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Headword: A a
Adler number: alpha,1
Translated headword: ah! ah!
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
In Aristophanes an adverb accompanying surprise and command. "Ah! ah! Don't get that torch near me!"[1]
'Ah! ah!' must be read separately, not elided; and they both have smooth breathing.[2]. For if they were read together as one word, there would be no need of two accent marks.[3] "Ah" marks surprise, but "ha ha" is for awe, as Agathias says in the Epigrams: "ha, a very daring wax it was that formed..."[4]
Aab.[5]
Greek Original:
#
Notes:
[1] Aristophanes, Plutus [Wealth] 1052 (web address 1). The first sentence is derived from scholia to this passage, and this may also be true of the rest of the entry.
[2] That is, it is "ah! ah!", not "ha! ha!" A difference registered in Greek by the orientation of a small breathing mark that is easily reversed in transcription, especially since by the time the Suda was compiled the initial 'h' had ceased to be pronounced.
[3] i.e. a)\ a)/ is two words, a)a/ would be one.
[4] Greek Anthology 1.34.2; again (with slight variations) at mu 389 and sigma 664.
[5] This gloss-less addendum is actually a separate entry that occurs only in ms S. (In Adler's numbering system this is designated alpha 1b, while the main entry is alpha 1a.) Apparently this is a reference to the Hebrew month of Av, attested with this Greek spelling only in Joannes Lydus, De mensibus 3.22.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: chronology; comedy; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 9 November 1999@09:47:43.
Vetted by:
Ross Scaife ✝ (raised vetting status) on 26 September 2000@14:01:40.
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@04:21:58.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 9 April 2007@04:35:29.
William Hutton (modified translation, rearranged layout, added note and link, set status) on 19 August 2007@10:41:27.
Jennifer Benedict (typo) on 22 March 2008@17:08:15.
Catharine Roth (coding, typo) on 22 March 2008@19:48:38.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 16 December 2011@05:43:10.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 5 August 2013@01:21:19.

Headword: Abachthanê
Adler number: alpha,24
Translated headword: abakhthani
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A Hebrew expression.
Greek Original:
Abachthanê: lexis Hebraïkê.
Notes:
Strictly speaking the headword is a truncated Aramaic, rather than Hebrew, term. Its proper form in Greek transliteration is sabaxqa/ni and translates "you have forsaken me." The term occurs at Matthew 27:46 and Mark 15:34, where Jesus on the cross quotes Psalm 21:2 LXX (22:2 MT): "God, my God, ... why have you forsaken me?" (see eta 210). For the Hebrew, see Kohlenberger, 3.367. In Aramaic, "why have you forsaken me" is למא שבקתני lama šaḇaqtani. The Suda has carelessly disassociated the sigma, creating in effect "lamas aḇaqtani or a)baxqanh--a clear signal that the compiler was unfamiliar with Aramaic. The Psalmic Hebrew original is עזבתני 'azaḇtani, from עזב ʿazaḇ "forsake, forget". For the triliteral root citation, see Brown, Driver, and Briggs, 736ff. For šaḇaqtani (from שבק šeḇaq), see Perschbacher, 364; Danker, 909.
The Suda item has a circumflex accent on the final syllable. In the Hebrew עזבתני ʿazaḇtani, the accent falls on the penultimate syllable (-ta-), consistent with perfects suffixed with a first person singular pronoun; for this, see Kelley, 154.A; Gesenius, 155(58.1). So in the Aramaic, the accent falls on the penultimate syllable (-ta-). That said, the accent in Greek transliteration is inconsistent. Perschbacher places it over the final iota (sabaxqani/) in the headword; however, his citation from The Greek New Testament According to the Majority Text (1982) places the accent over the penultimate (sabaxqa/ni). In addition, Perschbacher offers the transliteration sabaxqanei/ from The New Testament in the Original Greek (1881). Danker places the accent over the penultimate syllable.
Phonologically, the Aramaic shin (ש š /ʃ/) cannot be accommodated by Greek, which must substitute sigma. For a parallel instance, see omega 182 (note 47). Both chi (for Aramaic ק qaf) and theta (for Aramaic ת taw) function as aspirated plosives (equivalent to English "kit" and "top"). See Allen, 16-17. The theta is noteworthy insofar as its sound value parallels that of the taw (ת) in šaḇaqtani, hardened by silent shewa and dagesh lene. Moreover, the Aramaic in Greek transliteration bolsters the linguistic argument for the compound "chi-theta" as successive aspirated plosives. See Allen, 24-27. Aramaic taw, like its Hebrew counterpart, otherwise has a "th" (as in "both") value. See "Aramaic" in Encyclopaedia Judaica, 3.263; a modern descriptive approach is found in "Aramaic" (Kaufman). For theta as a fricative in Hebrew transliteration, see omega 182 (note 47).
That the Suda terminates the headword with eta rather than iota (paralleling the Aramaic khireq-yod or long "i") showcases a phonological shift in Greek. By the 3rd century CE, the Greek letters eta, and the digraph epsilon-iota (note the -ei alternative in Perschbacher) were sounded as long iota. See Allen, 74. The Suda compiler viewed eta as the more elegant solution. This feature bears directly on the Suda's own taxonomy: the homophones epsilon-iota, eta, and iota follow zeta in the Suda's "alphabetical" scheme. See "Suidas" in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, XXVI.51.
References:
Allen, W.S. Vox Graeca. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1968
"Aramaic" in Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1973
Brown, F., Driver, S.R., and Briggs, C.A. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon, 1951
Danker, F.W. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2000
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910
Kelley, P.H. Biblical Hebrew: An Introductory Grammar. Grand Rapids: William B. Erdmans, 1992
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987
Kaufman, S.A. "Aramaic" in Hetzron, R. The Semitic Languages. New York: Routledge, 1997
Perschbacher, W.J. The New Analytical Greek Lexicon. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1996
"Suidas" in Encyclopaedia Britannica. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1910
Keywords: Christianity; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 4 December 1999@16:23:20.
Vetted by:
Raphael Finkel on 9 December 1999@11:17:30.
Elizabeth Vandiver on 14 December 1999@16:17:44.
Craig Miller on 27 May 2002@01:29:46.
Craig Miller (Reformatted translation; modified/expanded notes; added bibliography; expanded keywords. Cosmetics pending by editor.) on 27 May 2002@01:58:58.
Craig Miller (Cosmetics) on 27 May 2002@15:48:11.
Craig Miller on 27 May 2002@16:11:44.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 4 October 2002@00:55:00.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew and Aramaic characters.) on 31 October 2002@10:06:56.
Raphael Finkel (Minor fixes.) on 31 October 2002@12:39:23.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added italics; cosmetics) on 12 February 2005@21:58:54.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 1 March 2006@01:08:11.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 December 2011@06:21:33.
Catharine Roth (coding, typo) on 5 August 2013@00:57:53.
Raphael Finkel (Fixed translation of LXX; changed to ISO 259 Romanization of Hebrew and Aramaic.) on 7 August 2014@13:30:23.
Raphael Finkel (Standardized Romanization fonts.) on 7 August 2014@13:46:48.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:25:56.

Headword: Abraam
Adler number: alpha,69
Translated headword: Abraham
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The first among patriarchs; [it was he] in whom the Hebrew people took pride at first, before they rebelled against God, became estranged from Him, and shed upon themselves the blood of His Only-Begotten Son.[1] This man came out of the land of the Chaldeans, who devoted their entire lives to the stars and heavenly bodies. Trained, therefore, as was their ancestral custom, to observe the motions of the heavenly bodies[2] he surmised that the masterwork underlying this visible creation was not to be found in such objects, but had a Creator who set them in motion, gave harmony to their paths, and ordered the entire universe. Because of the greatness and beauty of the things He had made, Abraham, as it was likely, ceased devoting himself to gazing out into the heavens nor did he squander his passion in their pursuit. Instead, by surmounting the celestial vaults and transcending all the intelligible realm beyond the cosmos, Abraham no longer stood apart from the One sought, until finally the Creator for whom he yearned manifested Himself to Abraham in likenesses[3] and forms. And in this way the Unseen and Invisible revealed Himself. And [God] sent him forth from his own land as a wanderer and settled him in the land of the Canaanites. There he dwelled, now being in about his ninety-ninth year.[4] Until this time, he was childless; then [God] made him the father of the miraculous and blessed Isaac that he might have a first-born, only-begotten son[5] -- prefiguring the mystical image of the First-Born, Only-Begotten Son.[6] This was an exceedingly singular[7] honor bestowed upon Abraham, for the Creator favored him with the titles Servant, Beloved, and Father by flesh of the Only Begotten Son of Him who fashioned the entire universe.[8] Abraham invented sacred writing and devised the language of which Hebrew children used to have a command, as they were this man's disciples and descendants. Moreover, the Greek alphabet received its impetus from this script,[9] even if Greeks amused themselves by forming the letters differently. Proof of this is in the pronunciation of the first and preeminent letter "alpha" because it derives its name from the Hebrew "aleph" by way of the Blessed, First, and Eternal Name.[10] So too, the Greeks through Abraham came to possess books on dream interpretation. Witness to this is Joseph, the truly wondrous descendant of Abraham, who interpreted Pharoah's dreams as they were going to turn out in fact. In this, Philo, the Jewish philosopher, will be my confirmation via his work Life of the Statesman.[11] About Philo it is said "Philo platonizes and Plato philonizes."[12]
The practice of idolatry extended from Serug[13] to the time of Abraham's father Tharron.[14] Thus, when Abraham was 14 years old[15] and deemed worthy of divine knowledge, he upbraided his father, "Why do you lead the people astray for harmful gain (that is, with idols)? There is no other God but the One in heaven, the Creator of the entire universe." Yet seeing the people serving earthly things, he embarked on a tireless quest, seeking out with his pious heart the Truly Existing God.[16] But seeing that the sky is sometimes light and sometimes dark, he said to himself, "That is not God." Observing similarly the sun and the moon, the one obscured and eclipsed and the other waning and occluded, he said, "Those are not gods either." True, he was trained in astronomy by his father, but Abraham all the same was puzzled by the motions of the stars and scornful of them. But God appeared to him and said, "Go out of your land and leave your kinsmen."[17] Abraham took his father's idols, smashing some and incinerating others. Then he went away with his father out of the land of the Chaldeans. And they came to Haran,[18] where his father died. He left there, obeying the Lord's word, with his wife Sarah and his nephew Lot[19] and all their possessions, and came to the promised land Canaan, which the Canaanites had seized and settled in. When a famine arose, Abraham left the land of the Canaanites and went into Egypt, where Abimelech[20] the king took his wife Sarah. God struck terror into Abimelech and paralysed his limbs, saying "Give this man back his wife, because he is a prophet and will pray for you, and you will live. But if you do not give her back, know that you and your entire household will die." When Abraham got his wife back, undefiled, he prayed, and Abimelech and his household were cured of the paralysis.[21] After this the king, honoring Abraham and devoting himself to his sayings, became a pious and expert teacher to the Egyptians. The same Abraham, upon returning from war,[22] was considered worthy of blessing by Melchisedek, king of Salem, who brought bread and wine out to him. Melchisedek was a priest of the Most High, and Abraham gave to Him a tenth of all he had. Melchisedek was without father, mother, or lineage, like the Son of God.[23]
When Abram[24] lamented to God about his childlessness, God revealed to him through a dream that his descendants would be as numerous as the stars. And he believed God, and God reckoned it to him as righteousness.[25] Now Sarah, who was barren, gave Abraham permission to father a child with her maidservant, and she bore Ismael.[26] And when Abram was 99 years old, God appeared to him and altered his name to Abraham, for until then he had been called Abram. Similarly, Sarah became Sarrah with another "r".[27] And Abraham circumcised Ismael and all his descendants. Moreover, when the Lord was being shown the hospitality of Abraham's house, He promised Abraham that Sarrah would bear him a son. But Sarrah smiled; and the one who was begotten was called Isaac, by the Hebrew name that means "laughter with delight."[28]
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] *abramiai=os: [meaning] descendant of Abraham, or towering, revered.[29]
Greek Original:
Abraam: ho prôtos en patriarchais: eis hon apesemnuneto dêmos ho tôn Hebraiôn to proteron, prin ê theou aposkirtêsai kai genesthai toutou allotrioi kai to tou monogenous huiou autou haima eph' heautous epispasasthai. houtos ek men tês Chaldaiôn gês hupêrchen hormômenos, tôn peri ta meteôra kai tous asteras ton bion holon katanaliskontôn. askêtheis oun kata ton patrion nomon tas tôn epouraniôn asterôn kinêseis kai stochasamenos hôs ouk en toutois histatai to megalourgon tês phainomenês tautêsi ktiseôs, all' echei tina ton dêmiourgon ton kai kinounta kai dieuthunonta tên enarmonion tôn asterôn poreian kai tou kosmou pantos tên katastasin, kai dia tou megethous kai tês kallonês tôn ktismatôn ton genesiourgon autôn, hôs enên, theôrêsas ouk estê mechri toutôn, oude tên ephesin eis tauta katedapanêsen, alla tôn ouraniôn hapsidôn huperartheis kai pasan diabas tên noêtên te kai huperkosmion sumpêxin ouk apestê tou zêtoumenou, heôs hou ho pothoumenos heauton autôi ephanerôse tupois te kai morphômasin, hois heauton emphanizei ho aphanês kai aoratos. kai metanastên auton ek tês patridos labôn epi tên Chananitin katestêse, ton enenêkoston pou kai enaton êdê chronon parelkonta: kai apaida mechri tote tunchanonta gennêtora tou thaumasiou kai makaros kate- stêsen Isaak, hin' echoi monogenê huion kai prôtotokon, tou monogenous kai prôtotokou mustikên eikona prodiagraphonta: touto geras autôi kat' exaireton charisamenos, to doulon kai philon kai patera chrêmatisai tou monogenous huiou kata sarka, tou ton kosmon holon dêmiourgêsantos. houtos heure men hiera grammata kai glôssan emêchanêsato, hês Hebraiôn paides en epistêmêi etunchanon, hôs ontes toutou mathêtai kai apogonoi. ek toutou kai ta Hellênôn grammata tas aphormas elabon, kan allôs kai allôs heautous diapaizontes anagraphôsin Hellênes. kai toutou marturion hê tou Alpha phônê tou prôtou stoicheiou kai archontos, apo tou Aleph Hebraiou labontos tên epiklêsin tou makariou kai prôtou kai athanatou onomatos. ek toutou kai ta oneirôn biblia espheterisanto Hellênes. kai martus Iôsêph ho panthaumastos ho toutou apogonos, ho tou Pharaô ta enupnia hôs emellon apobêsesthai diêgoumenos. touto moi kai Philôn, ex Hebraiôn philosophos, en tôi tou Politikou biôi sunepimarturêsetai, Philôn, peri hou errêthê, Philôn platônizei, kai Platôn philônizei. hoti êrxato hê eidôlolatreia apo Serouch heôs tôn chronôn Tharra tou patros Abraam. hos Abraam huparchôn etôn id# kai theognôsias axiôtheis enouthetei ton patera autou, legôn: ti planais tous anthrôpous dia kerdos epizêmion [toutesti ta eidôla]; ouk estin allos theos ei mê ho en tois ouranois, ho kai panta ton kosmon dêmiourgêsas. horôn gar tous anthrôpous ktismatolatrountas diêrcheto diaponoumenos kai ton ontôs onta theon ekzêtôn ek philotheou kardias. horôn de ton ouranon pote men lampron, pote de skoteinon, elegen en heautôi: ouk estin houtos theos. homoiôs kai ton hêlion kai tên selênên, ton men apokruptomenon kai amauroumenon, tên de phthinousan kai apolêgousan, ephêsen: oud' houtoi eisi theoi. kai mentoi kai tên tôn asterôn kinêsin, ek tou patros gar epaideueto tên astronomian, kai aporôn eduscherainen. ôphthê de autôi ho theos kai legei autôi: exelthe ek tês gês sou kai ek tês sungeneias sou. kai labôn ta eidôla tou patros kai ta men klasas ta de empurisas anechôrêse meta tou patros ek gês Chaldaiôn: kai elthontos eis Charran, eteleutêsen ho patêr autou. kai exelthôn ekeithen en logôi Kuriou êlthe sun têi gunaiki Sarrai kai tôi anepsiôi Lôt meta pasês autôn tês aposkeuês eis tên opheilomenên gên Chanaan, hên hoi Chananaioi turannikôs aphelomenoi ôikêsan. limou de genomenou katalipôn tên Chananaiôn gên eis Aigupton apêiei, hou tên gunaika Sarran Abimelech hêrpasen ho basileus. touton ho theos ekdeimatôsas kai paresin tôn melôn epaxas, apodos, ephê, tên gunaika tôi anthrôpôi, hoti prophêtês esti kai proseuxetai peri sou kai zêseis. ei de mê apodôis, gnôthi hoti apothanêi su kai ta sa panta. kai houtôs apolabôn tên gunaika amianton kai proseuxamenos iathênai epoiêse tês pareseôs Abimelech kai ton oikon autou. ektote timôn auton ho basileus kai prosechôn tois hup' autou legomenois, didaskalos eusebeias kai polupeirias Aiguptiois egeneto. ho autos Abram hupostrephôn ek tou polemou tês eulogias tou Melchisedek katêxiôtai, tou basileôs Salêm, hos exênenken autôi artous kai oinon. ên de kai hiereus tou Hupsistou. kai edôken autôi Abram dekatên apo pantôn. ên de ho Melchisedek apatôr, amêtôr, agenealogêtos, aphômoiômenos tôi huiôi tou theou. tôi de Abram ateknian olophuromenôi kath' hupnous epideixas ho theos tous asteras kata to plêthos autôn esesthai hoi to sperma proedêlou. ho de episteuse tôi theôi, kai elogisthê autôi eis dikaiosunên. hê de Sarra steira ousa sunechôrêsen Abram apo tês paidiskês paidopoiêsasthai: kai ischei ton Ismaêl. enenêkonta de kai ennea etôn onti tôi Abram epiphaneis ho theos Abraam metônomasen: Abram gar prôên ônomazeto: homoiôs kai tên Saran Sarran, prostheis kai heteron r. kai perieteme ton Ismaêl kai pantas tous ex autou. Kurios de tôi Abraam epixenôtheis epêngeilato texesthai Sarran autôi paida. hê de emeidiase, kai Isaak to gennêthen prosêgoreuthê, pherônumôs tôi meth' hêdonês gelôti kata tên Hebraïda dialekton. kai Abramiaios: ho apogonos Abraam, ê gigantiaios, hieroprepês.
Notes:
This long entry is derived in part directly from George the Monk, in part indirectly from Philo of Alexandria; see further in the notes below.
[1] cf. Matthew 27:25 (web address 1).
[2] The Suda's attention to Chaldean astrology derives from Philo, On Abraham, (Colson, Philo Vol VI: XV.69-70).
[3] Use of tu/pos here is twofold: 1) To assert that God's appearance to Abraham was indirect (echoing Philo, On Abraham, XVII.79-80); 2) To impart, as if a corollary of tu/pos in Romans 5:14, that God's manifestation to Abraham was a type or prefiguration of Christ.
[4] Abraham is 100 years old at Isaac's birth (Genesis 21:5); however, the Suda follows Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.191-93 (web address 2 below) in assuming Abraham's age as 99 at the time of God's promise.
[5] The Suda here omits Ishmael, born to Abraham by the Egyptian slave Hagar when he was 86 years old (Genesis 16:1-16). The Suda's omission tacitly acknowledges a covenantal and legal distinction clearly drawn in Genesis. In Isaac, God establishes an "everlasting covenant" for his progeny, whereas God blesses Ishmael and makes him "fruitful and exceedingly numerous" (Genesis 17:19-20). Isaac's filial status is made explicit by God in identifying him as Abraham's "only son" (Genesis 22:12) through whom "offspring shall be named" for Abraham, whereas Ishmael, although destined to father a nation, is identified by God as "the son of the slave woman" (Genesis 21:12-13). Ishmael is, however, mentioned later in the entry.
[6] Christological imagery links Isaac to the personage of Jesus (Matthew 1:1-2 at web address 3 below). See also delta 94, notes 1 and 14.
[7] The Suda underscores the magnitude of the honor with a hyperbolic kat' before e)cai/reton.
[8] The statement, rooted in a paternalistic-filial model that originates in Abraham and culminates in the figure of Christ, approximates the transcendental premise: Abraham is to Joseph as Isaac is to Christ.
[9] The Suda confuses Mosaic and Abrahamic lore. The 2nd century BCE Jewish writer Eupolemus claimed for Moses the invention and propagation of writing: "Moses was the first wise man, the first who imparted the alphabet to the Jews; the Phoenicians received it from the Jews, and the Greeks from the Phoenicians." The 2nd century BCE Egyptian Jewish writer Artapanus attributed hieroglyphics to Moses. According to the 2nd century BCE Samaritan writer Ps.-Eupolemus and Artapanus, astrology and astronomy originated with Abraham, who taught these disciplines and other tools of culture to the Jews, Phoenicians, and Egyptians. They, in turn, transmitted these arts to the Greeks. Philo in On Abraham stresses Abraham's expertise as a teacher. (Encyc. Judaica, Vol 6.964-65; Gruen, 146-51, 157, 294; Grant, 77; Philo, XI.52) At sigma 295, Seth is credited with the invention of the alphabet; Greek legend named Cadmus or Linus as the one who introduced the alphabet to Greece (gamma 416, kappa 21, kappa 22, lambda 568). See also phi 787.
[10] The reference recalls א aleph as the initial letter of ʾelohīm, the most frequent generic name for God in the OT, used about 2,500 times--but a distant second to the unspoken covenant name YHWH (Yahweh), which occurs some 6,800 times (Perdue, 685-86). Cf. alpha 1445.
[11] A reference to Philo's *bi/os politikou= o(/per e)sti peri\ *)iwsh/f (Colson, Philo Vol VI, 140ff.)
[12] Adapted from Jerome's On Illustrious Men (11): h)\ *pla/twn filwni/zei h)\ *fi/lwn platwni/zei ("Either Plato philonizes or Philo platonizes.") Cf. phi 448 and Photius, Bibliotheca 86b 25.
[13] Abraham's grandfather (Genesis 11:22). Seruch in the LXX, שרוג śerūḡ in Hebrew. See also sigma 253.
[14] Abraham's father (Genesis 11:24). Tharra (*qa/rra, *qarra/) or Tharrha (*qa/r)r(a) (Hatch, Concordance, Appendix 1, 71; Brenton, 13); in Hebrew תרח Teraḥ. From the Chronicon of George the Monk, 92.11-12; cf. Malalas 55.5-6.
[15] The Midrash sets Abraham's rejection of idolatry at age 13 (Encyc. Judaica, 4.244). From here to "teacher to the Egyptians," the Suda's source is the Chronicon of George the Monk, 93.16 - 95.17.
[16] On God as "He who is," see omicron 438, omega 105.
[17] cf. Philo, On Abraham XIV.62.
[18] The call in Genesis 12:1-5 brings Abraham from Haran (חרן) to Canaan (כנען). The Suda adheres to Philo, On Abraham, XIV. 67: metani/statai...a)po\ th=s *xaldai/wn gh=s...e)is th\n *xarrai/wn gh=n.
[19] Philo shows a)delfidou=s, as at On Abraham, XXXVII.212, rather than the Suda's potentially ambiguous a)neyio/s for nephew (see LSJ s.v. at web address 4).
[20] On Abimelech, see alpha 45.
[21] The affliction cured in Genesis 20:17-18 is unspecified for Abimelech, but clearly is sterility for the female members of his house. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.208 (web address 5) relates that a "dangerous distemper" (Whiston trans.) afflicted Abimelech. For other traditions, see EncycJudaica, 2.76.
[22] Genesis 14:14-18; the Suda's source is the Chronicon of George the Monk, 100.17-26; 101.5-7.
[23] See Hebrews 7:3 (web address 6). In the Suda, see mu 544, mu 545, mu 546.
[24] The Greek mainly uses Abraam (אברהם ʾAḇraham) to this point, but here Abram (אברם), his pre-covenant name (Genesis 17:5).
[25] Genesis 15:5-6. The statement "and he believed God and God reckoned it to him as righteousness" appears also in Romans 4:3 (web address 7), Galatians 3:6 (web address 8), and James 2:23 (web address 9). A more idiomatic and semantically precise translation of the Hebrew (והאמין בה' ויחשבה לו צדקה weheʾemīn bah' wayyaḥšeḇeha lō ṣedaqah) reads: "And because he put his trust in the Lord, He reckoned it to his merit" (Plaut, 146). This version takes into interpretive account the imperfective waw consecutive (consequential) (Kautzsch, 111.l).
[26] Ismael (Ishmael) appears in the Suda at iota 644, but with a gloss that belongs to Isaak.
[27] Genesis 17:15. Also as *sa/r)r(a or Sarrha (Brenton, 18). The Hebrew covenant name change is Sarai to Sarah (both meaning Princess).
[28] Isaac (יצחק yiṣḥaq) from the Hebrew meaning "he (Abraham) laughed" in Genesis 17:17, and puns Sarah's תצחק tiṣḥaq ("she laughed") in Genesis 18:12. (Kohlenberger, Vol 1, 37, 39; Anderson, 182) In the Suda, see iota 606 (mostly taken from this entry).
[29] This adjectival derivative of Abraham's name appears in 4 Maccabees 9:21 LXX. The gloss replicates, apart from word order, one in Photius; cf. Synagoge alpha17, Hesychius alpha181.
References:
Anderson, A.W. Understanding the Old Testament. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1966
Attridge, H.W. "The Letter to the Hebrews" in The HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Brenton, L.C.L. The Septuagint with Apocrypha. Peabody: Henrickson, 1999 (reprint of 1851 edn.)
Colson F.H., Philo (Vol VI), Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1994
Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1973
Grant, M. From Alexander to Cleopatra: The Hellenistic World. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1982
Gruen, E.S. Heritage and Hellenism: The Reinvention of Jewish Tradition. Berkeley: University of California, 1998
Hatch, E., Redpath, H.A., and Muraoka, T. A Concordance to the Septuagint. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1998
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910
Keck, L.E. "The Letter of Paul to the Romans" in The HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987
Perdue, L.G. "Names of God in the Old Testament" in Harper's Bible Dictionary. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985
Plaut, W.G. The Torah: Genesis, A Modern Commentary. New York: Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1972
Smyth, H.W. Greek Grammar. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1984
Whiston, W. The Works of Josephus. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1987 (reprint of 1736 edn.)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4,
Web address 5,
Web address 6,
Web address 7,
Web address 8,
Web address 9
Keywords: aetiology; biography; children; Christianity; chronology; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; dreams; food; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; history; law; medicine; religion; science and technology; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:54:17.
Vetted by:
Craig Miller (Under editorial review as of this date) on 6 January 2002@08:24:02.
Craig Miller (Modified translation) on 24 January 2002@19:18:31.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@00:26:38.
Craig Miller (Notes added. Additional work pending.) on 25 January 2002@00:29:41.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@01:17:54.
Craig Miller (Added bibliography, keywords; changed status) on 25 January 2002@22:21:22.
Craig Miller (Cosmetics) on 25 January 2002@22:51:36.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@22:54:34.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@23:13:26.
Craig Miller on 4 June 2002@20:45:55.
Craig Miller on 19 June 2002@19:13:42.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew words; minor cosmetics.) on 31 October 2002@10:38:39.
Raphael Finkel (More Hebrew, cosmetics.) on 18 December 2002@10:58:21.
Craig Miller (Additional cosmetics) on 17 May 2003@19:07:49.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@08:20:23.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 November 2005@07:49:08.
Jennifer Benedict (added 15 links) on 25 March 2008@11:50:57.
Catharine Roth (references, cosmetics) on 10 April 2008@16:09:00.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 10 April 2008@20:15:09.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, pruned notes, added cross-references) on 11 April 2008@12:30:02.
Catharine Roth (adjusted note numbers; more tweaks) on 11 April 2008@14:18:11.
William Hutton (augmented n. 29) on 17 July 2009@17:14:18.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 December 2011@07:16:50.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links, other tweaks) on 22 December 2011@19:00:49.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note and links) on 11 November 2013@01:26:27.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:27:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 11 August 2014@00:14:27.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:33:55.
Catharine Roth (betacode typo) on 2 October 2018@02:07:40.

Headword: Habrokomas
Adler number: alpha,83
Translated headword: Abrokomas, Habrokomas, Abrocomas
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
This man was satrap[1] under Artaxerxes, king of the Persians.[2]
Greek Original:
Habrokomas: houtos satrapês ên Artaxerxou tou Persôn basileôs.
Notes:
From Harpokration (and Photius) s.v. The name has a smooth breathing (Abrokomas) there, as in Xenophon before them (below); in the Suda it is rough (Habrokomas).
[1] Provincial governor; see sigma 153 (and generally OCD(4) p.1321).
[2] There were several Persian kings of this name (see generally OCD(4) p.175), but probably Artaxerxes II (405/4-359/8) is meant; he had a general called Abrokomas, mentioned by Xenophon in the Anabasis.
Keywords: biography; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; politics
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@19:36:18.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword, notes, keyword; cosmetics) on 29 September 2000@05:33:34.
William Hutton (Cosmetics) on 1 February 2001@00:51:03.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 19 July 2011@09:44:36.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 21 December 2011@01:44:30.
David Whitehead (updated 2 refs) on 29 July 2014@12:13:20.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 2 April 2015@11:02:29.

Headword: Agathias
Adler number: alpha,112
Translated headword: Agathias
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A lawyer,[1] of Myrina;[2] the one who wrote the History as a continuation of Procopius of Caesarea,[3] [comprising] the affairs involving Belisarius[4] and the events in Italy and Libya; that is the affairs involving Narses[5] in Italy and the events in Lazike[6] and Byzantion. He also composed other books, both in meter and in prose, including the Daphniaka[7] and the Cycle of New Epigrams, which he compiled himself from the poets of his day. He was a contemporary of Paulus Silentiarius and of the consul Macedonius and of Tribonian[8] in the time of Justinian.[9]
Greek Original:
Agathias: scholastikos, Murinaios, ho grapsas tên meta Prokopion historian ton Kaisarea, ta kata Belisarion kai tas en Italiai kai en Libuêi praxeis, toutesti ta kata Narsên en Italiai kai ta en Lazikêi kai Buzantiôi. houtos sunetaxe kai hetera biblia emmetra te kai katalogadên, ta te kaloumena Daphniaka, kai ton Kuklon tôn neôn Epigrammatôn, hon autos sunêxen ek tôn kata kairon poiêtôn. sunêkmase de Paulôi tôi Selentiariôi kai Makedoniôi tôi hupatôi kai Tribounianôi epi tôn Ioustinianou chronôn.
Notes:
c.532-c.580. See generally Averil Cameron in OCD(4) s.v. (p.35).
[1] See OCD s.v.
[2] a.k.a. Sebastopolis, in Aeolis (Asia Minor): Barrington Atlas map 56 grid D4.
[3] For Procopius see pi 2479. A's own work was in turn continued by Menander Protector (mu 591).
[4] See beta 233.
[5] See nu 42.
[6] An alternative name for Colchis (kappa 1979); present-day Georgia, between the Black and Caspian Seas.
[7] Amatory hexameters.
[8] tau 956, cf. tau 951.
[9] iota 446.
Keywords: biography; chronology; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; law; poetry; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 30 March 2001@15:08:59.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 24 April 2002@04:07:08.
David Whitehead (added note) on 3 November 2003@06:05:01.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; corrected a note number) on 3 August 2006@09:47:58.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr) on 18 May 2011@08:29:09.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 22 December 2011@04:42:12.
Philip Rance (modified translation) on 23 January 2012@07:57:14.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:22:58.

Headword: Agapios
Adler number: alpha,157
Translated headword: Agapios, Agapius
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Athenian philosopher, after the death of Proclus,[1] under Marinus.[2] He was admired for his love of learning and for his setting of dilemmas that were hard to solve.[3]
Greek Original:
Agapios: Athênaios philosophos, meta Proklon apoichomenon, hupo Marinôi. hos ethaumazeto epi philomatheiai kai aporiôn probolêi dusepibolôn.
Notes:
Damascius, Life of Isidore fr. 277 Zintzen (164 Asmus).
[1] See pi 2473.
[2] See mu 198, mu 199.
[3] cf. delta 1618, epsilon 2241.
Keywords: biography; chronology; ethics; geography; philosophy
Translated by: William Hutton on 9 April 2000@22:48:07.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes and keyword; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@04:35:17.
David Whitehead (added note) on 25 April 2002@08:58:34.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@06:54:19.

Headword: Agelios
Adler number: alpha,195
Translated headword: Agelios, Agelius
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
This man was bishop of Constantinople during the reign of Valens.[1] He lived an apostolic life, for he always went about unshod and wore only a single tunic, in observance of what the Gospel says.[2]
Greek Original:
Agelios: houtos epi Oualentos ên Kônstantinoupoleôs episkopos, bion apostolikon bious. anupodêtos gar diolou diêgen, heni te chitôni ekechrêto, to tou euangeliou phulattôn rhêton.
Notes:
See again under mu 207.
[1] Agelius was a Novatian, persecuted for accepting the homoousian doctrine. For the emperor Valens, see omicron 764.
[2] Socrates, Ecclesiastical History 4.9.3 (translation at web address 1).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; Christianity; chronology; clothing; ethics; geography; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 11 April 2000@00:02:16.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added notes and link) on 4 March 2002@13:30:20.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@09:54:59.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 3 October 2005@07:11:09.
Catharine Roth (augmented note, added keyword, raised status) on 12 October 2007@23:02:42.
David Whitehead (another x-ref; another keyword) on 29 December 2011@07:30:01.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 29 December 2011@12:11:37.

Headword: Angelos
Adler number: alpha,196
Translated headword: angel
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The angels are circumscribed only by the comprehension of the intellect; not in space, nor in body, nor in time; for they came into existence before the sun.[1] Scripture calls the servants of retribution "evil angels," just as it calls the day of retribution an "evil day";[2] and it calls the bitter retributions "wrath and anger and affliction" in the hands of God.[3] For it does not say that it is [their] nature or preference.
Greek Original:
Angelos: hoi angeloi monoi têi tou noos katalêpsei eisi perigraptoi, oute de en topôi, oude en sômati, oude en chronôi: pro gar tou hêliou hê genesis autôn. angelous ponêrous tous tês timôrias hupourgous hê graphê kalei: hôsper hêmeran ponêran tên tês timôrias. orgên de kai thumon kai thlipsin epi Theou tas pikras timôrias kalei. ou gar phusin oude proairesin phêsin.
Notes:
Theodoret (PG 80.1496b) on Psalm 79.49 LXX (not Adler's 77.49).
[1] Perhaps referring to Psalm 109.3 LXX "before the morning star have I begotten thee."
[2] cf. eta 299.
[3] cf. theta 391, theta 575.
Keywords: Christianity; chronology; definition; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 16 October 2000@15:04:42.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Cosmetics; reference.) on 25 January 2001@18:00:55.
David Whitehead (added notes) on 25 April 2002@10:08:40.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 12 October 2007@22:47:52.
Catharine Roth (further tweaks, additional note) on 12 October 2007@23:24:43.
Catharine Roth (another cross-reference) on 14 October 2007@12:02:45.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 29 December 2011@07:35:52.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:40:13.

Headword: Agêtas
Adler number: alpha,230
Translated headword: Agetas
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The general of the Aetolians.
Greek Original:
Agêtas: ho tôn Aitôlôn stratêgos.
Note:
In the late third century BCE. He is mentioned for dating purposes by Polybius 5.91.1 -- and may also be the Hagetas on an inscription of the time: so F.W. Walbank, A Historical Commmentary on Polybius vol.I (Oxford 1957 and reprints) 622.
Keywords: biography; chronology; geography; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg ✝ on 24 November 1998@14:11:02.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note/bibliography) on 18 September 2000@10:12:06.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 1 August 2011@08:20:15.

Headword: Hagisteias
Adler number: alpha,242
Translated headword: rituals
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning those] of holiness, of cleansing, of service.
Greek Original:
Hagisteias: hagiôsunês, katharotêtos, latreias.
Notes:
LSJ entry at web address 1; and cf. generally alpha 234.
Same material in other lexica (references at Photius alpha176 Theodoridis), and also in the scholia to Plato, Axiochus 371D, where the headword -- accusative plural, not genitive singular -- occurs.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; philosophy; religion
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg ✝ on 24 November 1998@14:18:45.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added headword translation, note, keywords, and link.) on 18 February 2001@20:06:16.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note and keyword) on 9 June 2003@09:51:41.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 4 January 2012@04:55:36.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@07:55:03.

Headword: Ankôn
Adler number: alpha,249
Translated headword: elbow
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
"In the royal palace of Gelimer was a building full of darkness, which the Carthaginians used to call [the] Elbow; therein were thrown all toward whom the tyrant was ill-disposed. There, in the time of Belisarius, happened to be confined many traders from the east about to be destroyed by the tyrant at that time, whom the guard of the prison released."[1]
"And he placed the siege-engines in the way that seemed most timely, and he hit both the wall-angles [angkones] and the trenches from both sides."[2]
Also [sc. attested is] a)gkw=nes, a certain part of the house.[3]
Another meaning of a)gkw=nes is everything that, in a dream, fixes the well-ordered aspect of life.[4]
*)agkw=nes [are] also the prominences of rivers, the ones at the banks.
"It was not possible to sail through to the stream ahead because of the size of the descending prominences which it was necessary for those dragging the ships to bend round."[5]
Also [sc. attested is] a)gkw=nes, [in the sense of] the heights of the mountains. "Some of you seek out the [western] heights, and some the eastern, going toward the evil exit of the man."[6]
And [there is] a proverbial expression: wiping one's nose with the elbow.[7]
Bion the philosopher said: "my father was a freed slave, wiping his nose with his elbow;" it indicated clearly the saltfish-importer.[8]
See another proverbial expression, 'sweet bend' [in a river, etc.].[9]
Greek Original:
Ankôn: en têi basilikêi aulêi tou Gelimeros oikêma ên skotous anapleôn, ho dê Ankôna ekaloun hoi Karchêdonioi: entha eneballonto hapantes hois an chalepainoi ho turannos. entautha epi Belisariou polloi katheirgmenoi etunchanon tôn heôiôn emporôn, hous mellontas kat' ekeino kairou anaireisthai hupo tou turannou ho phulax tou desmôtêriou apeluse. kai dietithei tas mêchanas hêi malista edokei kairion, ankônas te kai taphrous ebaleto hekaterôthen. kai Ankônes, meros ti tês oikias. ankônes de kai panta ta prospêssomena kat' onar to kosmion tou biou sêmainei. Ankônes kai hai tôn potamôn exochai, hai para tais ochthais. ou dunaton ên pros antion ton rhoun anaplein dia to megethos tôn prospiptontôn ankônôn, hous edei kamptein parelkontas tas naus. kai Ankônas, tas akras tôn orôn. hoi de speirousin ankônas, hoi d' antêlious zêteit' iontes t' andros exodon kakên. kai paroimia: tôi ankôni apomussomenos. Biôn phêsin ho philosophos: emou ho patêr men ên apeleutheros, tôi ankôni apomussomenos: diedêlou de ton tarichemporon. zêtei kai allên paroimian, to glukus ankôn.
Notes:
[1] An abridgement of Procopius, History of the Wars of Justinian 3.20.4-7.
[2] From an unidentifiable military narrative. (For the headword in this sense see LSJ s.v., II.)
[3] For this gloss, cf. iota 552.
[4] Artemidorus 1.74; cf. omicron 349.
[5] Quotation unidentifiable.
[6] Sophocles, Ajax 805-6 (web address 1); the first adjective is garbled here.
[7] cf. Mantissa Proverbiorum 3.31 and the quotation which follows here.
[8] Diogenes Laertius 4.46.
[9] gamma 316.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: architecture; biography; chronology; daily life; dreams; economics; ethics; food; geography; historiography; history; imagery; military affairs; philosophy; proverbs; science and technology; trade and manufacture; tragedy
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg ✝ on 24 November 1998@13:57:02.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (supplied headword; added notes; augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@04:02:29.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@08:29:24.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 20 November 2005@10:40:36.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 February 2011@08:38:56.
Catharine Roth (tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 February 2011@01:08:42.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 4 January 2012@05:46:10.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 30 December 2014@00:14:19.

Headword: Ankuran
Adler number: alpha,258
Translated headword: anchor
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Note] that Anacharsis the Scythian philosopher invented the anchor and the potter's wheel. He lived in the time of Croesus.
Greek Original:
Ankuran: hoti Anacharsis Skuthês philosophos heuren ankuran kai ton kerameikon trochon. ên de epi Kroisou.
Notes:
An extract from the main entry on Anacharsis (alpha 2130). The headword, part of it, is accusative singular.
Anacharsis is an important character in Book 4 of Herodotus' History; Croesus, tyrant of Lydia, is important throughout Herodotus. Anacharsis earns his fame by attempting to introduce Greek customs into Scythia, and eventually dies for it. The story of Anacharsis' inventions, however, is not found elsewhere.
Reference:
OCD(4) s.v. (p.77).
Keywords: biography; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Roger Travis on 4 October 2000@12:08:40.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note; added bibliography; keywords; cosmetics) on 12 February 2001@05:04:56.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, keyword, status) on 22 August 2006@22:12:29.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 23 August 2006@03:27:29.
Catharine Roth (deleted link, added keyword) on 20 October 2013@20:18:36.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@02:42:40.

Headword: Ankuranôn polis
Adler number: alpha,259

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