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Headword: Abaris
Adler number: alpha,18
Translated headword: Abaris, Avars
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Scythian, son of Seuthes. He wrote the so-called Scythinian Oracles[1] and Marriage of the river Hebros and Purifications and a Theogony in prose and Arrival of Apollo among the Hyperboreans in meter. He came from Scythia to Greece.
The legendary arrow belongs to him, the one he flew on from Greece to Hyperborean Scythia. It was given to him by Apollo.[2]
Gregory the Theologian mentioned this man in his Epitaphios for Basil the Great.[3]
They say[4] that once, when there was a plague throughout the entire inhabited world, Apollo told the Greeks and barbarians who had come to consult his oracle that the Athenian people should make prayers on behalf of all of them. So, many peoples sent ambassadors to them, and Abaris, they say, came as ambassador of the Hyperboreans in the third Olympiad.[5]
[Note] that the Bulgarians thoroughly destroyed the Avars[6] by force.
[Note] that these Avars drove out the Sabinorians, when they themselves had been expelled by peoples living near the shore of the Ocean, who left their own land when a mist formed in the flood of the Ocean and a crowd of griffins appeared; the story was that they would not stop until they had devoured the race of men. So the people driven away by these monsters invaded their neighbors. As the invaders were stronger, the others submitted and left, just as the Saragurians, when they were driven out, went to the Akatziri Huns.[7]
The declension is Abaris, Abaridos [genitive singular], Abaridas [accusative plural], and with apocope Abaris [nominative plural].
See about these things under 'Bulgarians'.[8]
Greek Original:
Abaris: Skuthês, Seuthou huios. sunegrapsato de chrêsmous tous kaloumenous Skuthinous kai Gamon Hebrou tou potamou kai Katharmous kai Theogonian katalogadên kai Apollônos aphixin eis Huperboreous emmetrôs. hêke de ek Skuthôn eis Hellada. toutou ho muthologoumenos oïstos, tou petomenou apo tês Hellados mechri tôn Huperboreôn Skuthôn: edothê de autôi para tou Apollônos. toutou kai Grêgorios ho Theologos en tôi eis ton megan Basileion Epitaphiôi mnêmên pepoiêtai. phasi de hoti loimou kata pasan tên oikoumenên gegonotos aneilen ho Apollôn manteuomenois Hellêsi kai barbarois ton Athênaiôn dêmon huper pantôn euchas poiêsasthai. presbeuomenôn de pollôn ethnôn pros autous, kai Abarin ex Huperboreôn presbeutên aphikesthai legousi kata tên g# Olumpiada. hoti tous Abaris hoi Boulgaroi kata kratos ardên êphanisan. hoti hoi Abaris houtoi exêlasan Sabinôras, metanastai genomenoi hupo ethnôn oikountôn men tên parôkeanitin aktên, tên de chôran apolipontôn dia to ex anachuseôs tou Ôkeanou homichlôdes ginomenon, kai grupôn de plêthos anaphanen: hoper ên logos mê proteron pausasthai prin ê boran poiêsai to tôn anthrôpôn genos. dio dê hupo tônde elaunomenoi tôn deinôn tois plêsiochôrois eneballon: kai tôn epiontôn dunatôterôn ontôn hoi tên ephodon huphistamenoi metanistanto, hôsper kai hoi Saragouroi elathentes pros tois Akatirois Ounnois egenonto. klinetai de Abaris, Abaridos, tous Abaridas, kai kata apokopên Abaris. zêtei peri tôn autôn en tôi Boulgaroi.
Notes:
See generally A.H. Griffiths in OCD(4) p.1: "legendary devotee of Apollo from the far north, a shamanistic missionary and saviour-figure like Aristeas [alpha 3900]". Adler credits this part of the entry to the Epitome Onomatologi Hesychii Milesii.
[1] Or in one manuscript, 'Skythian'.
[2] Perhaps from a scholion on the passage about to be cited (so Adler). Cf. Herodotos 4.36.1 (web address 1).
[3] Gregory of Nazianzus PG 36.524b.
[4] This material is from Harpokration s.v. *)/abaris
[5] 768-765 BCE. Harpokration (see preceding note) cites Hippostratos (FGrH 568 F4) to this effect, but adds that there were later alternatives: the twenty-first Olympiad (696-693) or "the time of Croesus, king of Lydia" (so Pindar, fr.270 Snell-Maehler), i.e. c.560-546.
[6] The word used for the Avars here, *)aba/ris, is a homograph for the name of the Hyperborean wise man Abaris, so this separate section on the Avars is included in this entry. There is no indication that the lexicographer sees any connection between the two topics.
[7] Priscus fr.30 FHG (4.104), still 30 Bornmann. The final part reappears at alpha 820 and sigma 111.
[8] beta 423.
References:
RE Abaris (1) I.16-17
Macartney, C.A. "On the Greek Sources for the History of the Turks in the Sixth Century." BSOAS 11 (1944): 266-275
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; Christianity; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; history; mythology; philosophy; poetry; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@17:03:41.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation and notes, added keywords, set status.) on 19 January 2001@14:57:43.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and bibliography; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@05:20:43.
David Whitehead (added note) on 14 February 2001@06:09:48.
Mihai Olteanu (The only thracian item concerning Abaris is his father's name. Everything else pledes for his sythian ('hyperborean') origin. This is why I suppose we deal here with a copist mistake, and I propose the emendation: ́Αβαρις: Σκύθης, *Σκύθου υἱός (for Σκύθης as mythological character, see for example Herodotos 4,10).) on 22 January 2002@21:55:20.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 23 January 2002@03:11:25.
David Whitehead (augmented n.6 and added a keyword) on 5 October 2004@03:21:13.
William Hutton (augmented notes, added link and keywords, set status) on 24 August 2007@11:05:00.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 25 March 2008@00:16:43.
David Whitehead (another note; cosmetics) on 28 March 2014@06:23:27.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:06:21.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 31 January 2015@09:22:24.

Headword: Abas
Adler number: alpha,20
Translated headword: Abas
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A sophist, who left Historical Commentaries and an Art of Rhetoric.
Greek Original:
Abas: sophistês, Historika hupomnêmata kai Technên rhêtorikên katalipôn.
Notes:
Adler cites Epitome Onomatologi Hesychii Milesii for the entry.
See RE 1.19, Abas(11). Jacoby's Abas, FGrH 46, is a homonym, author of a Troika.
Reference:
Epitome Onomatologi Hesychii Milesii (ed. Wentzel, Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur XIII.3)
Keywords: biography; historiography; philosophy; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:57:09.
Vetted by:
Svetla Slaveva on 31 January 2000@23:27:03.
Svetla Slaveva on 1 February 2000@11:17:32.
David Whitehead (modified translation and keywords; augmented note; cosmetics) on 8 July 2003@08:27:47.
William Hutton (augmented note, set status) on 24 August 2007@23:41:32.
David Whitehead (expanded note) on 19 December 2011@06:10:09.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 5 August 2013@00:50:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 1 January 2015@23:49:14.

Headword: Abasanistos
Adler number: alpha,21
Translated headword: untested
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning someone/something] unexercised or unexamined, unscrutinized. The word comes from the test of the goldsmith's stone, on which they scrutinize gold.[1] Aelian in his On Providence used the word 'untested' to mean 'without pain'.[2]
Greek Original:
Abasanistos: agumnastos ê anexetastos, adokimastos. eirêtai de apo tês basanou tês chrusochoïkês lithou, en hêi dokimazousi to chrusion. echrêsato de Ailianos en tôi peri pronoias tôi abasanistos anti tou aneu odunês.
Notes:
= Synagoge alpha4 (Lexica Segueriana 3.14); Photius, Lexicon alpha30 Theodoridis; perhaps ultimately derived in part from Phrynichus (Praeparatio rhetorica fr. 39 de Borries); cf. Hesychius alpha89 and a cluster of related entries: alpha 2276, Hesychius alpha4899, Synagoge alpha589, Photius alpha1845.
[1] ba/sanos can mean both the touchstone itself and the testing process. See beta 139, and cf. beta 137.
[2] Aelian fr.9 Hercher (= 9 Domingo-Forasté). The version of the entry at Synagoge alpha4 includes the information that this is from the third book of the work in question.
Keywords: athletics; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; law; philosophy; rhetoric; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:58:18.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 20 January 2001@11:28:32.
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes) on 21 January 2001@05:35:01.
William Hutton (tweaked translation, expanded notes, added keywords, set status) on 27 August 2007@05:12:39.
William Hutton (Updates references in footnotes.) on 11 November 2007@07:10:05.
William Hutton (typo) on 8 February 2008@02:59:18.
Jennifer Benedict (added keyword) on 23 March 2008@00:55:08.
David Whitehead (typos) on 19 December 2011@06:11:54.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:31:43.
David Whitehead (cosmetics; another keyword) on 2 April 2015@08:51:56.

Headword: Habroteron
Adler number: alpha,91
Translated headword: more delicately
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
"But they behaved more delicately than them and were full of Sybaris."
Greek Original:
Habroteron: all' habroteron autôn eichon kai Subaridos mestoi êsan.
Notes:
Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 4.27 (here illustrating the use of the neuter adjective as adverb; cf. already alpha 70).
See also alpha 86, alpha 87, alpha 88.
For the use of the toponym Sybaris in this way cf. sigma 1271, and see generally LSJ s.v. and OCD s.v.
Keywords: dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; geography; imagery; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:42:22.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; augmented note; added keyword) on 2 February 2001@03:29:56.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 25 March 2008@11:58:23.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@03:58:52.
David Whitehead (x-refs; more keywords) on 21 December 2011@06:05:07.
Catharine Roth (deleted link) on 22 December 2011@19:21:32.

Headword: Abrôn
Adler number: alpha,97
Translated headword: Abron, Habron
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Phrygian or Rhodian, grammarian, student of Tryphon,[1] sophist at Rome, the offspring of slaves, according to Hermippus.[2]
Greek Original:
Abrôn: Phrux ê Rhodios, grammatikos, mathêtês Truphônos, sophisteusas en Rhômêi, gegonôs de ek doulôn, hôs phêsin Hermippos.
Notes:
Presumably Habron (the aspirated version of the name is the more authentic), RE 8.2155 #4 (and OCD(4) s.v.), author of a treatise On the Pronoun in the C1 CE.
[1] Tryphon: tau 1115.
[2] For Hermippus see epsilon 3045. This is his fr. 73 FHG (3.52).
Reference:
R. Berndt, 'Die Fragmente des Grammatikers Habron', Berliner philologioscher Wochenschrift 35 (1915) 1452-1455, 1483
Keywords: biography; daily life; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; philosophy; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:46:35.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, keywords, set status) on 1 February 2001@22:49:38.
David Whitehead (modified headword; augmented notes and bibliography) on 2 February 2001@03:41:19.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, cross-reference) on 9 December 2009@17:25:23.
David Whitehead (added bibligraphy and another keyword) on 21 December 2011@06:41:35.
David Whitehead (expanded n.2) on 17 January 2014@04:59:58.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:16:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 1 January 2015@23:50:39.

Headword: Agatharchos
Adler number: alpha,109
Translated headword: Agatharkhos, Agatharchos, Agatharchus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A proper name. He was an outstanding painter from nature, the son of Eudemos, of Samian stock.
Greek Original:
Agatharchos: onoma kurion. ên de zôgraphos epiphanês, Eudêmou huios, to de genos Samios.
Notes:
After the initial gloss, this entry derives from Harpokration s.v., commenting on Demosthenes 21.147 (web address 1).
The other primary sources on A. (translated in Pollitt, below) are Plutarch, Life of Pericles 13.2 (web address 2); Plutarch, Life of Alcibiades 16.4 (web address 3); Vitruvius, On Architecture 7, praef. 1l (web address 4).
According to tradition, A. was the first painter to make a theatrical skene (for Aeschylus).
References:
OCD(4) s.v. (p.35)
J.J. Pollitt, The Art of Ancient Greece (Cambridge 1990) 145-6 (with 188)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4
Keywords: art history; biography; definition; geography; rhetoric; science and technology; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 1 October 1999@23:24:55.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headwords and note; augmented bibliography) on 9 February 2001@09:13:41.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 19 December 2003@08:05:39.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 28 September 2005@20:10:00.
Jennifer Benedict (added links) on 26 March 2008@00:23:53.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 19 July 2011@09:47:47.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links, other cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@18:47:22.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:18:59.

Headword: Agathês Tuchês neôs
Adler number: alpha,111
Translated headword: temple of Good Fortune
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The interpretation [is] not unclear.
Greek Original:
Agathês Tuchês neôs: ouk adêlon to sêmainomenon.
Note:
According to the equivalent entry in Harpokration -- which prompted the present one, without having the present gloss (also in Photius, Lexicon alpha69 Theodoridis) -- it was mentioned by Lycurgus (fr. 23 Conomis) "and others"; probably, therefore, it was in Athens.
Keywords: architecture; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 1 October 1999@23:26:17.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword) on 29 September 2000@05:41:58.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords; cosmetics) on 19 December 2003@08:09:02.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 19 July 2011@09:52:45.
David Whitehead (expanded primary note) on 16 August 2013@07:39:00.

Headword: Agalma
Adler number: alpha,131
Translated headword: decoration, delight, ornament, statue
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Anything in which someone takes delight.[1]
"And he [A] gives silver, so that he [B] might complete the statue with the utmost artisanry, adding the size and prescribing the nature of the stone."[2]
Greek Original:
Agalma: pan eph' hôi tis agalletai. kai didôsin argurion, hina ekponêsêi to agalma akras technês, prostheis to megethos kai proseipôn tês lithou tên phusin.
Notes:
See also alpha 132, alpha 133, alpha 135, alpha 136.
[1] Again under alpha 133. Also in Photius, other lexica, and various scholia (e.g. to Homer, Odyssey 8.509, and Aristophanes, Wasps 303).
[2] Aelian fr. 65b Domingo-Forasté (part of 62 Hercher), on an unscrupulous (but unnamed) sculptor.
Keywords: art history; comedy; definition; economics; epic; ethics; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 June 2000@01:06:06.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@09:59:18.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 18 February 2011@06:57:00.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords; tweaks) on 23 December 2011@03:46:34.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 2) on 28 January 2012@19:11:34.

Headword: Agapan
Adler number: alpha,150
Translated headword: to love, to receive favorably, to be content with.
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] to give a favorable reception [to someone/something]. To love: to be satisfied with something and to seek nothing more.
Hence also the [phrase] "I would love [it/you if]...".[1]
Greek Original:
Agapan: apodechesthai. Agapan: to arkeisthai tini kai mêden pleon epizêtein. ex hou kai to agapôiên an.
Notes:
The main part of this entry is also in Photius' Lexicon (as two consecutive ones: alpha118-119 Theodoridis) and elsewhere.
[1] (A marginal addition in ms A.) An expression meaning "please...". There are classical Attic instances in Plato (Meno 75C) and Isocrates (Letters 6.6); and see generally LSJ s.v. a)gapa/w, III.1.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; philosophy; rhetoric
Translated by: William Hutton on 1 April 2000@09:04:30.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@11:30:09.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks) on 23 December 2011@06:04:28.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@08:14:59.

Headword: Agapô
Adler number: alpha,161
Translated headword: I love, I am satisfied with
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The 'I am satisfied with' [sense] takes a dative: "Being satisfied with the good things that he already had." [1] But [sc. also used] with an accusative: "thou shalt love God with all thy soul."[2]
Greek Original:
Agapô: to arkoumai dotikêi: agapôn tois huparchousin autôi agathois: aitiatikêi de: agapêseis ton theon ex holês psuchês.
Notes:
(A marginal addition, Adler reports, in ms A.)
See also alpha 150, alpha 159, alpha 160.
[1] a)gapw=n toi=s u(parxousin a)gaqoi=s: Lysias 2.21 (web address 1) here omitting the crucial 'not' at the beginning of the phrase and adding an interpolated au)tw=|.
[2] a)gaph/seis to\n qeo/n Deuteronomy 6:5 LXX.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 23 June 1999@12:58:02.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation and notes, added link, keywords, set status) on 26 June 2001@13:05:31.
David Whitehead (added keyword) on 3 February 2003@07:20:41.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 26 March 2008@01:29:26.
David Whitehead (another note; tweaks) on 23 December 2011@06:41:03.
Catharine Roth (corrected betacode) on 31 March 2015@01:17:24.
David Whitehead (x-refs) on 5 April 2015@10:08:02.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:37:29.

Headword: Angareia
Adler number: alpha,162

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