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Headword: *)areth/
Adler number: alpha,3831
Translated headword: arete, virtue, excellence
Vetting Status: high
Andocides and Thucydides [sc. use this term] to mean good reputation.[1]
Virtue[2] can be lost due to drunkenness or melancholy but it cannot be lost because of a firm apprehension;[3] and they[4] maintain that it is self-sufficient, too. But others[5] [say] that it is not self-sufficient but there is need for strength, health and economic resources. Virtue is included among the opposite things; "opposite" are those things that are constituted by the destruction of the contraries: blindness [and] sight, affirmation [and] negation, and the like.
Search in the entry "arrogant".[6]
[Concerning] a possession of virtue: when one looks toward the Romans' good order, it will be recognized that [sc. their empire] is a possession of virtue, not a gift of fortune.[7]
Greek Original:
*)areth/: *)andoki/dhs kai\ *qoukudi/dhs a)nti\ tou= eu)doci/a. o(/ti a)poblhth\ h( a)reth\ dia\ me/qhn h)\ melagxoli/an, a)napo/blhtos de\ dia\ bebai/an kata/lhyin: kai\ au)ta/rkh de\ au)th/n fasin ei)=nai. oi( de\ ou)k au)ta/rkh ei)=nai, a)lla\ xrei/a e)sti\n i)sxu/os kai\ u(gei/as kai\ xorhgi/as. o(/ti h( a)reth\ tw=n a)ntikeime/nwn e)sti/n: a)ntikei/mena de/ ei)sin, o(/sa th=| a)naire/sei tw=n e)nanti/wn suni/statai: tuflo/ths, o)/yis, kata/fasis, a)po/fasis kai\ ta\ o(/moia. zh/tei e)n tw=| u(perh/fanos. o(/ti a)reth=s kth=ma, o(/tan a)pi/doi tis ei)s th\n *(rwmai/wn eu)taci/an, e)pignw/setai ei)=nai a)reth=s kth=ma, ou) tu/xhs dw=ron.
See also alpha 3830 (and alpha 3832).
[1] Andocides fr. 6 Blass; Thucydides 1.33.2; both cited from Harpokration s.v.
[2] The source now becomes Diogenes Laertius 7.127-128.
[3] That virtue can be lost is said by Chrysippus; that it cannot be lost, by Cleanthes (Diogenes Laertius 7.127). Probably Cleanthes' position was that if your epistemic state is knowledge (episteme) and you have a firm or secure apprehension (katalepsis), you cannot cease being a virtuous person. The point is very controversial and apparently there was debate within the school (see Diogenes Laertius 7.91). In this context "melancholy" means "excess of black bile".
[4] The Older Stoics (Zeno, Cleanthes and Chrysippus).
[5] These are the Stoics Panaetius and Posidonius (Diogenes Laertius 7.128). The orthodox Stoic thesis (as held by Zeno and Chrysippus) is that virtue is sufficient for happiness (Diogenes Laertius 7.127).
[6] upsilon 290. The thesis developed there is that every virtue has its opposite vice (e.g. temperance is opposed to salaciousness, continence to gluttony, justice to advantage or excess of power, mildness to anger, prudence to imprudence, and so on).
[7] This addendum cites (very summarily) a passage of Josephus (Jewish War 3.71-72), where the author points out that if one pays attention to the organization, discipline or "good order" of the Roman army, it will be recognized that the Roman power is like a prize or acquisition of virtue, not like a gift of fortune.
Keywords: definition; ethics; food; historiography; philosophy; rhetoric
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 10 March 2000@18:30:14.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 9 October 2000@03:21:10.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 24 August 2002@09:22:38.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 13 October 2005@08:11:25.
David Whitehead (x-refs; tweaks and cosmetics) on 11 April 2012@07:32:30.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 May 2015@23:31:24.
David Whitehead on 31 August 2015@03:50:39.


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