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Headword: A a
Adler number: alpha,1
Translated headword: ah! ah!
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
In Aristophanes an adverb accompanying surprise and command. "Ah! ah! Don't get that torch near me!"[1]
'Ah! ah!' must be read separately, not elided; and they both have smooth breathing.[2]. For if they were read together as one word, there would be no need of two accent marks.[3] "Ah" marks surprise, but "ha ha" is for awe, as Agathias says in the Epigrams: "ha, a very daring wax it was that formed..."[4]
Aab.[5]
Greek Original:
#
Notes:
[1] Aristophanes, Plutus [Wealth] 1052 (web address 1). The first sentence is derived from scholia to this passage, and this may also be true of the rest of the entry.
[2] That is, it is "ah! ah!", not "ha! ha!" A difference registered in Greek by the orientation of a small breathing mark that is easily reversed in transcription, especially since by the time the Suda was compiled the initial 'h' had ceased to be pronounced.
[3] i.e. a)\ a)/ is two words, a)a/ would be one.
[4] Greek Anthology 1.34.2; again (with slight variations) at mu 389 and sigma 664.
[5] This gloss-less addendum is actually a separate entry that occurs only in ms S. (In Adler's numbering system this is designated alpha 1b, while the main entry is alpha 1a.) Apparently this is a reference to the Hebrew month of Av, attested with this Greek spelling only in Joannes Lydus, De mensibus 3.22.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: chronology; comedy; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 9 November 1999@09:47:43.
Vetted by:
Ross Scaife ✝ (raised vetting status) on 26 September 2000@14:01:40.
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@04:21:58.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 9 April 2007@04:35:29.
William Hutton (modified translation, rearranged layout, added note and link, set status) on 19 August 2007@10:41:27.
Jennifer Benedict (typo) on 22 March 2008@17:08:15.
Catharine Roth (coding, typo) on 22 March 2008@19:48:38.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 16 December 2011@05:43:10.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 5 August 2013@01:21:19.

Headword: Abachthanê
Adler number: alpha,24
Translated headword: abakhthani
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A Hebrew expression.
Greek Original:
Abachthanê: lexis Hebraïkê.
Notes:
Strictly speaking the headword is a truncated Aramaic, rather than Hebrew, term. Its proper form in Greek transliteration is sabaxqa/ni and translates "you have forsaken me." The term occurs at Matthew 27:46 and Mark 15:34, where Jesus on the cross quotes Psalm 21:2 LXX (22:2 MT): "God, my God, ... why have you forsaken me?" (see eta 210). For the Hebrew, see Kohlenberger, 3.367. In Aramaic, "why have you forsaken me" is למא שבקתני lama šaḇaqtani. The Suda has carelessly disassociated the sigma, creating in effect "lamas aḇaqtani or a)baxqanh--a clear signal that the compiler was unfamiliar with Aramaic. The Psalmic Hebrew original is עזבתני 'azaḇtani, from עזב ʿazaḇ "forsake, forget". For the triliteral root citation, see Brown, Driver, and Briggs, 736ff. For šaḇaqtani (from שבק šeḇaq), see Perschbacher, 364; Danker, 909.
The Suda item has a circumflex accent on the final syllable. In the Hebrew עזבתני ʿazaḇtani, the accent falls on the penultimate syllable (-ta-), consistent with perfects suffixed with a first person singular pronoun; for this, see Kelley, 154.A; Gesenius, 155(58.1). So in the Aramaic, the accent falls on the penultimate syllable (-ta-). That said, the accent in Greek transliteration is inconsistent. Perschbacher places it over the final iota (sabaxqani/) in the headword; however, his citation from The Greek New Testament According to the Majority Text (1982) places the accent over the penultimate (sabaxqa/ni). In addition, Perschbacher offers the transliteration sabaxqanei/ from The New Testament in the Original Greek (1881). Danker places the accent over the penultimate syllable.
Phonologically, the Aramaic shin (ש š /ʃ/) cannot be accommodated by Greek, which must substitute sigma. For a parallel instance, see omega 182 (note 47). Both chi (for Aramaic ק qaf) and theta (for Aramaic ת taw) function as aspirated plosives (equivalent to English "kit" and "top"). See Allen, 16-17. The theta is noteworthy insofar as its sound value parallels that of the taw (ת) in šaḇaqtani, hardened by silent shewa and dagesh lene. Moreover, the Aramaic in Greek transliteration bolsters the linguistic argument for the compound "chi-theta" as successive aspirated plosives. See Allen, 24-27. Aramaic taw, like its Hebrew counterpart, otherwise has a "th" (as in "both") value. See "Aramaic" in Encyclopaedia Judaica, 3.263; a modern descriptive approach is found in "Aramaic" (Kaufman). For theta as a fricative in Hebrew transliteration, see omega 182 (note 47).
That the Suda terminates the headword with eta rather than iota (paralleling the Aramaic khireq-yod or long "i") showcases a phonological shift in Greek. By the 3rd century CE, the Greek letters eta, and the digraph epsilon-iota (note the -ei alternative in Perschbacher) were sounded as long iota. See Allen, 74. The Suda compiler viewed eta as the more elegant solution. This feature bears directly on the Suda's own taxonomy: the homophones epsilon-iota, eta, and iota follow zeta in the Suda's "alphabetical" scheme. See "Suidas" in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, XXVI.51.
References:
Allen, W.S. Vox Graeca. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1968
"Aramaic" in Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1973
Brown, F., Driver, S.R., and Briggs, C.A. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon, 1951
Danker, F.W. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2000
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910
Kelley, P.H. Biblical Hebrew: An Introductory Grammar. Grand Rapids: William B. Erdmans, 1992
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987
Kaufman, S.A. "Aramaic" in Hetzron, R. The Semitic Languages. New York: Routledge, 1997
Perschbacher, W.J. The New Analytical Greek Lexicon. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1996
"Suidas" in Encyclopaedia Britannica. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1910
Keywords: Christianity; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 4 December 1999@16:23:20.
Vetted by:
Raphael Finkel on 9 December 1999@11:17:30.
Elizabeth Vandiver on 14 December 1999@16:17:44.
Craig Miller on 27 May 2002@01:29:46.
Craig Miller (Reformatted translation; modified/expanded notes; added bibliography; expanded keywords. Cosmetics pending by editor.) on 27 May 2002@01:58:58.
Craig Miller (Cosmetics) on 27 May 2002@15:48:11.
Craig Miller on 27 May 2002@16:11:44.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 4 October 2002@00:55:00.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew and Aramaic characters.) on 31 October 2002@10:06:56.
Raphael Finkel (Minor fixes.) on 31 October 2002@12:39:23.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added italics; cosmetics) on 12 February 2005@21:58:54.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 1 March 2006@01:08:11.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 December 2011@06:21:33.
Catharine Roth (coding, typo) on 5 August 2013@00:57:53.
Raphael Finkel (Fixed translation of LXX; changed to ISO 259 Romanization of Hebrew and Aramaic.) on 7 August 2014@13:30:23.
Raphael Finkel (Standardized Romanization fonts.) on 7 August 2014@13:46:48.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:25:56.

Headword: Abraam
Adler number: alpha,69
Translated headword: Abraham
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The first among patriarchs; [it was he] in whom the Hebrew people took pride at first, before they rebelled against God, became estranged from Him, and shed upon themselves the blood of His Only-Begotten Son.[1] This man came out of the land of the Chaldeans, who devoted their entire lives to the stars and heavenly bodies. Trained, therefore, as was their ancestral custom, to observe the motions of the heavenly bodies[2] he surmised that the masterwork underlying this visible creation was not to be found in such objects, but had a Creator who set them in motion, gave harmony to their paths, and ordered the entire universe. Because of the greatness and beauty of the things He had made, Abraham, as it was likely, ceased devoting himself to gazing out into the heavens nor did he squander his passion in their pursuit. Instead, by surmounting the celestial vaults and transcending all the intelligible realm beyond the cosmos, Abraham no longer stood apart from the One sought, until finally the Creator for whom he yearned manifested Himself to Abraham in likenesses[3] and forms. And in this way the Unseen and Invisible revealed Himself. And [God] sent him forth from his own land as a wanderer and settled him in the land of the Canaanites. There he dwelled, now being in about his ninety-ninth year.[4] Until this time, he was childless; then [God] made him the father of the miraculous and blessed Isaac that he might have a first-born, only-begotten son[5] -- prefiguring the mystical image of the First-Born, Only-Begotten Son.[6] This was an exceedingly singular[7] honor bestowed upon Abraham, for the Creator favored him with the titles Servant, Beloved, and Father by flesh of the Only Begotten Son of Him who fashioned the entire universe.[8] Abraham invented sacred writing and devised the language of which Hebrew children used to have a command, as they were this man's disciples and descendants. Moreover, the Greek alphabet received its impetus from this script,[9] even if Greeks amused themselves by forming the letters differently. Proof of this is in the pronunciation of the first and preeminent letter "alpha" because it derives its name from the Hebrew "aleph" by way of the Blessed, First, and Eternal Name.[10] So too, the Greeks through Abraham came to possess books on dream interpretation. Witness to this is Joseph, the truly wondrous descendant of Abraham, who interpreted Pharoah's dreams as they were going to turn out in fact. In this, Philo, the Jewish philosopher, will be my confirmation via his work Life of the Statesman.[11] About Philo it is said "Philo platonizes and Plato philonizes."[12]
The practice of idolatry extended from Serug[13] to the time of Abraham's father Tharron.[14] Thus, when Abraham was 14 years old[15] and deemed worthy of divine knowledge, he upbraided his father, "Why do you lead the people astray for harmful gain (that is, with idols)? There is no other God but the One in heaven, the Creator of the entire universe." Yet seeing the people serving earthly things, he embarked on a tireless quest, seeking out with his pious heart the Truly Existing God.[16] But seeing that the sky is sometimes light and sometimes dark, he said to himself, "That is not God." Observing similarly the sun and the moon, the one obscured and eclipsed and the other waning and occluded, he said, "Those are not gods either." True, he was trained in astronomy by his father, but Abraham all the same was puzzled by the motions of the stars and scornful of them. But God appeared to him and said, "Go out of your land and leave your kinsmen."[17] Abraham took his father's idols, smashing some and incinerating others. Then he went away with his father out of the land of the Chaldeans. And they came to Haran,[18] where his father died. He left there, obeying the Lord's word, with his wife Sarah and his nephew Lot[19] and all their possessions, and came to the promised land Canaan, which the Canaanites had seized and settled in. When a famine arose, Abraham left the land of the Canaanites and went into Egypt, where Abimelech[20] the king took his wife Sarah. God struck terror into Abimelech and paralysed his limbs, saying "Give this man back his wife, because he is a prophet and will pray for you, and you will live. But if you do not give her back, know that you and your entire household will die." When Abraham got his wife back, undefiled, he prayed, and Abimelech and his household were cured of the paralysis.[21] After this the king, honoring Abraham and devoting himself to his sayings, became a pious and expert teacher to the Egyptians. The same Abraham, upon returning from war,[22] was considered worthy of blessing by Melchisedek, king of Salem, who brought bread and wine out to him. Melchisedek was a priest of the Most High, and Abraham gave to Him a tenth of all he had. Melchisedek was without father, mother, or lineage, like the Son of God.[23]
When Abram[24] lamented to God about his childlessness, God revealed to him through a dream that his descendants would be as numerous as the stars. And he believed God, and God reckoned it to him as righteousness.[25] Now Sarah, who was barren, gave Abraham permission to father a child with her maidservant, and she bore Ismael.[26] And when Abram was 99 years old, God appeared to him and altered his name to Abraham, for until then he had been called Abram. Similarly, Sarah became Sarrah with another "r".[27] And Abraham circumcised Ismael and all his descendants. Moreover, when the Lord was being shown the hospitality of Abraham's house, He promised Abraham that Sarrah would bear him a son. But Sarrah smiled; and the one who was begotten was called Isaac, by the Hebrew name that means "laughter with delight."[28]
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] *abramiai=os: [meaning] descendant of Abraham, or towering, revered.[29]
Greek Original:
Abraam: ho prôtos en patriarchais: eis hon apesemnuneto dêmos ho tôn Hebraiôn to proteron, prin ê theou aposkirtêsai kai genesthai toutou allotrioi kai to tou monogenous huiou autou haima eph' heautous epispasasthai. houtos ek men tês Chaldaiôn gês hupêrchen hormômenos, tôn peri ta meteôra kai tous asteras ton bion holon katanaliskontôn. askêtheis oun kata ton patrion nomon tas tôn epouraniôn asterôn kinêseis kai stochasamenos hôs ouk en toutois histatai to megalourgon tês phainomenês tautêsi ktiseôs, all' echei tina ton dêmiourgon ton kai kinounta kai dieuthunonta tên enarmonion tôn asterôn poreian kai tou kosmou pantos tên katastasin, kai dia tou megethous kai tês kallonês tôn ktismatôn ton genesiourgon autôn, hôs enên, theôrêsas ouk estê mechri toutôn, oude tên ephesin eis tauta katedapanêsen, alla tôn ouraniôn hapsidôn huperartheis kai pasan diabas tên noêtên te kai huperkosmion sumpêxin ouk apestê tou zêtoumenou, heôs hou ho pothoumenos heauton autôi ephanerôse tupois te kai morphômasin, hois heauton emphanizei ho aphanês kai aoratos. kai metanastên auton ek tês patridos labôn epi tên Chananitin katestêse, ton enenêkoston pou kai enaton êdê chronon parelkonta: kai apaida mechri tote tunchanonta gennêtora tou thaumasiou kai makaros kate- stêsen Isaak, hin' echoi monogenê huion kai prôtotokon, tou monogenous kai prôtotokou mustikên eikona prodiagraphonta: touto geras autôi kat' exaireton charisamenos, to doulon kai philon kai patera chrêmatisai tou monogenous huiou kata sarka, tou ton kosmon holon dêmiourgêsantos. houtos heure men hiera grammata kai glôssan emêchanêsato, hês Hebraiôn paides en epistêmêi etunchanon, hôs ontes toutou mathêtai kai apogonoi. ek toutou kai ta Hellênôn grammata tas aphormas elabon, kan allôs kai allôs heautous diapaizontes anagraphôsin Hellênes. kai toutou marturion hê tou Alpha phônê tou prôtou stoicheiou kai archontos, apo tou Aleph Hebraiou labontos tên epiklêsin tou makariou kai prôtou kai athanatou onomatos. ek toutou kai ta oneirôn biblia espheterisanto Hellênes. kai martus Iôsêph ho panthaumastos ho toutou apogonos, ho tou Pharaô ta enupnia hôs emellon apobêsesthai diêgoumenos. touto moi kai Philôn, ex Hebraiôn philosophos, en tôi tou Politikou biôi sunepimarturêsetai, Philôn, peri hou errêthê, Philôn platônizei, kai Platôn philônizei. hoti êrxato hê eidôlolatreia apo Serouch heôs tôn chronôn Tharra tou patros Abraam. hos Abraam huparchôn etôn id# kai theognôsias axiôtheis enouthetei ton patera autou, legôn: ti planais tous anthrôpous dia kerdos epizêmion [toutesti ta eidôla]; ouk estin allos theos ei mê ho en tois ouranois, ho kai panta ton kosmon dêmiourgêsas. horôn gar tous anthrôpous ktismatolatrountas diêrcheto diaponoumenos kai ton ontôs onta theon ekzêtôn ek philotheou kardias. horôn de ton ouranon pote men lampron, pote de skoteinon, elegen en heautôi: ouk estin houtos theos. homoiôs kai ton hêlion kai tên selênên, ton men apokruptomenon kai amauroumenon, tên de phthinousan kai apolêgousan, ephêsen: oud' houtoi eisi theoi. kai mentoi kai tên tôn asterôn kinêsin, ek tou patros gar epaideueto tên astronomian, kai aporôn eduscherainen. ôphthê de autôi ho theos kai legei autôi: exelthe ek tês gês sou kai ek tês sungeneias sou. kai labôn ta eidôla tou patros kai ta men klasas ta de empurisas anechôrêse meta tou patros ek gês Chaldaiôn: kai elthontos eis Charran, eteleutêsen ho patêr autou. kai exelthôn ekeithen en logôi Kuriou êlthe sun têi gunaiki Sarrai kai tôi anepsiôi Lôt meta pasês autôn tês aposkeuês eis tên opheilomenên gên Chanaan, hên hoi Chananaioi turannikôs aphelomenoi ôikêsan. limou de genomenou katalipôn tên Chananaiôn gên eis Aigupton apêiei, hou tên gunaika Sarran Abimelech hêrpasen ho basileus. touton ho theos ekdeimatôsas kai paresin tôn melôn epaxas, apodos, ephê, tên gunaika tôi anthrôpôi, hoti prophêtês esti kai proseuxetai peri sou kai zêseis. ei de mê apodôis, gnôthi hoti apothanêi su kai ta sa panta. kai houtôs apolabôn tên gunaika amianton kai proseuxamenos iathênai epoiêse tês pareseôs Abimelech kai ton oikon autou. ektote timôn auton ho basileus kai prosechôn tois hup' autou legomenois, didaskalos eusebeias kai polupeirias Aiguptiois egeneto. ho autos Abram hupostrephôn ek tou polemou tês eulogias tou Melchisedek katêxiôtai, tou basileôs Salêm, hos exênenken autôi artous kai oinon. ên de kai hiereus tou Hupsistou. kai edôken autôi Abram dekatên apo pantôn. ên de ho Melchisedek apatôr, amêtôr, agenealogêtos, aphômoiômenos tôi huiôi tou theou. tôi de Abram ateknian olophuromenôi kath' hupnous epideixas ho theos tous asteras kata to plêthos autôn esesthai hoi to sperma proedêlou. ho de episteuse tôi theôi, kai elogisthê autôi eis dikaiosunên. hê de Sarra steira ousa sunechôrêsen Abram apo tês paidiskês paidopoiêsasthai: kai ischei ton Ismaêl. enenêkonta de kai ennea etôn onti tôi Abram epiphaneis ho theos Abraam metônomasen: Abram gar prôên ônomazeto: homoiôs kai tên Saran Sarran, prostheis kai heteron r. kai perieteme ton Ismaêl kai pantas tous ex autou. Kurios de tôi Abraam epixenôtheis epêngeilato texesthai Sarran autôi paida. hê de emeidiase, kai Isaak to gennêthen prosêgoreuthê, pherônumôs tôi meth' hêdonês gelôti kata tên Hebraïda dialekton. kai Abramiaios: ho apogonos Abraam, ê gigantiaios, hieroprepês.
Notes:
This long entry is derived in part directly from George the Monk, in part indirectly from Philo of Alexandria; see further in the notes below.
[1] cf. Matthew 27:25 (web address 1).
[2] The Suda's attention to Chaldean astrology derives from Philo, On Abraham, (Colson, Philo Vol VI: XV.69-70).
[3] Use of tu/pos here is twofold: 1) To assert that God's appearance to Abraham was indirect (echoing Philo, On Abraham, XVII.79-80); 2) To impart, as if a corollary of tu/pos in Romans 5:14, that God's manifestation to Abraham was a type or prefiguration of Christ.
[4] Abraham is 100 years old at Isaac's birth (Genesis 21:5); however, the Suda follows Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.191-93 (web address 2 below) in assuming Abraham's age as 99 at the time of God's promise.
[5] The Suda here omits Ishmael, born to Abraham by the Egyptian slave Hagar when he was 86 years old (Genesis 16:1-16). The Suda's omission tacitly acknowledges a covenantal and legal distinction clearly drawn in Genesis. In Isaac, God establishes an "everlasting covenant" for his progeny, whereas God blesses Ishmael and makes him "fruitful and exceedingly numerous" (Genesis 17:19-20). Isaac's filial status is made explicit by God in identifying him as Abraham's "only son" (Genesis 22:12) through whom "offspring shall be named" for Abraham, whereas Ishmael, although destined to father a nation, is identified by God as "the son of the slave woman" (Genesis 21:12-13). Ishmael is, however, mentioned later in the entry.
[6] Christological imagery links Isaac to the personage of Jesus (Matthew 1:1-2 at web address 3 below). See also delta 94, notes 1 and 14.
[7] The Suda underscores the magnitude of the honor with a hyperbolic kat' before e)cai/reton.
[8] The statement, rooted in a paternalistic-filial model that originates in Abraham and culminates in the figure of Christ, approximates the transcendental premise: Abraham is to Joseph as Isaac is to Christ.
[9] The Suda confuses Mosaic and Abrahamic lore. The 2nd century BCE Jewish writer Eupolemus claimed for Moses the invention and propagation of writing: "Moses was the first wise man, the first who imparted the alphabet to the Jews; the Phoenicians received it from the Jews, and the Greeks from the Phoenicians." The 2nd century BCE Egyptian Jewish writer Artapanus attributed hieroglyphics to Moses. According to the 2nd century BCE Samaritan writer Ps.-Eupolemus and Artapanus, astrology and astronomy originated with Abraham, who taught these disciplines and other tools of culture to the Jews, Phoenicians, and Egyptians. They, in turn, transmitted these arts to the Greeks. Philo in On Abraham stresses Abraham's expertise as a teacher. (Encyc. Judaica, Vol 6.964-65; Gruen, 146-51, 157, 294; Grant, 77; Philo, XI.52) At sigma 295, Seth is credited with the invention of the alphabet; Greek legend named Cadmus or Linus as the one who introduced the alphabet to Greece (gamma 416, kappa 21, kappa 22, lambda 568). See also phi 787.
[10] The reference recalls א aleph as the initial letter of ʾelohīm, the most frequent generic name for God in the OT, used about 2,500 times--but a distant second to the unspoken covenant name YHWH (Yahweh), which occurs some 6,800 times (Perdue, 685-86). Cf. alpha 1445.
[11] A reference to Philo's *bi/os politikou= o(/per e)sti peri\ *)iwsh/f (Colson, Philo Vol VI, 140ff.)
[12] Adapted from Jerome's On Illustrious Men (11): h)\ *pla/twn filwni/zei h)\ *fi/lwn platwni/zei ("Either Plato philonizes or Philo platonizes.") Cf. phi 448 and Photius, Bibliotheca 86b 25.
[13] Abraham's grandfather (Genesis 11:22). Seruch in the LXX, שרוג śerūḡ in Hebrew. See also sigma 253.
[14] Abraham's father (Genesis 11:24). Tharra (*qa/rra, *qarra/) or Tharrha (*qa/r)r(a) (Hatch, Concordance, Appendix 1, 71; Brenton, 13); in Hebrew תרח Teraḥ. From the Chronicon of George the Monk, 92.11-12; cf. Malalas 55.5-6.
[15] The Midrash sets Abraham's rejection of idolatry at age 13 (Encyc. Judaica, 4.244). From here to "teacher to the Egyptians," the Suda's source is the Chronicon of George the Monk, 93.16 - 95.17.
[16] On God as "He who is," see omicron 438, omega 105.
[17] cf. Philo, On Abraham XIV.62.
[18] The call in Genesis 12:1-5 brings Abraham from Haran (חרן) to Canaan (כנען). The Suda adheres to Philo, On Abraham, XIV. 67: metani/statai...a)po\ th=s *xaldai/wn gh=s...e)is th\n *xarrai/wn gh=n.
[19] Philo shows a)delfidou=s, as at On Abraham, XXXVII.212, rather than the Suda's potentially ambiguous a)neyio/s for nephew (see LSJ s.v. at web address 4).
[20] On Abimelech, see alpha 45.
[21] The affliction cured in Genesis 20:17-18 is unspecified for Abimelech, but clearly is sterility for the female members of his house. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.208 (web address 5) relates that a "dangerous distemper" (Whiston trans.) afflicted Abimelech. For other traditions, see EncycJudaica, 2.76.
[22] Genesis 14:14-18; the Suda's source is the Chronicon of George the Monk, 100.17-26; 101.5-7.
[23] See Hebrews 7:3 (web address 6). In the Suda, see mu 544, mu 545, mu 546.
[24] The Greek mainly uses Abraam (אברהם ʾAḇraham) to this point, but here Abram (אברם), his pre-covenant name (Genesis 17:5).
[25] Genesis 15:5-6. The statement "and he believed God and God reckoned it to him as righteousness" appears also in Romans 4:3 (web address 7), Galatians 3:6 (web address 8), and James 2:23 (web address 9). A more idiomatic and semantically precise translation of the Hebrew (והאמין בה' ויחשבה לו צדקה weheʾemīn bah' wayyaḥšeḇeha lō ṣedaqah) reads: "And because he put his trust in the Lord, He reckoned it to his merit" (Plaut, 146). This version takes into interpretive account the imperfective waw consecutive (consequential) (Kautzsch, 111.l).
[26] Ismael (Ishmael) appears in the Suda at iota 644, but with a gloss that belongs to Isaak.
[27] Genesis 17:15. Also as *sa/r)r(a or Sarrha (Brenton, 18). The Hebrew covenant name change is Sarai to Sarah (both meaning Princess).
[28] Isaac (יצחק yiṣḥaq) from the Hebrew meaning "he (Abraham) laughed" in Genesis 17:17, and puns Sarah's תצחק tiṣḥaq ("she laughed") in Genesis 18:12. (Kohlenberger, Vol 1, 37, 39; Anderson, 182) In the Suda, see iota 606 (mostly taken from this entry).
[29] This adjectival derivative of Abraham's name appears in 4 Maccabees 9:21 LXX. The gloss replicates, apart from word order, one in Photius; cf. Synagoge alpha17, Hesychius alpha181.
References:
Anderson, A.W. Understanding the Old Testament. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1966
Attridge, H.W. "The Letter to the Hebrews" in The HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Brenton, L.C.L. The Septuagint with Apocrypha. Peabody: Henrickson, 1999 (reprint of 1851 edn.)
Colson F.H., Philo (Vol VI), Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1994
Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1973
Grant, M. From Alexander to Cleopatra: The Hellenistic World. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1982
Gruen, E.S. Heritage and Hellenism: The Reinvention of Jewish Tradition. Berkeley: University of California, 1998
Hatch, E., Redpath, H.A., and Muraoka, T. A Concordance to the Septuagint. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1998
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910
Keck, L.E. "The Letter of Paul to the Romans" in The HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987
Perdue, L.G. "Names of God in the Old Testament" in Harper's Bible Dictionary. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985
Plaut, W.G. The Torah: Genesis, A Modern Commentary. New York: Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1972
Smyth, H.W. Greek Grammar. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1984
Whiston, W. The Works of Josephus. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1987 (reprint of 1736 edn.)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4,
Web address 5,
Web address 6,
Web address 7,
Web address 8,
Web address 9
Keywords: aetiology; biography; children; Christianity; chronology; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; dreams; food; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; history; law; medicine; religion; science and technology; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:54:17.
Vetted by:
Craig Miller (Under editorial review as of this date) on 6 January 2002@08:24:02.
Craig Miller (Modified translation) on 24 January 2002@19:18:31.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@00:26:38.
Craig Miller (Notes added. Additional work pending.) on 25 January 2002@00:29:41.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@01:17:54.
Craig Miller (Added bibliography, keywords; changed status) on 25 January 2002@22:21:22.
Craig Miller (Cosmetics) on 25 January 2002@22:51:36.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@22:54:34.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@23:13:26.
Craig Miller on 4 June 2002@20:45:55.
Craig Miller on 19 June 2002@19:13:42.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew words; minor cosmetics.) on 31 October 2002@10:38:39.
Raphael Finkel (More Hebrew, cosmetics.) on 18 December 2002@10:58:21.
Craig Miller (Additional cosmetics) on 17 May 2003@19:07:49.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@08:20:23.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 November 2005@07:49:08.
Jennifer Benedict (added 15 links) on 25 March 2008@11:50:57.
Catharine Roth (references, cosmetics) on 10 April 2008@16:09:00.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 10 April 2008@20:15:09.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, pruned notes, added cross-references) on 11 April 2008@12:30:02.
Catharine Roth (adjusted note numbers; more tweaks) on 11 April 2008@14:18:11.
William Hutton (augmented n. 29) on 17 July 2009@17:14:18.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 December 2011@07:16:50.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links, other tweaks) on 22 December 2011@19:00:49.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note and links) on 11 November 2013@01:26:27.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:27:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 11 August 2014@00:14:27.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:33:55.
Catharine Roth (betacode typo) on 2 October 2018@02:07:40.

Headword: Habrokomas
Adler number: alpha,83
Translated headword: Abrokomas, Habrokomas, Abrocomas
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
This man was satrap[1] under Artaxerxes, king of the Persians.[2]
Greek Original:
Habrokomas: houtos satrapês ên Artaxerxou tou Persôn basileôs.
Notes:
From Harpokration (and Photius) s.v. The name has a smooth breathing (Abrokomas) there, as in Xenophon before them (below); in the Suda it is rough (Habrokomas).
[1] Provincial governor; see sigma 153 (and generally OCD(4) p.1321).
[2] There were several Persian kings of this name (see generally OCD(4) p.175), but probably Artaxerxes II (405/4-359/8) is meant; he had a general called Abrokomas, mentioned by Xenophon in the Anabasis.
Keywords: biography; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; politics
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:36:18.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword, notes, keyword; cosmetics) on 29 September 2000@05:33:34.
William Hutton (Cosmetics) on 1 February 2001@00:51:03.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 19 July 2011@09:44:36.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 21 December 2011@01:44:30.
David Whitehead (updated 2 refs) on 29 July 2014@12:13:20.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 2 April 2015@11:02:29.

Headword: Agathias
Adler number: alpha,112
Translated headword: Agathias
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A lawyer,[1] of Myrina;[2] the one who wrote the History as a continuation of Procopius of Caesarea,[3] [comprising] the affairs involving Belisarius[4] and the events in Italy and Libya; that is the affairs involving Narses[5] in Italy and the events in Lazike[6] and Byzantion. He also composed other books, both in meter and in prose, including the Daphniaka[7] and the Cycle of New Epigrams, which he compiled himself from the poets of his day. He was a contemporary of Paulus Silentiarius and of the consul Macedonius and of Tribonian[8] in the time of Justinian.[9]
Greek Original:
Agathias: scholastikos, Murinaios, ho grapsas tên meta Prokopion historian ton Kaisarea, ta kata Belisarion kai tas en Italiai kai en Libuêi praxeis, toutesti ta kata Narsên en Italiai kai ta en Lazikêi kai Buzantiôi. houtos sunetaxe kai hetera biblia emmetra te kai katalogadên, ta te kaloumena Daphniaka, kai ton Kuklon tôn neôn Epigrammatôn, hon autos sunêxen ek tôn kata kairon poiêtôn. sunêkmase de Paulôi tôi Selentiariôi kai Makedoniôi tôi hupatôi kai Tribounianôi epi tôn Ioustinianou chronôn.
Notes:
c.532-c.580. See generally Averil Cameron in OCD(4) s.v. (p.35).
[1] See OCD s.v.
[2] a.k.a. Sebastopolis, in Aeolis (Asia Minor): Barrington Atlas map 56 grid D4.
[3] For Procopius see pi 2479. A's own work was in turn continued by Menander Protector (mu 591).
[4] See beta 233.
[5] See nu 42.
[6] An alternative name for Colchis (kappa 1979); present-day Georgia, between the Black and Caspian Seas.
[7] Amatory hexameters.
[8] tau 956, cf. tau 951.
[9] iota 446.
Keywords: biography; chronology; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; law; poetry; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 30 March 2001@15:08:59.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 24 April 2002@04:07:08.
David Whitehead (added note) on 3 November 2003@06:05:01.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; corrected a note number) on 3 August 2006@09:47:58.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr) on 18 May 2011@08:29:09.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 22 December 2011@04:42:12.
Philip Rance (modified translation) on 23 January 2012@07:57:14.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:22:58.

Headword: Agapios
Adler number: alpha,157
Translated headword: Agapios, Agapius
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Athenian philosopher, after the death of Proclus,[1] under Marinus.[2] He was admired for his love of learning and for his setting of dilemmas that were hard to solve.[3]
Greek Original:
Agapios: Athênaios philosophos, meta Proklon apoichomenon, hupo Marinôi. hos ethaumazeto epi philomatheiai kai aporiôn probolêi dusepibolôn.
Notes:
Damascius, Life of Isidore fr. 277 Zintzen (164 Asmus).
[1] See pi 2473.
[2] See mu 198, mu 199.
[3] cf. delta 1618, epsilon 2241.
Keywords: biography; chronology; ethics; geography; philosophy
Translated by: William Hutton on 9 April 2000@22:48:07.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes and keyword; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@04:35:17.
David Whitehead (added note) on 25 April 2002@08:58:34.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@06:54:19.

Headword: Agelios
Adler number: alpha,195
Translated headword: Agelios, Agelius
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
This man was bishop of Constantinople during the reign of Valens.[1] He lived an apostolic life, for he always went about unshod and wore only a single tunic, in observance of what the Gospel says.[2]
Greek Original:
Agelios: houtos epi Oualentos ên Kônstantinoupoleôs episkopos, bion apostolikon bious. anupodêtos gar diolou diêgen, heni te chitôni ekechrêto, to tou euangeliou phulattôn rhêton.
Notes:
See again under mu 207.
[1] Agelius was a Novatian, persecuted for accepting the homoousian doctrine. For the emperor Valens, see omicron 764.
[2] Socrates, Ecclesiastical History 4.9.3 (translation at web address 1).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; Christianity; chronology; clothing; ethics; geography; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 11 April 2000@00:02:16.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added notes and link) on 4 March 2002@13:30:20.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@09:54:59.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 3 October 2005@07:11:09.
Catharine Roth (augmented note, added keyword, raised status) on 12 October 2007@23:02:42.
David Whitehead (another x-ref; another keyword) on 29 December 2011@07:30:01.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 29 December 2011@12:11:37.

Headword: Angelos
Adler number: alpha,196
Translated headword: angel
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The angels are circumscribed only by the comprehension of the intellect; not in space, nor in body, nor in time; for they came into existence before the sun.[1] Scripture calls the servants of retribution "evil angels," just as it calls the day of retribution an "evil day";[2] and it calls the bitter retributions "wrath and anger and affliction" in the hands of God.[3] For it does not say that it is [their] nature or preference.
Greek Original:
Angelos: hoi angeloi monoi têi tou noos katalêpsei eisi perigraptoi, oute de en topôi, oude en sômati, oude en chronôi: pro gar tou hêliou hê genesis autôn. angelous ponêrous tous tês timôrias hupourgous hê graphê kalei: hôsper hêmeran ponêran tên tês timôrias. orgên de kai thumon kai thlipsin epi Theou tas pikras timôrias kalei. ou gar phusin oude proairesin phêsin.
Notes:
Theodoret (PG 80.1496b) on Psalm 79.49 LXX (not Adler's 77.49).
[1] Perhaps referring to Psalm 109.3 LXX "before the morning star have I begotten thee."
[2] cf. eta 299.
[3] cf. theta 391, theta 575.
Keywords: Christianity; chronology; definition; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 16 October 2000@15:04:42.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Cosmetics; reference.) on 25 January 2001@18:00:55.
David Whitehead (added notes) on 25 April 2002@10:08:40.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 12 October 2007@22:47:52.
Catharine Roth (further tweaks, additional note) on 12 October 2007@23:24:43.
Catharine Roth (another cross-reference) on 14 October 2007@12:02:45.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 29 December 2011@07:35:52.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:40:13.

Headword: Agêtas
Adler number: alpha,230
Translated headword: Agetas
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The general of the Aetolians.
Greek Original:
Agêtas: ho tôn Aitôlôn stratêgos.
Note:
In the late third century BCE. He is mentioned for dating purposes by Polybius 5.91.1 -- and may also be the Hagetas on an inscription of the time: so F.W. Walbank, A Historical Commmentary on Polybius vol.I (Oxford 1957 and reprints) 622.
Keywords: biography; chronology; geography; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg on 24 November 1998@14:11:02.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note/bibliography) on 18 September 2000@10:12:06.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 1 August 2011@08:20:15.

Headword: Hagisteias
Adler number: alpha,242
Translated headword: rituals
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning those] of holiness, of cleansing, of service.
Greek Original:
Hagisteias: hagiôsunês, katharotêtos, latreias.
Notes:
LSJ entry at web address 1; and cf. generally alpha 234.
Same material in other lexica (references at Photius alpha176 Theodoridis), and also in the scholia to Plato, Axiochus 371D, where the headword -- accusative plural, not genitive singular -- occurs.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; philosophy; religion
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg on 24 November 1998@14:18:45.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added headword translation, note, keywords, and link.) on 18 February 2001@20:06:16.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note and keyword) on 9 June 2003@09:51:41.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 4 January 2012@04:55:36.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@07:55:03.

Headword: Ankôn
Adler number: alpha,249
Translated headword: elbow
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
"In the royal palace of Gelimer was a building full of darkness, which the Carthaginians used to call [the] Elbow; therein were thrown all toward whom the tyrant was ill-disposed. There, in the time of Belisarius, happened to be confined many traders from the east about to be destroyed by the tyrant at that time, whom the guard of the prison released."[1]
"And he placed the siege-engines in the way that seemed most timely, and he hit both the wall-angles [angkones] and the trenches from both sides."[2]
Also [sc. attested is] a)gkw=nes, a certain part of the house.[3]
Another meaning of a)gkw=nes is everything that, in a dream, fixes the well-ordered aspect of life.[4]
*)agkw=nes [are] also the prominences of rivers, the ones at the banks.
"It was not possible to sail through to the stream ahead because of the size of the descending prominences which it was necessary for those dragging the ships to bend round."[5]
Also [sc. attested is] a)gkw=nes, [in the sense of] the heights of the mountains. "Some of you seek out the [western] heights, and some the eastern, going toward the evil exit of the man."[6]
And [there is] a proverbial expression: wiping one's nose with the elbow.[7]
Bion the philosopher said: "my father was a freed slave, wiping his nose with his elbow;" it indicated clearly the saltfish-importer.[8]
See another proverbial expression, 'sweet bend' [in a river, etc.].[9]
Greek Original:
Ankôn: en têi basilikêi aulêi tou Gelimeros oikêma ên skotous anapleôn, ho dê Ankôna ekaloun hoi Karchêdonioi: entha eneballonto hapantes hois an chalepainoi ho turannos. entautha epi Belisariou polloi katheirgmenoi etunchanon tôn heôiôn emporôn, hous mellontas kat' ekeino kairou anaireisthai hupo tou turannou ho phulax tou desmôtêriou apeluse. kai dietithei tas mêchanas hêi malista edokei kairion, ankônas te kai taphrous ebaleto hekaterôthen. kai Ankônes, meros ti tês oikias. ankônes de kai panta ta prospêssomena kat' onar to kosmion tou biou sêmainei. Ankônes kai hai tôn potamôn exochai, hai para tais ochthais. ou dunaton ên pros antion ton rhoun anaplein dia to megethos tôn prospiptontôn ankônôn, hous edei kamptein parelkontas tas naus. kai Ankônas, tas akras tôn orôn. hoi de speirousin ankônas, hoi d' antêlious zêteit' iontes t' andros exodon kakên. kai paroimia: tôi ankôni apomussomenos. Biôn phêsin ho philosophos: emou ho patêr men ên apeleutheros, tôi ankôni apomussomenos: diedêlou de ton tarichemporon. zêtei kai allên paroimian, to glukus ankôn.
Notes:
[1] An abridgement of Procopius, History of the Wars of Justinian 3.20.4-7.
[2] From an unidentifiable military narrative. (For the headword in this sense see LSJ s.v., II.)
[3] For this gloss, cf. iota 552.
[4] Artemidorus 1.74; cf. omicron 349.
[5] Quotation unidentifiable.
[6] Sophocles, Ajax 805-6 (web address 1); the first adjective is garbled here.
[7] cf. Mantissa Proverbiorum 3.31 and the quotation which follows here.
[8] Diogenes Laertius 4.46.
[9] gamma 316.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: architecture; biography; chronology; daily life; dreams; economics; ethics; food; geography; historiography; history; imagery; military affairs; philosophy; proverbs; science and technology; trade and manufacture; tragedy
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg on 24 November 1998@13:57:02.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (supplied headword; added notes; augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@04:02:29.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@08:29:24.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 20 November 2005@10:40:36.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 February 2011@08:38:56.
Catharine Roth (tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 February 2011@01:08:42.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 4 January 2012@05:46:10.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 30 December 2014@00:14:19.

Headword: Ankuran
Adler number: alpha,258
Translated headword: anchor
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Note] that Anacharsis the Scythian philosopher invented the anchor and the potter's wheel. He lived in the time of Croesus.
Greek Original:
Ankuran: hoti Anacharsis Skuthês philosophos heuren ankuran kai ton kerameikon trochon. ên de epi Kroisou.
Notes:
An extract from the main entry on Anacharsis (alpha 2130). The headword, part of it, is accusative singular.
Anacharsis is an important character in Book 4 of Herodotus' History; Croesus, tyrant of Lydia, is important throughout Herodotus. Anacharsis earns his fame by attempting to introduce Greek customs into Scythia, and eventually dies for it. The story of Anacharsis' inventions, however, is not found elsewhere.
Reference:
OCD(4) s.v. (p.77).
Keywords: biography; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Roger Travis on 4 October 2000@12:08:40.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note; added bibliography; keywords; cosmetics) on 12 February 2001@05:04:56.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, keyword, status) on 22 August 2006@22:12:29.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 23 August 2006@03:27:29.
Catharine Roth (deleted link, added keyword) on 20 October 2013@20:18:36.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@02:42:40.

Headword: Ankuranôn polis
Adler number: alpha,259
Translated headword: Ankyrans' city, Ancyrans' city
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Note] that the present Ankyrans were called of old Hellenogalatians.
Greek Original:
Ankuranôn polis: hoti hoi nun Ankuranoi Hellênogalatai palai elegonto.
Notes:
The headword phrase is presumably quoted from somewhere.
Ankyra is the present-day Ankara. See already alpha 257 (with gamma 21), and sigma 1067.
The 'Hellenogalatians' are of course the Galatians (called in Livy 'Gallograeci', and see gamma 39), Kelts who settled in central Asia Minor in 279 BCE and after.
Reference:
OCD(4) s.v. (p.84)
Keywords: chronology; geography; history
Translated by: Roger Travis on 4 October 2000@12:19:10.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes, bibliography, keyword; cosmetics) on 6 February 2001@10:57:36.
Nicholas Fincher (added note mentioning Galatians) on 16 July 2003@05:33:14.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; cosmetics) on 16 July 2003@05:42:00.
David Whitehead (another note; another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 1 August 2011@08:26:39.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@02:45:12.

Headword: Agleukes
Adler number: alpha,269
Translated headword: sour
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] what is bitter. Xenophon used [the word] in the Oeconomicus.[1] But the word seems to be foreign, Sicilian; at any rate it is much used later in Rhinthon.[2]
Also [sc. attested is the comparative] a)gleuke/steron, meaning more/rather bitter. Xenophon in Hiero [sc. uses the word].[3]
Greek Original:
Agleukes: to aêdes. Xenophôn eirêken en tôi Oikonomikôi. dokei de xenikon einai to onoma, Sikelikon: polu goun esti palin para Rhinthôni. kai Agleukesteron, anti tou aêdesteron. Xenophôn Hierôni.
Notes:
[1] The word does not appear in the transmitted texts of Xen. Oec., but is a suggested emendation in both 8.3 (for the mss a)terpe/s) and 8.4 (where its superlative could replace the mss a)klee/staton).
[2] Rhinthon fr. 28 Kaibel, 25 K.-A; Photius alpha200 Theodoridis. (Rhinthon was a writer of "phlyax" plays, farces, in C3-BCE Syracuse. See generally OCD(4) p.1138, s.v. phlyakes, and 1277, s.v. Rhinthon.)
[2] Xen. Hiero 1.21.
Keywords: chronology; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; food; geography
Translated by: Roger Travis on 4 October 2000@13:00:57.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (altered headword, to differentiate it from gloss; augmented notes; added keywords; cosmetics) on 12 February 2001@05:46:08.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 19 July 2003@07:09:03.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@04:44:01.
David Whitehead (updated 2 refs) on 30 July 2014@02:52:01.
David Whitehead (more of same) on 21 December 2014@09:23:22.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 9 April 2015@08:29:40.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 17 September 2015@10:03:12.

Headword: Agraphou metallou dikê
Adler number: alpha,345
Translated headword: prosecution for an unregistered mine
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
When those who worked the silver mines [sc. in Athens] wanted to begin a new working, they would notify those the people had put in charge of mines and would register a twenty-fourth part of the new mine as a tax payable to the people. So if someone appeared to be working a mine in secret, anyone who wanted could indict and expose him for not having registered.
Greek Original:
Agraphou metallou dikê: hoi ta argureia metalla ergazomenoi hopou boulointo kainou ergou arxasthai, phaneron epoiounto tois ep' ekeinois tetagmenois hupo tou dêmou kai apegraphonto tou telein heneka tôi dêmôi eikostên tetartên tou kainou metallou. ei tis oun edokei lathra ergazesthai metallon, ton mê apograpsamenon exên tôi boulomenôi graphesthai kai elenchein.
Notes:
Same entry in Photius.
For taxation of mines see again alpha 3456; the tax mentioned here appears to be post-classical.
Keywords: chronology; definition; economics; ethics; law; science and technology
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 August 1998@18:32:34.
Vetted by:
David Mirhady on 17 December 1999@16:47:19.
David Mirhady on 17 December 1999@17:31:05.
Joseph L. Rife (added keyword) on 9 September 2000@21:15:31.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note) on 29 September 2000@07:08:15.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 20 November 2005@09:01:09.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords; tweaks) on 6 January 2012@07:37:28.

Headword: Agroilêthen
Adler number: alpha,379
Translated headword: from-Agroile; Agryle
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Agroile is a deme of the Erechtheid tribe [sc. in Athens]. A demesman [sc. of this deme] used once to be called Agroileus ["Agroilian"].[1]
Greek Original:
Agroilêthen: Agroilê dêmos esti phulês tês Erechtheïdos. ho de dêmotês palai elegeto Agroileus.
Notes:
Abridged from Harpokration s.v. Agryle (sic - the Suda, besides transmitting an odd version of the deme-name itself, changes the headword from the deme-name to the demotikon, on which see n.1 below).
Agryle was one of the six instances of Athenian demes with "upper" and "lower" population centres: see generally D. Whitehead, The Demes of Attica (Princeton 1986) 21.
[1] An illusory piece of chronological information. What Harpok. actually says is: 'the demesmen [is an] Agryleus, but the locative adverb is Agrylethen. (And in fact, the latter is the regular demotikon also.)
Keywords: chronology; constitution; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 March 1999@17:35:00.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added footnote) on 15 September 2000@06:31:55.
David Whitehead on 17 September 2000@09:42:30.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@04:32:21.

Headword: Adam
Adler number: alpha,425
Translated headword: Adam
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The first human, he who was shaped by the hand of God and formed in the image and likeness of the Creator and Founder; he was also deemed worthy of a dwelling in Paradise. He could justly be called the first wise man, since he was the first likeness created and an image wrought by God, and also because he had a full share of all the graces that exist. And all the senses of the body and the soul he possessed in a pure and unadulterated state. For rays of a certain sort, so to speak, flashed from the soul of that man, rays teeming with divine thoughts and energies, and they coursed through all nature, accurately and unerringly anticipating the particular virtue of each thing. Those who judged him were not men, who often make judgments in an erroneous fashion, but the God of everything, who makes every decision and judgment correctly, and, before his mind was stirred to action, by the soul, which labors over such things and gives birth to ideas. And as Scripture says: "God made all the domesticated and wild animals and the things that crawl and the winged things, and he brought them before Adam to see what he would call them, and whatever Adam called them, that was their name."[1] And what is more perfectly clear than this statement and this testimony? What more sublime than this wisdom and this discrimination? He gave names to nature itself, as though prescribing the essence of each animal, without practice, without prior consideration, with no preparatory effort at the things which people take pains to learn. And although many, nay, innumerable species were brought before him no one has managed to change the name even of some insignificant animal, nor did anyone manage to attain even a fraction of his great wisdom and discrimination. Instead all humans scattered across the entire earth continue following his pronouncements unaltered. And the first-born one's surpassing judgment in all things did not stop there, but also extended to the varieties of seeds and plants and the uses of roots and herbs. And whatever in the way of prevention and treatment nature assigned to each of the living things he determined and made clear. He, the first to see woman, spoke about her not as with a human mouth. As though he were echoing some divine pronouncement he uttered incisively that celebrated and awe-inspiring saying: "this now is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh. She will be called woman, because she was taken out of her man."[2] He, moreover, is the one who assesses each thing and establishes rules, precise standards, and incontestable boundaries for all. His are the crafts and letters, his are rational and non-rational sciences, his are prophethoods, priesthoods, purifications and laws both written and unwritten; his are all discoveries and doctrines and whatever needs and regimens are essential for life. He is the first representation of mankind, the image summoned from God; all image-making among men starts out from him as a model, though more and more they sink to a level inferior to his blessed and God-like image, which had no starting point upon which one who molded or painted images after him might depend; to such an extent that the Abomination, the Apostate, the deceiving Devil toppled him from his original foundation and position and caused him to be borne headfirst into pit-like and unlit places which reach all the way down to the joyless recesses of Hades. And from this point human nature became caricatured and falsified and was stamped with the shapings and designs of the Tyrant. From this source that bastard wisdom had its beginnings, for divine wisdom had made its escape and had flown up toward heaven, whence it had previously started out. Whence the Imposter expropriated the name of God and dealt it out it in many directions, giving himself different names, such as "Kronos" and "Zeus", and -- the most wicked thing of all -- the Criminal even had the gall to drag down the blessed and ineffable nature [of God] and associate it with names that were female and unworthy of respect, such as those "Rheas" and "Aphrodites" and "Athenas" and thousands of others, and into strange forms and shapes of illogical things which the Creator of Evil and the Hatcher of Heresy invented and carved out. Hence the wretched tales of the Egyptians about Osiris and Typhon and Isis, and the chicanery of the Persian Magi, and the gymnosophistry and impertinent fantasies of the Brahmans, the fabled sayings of the Skythians and the orgies of the Thracians and the flutes and Corybantes of the Phyrgians. Hence the deceitful and damaging astrology of the Chaldaeans. Hence poetry, the midwife of lies, the pretentious diction of Greek storytelling. Hence Orpheus and Homer and that portrayer of improper begettings, Hesiod. Hence the reputation of Thales and the glorious Pythagoras and Socrates the wise and Plato, the much-ballyhooed pride of the Academy of the Athenians. Hence the Parmenideses and the Protagorases and the Zenos. Hence the Stoas, and the Areopaguses and the Epicureans. Hence the dirges and breast-beatings of the tragedians and the jestings and raillery of the comics. Hence the dishonest divinations of Loxias the liar[3] and the remaining shenanigans and omen-mongering of Greek sophistication. And lest I prolong my essay by getting caught up in rotten and malodorous myths, the Imposter, having taken the burden of the entirety of creation on himself, and having taken man under his control as though he were a slave, went through all that is below heaven and patrolled the earth and kept watch over everything like a hen on her eggs, as he himself says in his lying fashion. He thought that it was necessary to set his throne above the clouds of heaven and to be equal to the Highest One. But the only begotten Son of God, the primordial Word, took pity on mankind since it had been deceived by the serpent, removed himself from the lap of the Father and became flesh by the Holy Spirit and by the Holy Virgin and Mother of God, Mary. He defeated his rival through the hallowed cross and through his suffering and went down to the lowest reaches of the earth and from there dragged back the fallen first-formed one, restoring the primordial beauty to his image and the original worth to his nature. And at that point the entire regime and conformity of the Tyrant vanished, as the light of piousness beamed more brightly than the rays of the sun on the entirety of creation. From this light the godly wisdom once again shone through and gave voice to the tongues of the fishermen and made the unwise teachers of the wise. From this came the birth of thunder, as follows: "In the beginning was the word."[4] It flashed forth from heavenly clouds and thundered and brought light to the entire inhabited world. And through this light Paul is carried to the Third Heaven and sees the unseeable and hears the unspoken sayings and speeds across the entire earth like a bird bringing the Gospel of Jesus in mid air. Thence Peter named Christ the son of the living God, and he is entrusted with the keys of the kingdom of the heavens, so that he may open the entrance to the divine palace for those who believe and lock it against those who do not. Thence flocks of martyrs cast down idols and hasten readily toward their death, displaying their wounds as crowns and their blood as robes of purple, beautiful in victory. The first-formed one should be considered the one who directs this writing, in my opinion and judgment at any rate, as a river the spring and the sea, and roots and branches and shoots, and as the one who originates all human nature, the beginning offerings and the first-fruits.
From Adam until the flood: 2242 years; from the flood until the building of the tower [sc. of Babel], 525 years; from the building of the tower until Abraham, 425. From Abraham until the Exodus of the sons of Israel from Egypt, 430. From the Exodus until the building of the Temple of Solomon, 757 years. From the building of the temple until the captivity of Israel, 425. Altogether 4880 years.[5] From the captivity until king Alexander [sc. the Great], 318. From Alexander until Christ our God, 303. Altogether 5500 years.[6] From Christ until Constantine the Great, 318. From Constantine until Michael son of Theophilos, 555. The whole span altogether 6375 years.[7] From Michael to Romanos son of Constantine Porphyrogennetos ... years.[8] From Porphyrogennetos to the death of John Tzimiskes ... years.[9]
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] Adamiaios, [meaning he who is descended] from Adam.
Greek Original:
Adam: ho prôtos anthrôpos, ho cheiri theou plastheis kai kata tên eikona kai homoiôsin morphôtheis tou dêmiourgou te kai ktisantos, ho kai timêtheis tên eis paradeison oikêsin. houtos dikaiôs an prôtos kaloito sophos hôs prôtoktiston agalma kai eikôn ousa theographos, hôs tôn charitôn holôn huparchôn anapleôs kai panta kathara kai akibdêla peripherôn ta psuchês te kai sômatos aisthêtêria. marmarugai gar tines, hôs eipein, ek tês ekeinou psuchês apastraptousai kai theiôn ennoiôn te kai energeiôn plêthousai kata pasan eisetrechon phusin eustochôs kai anamartêtôs to oikeion hekastês pleonektêma phthanousai. hos ou para anthrôpôn edokimasthê tôn tas kriseis pollakis episphalôs poioumenôn, alla para tou tôn holôn theou tou pasan gnôsin kai krisin orthôs poioumenou kai pro tou tas ennoias kinêthênai para tês ôdinousês ta toiauta psuchês kai apotiktousês noêmata. kai hêi phêsin hê graphê: epoiêsen ho theos panta ta ktênê kai ta thêria kai ta herpeta kai peteina kai êgagen auta pros ton Adam idein, ti kalesei auta. kai ho ekalesen Adam, touto onoma autôi. ti tês phônês tautês kai marturias aridêloteron; ti tês sophias tautês kai diagnôseôs hupsêloteron; ekalesen onomata tên phusin autên kai tên hupostasin hekastou zôiou hôsper hupographomenos, ou meletêsas, ou proskepsamenos, ouden ti propeponthôs tôn hosa metamanthanousin anthrôpoi. kai pollôn kai anarithmôn geneôn paradramousôn ouk ischusen oudeis hupallaxai kan tou tuchontos zôiou to onoma, oude tês ekeinou draxasthai megalonoias kai diagnôseôs. mallon men oun menousin hapantes hoi kata pasan esparmenoi tên gên anthrôpoi tois ekeinou stoichountes ametathetois thespismasi. kai oude mechri toutôn estê tou prôtogonou anthrôpou to huperballon en pasin axiôma, alla kai spermatôn kai phutôn diaphoras rhizôn te kai botanôn dunameis, kai hosa eis antilêpsin kai therapeian hê phusis hekastôi prosarmottei tôn zôiôn, diekrine te kai esaphêsen. houtos kai tên gunaika prôtos idôn ouch hôsper ek stomatos anthrôpinou peri tautês ephthenxato, all' hôs ek tinos theias omphês enêchoumenos eustochôs to poluumnêton ekeino kai thaumaston apephoibase logion: touto nun ostoun ek tôn osteôn mou kai sarx ek tês sarkos mou. hautê klêthêsetai gunê, hoti ek tou andros autês elêphthê. houtos toinun estin ho dokimasas hekasta kai pasi kanonas kai stathmas akribeis kai horous anantirrêtous enarmo- samenos. toutou technai kai grammata, toutou epistêmai logikai te kai alogoi, toutou prophêteiai, hierourgiai kai katharismoi kai nomoi graptoi te kai agraphoi, toutou panta heurêmata kai didagmata, kai hosai kata ton bion anankaiai chreiai te kai diaitai. houtos estin ho prôtos andrias, to theoklêton agalma, aph' houper apeuthunontai pasai anthrôpôn agalmatourgiai, kan pros to hêtton mallon kai mallon ekpiptôsin ekeinou tou makariou kai theoeidous apeikasmatos mêdemian echontos aphormên, hês an epilaboito ho met' ekeinon diaplattomenos ê zôigraphoumenos, heôs ho palamnaios kai apostatês kai planos diabolos touton exekulisen ek tês oikeias hidruseôs te kai staseôs kai kata tou pranous eiase pheresthai pros barathrôdeis tinas kai alampeis chôrous kai mechri tôn ameidêtôn tou haidou keuthmônôn engizontas. kanteuthen êrxato phusis hê tôn anthrôpôn paracharattesthai kai diakibdêleuesthai kai tupousthai tois tou turannou morphômasi te kai schêmasin. enteuthen hê nothos sophia tas aphormas elabe, tês theias drapeteusasês kai pros ouranon anaptasês, hothen to proteron ên aphormêsasa. hothen ho planos to tou theou spheterisamenos onoma eis polla katemerise, Kronous te kai Zênas kai Poseidônas heauton metakalôn: kai to dê pantôn anosiôtaton, eis onomata thêlea te kai asemna tên makarian kai arrêton sunkataspasai phusin ho alitêrios katetolmêsen, eis te tas Rheas ekeinas kai Aphroditas kai Athênas kai eis allas murias kai allokotous alogôn ideas te kai morphas, has ho kakias dêmiourgos kai tên apostasian nosêsas epechrôse te kai diecharaxen. enteuthen Aiguptiôn ta peri Osirin kai Tuphôna kai Isin mochthêra diêgêmata kai Persôn magika manganeumata kai Brachmanôn gumnosophistiai kai akairoi phantasiai kai hê thaumazomenê Skuthôn rhêsis kai ta Thraikôn orgia kai hoi Phrugôn auloi kai Korubantes. enteuthen hê Chaldaiôn astronomia hê sphalera te kai poluôdunos. enteuthen hê tou pseudous locheutria poiêsis, hê tôn Hellênikôn lêrêmatôn semnomuthia. enteuthen Orpheus te kai Homêros kai ho tôn athemitôn gonôn zôigraphos Hêsiodos. enteuthen hê Thalêtos doxa kai ho kleinos Puthagoras kai ho sophos Sôkratês kai Platôn, to tês Athênaiôn Akadêmias poluthrulêton semnologêma. enteuthen hoi Parmenidai kai Prôtagorai kai Zênônes. enteuthen hai Stoai kai hoi Areioi pagoi kai Epikoureioi. enteuthen hoi tragôidôn thrênoi kai kopetoi kai ta kômikôn paignia kai tôthasmata. enteuthen ta dolera tou Loxiou kai pseudêgorou thespismata kai hê loipê tôn Hellênikôn kompseumatôn ereschelia kai terateia. kai hina mê makron apoteinô ton logon eis saprous te kai odôdotas muthous enascholoumenos, pasan eis heauton tên ktisin ho planos emphortisamenos kai labôn hupo cheira ton anthrôpon hôs andrapodon kai dierchomenos tên hup' ouranon kai peripatôn tên gên kai hôs ôa panta katechôn, hôs autos pou phêsin alazoneuomenos, ôieto dein ton heautou thronon thêsein epanô tôn nephelôn tou ouranou kai esesthai homoios tôi Hupsistôi. all' ho tou theou monogenês huios kai logos ho proaiônios oikteiras ton anthrôpon hôs êpatêmenon hupo tou drakontos ek tôn tou patros kolpôn heauton ekenôse kai sarkôtheis ek pneumatos hagiou kai ek tês hagias parthenou kai theotokou Marias, kai dia tou timiou staurou kai tou pathous autou katabalôn ton antipalon kai katabas eis ta katôtata merê tês gês ekeithen heilkuse ton parapesonta prôtoplaston, apodous têi eikoni to prôton kallos kai têi phusei to archaion axiôma. kanteuthen êphanistai pasa hê tou turannou dunasteia kai summorphia tou tês eusebeias phôtos diaugasantos pasêi têi ktisei tôn hêliakôn marmarugôn têlaugesteron. ek toutou tou phôtos hê kata theon sophia palin dielampse kai glôssas halieôn estomôse kai tôn sophôn didaskalous tous asophous eirgasato enteuthen ho tês brontês gonos, to: en archêi ên ho logos, ex ouraniôn nephelôn apastrapsas ebrontêse, kai pasan tên oikoumenên elamprune. kak toutou tou phôtos Paulos eis triton ouranon anapheretai kai theatai ta atheata kai tôn arrêtôn hupakouei logiôn kai diatrechei pasan tên gên hôs ptênos kai aerios ton Iêsoun euangelizomenos. enteuthen ho Petros ton Christon huion theou tou zôntos ônomase kai tas kleis tês tôn ouranôn pisteuetai basileias, hina anoigêi men tois pistois, apokleiêi de tois apistois tôn theiôn anaktorôn tên eisodon. enteuthen agelai marturôn kataballousin eidôla kai trechousin hetoimoi pros ton thanaton, hôs stephanous tas plêgas kai hôs porphuras ta heautôn haimata peripherontes hoi kallinikoi. estô goun ho prôtoplastos archêgos toude tou grammatos, kata ge ton emon horon kai logon, hôs potamos pêgê te kai thalatta kai rhiza kai kladoi kai horpêkes kai pasês huparchôn tês anthrôpinês phuseôs aparchê kai prôtoleion. hoti apo Adam heôs tou kataklusmou etê #22bsmb#. apo de tou kataklusmou heôs tês purgopoiïas etê phke#. apo de tês purgopoiïas heôs tou Abraam uke#. apo de tou Abraam heôs tês exodou tôn huiôn Israêl ex Aiguptou ul#. apo de tês exodou heôs tês oikodomês tou Solomônteiou naou etê psnz#. apo de tês oikodomês tou naou heôs tês aichmalôsias tou Israêl uke#. homou etê #22dôp#. apo de tês aichmalôsias heôs Alexandrou basileôs tiê#. apo de Alexandrou heôs Christou tou theou hêmôn tg#. homou etê #22eph#. apo de Christou heôs tou megalou Kônstantinou tiê#. apo de Kônstantinou mechri Michaêl huiou Theophilou phne#. homou ta panta etê #22#2toe#. apo de Michaêl heôs Rhômanou huiou Kônstantinou tou Porphurogennêtou etê ... apo de tou Porphurogennêtou heôs tês teleutês Iôannou tou Tzimiskê etê ... kai Adamiaios, apo Adam.
Notes:
The great bulk of this entry -- 104 lines out of 117 in the printed edition -- is a tour de force of polemic by an unidentifiable scholar quite outside the type of neutral reticence which characterises most of the contributors to the Suda (although Küster suggests a comparison with the entry on Job at iota 471). His self-styled "essay" (logos), unparalleled in this form and content elsewhere, is a tirade on two levels: explicitly, against the great men of pagan culture(s), and also implicitly, in that its determination to enhance the significance of Adam to extraordinary levels rests in part upon an almost Pelagian exculpation of him from the taint of original sin.
[1] A paraphrase of Genesis 1.20 and 2.19.
[2] Genesis 2.23; the wordplay between "man" and "wo-man" in English, is also present in the original Hebrew איש ʾīš and אישה ʾīššah, but not in the Greek.
[3] i.e. Apollo (lambda 673).
[4] John 1.1.
[5] The actual sum of the numbers given up to this point is 4804 (dwd) instead of the 4880 (dwp) of the mss.
[6] The actual sum of all the numbers given so far is 5432; adding merely the last two numbers to the previous summation yields 5528.
[7] 6373, counting from the last summation. The actual total of all individual numbers is 6305. (Up to this point the chronology is taken from George the Monk, Chronicon 804.1-20; and cf. generally phi 45. The two time-spans which now follow are odd, in that the chronology stops being linear.)
[8] Romanus (II) died in 963.
[9] John died in 976.
Keywords: art history; biography; botany; Christianity; chronology; comedy; epic; ethics; food; gender and sexuality; historiography; imagery; law; mythology; philosophy; poetry; proverbs; religion; tragedy; women; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 23 April 2001@15:37:44.
Vetted by:
Patrick T. Rourke (Cleaned up encoding issue) on 8 April 2002@12:19:19.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 8 April 2002@14:00:09.
Catharine Roth (raised status) on 5 May 2002@12:51:12.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew words.) on 31 October 2002@10:41:09.
David Whitehead (modified last paragraph of translation; corrected error in footnote numeration; cosmetics) on 10 June 2003@04:32:32.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@07:34:57.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 9 January 2012@10:28:35.
David Whitehead on 9 January 2012@10:58:50.
David Whitehead (added primary note) on 11 January 2012@11:10:07.
David Whitehead (my typo) on 11 January 2012@11:26:30.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 6 January 2013@23:16:27.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 17 January 2014@06:41:18.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:30:26.
Catharine Roth (cross-reference) on 28 January 2019@15:16:53.

Headword: Adikiou
Adler number: alpha,486
Translated headword: misdemeanor
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A sort of crime. It is the name of a lawsuit. It requires single payment, if it is returned before the ninth prytany; if not, the payment is double.
Greek Original:
Adikiou: hoion adikêmatos. esti de onoma dikês. apotinnutai de touto haploun, ean pro tês enatês prutaneias apodothêi: ei de mê, diploun kataballetai.
Notes:
From the equivalent entry in Harpokration. Unusually, no primary source is cited there, but it is nevertheless recognizable as ?Aristotle Athenaion Politeia 54.2.
As is regular in entries of this kind, the headword is in the genitive case, implying the noun di/kh or (as in this instance) grafh/.
Reference:
P.J. Rhodes, A Commentary on the Aristotelian Athenaion Politeia (Oxford 1981) 599
Keywords: chronology; constitution; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; law
Translated by: David Mirhady on 20 May 1999@13:25:28.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added headword translation.) on 13 July 2000@23:44:19.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note and bibliography) on 29 September 2000@08:33:38.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 4 December 2005@06:45:15.
David Whitehead (another note and keyword; cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@05:26:26.
Catharine Roth (expanded abbreviations) on 27 November 2014@23:20:41.

Headword: Adrianos
Adler number: alpha,528
Translated headword: Hadrian, Adrianos, Adrian, Hadrianos, Hadrianus, Adrianus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Sophist. A pupil of Herodes;[1] floruit under Marcus Antoninus;[2] as a teacher he was a rival to the rhetor Aristides[3] in Athens. He was also sophist in Rome, and was secretary with responsibility for correspondence under Commodus.[4] [He wrote] Declamations; Metamorphoses (7 books); On Types of Style (5 books); On Distinctive Features in the Issues (3 books); letters and epideictic speeches; Phalaris; Consolation to Celer.
Greek Original:
Adrianos, sophistês, mathêtês Hêrôdou, akmasas de epi Markou Antôninou, antischolastês Aristeidou tou rhêtoros en Athênais genomenos: esophisteuse de kai kata tên Rhômên kai antigrapheus tôn epistolôn hupo Komodou egeneto. Meletas, kai Metamorphôseis en bibliois z#, Peri ideôn logou en bibliois e#, Peri tôn en tais stasesin idiômatôn en bibliois trisin, epistolas kai logous epideiktikous, Phalarin, Paramuthêtikon eis Kelera.
Notes:
Hadrian (or Adrian) of Tyre, c. 113-193. See generally RE Hadrianos(1); OCD4 Adrianus; PIR2 H4; Philostratus, Lives of the Sophists 2.10.
[1] [eta 545] Herodes.
[2] a.k.a. Marcus Aurelius [mu 214].
[3] [alpha 3902] Aristides.
[4] [kappa 2007] Commodus.
Reference:
S. Rothe, Kommentar zu ausgewahlten Sophistenviten des Philostratos (Heidelberg 1988) 87-126.
Keywords: biography; chronology; geography; history; philosophy; rhetoric
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 7 July 1999@14:05:46.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Emended headword, enumeration of notes, raised status to "low") on 31 May 2000@12:39:50.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 9 February 2003@09:10:49.
David Whitehead (another note; cosmetics) on 11 January 2012@09:36:48.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@08:23:45.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 10 December 2014@00:33:44.
David Whitehead (another note) on 26 April 2015@04:35:57.

Headword: Adrianoi
Adler number: alpha,529
Translated headword: Adrianoi, Hadrianoi, Adriani, Hadriani
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A city of Mysia, [the area which is] the present Bithynia.
Greek Original:
Adrianoi: polis Musias, tês nun Bithunias.
Notes:
For this, see again at alpha 3902.
Several cities of this name are attested in the regions which make up present-day Turkey, but the precision of the historico-geographical gloss here enables us to identify the one in question, on the river Rhyndakos. The modern Orhaneli, formerly Adranos; Barrington Atlas map 62 grid A2.
Keywords: chronology; definition; geography; history
Translated by: Sean M. Redmond on 21 October 1999@16:19:34.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (supplied headword, note, keyword) on 13 February 2001@09:02:53.
Nicholas Fincher (augmented note) on 23 July 2003@02:31:35.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; augmented note) on 14 August 2006@08:39:15.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 1 August 2011@09:08:37.
David Whitehead (more headword options; expanded note) on 11 January 2012@09:43:30.
David Whitehead on 26 April 2015@04:36:55.

Headword: Aetios
Adler number: alpha,571
Translated headword: Aetios, Aetius
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
From Antioch in Syria,[1] the teacher of Eunomios,[2] he happened [to be] of poor and lower-class parentage. His father was one of those in the army who were faring rather poorly; when he had just sent that son away, he died. So he [Aetios] having come to the extreme of difficulty took himself to goldsmithing and became very skillful. But when his nature yearned for better studies, he turned to logical theories. And he joined Paulinos right when that man had recently arrived at Antioch from Tyre. He still attended him [as a student] in the time of Constantine, displaying a great force of impiety in his disputations with his opponents, and few men could withstand him. After Paulinos died, when Eulalius held the see as twenty-third [in succession] from the apostles,[3] many of those who had been shamed by Aetios thought it a terrible thing to have been defeated by a man who was a newcomer and a craftsman: they banded together and drove him out of Antioch. Being driven out he came to Anazarbos.[4] And he, so full of every ability, brought forth fruits better than his given circumstances. He did not at all stop disputing them, although he was poorly dressed and lived as he happened to be able.[5]
This man was a heresiarch,[6] who was called an atheist in the time of Constantine the Great. He believed the same things as Arius and applauded the same doctrine, but he separated himself from the Arians. Aetios was a heretical[7] man earlier and he passionately hastened to advocate the dogma of Arius, for when he had learned a little in Alexandria he departed. And upon arrival in Antioch in Syria (for he was from that place) he was made a deacon by Leontios, who was bishop at the time. And he shouted at[8] those who met him, discoursing from the Categories of Aristotle and setting right the contentious arguments.[9] He also patched together letters to the emperor Constantine. But even though he said the same things as the Arianists, he nevertheless, although agreeing with those people, was thought a heretic by his own familiars who were unable to understand the complexity of the arguments. And on account of this he was expelled from their church and he himself decided [it was best] not to have dealings with them.[10] And now because of that there are men who were then called "Aetianists" but now "Eunomians". For Eunomios who was his secretary and was taught by him in the heretical doctrine assumed the leadership of this faction.
Greek Original:
Aetios: ex Antiocheias tês Surias, didaskalos Eunomiou, apo penichrôn kai eutelôn goneôn tunchanôn. ho de patêr autôi tôn en stratiai duspragesteron enênegmenôn genomenos, etethnêkei komidêi paida touton apheis. autos de eis eschaton aporias hêkôn, epi chrusochoïan echôrêsen akrotatos te egeneto. epei de hê phusis autôi meizonôn ôregeto mathêmatôn, pros logikas theôrias etrapeto. kai dêta sunginetai Paulinôi artiôs apo tês Turou eis Antiocheian aphikomenôi: eti kata tous Kônstantinou chronous toutou êkroato, pollên epieikôs phainôn tês asebeias tên rhômên eis tas pros tous diapheromenous zêtêseis: kai ouch hupostatos êdê tois pollois ên. epei de Paulinos etethnêkei, Eulaliou tritou kai eikostou apo tôn apostolôn echontos ton thronon, polloi tôn hupo tou Aetiou elenchomenôn deinon poiêsamenoi pros andros dêmiourgou kai neou kata kratos elaunesthai, sustantes exêlasan auton tês Antiocheias. exelatheis de eis tên Anazarbon aphikneitai. ho de êdê tachista dunameôs pasês pimplamenos meizous aei tôn dedomenôn aphormôn eisephere tous karpous. ho de ouden epaueto tous men dielenchôn, phaulôs de ampischomenos kai hôs etuche zôn. houtos hairesiarchês ên, hos kai atheos epeklêthê epi tou megalou Kônstantinou. ta auta men oun ephronei Areiôi kai tên autên sunekrotei doxan: pros de areianizontas diekrineto. ên de kai proteron hairetikos anthrôpos Aetios kai tôi Areiou dogmati diapurôs sunêgorein espeuden: en gar têi Alexandreiai mikra paideutheis anazeugnusi. kai katalabôn tên en Suriai Antiocheian, enteuthen gar ên, hupo Leontiou tou tote tês Antiocheias episkopou cheirotoneitai diakonos. euthus oun sunexephônei tous entunchanontas ek tôn Aristotelous katêgoriôn dialegomenos, tous eristikous katôrthôkôs logous. epistolas te sunekattue pros basilea Kônstantion. all' ei ta auta tois areianizousin elegen, homôs hupo tôn oikeiôn ou dunamenôn sunienai to periskeles tôn logismôn hôs hairetikos ho homophrôn autois enomizeto. kai dia touto ekdiôchtheis tês autôn ekklêsias edoxen autos mê boulesthai koinônein autois. kai nun eisin ex ekeinou hoi tote men Aetianoi nun de Eunomianoi legomenoi. Eunomios gar tachugraphos ôn ekeinou kai hup' autôi paideutheis tên hairetikên lexin tou stiphous toutou proestê.
Notes:
See Catholic Encyclopedia entry on Eunomianism at web address 1.
[1] Syrian Antioch (cf. alpha 2692 and OCD(4) s.v. Antioch(1)) is on the River Orontes (cf. omicron 622), near present-day Antakya, Turkey, some 20km inland from the eastern Mediterranean coast (Barrington Atlas map 67 grid D4). The qualifier (again later in the entry) is used because there was more than one city of that name, e.g. one in Pisidia (in west-central Asia Minor; near the modern-day city of Yalvaç, Turkey; Barrington Atlas map 62 grid F5).
[2] Eunomios: epsilon 3598.
[3] Eulalius was patriarch of Antioch for five months in the year 332.
[4] Anazarbos: alpha 1866.
[5] Philostorgius, Historia ecclesiastica III.15b, pp.44-47 Bidez-Winkelmann. Philostorgius himself had Arian sympathies, and presents a more favorable view of Aetius than does Socrates Scholaticus, in what follows here.
[6] The rest of the Suda entry is based on Socrates, Historia ecclesiastica 2.35. See translation at web address 2.
[7] Socrates says "contentious" (e)ristiko/s).
[8] Socrates says "he astounded them by his strange language" (e)cenofw/nei).
[9] This clause is not in Socrates.
[10] Socrates says that Aetios pretended to have decided for himself to break his association with the Arianists.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; Christianity; chronology; clothing; economics; ethics; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; philosophy; religion; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 3 May 2001@16:36:40.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (modified translation, added references) on 3 May 2001@22:32:14.
Catharine Roth (Added link.) on 7 May 2001@20:06:41.
Catharine Roth (modified translation) on 8 May 2001@01:14:02.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 17 February 2002@23:19:35.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords; restorative and other cosmetics) on 10 June 2003@05:36:28.
Catharine Roth (augmented reference) on 28 November 2004@23:37:53.
Catharine Roth (added keyword) on 2 October 2005@01:41:21.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 17 August 2006@00:57:43.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 31 December 2011@17:50:58.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 12 January 2012@06:00:52.
David Whitehead (another note) on 28 April 2015@02:41:46.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 28 April 2015@10:40:42.
Ronald Allen (added map notes and cross-references) on 5 April 2018@23:43:19.
Catharine Roth (modified translation, added a link) on 7 April 2018@18:24:07.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 7 April 2018@18:27:27.
Catharine Roth (expanded notes) on 7 April 2018@18:42:27.
Catharine Roth (recent tweaks inspired by Ron Allen's suggestions) on 7 April 2018@18:45:44.

Headword: Athanatoi
Adler number: alpha,707
Translated headword: immortals
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Ten thousand select [troops] of the Persians.
[The ones] which Ardabourios destroyed and obliterated during Theodosius' reign.[1]
[The ones] which Xerxes, son of Darius, had.[2]
Greek Original:
Athanatoi: murioi Persôn epilektoi. hous Ardabourios epi Theodosiou basileôs diephtheire kai êphanisen. hous eiche Xerxês ho Dareiou.
Notes:
The name reflected the fact that this was "a body of Persian troops in which vacancies were filled up by successors already appointed" (LSJ s.v., repeating what Herodotus 7.83 says).
For other picked bodies of troops cf. alpha 3843, delta 818, epsilon 684, kappa 1044, xi 170, omicron 68, pi 1761, pi 2242.
[1] cf. generally alpha 3803.
[2] cf. xi 54.
Keywords: biography; chronology; definition; geography; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: David Whitehead on 7 June 2002@03:41:19.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth on 8 June 2002@14:18:15.
David Whitehead (added x-refs) on 23 July 2003@09:12:37.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 17 January 2012@04:47:53.
Catharine Roth (tweak) on 18 January 2012@01:00:18.

Headword: Athênaios
Adler number: alpha,731
Translated headword: Athenaios, Athenaeus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Of Naucratis.[1] Grammarian. Lived in the time of Marcus. He wrote a book with the title Deipnosophists, in which he records how many of the ancients had a reputation for munificence in giving banquets.[2]
Alexander the Great, after that naval victory over the Spartans and after he had fortified the Peiraeus, sacrificed a hecatomb and feasted all the Athenians.[3] And after his Olympic victory Alcibiades gave a feast for the whole festival.[4] Leophron did the same at the Olympic games.[5] And Empedocles of Acragas, being a Pythagorean and an abstainer from animal food, when he won an Olympic victory made an ox out of incense, myrrh and expensive perfumes and divided it among those who came to the festival. And Ion of Chios, when he won a victory in the tragic competition at Athens, gave every Athenian a jar of Chian [sc. wine].[6] And Tellias of Acragas, a hospitable man, when 500 horsemen were billeted with him during the winter, gave each of them a cloak and tunic.[7] [It is on record] that Charmus of Syracuse used to utter little verses and proverbs for every one of the dishes served at his banquets. Clearchus of Soli calls the poem Deipnology, others Opsology, Chrysippus Gastronomy, others The Life of Luxury [Hedupatheia].[8] [It is on record] that in Plato's symposium there were 28 diners.
Greek Original:
Athênaios, Naukratitês, grammatikos, gegonôs epi tôn chronôn Markou. egrapse biblion onoma Deipnosophistai: en hôi mnêmoneuei, hosoi tôn palaiôn megalopsuchôs edoxan hestian. ho megas Alexandros kakeinên nikêsas naumachian Lakedaimonious kai teichisas ton Peiraia kai hekatombên thusas pantas heistiasen Athênaious. kai Alkibiadês Olumpia nikêsas tên panêgurin hapasan heistiase. to auto kai Leophrôn Olumpiasi. kai Empedoklês ho Akragantinos, Puthagorikos ôn kai empsuchôn apechomenos, Olumpia nikêsas, ek libanôtou kai smurnês kai tôn polutelôn arômatôn boun anaplasas dieneime tois eis tên panêgurin apantêsasi. kai ho Chios Iôn tragôidian nikêsas Athênêsin hekastôi tôn Athênaiôn edôke Chion keramion. kai ho Akragantinos Tellias philoxenos ôn katalusasi pote ph# hippeusin hôrai cheimônos, edôken hekastôi chitôna kai himation. hoti Charmos ho Surakousios eis hekaston tôn en tois deipnois paratithemenôn stichidia kai paroimias elege. Klearchos de ho Soleus deipnologian kalei to poiêma, alloi opsologian, Chrusippos gastronomian, alloi hêdupatheian. hoti en tôi sumposiôi Platônos kê# êsan daitumones.
Notes:
Fl. c. AD 200. See generally RE Athenaios(22); NP Athenaios(3); OCD4 Athenaeus(1); Olson (2006), vii.
[1] In Egypt (see nu 58).
[2] cf. delta 359, sigma 1397. What follows is excerpted from Athenaeus 1.3D-4A [1.5 Kaibel], 4E (epit.).
[3] Two of Athenaeus' examples (3D) have been run together here (and again at alpha 1123): the 'naval victory over the Spartans' refers to Conon's victory at Cnidus (394 BC).
[4] cf. alpha 1280 (end).
[5] Athenaeus says (3E) that Simonides wrote a victory ode commemorating this (PMG 515, and Olson, 2006, 15 n.34).
[6] cf. iota 487 (end) and chi 314. On "Chian" and other wines with specific (though not necessarily simple) city-connections see A. Dalby, "Topikos Oinos", in D. Harvey and J. Wilkins (eds.), The Rivals of Aristophanes (London 2000) 397-405.
[7] cf. tau 272.
[8] cf. chi 132. The poem in question was in fact by Archestratus of Gela; see discussion of the title (most probably Hedypatheia in S. D. Olson and A. Sens (eds.), Archestratos of Gela: Greek Culture and Cuisine in the Fourth Century BCE(Oxford 2000) xxii-xxiv.
References:
D. Braund and J. Wilkins, eds. Athenaeus and his World. Exeter, 2000
S.D. Olson, Athenaeus: The Learned Banqueters (Loeb Classical Library: 2006-)
Keywords: architecture; athletics; biography; chronology; clothing; economics; food; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; philosophy; proverbs; religion; tragedy
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 7 July 1999@14:13:15.
Vetted by:
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added transliteration to headword) on 14 August 2000@14:39:21.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 15 June 2001@06:09:35.
David Whitehead (augmented note 6) on 3 August 2001@10:02:27.
David Whitehead (augmented initial note; added bibliography; cosmetics) on 11 October 2002@03:28:29.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added italics; cosmetics) on 12 February 2005@22:01:08.
Aikaterini Oikonomopoulou (Augmented and corrected notes; added bibliography) on 21 February 2008@14:05:08.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 22 February 2008@04:03:13.
David Whitehead (tweaked bibliographical item) on 20 January 2012@04:12:30.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 19 January 2014@07:25:01.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@08:24:54.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 22 November 2014@22:08:06.
David Whitehead (expanded a ref) on 14 January 2015@03:48:39.

Headword: Athênodôros
Adler number: alpha,735
Translated headword: Athenodoros, Athenodorus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Stoic philosopher, of the time of the Roman emperor Octavian. Under Octavian there was every reason for unbridled excess of power to be a universal misfortune, but the aforementioned Athenodoros persuaded him away from that with his advice. Then Tiberius succeeded to the principate.[1] For at that time the flatterers that had gained esteem through gifts and honors from the emperor had entered into the highest offices, but those who were seemly and modest and who did not choose the same lifestyle as those men were, as one might imagine, in an uproar, since they did not enjoy the same [honors]. Thus from this point on the cities were filled with revolts and disturbances, and the fact that the government had been turned over to officials who could not resist profit made life grievous and painful for the better class of people in peacetime and undermined their determination in times of war. In those times also pantomime dancing was introduced for the first time,[2] and many other things happened which were the cause of great evils.
Everything was leading Athenodoros toward philosophy, both the inclinations of his nature and the inclinations of his prudent predilection, when Proclus was alive. And he explained things clearly to his students. Sallustius, amazed at him, said with regard to his zeal that "like indeed to a fire the man seems to ignite the things around him." Nevertheless he encouraged Athenodoros not to practice philosophy.
Greek Original:
Athênodôros: Stôïkos philosophos, epi Oktaouïanou basileôs Rhômaiôn: eph' hou pasa anankê koinon einai dustuchêma tên tou kratous alogon exousian, ex hou dê malista tais Athênodôrou toutou sumbouliais epeisthê. kai diadechetai Tiberios tên basileian. tote gar hoi kolakes para tou basileôs dôreôn kai timôn axioumenoi megistôn archôn epebainon, hoi te epieikeis kai apragmones mê ton auton ekeinois hairoumenoi bion eikotôs eschetliazon, ou tôn autôn apolauontes. hôste ek toutou tas men poleis staseôn plêrousthai kai tarachôn ta de politika kerdous hêttosin archousin ekdidomena, ton men en eirênêi bion lupêron kai odunêron tois chariesterois epoioun, tên de en tois polemois prothumian exeluon. kata de tous kairous ekeinous kai hê pantomimos orchêsis eisêchthê oupô proteron ousa: kai proseti ge hetera pollôn kakôn aitia gegonota. hoti tôi Athênodôrôi panta pareskeuasto pros philosophian ta te apo tês phuseôs kai ta apo tês epieikous proaireseôs, hote Proklos ezê. kai diaphanôs exêgeito tois plêsiazousin. hon ho Saloustios thaumazôn epi spoudês elegen, hoti puri ara eôikei ho anthrôpos exaptonti panta ta parakeimena. all' homôs epeisen Athênodôron mê philosophêsai.
Notes:
The entry seems to confuse at least two Athenodoroi. Paragraph 1 (from Zosimus 1.5.3-6.2) concerns Athenodorus of Tarsus, the well-known Stoic advisor of Augustus, on whom see generally OCD(4) s.v., p.195. Paragraph 2 (= Damascius fr. 145 Zintzen, 88 Asmus) is about a contemporary of the Neoplatonist Proclus.
[1] tau 551, tau 552.
[2] cf. omicron 671.
Reference:
Banchich, T.M. "Eunapius, Eustathius, and the Suda." AJP 109 (1988) 223-225
Keywords: biography; chronology; daily life; economics; ethics; history; imagery; military affairs; meter and music; philosophy; politics
Translated by: William Hutton on 3 April 2001@22:36:10.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords; cosmetics) on 20 May 2002@09:13:47.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 28 November 2005@08:22:25.
David Whitehead (more x-refs; cosmetics) on 20 January 2012@04:24:27.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@03:36:38.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 1 May 2015@10:38:03.
Catharine Roth (added bibliography) on 27 January 2016@22:47:15.

Headword: Akakios
Adler number: alpha,783
Translated headword: Akakios, Acacius
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The patriarch of Constantinople, he was revered as no other. For he was the guardian of orphans, and it was evident to all that he managed the affairs of the orphans well and with pleasure. Moreoever, he became an acquaintance of the emperor Leo with whom he found immense favor. He [Leo] confided his affairs, both public and private, to this man first of all. When he assembled the senate, he invited this man as well and turned the beginning of every discussion over to him.
This Akakios realized the savagery of Leo Makelles[1] toward those who had offended him in some way and had accurately divined his character; but because this was something only those who flattered him had the opportunity to observe, he made a habit of marvelling at all that he did. Nevertheless he was readily able to rein [Leo] in and easily made him slacken his anger. He also brought about the salvation of many who ran afoul of him, and managed to have those sentenced to life-long exile recalled to their homeland.
After the death of Gennadios, patriarch of Constantinople, he was nominated to serve in that priesthood with the backing of Zenon. Since he was a natural leader and took all the churches under his direct control, he exercised a deliberate discrimination concerning those who were appointed to the churches. They in gratitude dedicated images of him in their prayer chambers. Thus, when images of him appeared in all the churches, some people began to think that he, in a pursuit of empty glory, had ordered their dedication, and no small confirmation of this suspicion was supplied by the mosaic image fashioned in the church by the harbor. For although the entire work had been completed in the time of Gennadios, in a conspicuous place in the temple they portrayed [Akakios] and after him the Savior saying to Gennadios 'destroy this temple', and over him 'after you I will raise him up.'[2] As a result of such images, then, Akakios, though he was generous and a capable leader, nevertheless seemed to all to be excessively ambitious.[3]
See concerning this man under Basiliskos.[4]
Greek Original:
Akakios: ho patriarchês Kônstantinoupoleôs, aidesimos ên hôs ouk allos tis. orphanotrophos gar gegonôs kai kalôs ta tôn orphanôn dioikôn pasin ephaineto kath' hêdonên. kai dê kai tôi basilei Leonti sunêthês gegonôs huperphuôs êreske kai toutôi prôtôi aei panta anekoinouto ta te koina kai ta idia. kai hote tên boulên êthroize, sunekalei kai touton kai tês skepseôs archên ex autou pasês etitheto. hos Akakios tên tou Leontos tou Makellê ômotêta sunidôn pros tous ti lupêsantas kai to êthos akribôs to ekeinou phôrasas, hoti tois epainousi monon huparchei eualôton, epetêdeue panta ta ekeinou thaumazein. toigaroun peithênion auton eichen hetoimôs ton te thumon autou rhaidiôs katestelle kai pollois proskekroukosi tên sôtêrian epragmateueto kai tous exorian aïdion echontas anekaleito pros tên patrida. houtos meta thanaton Gennadiou, patriarchou Kônstantinoupoleôs, spoudêi Zênônos hierasthai proeblêthê. hos ôn archikos kai pasas tas ekklêsias huph' heauton poiêsas pephrontismenôs tôn en autais keklêrômenôn epoieito tên kêdemonian, hoi eucharistountes en graphais anethêkan auton kata tous euktêrious oikous. epeiper oun athroon en pasais tais ekklêsiais edeichthêsan autou eikones, ôiêthêsan tines kenodoxounta tên anathesin prostetachenai ou mikran echontes tês huponoias pistôsin, tên ek psêphidôn graphên dêmiourgêtheisan en têi pros tôi neôriôi ekklêsiai. tou gar ergou pantos epi Gennadiou telesthentos eis ton epiphanê topon exetupôsan auton tou neô kai metaxu toude ton Sôtêra legonta tôi Gennadiôi, luson ton naon touton, kai epi tou, meta se egerô auton. ek tôn toioutôn oun eikonôn Akakios, ei kai eumetadotos ên kai prostatikos, alla doxomanês pasin edoxen huparchein. zêtei peri touton en tôi Basiliskos.
Notes:
On Acacius or Akakios, see web address 1.
[1] Leo "the Butcher": see lambda 267 and biography (by Hugh Elton) at web address 2.
[2] cf. John 2.19.
[3] Valesius (Henri de Valois 1603-1676) attributed this entry to Malchus (on Theodore the Reader 167); now accepted as Malchus fr.2b Cresci.
[4] beta 164.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: architecture; art history; biography; children; Christianity; chronology; ethics; geography; historiography; history; law; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 1 June 2001@11:30:21.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added links) on 1 June 2001@18:44:50.
William Hutton (Modified translation) on 3 June 2001@11:10:35.
Catharine Roth (added note) on 28 February 2002@00:12:18.
Catharine Roth (augmented translation and notes) on 28 February 2002@13:38:30.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@11:17:30.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note, added cross-reference) on 20 May 2008@11:40:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 22 January 2012@08:28:19.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 31 January 2015@07:57:40.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note) on 3 May 2015@23:35:20.

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