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Headword: Abaxi
Adler number: alpha,16
Translated headword: planks, abacuses
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
What we call a)ba/kia.[1] The Lawmaker [says] in the Martyrdom of Saint Thecla: "Tryphaina was overcome by suffering, and was seen lying like the dead on the slabs."[2] So he says.
Greek Original:
Abaxi: tois par' hêmin legomenois abakiois. ho Logothetês en tôi tês hagias Theklês marturiôi: Truphaina de pathei lêphtheisa nekrois homoia pros tois abaxin hôrato keimenê. houtô phêsin.
Notes:
This entry occurs after alpha 17 in ms A (= Parisinus 2625), after alpha 9 in ms S (= Vaticanus 1296) and in the margin of ms D (Bodleianus Auct. V 52).
[1] The given form is a dative plural of a)/bac, ("abacus"), and the lexicographer explains it by reference to the diminutive a)ba/kion. The primary sense is a table topped by a slab, or the slab itself; a "calculator" is a secondary meaning.
[2] Symeon Metaphrastes (also known as the Logothete ('Lawmaker')) Patrologia Graeca 115.837c. On Thecla, cf. tau 1108.
Keywords: biography; Christianity; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; history; mathematics; religion; science and technology; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:53:59.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation and notes, added keywords, raised status) on 18 January 2001@09:46:37.
Catharine Roth (modified translation, augmented note) on 7 November 2002@15:06:33.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 7 November 2002@15:08:44.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 November 2005@09:20:27.
Catharine Roth (added keyword) on 6 September 2006@23:44:05.
William Hutton (modified headword and translation, augmented notes, set status) on 24 August 2007@09:36:45.
William Hutton on 24 August 2007@09:42:51.
Jennifer Benedict (tweaks) on 24 March 2008@23:50:31.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 18 December 2011@10:35:22.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 February 2015@23:44:46.

Headword: Athêlunton
Adler number: alpha,725
Translated headword: unwomanish
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning someone or something] inflexible, hard.
Greek Original:
Athêlunton: adamaston, sklêron.
Notes:
Same entry in Photius and elsewhere. The headword, masculine/feminine accusative singular or neuter nominative/singular of this two-termination adjective, must be quoted from somewhere; extant possibilities are all late.
Besides the literal meaning there is also an applied one, in Pythagorean mathematical literature: an odd number; see LSJ s.v. at web address 1 below.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; gender and sexuality; imagery; mathematics; women
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 4 December 1999@15:33:49.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword; added note and keywords) on 20 May 2002@03:38:30.
Catharine Roth (changed keyword) on 29 September 2005@02:00:43.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 19 March 2008@14:39:48.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 19 January 2012@07:03:44.
David Whitehead on 1 May 2015@09:22:53.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 2 May 2015@12:05:22.

Headword: Akaina
Adler number: alpha,826
Translated headword: akaina
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning a] ten-foot measure. It is a rod, by which they goad their cattle, with the Pelasgians having invented this.
Greek Original:
Akaina: metron dekapoun. esti de rhabdos, di' hês kentousi tous boas, hôs tôn Pelasgôn touto heurontôn.
Notes:
Same or similar entry in Photius and other lexica, and cf. also the scholia to Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 3.1323.
See already under alpha 825.
Dimensions in akainai are especially common in the technical treatises of Hero [Author, Myth](n), but see also e.g. Diodorus Siculus 20.91.4 (as conventionally restored) for square akainai.
For the Pelasgians see pi 934, and generally OCD(4) s.v. (p.1099).
Keywords: daily life; definition; mathematics; poetry; science and technology; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 27 January 2000@22:11:56.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 27 May 2002@09:06:22.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks) on 23 January 2012@08:35:39.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@03:46:36.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 10 January 2015@22:52:50.
David Whitehead on 5 May 2015@11:34:11.

Headword: Anaximandros
Adler number: alpha,1986
Translated headword: Anaximandros, Anaximander
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Son of Praxiades, Milesian, philosopher, a relative and student and successor of Thales.[1] He first discovered an equinox and solstices and hour-indicators, and that the earth is situated in the very middle [of the universe]. He also introduced a sundial and explained the basis of all geometry. He wrote On Nature, Circuit of the Earth, and On the Fixed Bodies and Globe and some other works.
Greek Original:
Anaximandros, Praxiadou, Milêsios, philosophos, sungenês kai mathêtês kai diadochos Thalêtos. prôtos de isêmerian heure kai tropas kai hôrologeia kai tên gên en mesaitatôi keisthai. gnômona te eisêgage kai holôs geômetrias hupotupôsin edeixen. egrapse Peri phuseôs, Gês periodon, kai Peri tôn aplanôn kai Sphairan kai alla tina.
Notes:
C6 BCE. See generally OCD(4) p.83.
[1] For whom see theta 17.
Keywords: biography; chronology; geography; mathematics; philosophy; science and technology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 12 May 2001@10:45:37.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note, bibliography, keywords; cosmetics) on 13 May 2001@09:55:52.
Catharine Roth (added keyword) on 1 October 2005@16:24:02.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 26 February 2012@05:35:23.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@06:03:15.

Headword: Anapempazein
Adler number: alpha,2000
Translated headword: to ponder, to calculate, to count over
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] to go over in the mind, to recollect. It is created from those counting continually and repeatedly with the five fingers of their hand, as if counting by fives [kata\ penta/da].[1]
Also [sc. attested is] a)napempazo/menoi ["they pondering"], [meaning] they counting up, they reckoning.[2]
Greek Original:
Anapempazein: ananeousthai, anamimnêskesthai. pepoiêtai apo tôn tois pente daktulois tês cheiros suneches arithmountôn kai epanalambanontôn, hoionei kata pentada arithmountôn. kai Anapempazomenoi, anarithmoumenoi, skeptomenoi.
Notes:
Same entry in ps.-Zonaras; similar ones in Photius (s.v. a)napempa/zesqai) and Hesychius (s.v. a)napempa/zei and a)napempazo/menoi, on the second of which see below).
[1] The Aeolic form for pe/nte "five" is pe/mpe -- both from Indo-European *penkwe.
[2] This actual form of the present middle participle, the nominative masculine plural, occurs in (and might therefore be quoted here from) Lucian, Menippus 12. Note however that Photius s.v. cites Plato in this context, i.e. accusative a)napempazome/nous in Plato, Laws 724B.
Keywords: aetiology; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; mathematics; philosophy
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 12 October 2000@12:14:42.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 29 July 2002@10:29:39.
Catharine Roth (added note) on 29 July 2002@10:43:15.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; betacoding) on 9 November 2005@09:07:30.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 26 February 2012@06:55:01.
David Whitehead on 1 July 2015@09:21:26.

Headword: Axiômata
Adler number: alpha,2828
Translated headword: axioms
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Thus Aristotle calls both the propositions requiring demonstration and the indemonstrable ones, as [is] his custom.[1]
Greek Original:
Axiômata: houtôs legei Aristotelês kai tas deomenas apodeixeôs protaseis, kai tas anapodeiktous, hôs ethos autôi.
Notes:
See already alpha 2827 (and cf. alpha 2825, alpha 2826).
[1] Alexander of Aphrodisias, Commentaries on Aristotle's Topica 547.21-22. In the Posterior Analytics Aristotle speaks of two types of indemonstrable propositions: (1) the axioms, i.e. those principles that a learner must already have if he or she is willing to learn any scientific discipline (An.Post. 72a17; see also Metaphysics 1005a20. These indemonstrable axioms include the general laws of thought, such as the principle of non-contradiction and the law of the excluded middle; see An.Post. 71a13-14; Met. 1005b19-20). (2) What Aristotle understands as the peculiar principles of a scientific discipline, i.e. some items that are proper to each particular science. For instance, arithmetic assumes the existence of units, geometry that of points and lines (An.Post. 76a37-76b5).
Reference:
J. Barnes, Aristotle, Posterior Analytics. Translated with a Commentary (Oxford 1994)
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; mathematics; philosophy
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 29 November 2000@21:49:30.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added note) on 16 August 2002@01:52:01.
Marcelo Boeri (Modified translation; added keywords) on 29 August 2002@01:25:13.
Marcelo Boeri (Expanded note; added bibliography) on 29 August 2002@03:08:18.
David Whitehead (augmented x-refs; cosmetics) on 14 July 2003@07:34:22.
Catharine Roth (added keyword) on 29 September 2005@11:26:32.
David Whitehead on 21 March 2012@08:27:17.
David Whitehead on 2 August 2015@06:15:18.

Headword: Apartian
Adler number: alpha,2929
Translated headword: chattels, household utensils, moveables
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] temoval/baggage, fulfilment of a completion.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the adverb] a)partizo/ntws ["precisely,"], [meaning] the [condition of] neither surpassing nor lacking.[2] "For a term is a word which, when analyzed, is uttered precisely."[3]
Also[4] [sc. attested is] a)partilogi/a ["even number"], a number and reckoning made even [and] complete. Thus Lysias [sc. uses the word].[5] But Herodotus [in book] seven [sc. also uses the word]. Xerxes says to Pythios the Lydian: "so that the four million [staters] shall not lack seven thousand".[6]
Greek Original:
Apartian: aposkeuên, telos apartismou. kai Apartizontôs, to mête huperballein mête endein. horos gar esti logos kat' analusin apartizontôs ekpheromenos. kai Apartilogia, apêrtismenos kai plêrês arithmos kai logos. houtôs Lusias. Hêrodotos de z#. legei de Xerxês pros Puthion ton Ludon: hina mê toi epideeis ôsin hai tetrakosiai muriades hepta chiliadôn.
Notes:
[1] = Synagoge alpha731; Photius, Lexicon alpha2264. The headword, evidently quoted from somewhere, is in the accusative case. See also Hesychius alpha5817: a)parti/an: meta/basin, a)poskeuh/n, te/los, a)partismo/n. Latte in his edition of Hesychius suggests Numbers 31:18 LXX as a source.
[2] Alexander of Aphrodisias, Commentaries on Aristotle's Topica 43.1 Wallies.
[3] Diogenes Laertius 7.60, quoting Antipater's first book On Terms; cf. alpha 1951, omicron 627.
[4] The remainder of the entry is abridged from Harpokration s.v.
[5] Lysias fr.28 Sauppe (now 33 Carey), from the lost speech In Reply to Aresandros.
[6] Herodotus 7.29.2. The noun a)partilogi/h occurs in the clause following the one quoted here. See web address 1.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; historiography; mathematics; philosophy; rhetoric
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 25 December 2000@16:06:29.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Modified translation, added references, raised status.) on 27 December 2000@00:36:35.
David Whitehead (added note) on 27 December 2000@06:10:00.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 17 August 2002@17:55:53.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 18 August 2002@05:52:18.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 4 July 2008@06:52:32.
David Whitehead (x-refs; cosmetics) on 25 March 2012@06:44:05.
William Hutton (tweaked and augmented note 1) on 21 August 2013@10:49:11.
David Whitehead on 3 August 2015@10:42:54.
David Whitehead on 15 August 2015@08:25:49.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 September 2015@23:53:00.

Headword: Aposon
Adler number: alpha,3537
Translated headword: non-quantitative
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] that which is without measure.[1] But a)/pwson [spelled] with an omega [means] repel![2]
Greek Original:
Aposon: to ametron. Apôson de dia tou ô megalou, to ekpempson.
Notes:
[1] Comparably, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
[2] See again at alpha 3676.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; philosophy; religion
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 3 June 2001@19:41:59.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 22 August 2002@04:33:11.
David Whitehead (note; betacode and other cosmetics) on 5 April 2012@06:45:46.
David Whitehead on 29 August 2015@09:18:51.
Catharine Roth (another keyword) on 30 September 2015@01:28:55.
Catharine Roth (changed keywords) on 30 September 2015@01:37:41.

Headword: Arithmô
Adler number: alpha,3880
Translated headword: I count
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Used] with an accusative.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the participle] a)riqmou=nta ["him counting"], [meaning him] assigning. "And counting some men to the bodyguards/spear-carriers".[2]
The Pythagoreans gave a name to every number. The number adds up to ten. Ten [is] the sum of the four [numbers]. And because of this they used to call the whole number tetraktys [four-sum].[3]
Greek Original:
Arithmô: aitiatikêi. kai Arithmounta, katatattonta. kai arithmounta tinas tois doruphorois. hoti hoi Puthagoreioi panta arithmon prosêgoreuon. ho de arithmos sumplêroutai tois deka. ho de deka sunthesis tôn d#. kai dia touto ton arithmon panta tetraktun elegon.
Notes:
[1] Likewise in syntactical lexica.
[2] Quotation unidentifiable.
[3] That is, 1+2+3+4=10. (This material comes from tau 394.)
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; mathematics; military affairs; philosophy; science and technology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 24 July 2001@23:32:59.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 25 July 2001@04:38:01.
David Whitehead (more keywords; betacode and other cosmetics) on 12 April 2012@03:25:51.
David Whitehead on 31 August 2015@04:42:34.

Headword: Harmatôlia
Adler number: alpha,3971
Translated headword: chariot-driving
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the driving of chariots. "And they have been nibbling at the [sc. calendric] cycle by chariot-driving."[1] Meaning sparing the chariots themselves.
But harmatrochia ["chariot-wheel track"] [is] the furrow of the chariot. There is also hamatrochia.[2]
Greek Original:
Harmatôlia: hê tôn harmatôn hêniocheia. kai tou kuklou paretragon huph' harmatôlias. anti tou pheidomenoi tôn harmatôn autôn. Harmatrochia de hê encharaxis tou harmatos. esti kai Hamatrochia.
Notes:
[1] Aristophanes, Peace 415 (web address 1 below). The next sentence in the gloss is a scholium to this line (which would have done better to comment on e.g. the pun on a(rmatwli/a and a(martwli/a ("failure") and generally to explain this allusion to recent calendar reforms in Athens). Again at pi 576.
[2] As is implicit here, and already explicit at alpha 1509, the Suda regards these two words as synonyms. This was an oddly common error: see LSJ under a(matroxi/a, which actually meant "driving side by side".
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: athletics; chronology; comedy; definition; mathematics; science and technology; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 30 July 2001@11:54:20.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 31 July 2001@03:39:10.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 7 February 2007@05:09:15.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 12 April 2012@08:28:51.
David Whitehead on 31 August 2015@06:49:16.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 5 November 2015@23:34:20.

Headword: Arouraia mantis
Adler number: alpha,3990

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