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Headword: Agathoklês
Adler number: alpha,117
Translated headword: Agathokles, Agathocles
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
This man became tyrant [of Syracuse] and, as Timaeus says, in his early youth was a common prostitute, ready [to give himself] to the most debauched, a jackdaw, a buzzard,[1] presenting his backside to all who wanted it. When he died, says [Timaeus], his wife cried out to him in lamentation, "What [did] I not [carnally do to] you? And what [did] you not [reciprocate to] me?"[2] That nature had endowed Agathokles with great advantages is clear. For escaping the wheel, the smoke[of the kiln and] the clay,[3] he came to Syracuse, at about the age of eighteen, and in a short time, starting from such beginnings, he became master of the whole of Sicily, exposed the Carthaginians to extreme dangers, and finally, having grown old in the role of dynast, ended his life with the title of king.[4]
Greek Original:
Agathoklês: houtos egeneto turannos kai, hôs phêsi Timaios, kata tên prôtên hêlikian koinos pornos, hetoimos tois akratestatois, koloios, triorchês, pantôn tôn boulomenôn tois opisthen emprosthen gegonôs. hos hote apethane, tên gunaika phêsi kataklaiomenên auton houtô thrênein: ti d' ouk egô se; ti d' ouk eme su; hoti de ek phuseôs anankê megala proterêmata gegonenai peri ton Agathoklea, touto dêlon. eis gar tas Surakousas paregenêthê pheugôn ton trochon, ton kapnon, ton pêlon, peri te tên hêlikian oktôkaideka etê gegonôs, kai meta tina chronon hormêtheis hupo toiautês hupotheseôs, kurios men egenêthê pasês Sikelias, megistois de kindunois periestêse Karchêdonious, telos engêrasas têi dunasteiai, katestrepse ton bion basileus prosagoreuomenos.
Notes:
360-289 BCE; he ruled Syracuse from 317-289. See generally OCD(4) p.36, under Agathocles(1).
The entry presents a semi-verbatim and mildly abridged extract from Polybius (12.15.2-7: web address 1 below), who is in turn citing, disapprovingly, Timaeus of Tauromenium (FGrH 566 F124b).
[1] On this passage K.J. Dover, Greek Homosexuality (London 1978) p.103 writes: 'The jackdaw here probably sybolises impudence and shamelessness; the buzzard, in Greek triorkhes, having three testicles, presumably symbolises insatiable lust, which is assumed to characterise the true pornos'. Cf. tau 995, where the first part of this quotation reappears.
[2] Probably Theoxene, the daughter or stepdaughter of Ptolemy I Soter and the third wife of Agathokles. See F.W. Walbank, A historical commentary on Polybius (Oxford, 1967) v.2 p.361.
[3] His father owned a large pottery. See Diodorus 19.2.7; 20.63.4. As with equivalent figures in (e.g.) late-C5 Athens, such as Kleon, we see here the conceit that those whose wealth lay in manufacture would actually participate in (and be debased by) the actual manufacturing.
[4] Agathokles assumed the title of king in 305. See Diodorus 20.54.1.
References:
Berve, H., Die Herrschaft des Agathokles (Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1953)
Agathokles(15) in RE 1.1 748-757
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; constitution; daily life; ethics; gender and sexuality; historiography; history; politics; trade and manufacture; women; zoology
Translated by: David Whitehead on 10 February 2001@10:07:49.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 6 June 2001@00:10:30.
Tony Natoli (Modified translation, added notes and bibliography, raised status.) on 12 August 2001@02:19:21.
David Whitehead (restorative and other cosmetics) on 17 September 2002@05:10:41.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@10:59:41.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 20 November 2005@10:37:08.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 26 March 2008@00:30:36.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 22 December 2011@06:16:09.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:23:59.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 1 January 2015@23:51:52.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 17 February 2018@23:14:40.

Headword: Agasiklês
Adler number: alpha,169
Translated headword: Agasikles, Agasicles
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A proper name. He is said to have bribed[1] the Halimousians, and for that reason, although he was a foreigner, to have been accorded [sc. Athenian] citizenship.[2]
Greek Original:
Agasiklês: onoma kurion. hos legetai Halimousinois sundikasai kai dia touto xenos ôn engraphênai têi politeiai.
Notes:
After the initial generic gloss, this entry is abridged from Harpokration s.v.
[1] Reading sundeka/sai for the transmitted sundika/sai ("to share in judging"). See LSJ s.v. sundeka/zw at web address 1; see also n. 1 to alpha 1231.
[2] This is RE Agasikles 2; his claim to Athenian citizenship was contested in a speech by Dinarchus.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; constitution; definition; economics; ethics; history; law; politics; rhetoric
Translated by: Gregory Hays on 7 June 1999@11:24:47.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation, with explanatory note.) on 15 September 2000@06:18:36.
David Whitehead on 15 September 2000@06:20:34.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@11:01:00.
Jennifer Benedict (betacode, added link, cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@01:51:40.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 27 March 2008@08:39:44.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 July 2011@09:57:12.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 5 April 2015@21:47:43.

Headword: Ageneia
Adler number: alpha,197
Translated headword: low birth
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Bad birth.
Greek Original:
Ageneia: hê dusgeneia.
Notes:
The headword literally means lack of birth. It is first attested in the Politics of Aristotle 6.1317b40 (web address 1 below) where a)ge/neia, peni/a and banausi/a are the defining characteristics, from a hostile standpoint, of democracy.
Similar entry in Hesychius, but in the accusative case and with the two nouns reversed.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: constitution; daily life; definition; ethics; philosophy; politics
Translated by: William Hutton on 17 October 2000@02:31:44.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword) on 25 April 2002@10:02:20.
Jennifer Benedict (added link, betacode) on 26 March 2008@02:11:08.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 27 March 2008@08:46:46.
David Whitehead (another note) on 29 December 2011@07:40:46.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 31 December 2011@18:20:24.

Headword: Agnousios
Adler number: alpha,282
Translated headword: Hagnousian, Agnousian
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[H]agnous is a deme of the [sc. Athenian] tribe Akamantis, the tribesman[1] from which [is a] [H]agnousian.
Greek Original:
Agnousios: Agnous dêmos esti phulês tês Akamantidos, hês ho phuletês Agnousios.
Notes:
From Harpokration s.v. *a)gnou=s, commenting on the appearance of the demotikon (the present headword) in Demosthenes 18.21.
On the deme Hagnous (the aspirated form appears to be the more authentic) see generally Traill (1975) 48, with Traill (1986) 132; Whitehead (1986) index s.v.
[1] A slip (already in Harpokration) for "demesman".
References:
J.S. Traill, The Political Organization of Attica (Princeton 1975)
J.S. Traill, Demos and Trittys (Toronto 1986)
D. Whitehead, The Demes of Attica (Princeton 1986)
Keywords: constitution; definition; geography; history; rhetoric
Translated by: David Whitehead on 20 October 2000@03:33:18.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added headword, set status.) on 30 October 2000@20:31:18.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 17 September 2002@05:20:31.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 20 July 2011@03:37:16.

Headword: Agoranomias
Adler number: alpha,302
Translated headword: market-supervisorship, market-supervisorships
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] auditorship/s. The term is applied to those who oversee sales in the cities.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the related concrete noun] "market-supervisors" [agoranomoi]: the officials who manage the sales in the marketplace [sc. in Athens].[2]
Aristophanes in Acharnians [writes]: "as market-supervisors of the market I appoint the three who were chosen by lot, the thongs from Leprous."[3] That is, straps, whips. For in olden days the auditors of the marketplace used to beat people with whips. And "leprous" [leprou/s] some explain as [sc. wordplay] from the verb lepein, that is, "to beat"; others from Lepreon a small town of the Peloponnese which Callimachus also mentions in the Hymns: "citadel of Kaukones, which is called Lepreion."[4] Others still [sc. derive it] from mangy cattle, since the hides of mangy cattle are tough. Still others because the Megarians, with whom he[5] is making a treaty, have mangy bodies. But better to say that [sc. there is] a place called Leproi outside the [Athenian] town-center where the tanners' shops were. There is also a mention of this in Birds: "why then do you settle [in] Helian Lepreon."[6]
Also [sc. attested is the the verb] "I supervise markets" [a)goranomw=]; [used] with a genitive.
Greek Original:
Agoranomias: logistias. eirêtai de epi tôn episkopountôn ta tôn poleôn ônia. kai Agoranomoi, hoi ta kata tên agoran ônia dioikountes archontes. Aristophanês Acharneusin: agoranomous de tês agoras kathistamai treis tous lachontas, tous d' himantas ek leprôn. toutesti lôrous, phrangelia. to gar palaion phrangelois etupton hoi logistai tês agoras. leprôn de hoi men apo tou lepein, ho esti tuptein: hoi de apo Lepreou polismatos tês Peloponnêsou, hês memnêtai kai Kallimachos en Humnois: Kaukônôn ptoliethron, ho Lepreion pephatistai. hoi de ek leprôn boôn, dia to ta ek leprôn boôn dermata ischura einai. hoi de hoti hoi Megareis leproi to sôma, pros hous spendetai. ameinon de legein, hoti topos exô tou asteos Leproi kaloumenos, entha ta burseia ên. hou kai en Ornisi memnêtai: ti d' oun ton hêlion Lepreon oikizete. kai Agoranomô: genikêi.
Notes:
The headword -- evidently extracted from somewhere -- and primary gloss are either genitive singulars or accusative plurals.
[1] Likewise in other lexica; references at Photius alpha228 Theodoridis.
[2] From Harpokration s.v., commenting on Demosthenes 24.112 and also citing ?Aristotle, Ath.Pol. 51.1.
[3] Aristophanes, Acharnians 723-4 (web address 1), followed here by comment from the scholia there; cf. lambda 291.
[4] Callimachus, Hymn to Zeus 39.
[5] Dikaiopolis, that is, the speaker of the quotation.
[6] What seems to be a very mangled quotation from Aristophanes, Birds 150. A more correct quotation might be translated as "Why do you two not go and settle in Lepreon in Elis?" This would seem to be a reference to the Peloponnesian Lepreon and not to a Leproi outside Athens. See web address 2 below for the text of Aristophanes (and cf. lambda 288, lambda 289).
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: clothing; comedy; constitution; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; history; law; medicine; poetry; rhetoric; trade and manufacture; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 30 October 2000@00:03:30.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics; raised status) on 30 October 2000@03:28:23.
David Whitehead (restorative cosmetics) on 22 December 2002@09:24:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 9 October 2005@11:02:46.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@03:58:52.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 6 January 2012@01:19:18.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 18 August 2013@09:01:32.
Catharine Roth (removed a link, added cross-references) on 19 April 2020@20:16:13.

Headword: Agraphiou
Adler number: alpha,343
Translated headword: de-listing
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A form of lawsuit against those in debt to the public treasury and written up for this, but erased before they paid it. So Demosthenes[1] and Dinarchus[2] and Lycurgus.[3]
Greek Original:
Agraphiou: eidos dikês kata tôn opheilontôn men tôi dêmosiôi kai dia touto engraphentôn, prinê de ektisai exaleiphthentôn. houtôs Dêmosthenês kai Deinarchos kai Lukourgos.
Notes:
Abridged from Harpokration s.v. See also alpha 344.
[1] Demosthenes 58.51.
[2] Dinarchus fr. XVII.2 Conomis.
[3] Lycurgus fr. 7 Conomis.
Reference:
S.C. Todd, The Shape of Athenian Law (Oxford 1993) 105
Keywords: constitution; definition; economics; law; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 August 1998@18:31:04.
Vetted by:
David Mirhady on 14 December 1999@13:57:24.
David Mirhady on 17 December 1999@16:37:06.
David Whitehead (modified headword; added notes and bibliography; cosmetics) on 29 September 2000@06:51:50.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 22 November 2005@09:51:28.
David Whitehead (x-ref) on 22 November 2005@09:52:13.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 20 July 2011@04:15:29.

Headword: Agraphiou dikê
Adler number: alpha,344
Translated headword: dike agraphiou, lawsuit about erasure
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
When people owe [money] to the public treasury, as the result of a conviction, those in charge at the time about these matters write the debtors' names on notice-boards, appending how much the debt is [sc. in each case]. Whenever each one pays, the record is erased from the notice-board. So if someone is listed as owing money, but does not appear to have paid, and his name has been erased from the notice-board, any citizen who wishes may bring against him a lawsuit for erasure.
Greek Original:
Agraphiou dikê: tôn ek katadikês ôphlêkotôn tôi dêmosiôi graphousi ta onomata en sanisin hoi kata kairon peri toutôn dioikountes, prostithentes ana poson esti to ophlêma. hotan de apodidôi hekastos, exaleiphetai tês sanidos to epigramma. ean oun tis anagraphêi men ôphlêkenai, doxêi de mê apodedôkenai, kai to onoma autou exêleimmenon êi ek tês sanidos, sunkechôrêtai tôi boulomenôi tôn astôn eisagein kat' autou dikên agraphiou.
Note:
See already the more succinct alpha 343. The present entry is also in Photius.
Keywords: constitution; daily life; economics; law
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 August 1998@18:31:49.
Vetted by:
David Mirhady on 17 December 1999@17:27:12.
David Mirhady on 17 December 1999@17:29:47.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 12 February 2001@08:30:51.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 22 November 2005@09:54:25.
David Whitehead (expanded note; cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@07:33:56.

Headword: Agroilêthen
Adler number: alpha,379
Translated headword: from-Agroile; Agryle
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Agroile is a deme of the Erechtheid tribe [sc. in Athens]. A demesman [sc. of this deme] used once to be called Agroileus ["Agroilian"].[1]
Greek Original:
Agroilêthen: Agroilê dêmos esti phulês tês Erechtheïdos. ho de dêmotês palai elegeto Agroileus.
Notes:
Abridged from Harpokration s.v. Agryle (sic - the Suda, besides transmitting an odd version of the deme-name itself, changes the headword from the deme-name to the demotikon, on which see n.1 below).
Agryle was one of the six instances of Athenian demes with "upper" and "lower" population centres: see generally D. Whitehead, The Demes of Attica (Princeton 1986) 21.
[1] An illusory piece of chronological information. What Harpok. actually says is: 'the demesmen [is an] Agryleus, but the locative adverb is Agrylethen. (And in fact, the latter is the regular demotikon also.)
Keywords: chronology; constitution; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 March 1999@17:35:00.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added footnote) on 15 September 2000@06:31:55.
David Whitehead on 17 September 2000@09:42:30.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@04:32:21.

Headword: Agulaios
Adler number: alpha,384

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