stin au)tw=n yilo\n to\n *xristo\n a)/nqrwpon docazo/ntwn]: oi(/ tines to\ kata\ *matqai=on eu)agge/lion u(pemnhma/tisan, di' ou(= kai\ to\ i)/dion do/gma bebaiw=sai speu/dousin. o(moi/ws de\ pe/mpthn kai\ e(/kthn kai\ e(bdo/mhn e)/kdosin. e)k tw=n *eu)sebi/ou tou= *pamfi/lou i(storiw=n peri\ *)wrige/nous. tosau/th de\ ei)sh/geto tw=| *)wrige/nei tw=n qei/wn lo/gwn a)phkribwme/nh h( e)ce/tasis, w(s mo/nas prwtotu/pous au)toi=s *(ebrai/wn stoixei/ois grafa\s kth=ma i)/dion poih/sasqai a)nixneu=sai/ te ta\s tw=n e(te/rwn para\ tou\s o# ta\s i(era\s grafa\s e(rmhneu/santa e)kdo/seis kai/ tinas e(te/ras para\ ta\s kathmaceume/nas e(rmhnei/as e)nallattou/sas, th\n *)aku/lou kai\ *summa/xou kai\ *qeodoti/wnos, e)feurei=n, a(\s e)c a)porrh/twn ou)k oi)=d' o(po/qen tuxo\n tw=| pa/lai lanqanou/sas xro/nw| ei)s fw=s a)nixneu/sas proh/gagen. e)/n ge mh\n toi=s *(ecaploi=s tw=n *yalmw=n meta\ ta\s e)pish/mous te/ssaras e)kdo/seis ou) mo/non pe/mpthn, a)lla\ kai\ e(/kthn kai\ e(bdo/mhn paraqei\s e(rmhnei/an, e)pi\ mia=s au)=qis seshmei/wtai, w(s e)n *(ierixoi= eu(rhme/nhs e)n pi/qw|. tau/tas de\ a(pa/sas ei)s e(\n sunagagw\n dielqw/n te pro\s kw=lon kai\ a)ntiparaqei\s a)llh/lais meta\ kai\ au)th=s th=s *(ebrai/wn shmeiw/sews, ta\ tw=n legome/nwn *(ecaplw=n h(mi=n a)nti/grafa katale/loipen, i)di/ws de\ th\n *)aku/lou kai\ *summa/xou kai\ *qeodoti/wnos e)/kdosin a(/ma th=| tw=n o# e)n toi=s *tetraploi=s e)piskeua/sas. kai\ a(plw=s pa=san grafh\n u(poshmhna/menos e)kklhsiastikh\n plei=sta kai\ a)nari/qmhta katale/loipen, w(s e)c e)kei/nou pa/ntas tou\s mete/peita th=s e)kklhsi/as didaska/lous ta\s a)forma\s ei)lh- fe/nai, w(s o( qeolo/gos fa/skei *grhgo/rios: *)wrige/nhs h( pa/ntwn h(mw=n a)ko/nh. ou) mo/non de\ th=| kaq' h(ma=s e)kklhsi/a|, a)lla\ kai\ toi=s tw=n e)/cwqen pollh\n parei/xeto th\n w)fe/leian, ai(retikoi=s te kai\ filoso/fois, mononouxi\ pro\s toi=s qei/ois kai\ ta\ filo/sofa par' au)tou= paideuo/menoi. ei)sh=ge/ te ga\r o(/sous eu)fuw=s e)/xontas e(w/ra kai\ e)pi\ ta\ filo/sofa maqh/mata, gewmetri/an kai\ a)riqmhtikh\n kai\ ta)/lla paideu/mata paradidou/s, ei)/s te ta\s ai(re/seis ta\s para\ toi=s filoso/fois proa/gwn kai\ ta\ para\ tou/tois suggra/mmata dihgou/menos, u(pomnhmatizo/meno/s te kai\ qewrw=n ei)s e(/kasta, w(s h)/dh me/gan kai\ par' au)toi=s *(/ellhsi filo/sofon to\n a)/ndra khru/ttesqai. ma/rtures de\ th=s peri\ tau=ta au)tou= katorqw/sews au)tw=n *(ellh/nwn oi( kat' au)to\n h)kmako/tes filo/sofoi, w(=n e)n suggra/mmasi pollh\n mnh/mhn eu(/romen tou= a)ndro/s, tote\ me\n au)tw=| prosfwnou/ntwn, tote\ de\ oi(=a didaska/lw| e)s th\n au)tou= kri/sin tou\s i)di/ous a)nafero/ntwn po/nous. tw=| de\ *)wrige/nei e)pi\ th=s *kaisarei/as ta\ sunh/qh pra/ttonti polloi\ prosh/|esan ou) mo/non tw=n e)pixwri/wn, a)lla\ kai\ th=s a)llodaph=s muri/oi foithtai\ ta\s patri/das a)polei/pontes: w(=n e)pish/mous ma/lista e)/gnwmen *qeo/dwron, o(\s h)=n au)to\s ou(=tos o( kaq' h(ma=s e)pisko/pwn diabo/htos *grhgo/rios o( *qaumatourgo/s, o(/ te tou/tou a)delfo\s *)aqhno/dwros. oi(=s a)mfi\ ta\ *(ellh/nwn kai\ *(rwmai/wn maqh/mata deinw=s e)ptohme/nois filosofi/as ei)s e)/rwta th=s prote/ras spoudh=s th\n qei/an a)/skhsin a)ntikatalla/casqai proetre/yato. pe/nte de\ o(/lois e)/tesin au)tw=| suggeno/menoi tosau/thn a)phne/gkanto peri\ ta\ qei=a belti/wsin, w(s e)/ti ne/ous a)/mfw e)piskoph=s tw=n kata\ *po/nton e)kklhsiw=n a)ciwqh=nai. tw=| de\ *)wrige/nei kata\ tou=ton to\n xro/non ta\ ei)s to\n *)hsai/+an, e)n tautw=| de\ kai\ ei)s to\n *)iezekih\l suneta/tteto, w(=n ei)s me\n to\ tri/ton me/ros tou= *)hsai/+ou me/xri th=s o(ra/sews tw=n tetrapo/dwn tw=n e)n th=| e)rh/mw| tria/konta/ ei)si to/moi: ei)s de\ to\n *)iezekih\l pe/nte kai\ ei)/kosin, ou(\s kai\ mo/nous ei)s to\n pa/nta pepoi/htai profh/thn. e)/tos d' h)=n au)tw=| e(chkosto\n, e)n w(=| tau=ta sune/tatten: e)n w(=| kai\ o( maka/rios ma/rtus *pa/mfilos marturi/w| to\n bi/on diech=lqe. to\ de\ ei)s to\ kata\ *)iwa/nnhn *eu)agge/lion e)chghtiko\n shmai/nei, ta\ pro/tera pe/nte e)p' *)alecandrei/as e)/ti o)/nta au)to\n sunta/cai. th=s de\ ei)s to\ pa=n *eu)agge/lion pragmatei/as mo/noi b# kai\ k# perih=lqon to/moi, ib# de\ tw=n ei)s th\n *ge/nesin kai\ ei)s tou\s prw/tous de\ e# kai\ k# yalmou\s, e)/ti te ta\ ei)s tou\s *qrh/nous: kai\ ta\ *peri\ a)nasta/sews kai\ ta\ *peri\ a)rxw=n. gra/fei de\ kai\ tou\s e)pigegramme/nous *strwmatei=s, o)/ntas to\n a)riqmo\n i#, ou(\s kai\ sune/tace kata\ th\n *)aleca/ndrou basilei/an. to\n me/ntoi prw=ton e)chgou/menos yalmo\n e)/kqesin pepoi/htai tw=n i(erw=n grafw=n th=s palaia=s diaqh/khs katalo/gou, w(=de/ pws le/gwn kata\ le/cin: ou)k a)gnohte/on de/, w(s ei)=nai ta\s e)ndiaqh/kous bi/blous, w(s *(ebrai=oi paradido/asi, b# kai\ k#, o(/sos a)riqmo\s tw=n par' au)toi=s stoixei/wn e)sti/n. ei)=ta e)pife/rei le/gwn: ei)si\ de\ ai( ei)/kosi du/o bi/bloi kaq' *(ebrai/ous ai(/de: *ge/nesis, *barhsi/q, o(/ e)stin e)n a)rxh=|: kai\ ai( loipai\ kaqech=s. e)/zhse de\ e(/ws *ga/llou kai\ *bolousianou=, toute/stin e(/ws q# kai\ c# e)tw=n th=s h(liki/as au)tou=: kai\ e)koimh/qh e)n *tu/rw|, e)n h(=| kai\ e)ta/fh. o( de\ path\r au)tou= *lewni/dhs marturi/w| tw=| dia\ *xristo\n e)teleiw/qh.
[1] On Origen see generally OCD(4) s.v. Origen(1), and again omega 183. The present entry draws heavily on Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, Books VI and VII.
[2] Eusebius refers to Origen as 'Adamantius' (*)adama/ntios), noting 'for Origen bears this name as well.' That Eusebius attaches no significance to the name, which derives from a)da/mas ('unconquerable', 'adamantine'), indicates routine use as a deuteronomen. For a 2nd century CE sample, see the Thessalonica arch inscription in Cook, 23(14), on which two of the individuals bear the same deuteronomen. Contemporary and later interpretations of 'Adamantius' appear to reflect author viewpoint (Epiphanius' vituperation; Jerome's and Photius' adulation). For additional comment, see web address 1: Eusebius Pamphilus, The Church History of Eusebius (Book VI), footnote 116.
[3] Eusebius uses e)nhskhme/nos (VI.2.9), which the Suda strengthens to e)chskhme/nos. See Smyth, p. 378 (§1688.2).
[4] Ammonius Saccas: alpha 1640. In addition, see OCD(4) s.v.
[5] Literally, 'He obtained a great boon from his teacher.'
[6] Numenius: nu 517; OCD(4) s.v.
[7-13] See OCD; Lempriere; web address 1: Eusebius Pamphilus, The Church History of Eusebius (Book VI), footnotes 144 and 145 for Cronius and Apollophanes. Also Williamson's appendix "Who's Who in Eusebius." For Longinus in historical fiction, see Zenobia or The Fall of Palmyra by the 19th-century American writer William Ware.
[14] For Greek, Judaic, and Origenic allegorism, see OCD(4) s.v. Allegory, Greek; Encyclopaedia Judaica, Vol 4 (Bible, Allegorical Interpretations); web address 2: Origen (Origen and Origenism, IIA. Scriptural Allegorism).
[15] For a similar use, see 2 Maccabees 4:10 LXX *(Ellhniko\n xarakth=ra (Brenton, Apocrypha 189) as 'Greek way of life' (NRSV, 1699), recording the imposition of non-Judaic or pagan (secular) practices.
[16] A rhetorical question inspired by Eusebius VI.2.10ff and punctuated with an Iliadic flare. For a similar characterization of Origen, see web address 1: Jerome, On Illustrious Men (54).
[17] The Suda here interprets Eusebius at VI.18.3. The Suda literally reads: and explained to them at each session (e(ka/stote) the many correlations (sundroma/s, literally "concourses") permeating it (i.e. a particular doctrine).
[18] Eusebius VI.19.2ff. See OCD(4) s.v. and Williamson's appendix.
[19] Literally, 'Let Origen be understood (by this reference)'.
[20] The term grafe/ntwn also appears in Eusebius VI.19.9; neuter genitive plural aorist passive participle of gra/fw (see LSJ s.v.).
[21] The Suda further vilifies Porphyry by amplifying Eusebius VI.19.9 with ma/neis (maniac, madman), aorist participle of mai/nomai.
[22] The Suda truncates Eusebius VI.19.11 between tau=ta and kai\. The Suda is either unintentionally defective or deliberately pithier than the original. If the latter, the now isolated tau=ta me\n may be viewed as a concessive demarcating tau=ta from the rest of the phrase -- up to polupeiri/as, where a contrastive kai/ picks up. The result is a strident tone lacking in the Vorlage -- a technique consistent with the Suda's other emphatic choices. Contrast me/n...kai/ here with me/n solitarium in the Suda sentence following the quotation. See Smyth, p. 655 (§§2897-98).
[23] A Platonic approach to philosophic inquiry and truth-seeking. See Republic 5.475E (Hamilton).
[24] For Mamaea, the mother of the Alexander Severus (r. 222-235), see Scarre, 153-57; Williamson; Gibbon, Vol I, 480; and OCD(4) s.v. Severus(2) Alexander, which provides a list of ancient sources.
[25] On Ambrose, see Eusebius VI.18.1, VI.23.1; web address 1: Eusebius Pamphilus, The Church History of Eusebius (Book VI), Footnote 134; and Williamson. The Latin from Jerome's Ep. ad Marcellam at web address 1, footnote 134 translates: "They say he was quite refined, as evidenced by his letter to Origen." (non inelegantis ingenti fuit, sicut ejus ad Origenem epistolae indicio sunt).
[26] The phrase ta\ qei=a lo/gia is "the divine oracles" in Oulton (69), but should be read in a broader context as "divine sayings." Williamson prefers "divine teaching" (199). See Danker, 598.
[27] The phrase does not appear in Eusebius VI.16.1. but parallels Jerome, On Illustrious Men, 54. See web address 1. The Greek in translation literally reads "contrary to the age and the inherent temperament." The German Zeitgeist is equivalent. See LSJ, 1202.IV; Danker, 694; 1069. For Origen's proficiency in Hebrew, see Jellicoe, Septuagint 104-106.
[28] i.e. the Septuagint.
[29] For an overview of these versions, see Brown, 1094 (79-82). For a more exacting review, see Jellicoe, Septuagint, IV.
[30] For the Ebionites, see 'Ebionism' in Hastings, Vol. V; 'Ebionites' in Eliade, Vol 4. For a brief comment, see Williamson.
[31] Ibid.
[32] On these versions -- referred to as Quinta, Sexta, and Septima -- see Eusebius VI.16.1ff and Jellicoe, Septuagint, 118-24.
[33] On the Hexapla -- the adjacent columnar arrangement of (1) the Old Testament in consonantal Hebrew, (2) a Greek transliteration of the Hebrew, (3) Aquila, (4) Symmachus, (5) the Septuagint and (6) Theodotion -- see Brown, 1094(83-86); Jellicoe, Septuagint, V; and Jellicoe, Studies, 343-81. The Hexapla of Psalms contained the Hexaplar columns with the Quinta and Sexta versions occupying the fifth and sixth columns in an overall eight-column scheme (later designated the Octapla). Although Eusebius and Jerome mention a seventh column, the nature -- and even the existence -- of the Septima are controversial issues among scholars. See Jellicoe. Also, web address 2: Hexapla.
[34] See Eusebius VI.16.1ff. For an apparatus criticus of this passage, see Jellicoe, Septuagint, 118-19. The Suda disrupts the syntax of Eusebius VI.16.1 by replacing the genitive plural perfect participle e(rmhneuko/twn (ta/s tw=n e(te/rwn...e(rmhneuko/twn e)kdo/seis) with the aorist singular accusative participle e(rmhneu/santa. For a pithos or large storage jar, see Adkins 209, 367 as well as its use in a comedic Etruscan scene from Hercules' labors in Cristofani, 89. This is cross-referenced at pi 54.
[35] On the Tetrapla -- ostensibly the adjacent columnar arrangement of the Hexapla's contents without the first two columns -- see Jellicoe, Septuagint, 113-18; Jellicoe, Studies, 382-91.
[36] gamma 450.
[37] On Gregory Thaumaturgus, see gamma 452: Gregorios; web address 2 for an overview. See web address 1: Gregory Thaumaturgus (Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol VI). For Gregory's Panegyric to Origen (*ei)s *)/Wrige/nhn panhguriko\s lo/gos), composed as he completed his training and which provides a detailed account of Origen's instructional methodology, see under the same "The Oration and Panegyric Addressed to Origen."
[38] The term a)/skhsis drawn from Eusebius VI.30 is transferred from its original athletic sense: practice. Although not in this instance associated with martyrdom (see Danker, 143), the term here conveys the sense of rigorous training. Oulton translates "the study of divine truth" (80); Williamson as "theological training" (204). Relatedly, Eusebius VI opens with a)qlhtw=n as "champions" of the faith, a transferred athletic allusion to martyrs common in early Christian parlance.
[39] See OCD(4) s.v. Pontus, and Pritchard, 187 for the region's geographic extent and urban centers.
[40] Isaiah 30:6. See Anderson, 262-63 for the tripartite division of Isaiah Books 1-32; Isaiah 30:6 resides in the third division (Books 28-32).
[41] The Suda supplies Origen's age from Eusebius VI.36.1.
[42] For St. Pamphilus of Caesarea, see web address 2.
[43] See web address 1: Eusebius Pamphilus, The Church History of Eusebius (Book VI), footnote 203.
[44] Ibid. footnote 204.
[45] Ibid. footnote 205. The Latin from Jerome's Ep. ad Magnum at web address 1, footnote 205 translates: "Origen, who emulated him (Clement), wrote ten Stromateis, comparing Christian teachings with those of the Greek philosophers, and corroborating all doctrine of our faith derived from Plato and Aristotle, Numenius and Cornutus." (hunc imitatus Origenes, decem scripsit Stromateas, Christianorum et philosophorum inter se sententias comparans: et omnia nostrae religionis dogmata de Platone et Aristotele, Numenio Cornutoque confirmans) Alternatively rendered as Stromata (Miscellanies).
[46] See web address 1: Eusebius Pamphilus, The Church History of Eusebius (Book III), footnote 113 for a discussion of the OT canon.
[47] Eusebius VI.25.2 transliterates the Hebrew disyllabic בראשית bere'shith as "Bresith"; the Suda transliterates it as "Baresith." The Hebrew opens with a vocal shewa na (a half vowel), followed by tsere (a full vowel) and the gutteral 'aleph as the elements of the first syllable. Eusebius (following Origen) ignores the vocal shewa in transliteration, retaining only the full vowel. The Suda shows all vowels. The Greek alphabet cannot accommodate the Hebrew letter ש shin, and Eusebius (following Origen) and the Suda ignore an accommodation for א 'aleph. That theta is here a fricative (not an aspirated plosive) is made clear by its representation of the Hebrew fricative ת thaw in bere'shith -- the use of theta as a fricative already evidenced in the pre-Byzantine centuries CE. See Allen, 21.
[48] Eusebius VII.1. The emperor Gaius Vibius Tribonianus Gallus came to the throne in June 251, naming his son Gaius Vibius Volusianus as Caesar or Successor. They were murdered in August 253. See Scarre, 170-71.
[49] Eusebius VII.1 states that Origen died at 'age seventy less one' (e(no\s de/onta). The Suda expresses this number alphanumerically (q' kai\ x'). Williamson mistranslates Eusebius as 'seventy' (221).
[50] Eusebius VI.1.1. Leonides was martyred by decapitation during the persecution in the tenth year of Septimius Severus' reign (Eusebius VI.2.2ff) or between April 202 and April 203. See Scarre, 131.
Allen, W.S. Vox Graeca. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1968
Anderson, B.W. Understanding the Old Testament. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1966
Atkins, L. and Atkins, R.A. Handbook to Life in Ancient Greece. Oxford: Oxford University, 1997
Brenton, L.C.L. The Septuagint with Apocrypha. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1999 (reprinted 1851 ed.)
Brown, R.E. et al. The New Jerome Bible Commentary. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1990
Cook, B.F. Greek Inscriptions. Berkeley: University of California, 1987
Cristofani, M. The Etruscans: a New Investigation. New York: Galahad, 1979
Danker, F.W. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2000
Eliade, M. The Encyclopedia of Religion. New York: MacMillan, 1987
Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jersualem: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1973
Gibbon, E. The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. New York: Modern Library, No Date
Hamilton, E. and Cairns, H. Plato: The Collected Dialogues. Princeton: Princeton University, 1996
Hastings, J. Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1951
Jellicoe, S. The Septuagint and Modern Study. Oxford: Clarendon, 1968
Jellicoe, S. Studies in the Septuagint: Origins, Recensions, and Interpretations. New York: Ktav, 1974
Oulton, J.E.L. trans. Eusebius: Ecclesiastical History (Loeb). Cambridge: Harvard University, 2000
Pritchard, J. HarperCollins Atlas of the Bible. London: HarperCollins, 1997
Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. London: Thames and Hudson, 1995
Smyth, H.W. Greek Grammar. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1984
Ware, William. Zenobia or The Fall of Palmyra. New York: A.L. Burt, No Date
Williamson, G.A. and Louth, A. trans. Eusebius: The History of the Church. New York: Penguin Classics, 1989
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: athletics; biography; Christianity; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; geography; historiography; history; imagery; mathematics; philosophy; religion; women
Translated by: Pam Little on 2 June 2000@19:17:35.
Vetted by:
Craig Miller (Under editorial review as of this date.) on 9 April 2002@15:36:59.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference and link) on 9 April 2002@17:38:08.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 9 April 2002@17:45:33.
Craig Miller (Modified translation; augmented keywords. Footnotes, cosmetics, and status change pending by editor.) on 13 May 2002@12:12:40.
Craig Miller (Initial cosmetics.) on 14 May 2002@19:01:54.
Craig Miller on 14 May 2002@19:09:56.
Craig Miller on 14 May 2002@19:13:41.
Craig Miller on 20 May 2002@18:19:55.
Craig Miller on 20 May 2002@18:39:39.
Craig Miller on 21 May 2002@15:10:32.
Craig Miller (Additional websites replaced and updated; footnotes added. Bibliography, vetting status change, and further cosmetics pending by editor.) on 21 May 2002@20:58:32.
Craig Miller (Cosmetics) on 22 May 2002@19:41:19.
Craig Miller on 23 May 2002@00:41:14.
Craig Miller (Added bibliography, changed status.) on 23 May 2002@18:37:25.
Craig Miller on 23 May 2002@21:54:55.
Craig Miller (Cosmetics) on 24 May 2002@22:19:33.
Craig Miller on 26 May 2002@23:13:05.
Craig Miller on 28 June 2002@00:17:55.
Craig Miller on 4 August 2002@00:54:30.
David Whitehead (augmented primary note; cosmetics) on 16 June 2004@10:09:35.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew) on 11 August 2004@16:49:02.
Catharine Roth (added keyword) on 29 September 2005@02:16:18.
Catharine Roth (corrected coding of Latin quotation) on 29 September 2005@11:33:13.
Catharine Roth (added another keyword) on 29 September 2005@11:34:52.
Catharine Roth (betacode typos, cross-reference) on 12 August 2010@15:00:27.
Catharine Roth (tweaks, coding) on 19 August 2013@22:26:18.
Catharine Roth (more tweaks) on 19 August 2013@22:31:41.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics; raised status) on 1 November 2013@07:29:08.
David Whitehead (updated some refs) on 5 August 2014@04:18:22.
Catharine Roth (more betacode corrections) on 30 August 2014@10:19:02.
Catharine Roth (more cosmetics) on 20 December 2014@13:17:06.
Catharine Roth (corrected typo, upgraded links) on 31 December 2014@23:44:06.
David Whitehead (note typo) on 28 January 2015@06:39:11.
Catharine Roth (coding, tweak) on 7 February 2015@17:32:21.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note 20 and bibliography) on 7 February 2015@17:40:10.
Catharine Roth (betacode cosmeticule in note 34) on 7 February 2015@23:11:42.
David Whitehead (codings) on 20 May 2016@08:54:15.
David Whitehead (note typo) on 20 May 2016@08:55:52.


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