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Headword: *)epieikw=s
Adler number: epsilon,2315
Translated headword: properly
Vetting Status: high
This adverb means very much so.[1] It also means surprisingly, and contrary to expectation,[2] and with propriety and decency. It also means moderately, or proportionately, and sufficiently.[3]
Procopius: [writes] "[the] Lazoi were properly aggrieved."[4]
"[That he] did not need much money for the journey, for he would live properly."[5]
And elsewhere: "these things, which contrary to the expectation of the king/emperor or what he was supposing pertained to willfulness and arrogance, seemed to have been written properly."[6]
And elsewhere: "therefore he quite properly entrusts the reins of the escape to the god [or, God] over everything."[7]
Greek Original:
*)epieikw=s: to\ e)pi/rrhma tou=to shmai/nei to\ pa/nu. shmai/nei kai\ parado/cws, kai\ par' e)lpi/da, kai\ to\ meta\ e)pieikei/as kai\ xrhsto/thtos. shmai/nei kai\ to\ metri/ws, h)/toi summe/trws, kai\ to\ i(kanw=s. *proko/pios: *lazoi\ de\ e)pieikw=s h)/xqonto. dei=sqai xrhma/twn ou) pollw=n ei)s th\n o(do/n, zh/sesqai ga\r e)pieikw=s. kai\ au)=qis: tau=ta par' e)lpi/da tou= basile/ws ei)s to\ au)/qade/s te kai\ u(pe/rogkon fe/ronta h)\ kaqo/ti ei)ka/zeto, e)pieikw=s gegra/fqai e)/docen. kai\ au)=qis: toigarou=n komidh= e)pieikw=s a)nati/qhsi tw=| e)pi\ pa/ntwn qew=| ta\s h(ni/as th=s a)podra/sews.
See also epsilon 2312, epsilon 2313, epsilon 2314, omicron 877.
[1] Literally "much". The word is translated here in a manner appropriate to the use of the headword as an affirmative expletive in Plato's Republic, from the scholia to which some of the following commentary derives: see further below, note 3. "Much" (panu/) by itself is rarely used for this purpose, although it does play a part in affirmative phrases such as panu/ ge.
[2] These meanings are unrecognized by LSJ, and are not illustrated in any of the several quotations that follow.
[3] Up to this point the entry = schol. to Plato, Republic 555D (text at web address 1). Adler and others cite schol. to Republic 431E where the same material occurs, but in a different order appropriate to the context there. Also = Synagoge epsilon665 (with the omission of 'and sufficiently'); Photius epsilon1543; Etymologicum Magnum 359.35-8. For other comparanda and sources see the apparatus to Theodoridis' edition of Photius.
[4] Procopius, De bellis [History of the Wars of Justinian] 2.28.25.
[5] Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 12.198 (web address 2).
[6] Quotation unidentifiable.
[7] Theophylact Simocatta, Histories 4.10.2; wrongly attributed to Damascius as fr. 179 Asmus.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; geography; historiography; history; philosophy; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 1 December 2007@08:28:50.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, links, keyword, status) on 1 December 2007@13:35:03.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 2 December 2007@04:43:33.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 14 November 2010@22:34:01.
David Whitehead (x-refs; more keywords; tweaking) on 11 October 2012@07:29:55.
William Hutton (typo) on 30 August 2013@15:53:39.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 27 January 2014@07:19:32.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 13 February 2015@07:32:03.


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