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Headword: *)apra/gmwn
Adler number: alpha,3683
Translated headword: business-free
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] toil-free.[1]
"It is necessary that men of excellence be business-free, and avoid performing something contrary to duty. And they will drink wine, but not get drunk. Furthermore they will not go out of their mind, although at times strange appearances will assault [them] due to melancholy or to a raving, and [this takes place] not following the account of what is choiceworthy but against nature.[2]
So [someone who is] 'business-free' [is] fair, moderate in his moods; for instance not combative or meddlesome.[3]
Alternatively [it means someone] slackened or dull.
Greek Original:
*)apra/gmwn: a)/ponos. a)pra/gmonas dei= ei)=nai tou\s spoudai/ous, e)kkli/nein te to\ pra/ttein ti para\ to\ kaqh=kon. kai\ oi)nwqh/sesqai me\n, ou) mequsqh/sesqai de/. e)/ti de\ ou)de\ manh/sesqai: prospesei=sqai me/ntoi au)tw=| fantasi/as a)lloko/tous dia\ melagxoli/an h)\ lh/rhsin, ou) kata\ to\n tw=n ai(retw=n lo/gon, a)lla\ para\ fu/sin. *)apra/gmwn ou)=n e)pieikh\s, me/trios tou\s tro/pous, oi(=on ou) filo/neikos, h)\ filopra/gmwn. h)\ a)neime/nos h)\ mwro/s.
cf. generally alpha 3681, alpha 3682.
[1] Likewise in other lexica.
[2] A close approximation of Diogenes Laertius 7.118, who is quoting Stoic doctrine. (For "will drink wine, but not get drunk" cf. omicroniota 140.) In fact, the Stoic sage person is said not to get drunk and drunkenness is defined as a raving (or "delirium") due to wine (see Stobaeus, Eclogae 2.109, ed. Wachsmuth). The wise person is free from pain because pain is an emotional state (pathos: "an irrational contraction of the soul"), but all his actions are in line with reason. He has no emotion but correct emotional states (eupatheiai).
[3] This material comes from the scholia to Aristophanes, Knights 261, where the word occurs.
Keywords: comedy; definition; ethics; food; imagery; medicine; philosophy
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 1 May 2001@11:24:18.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note; added keywords; cosmetics) on 2 May 2001@03:10:16.
David Whitehead (restorative cosmetics) on 23 August 2002@04:06:26.
David Whitehead (augmented note) on 23 August 2002@04:09:25.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 9 April 2012@07:08:16.
David Whitehead (coding) on 30 August 2015@05:20:19.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 26 March 2021@01:02:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 26 March 2021@01:03:50.


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