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Headword: Abba
Adler number: alpha,10
Translated headword: Abba, Father
Vetting Status: high
The ancients called God "Father" from a feeling of relationship. Moses said, "You have forsaken God who begot you."[1] And Malachi: "One God begot us and is our father."[2] They were in a state of grace, moved by the force of the Spirit. Just as there is the Spirit of wisdom by which fools have become wise (for this is clear from the teachings), and the Spirit of power by which they raised both the weak and the dead, and the Spirit of prophecy, and the Spirit of tongues, so also there is the Spirit of adoption.[3] And just as we know the Spirit of prophecy, through which one who has it is moved by grace to tell the future, so also the Spirit of adoption, through which one moved by the Spirit calls God "Father." One who wishes to show that this is most legitimate even used a Hebrew word. For he did not say "Father" but "Abba the Father." This is the word used especially by legitimate children for their father.[4]
Greek Original:
Abba: ho patêr. hoi men palaioi ekaloun patera ton theon ex oikeias dianoias, hôs Môüsês: theon ton gennêsanta se enkatelipes: kai Malachias: ho theos heis egennêsen hêmas kai patêr: hoi de en chariti, apo pneumatikês energeias kinoumenoi. hôsper pneuma sophias einai, kath' ho sophoi hoi asophoi egenonto [kai dêloutai touto apo tês didaskalias] kai pneuma dunameôs einai, kath' ho kai astheneis kai nekrous êgeiron, kai pneuma prophêteias, kai pneuma glôssôn, houtô kai pneuma huiothesias. kai hôsper ismen to pneuma tês prophêteias, aph' hôn ho echôn auto legei ta mellonta hupo tês charitos kinoumenos, houtô dê kai pneuma huiothesias, aph' hou ho labôn patera kalei ton theon, hupo pneumatos kinoumenos. ho dê boulomenos deixai gnêsiôtaton on kai têi tôn Hebraiôn echrêsato glôttêi. ou gar eipen ho patêr, all' abba ho patêr: hoper tôn paidôn malista esti tôn gnêsiôn pros patera rhêma.
A paraphrase of St. John Chrysostom, Homily on the Epistle to the Romans PG 60.527.
(Entry placed after alpha 16, Adler reports, in mss GTMB.)
[1] Deuteronomy 32:18 LXX (web address 1).
[2] An approximation of Malachi 2:10 LXX (web address 2).
[3] cf. Ep.Romans 8:15 (web address 3).
[4] On "Abba," see also alpha 12.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3
Keywords: children; Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; medicine; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:57:30.
Vetted by:
Samuel Huskey (added links to Bible, changed "sonship" to "filiation") on 15 July 2000@15:01:55.
Catharine Roth (Altered wording.) on 29 July 2000@23:15:23.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 11 July 2003@08:51:36.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 6 October 2005@08:51:18.
William Hutton (tweaked translation, augmented notes, fixed broken links, added keywords, set status) on 20 August 2007@10:15:40.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 5 August 2013@01:15:24.
David Whitehead (another note; cosmetics) on 28 March 2014@06:14:49.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, added cross-reference) on 28 March 2014@12:15:01.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:24:11.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note 2) on 9 February 2024@01:30:43.

Headword: Abbakoum
Adler number: alpha,12
Translated headword: Habakkuk, Abbakoum, Avvakoum
Vetting Status: high
[A name meaning] father of awakening. For the [word] abba means father,[1] and koum means awakening.[2] So also in the Holy Gospel: "Talitha, koum," that is, "young girl, get up."[3] From which [it is] clear that Abbakoum must be written with double b.[4]
Greek Original:
Abbakoum: patêr egerseôs. to men gar abba sêmainei patêr, to de koum egersis: hôs kai para tôi theiôi euangeliôi: talêtha, koum, êgoun hê pais egeirou. hothen dêlon, hoti dia tôn duo bb grapteon to Abbakoum.
An etymology for the name of the prophet Habakkuk (in the Septuagint, Ambakoum or Avvakoum), based on two Aramaic words found in the New Testament. The Suda is drawing from older onomastica; the same etymology is found in the Origenistic lexicon (see bibliography).
[1] See already alpha 10. The Hebrew/Aramaic אבּא abba means "father".
[2] The Hebrew/Aramaic קום kūm means "arise"; it can also be used to mean "awake".
[3] Mark 5:41 (web address 1); not in the other Gospels, but several times in patristic literature.
[4] The Suda is correct. The doubling of the בּ is indicated by its dot (dagesh); unlike Greek, Hebrew and Aramaic do not replicate doubled letters.
Paul de Lagarde, Onomastica Sacra, p. 200, line 14-15
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: children; Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; imagery; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 21 August 1998@16:59:43.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Altered wording.) on 29 July 2000@23:23:46.
Catharine Roth (Augmented note with information supplied by Lee Fields.) on 1 May 2001@19:02:40.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; cosmetics) on 22 July 2003@10:07:42.
Raphael Finkel (Added notes 2, 4, Hebrew.) on 12 August 2004@14:47:21.
Catharine Roth (added a keyword) on 8 October 2005@00:31:59.
William Hutton (cosmetics, added keywords and link, set status) on 21 August 2007@09:59:47.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 24 March 2008@23:27:14.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 17 December 2011@00:23:06.
David Whitehead (another keyword; typo and other cosmetics) on 18 December 2011@10:27:45.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 18 December 2011@10:53:04.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 August 2013@01:12:51.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@13:38:11.
David Whitehead (expanded a note; cosmetics) on 2 April 2015@08:48:00.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@06:56:57.
Catharine Roth (added punctuation in notes) on 9 February 2024@01:37:17.
Catharine Roth (another headword transliteration) on 17 February 2024@00:45:15.

Headword: Abarnis
Adler number: alpha,19
Translated headword: Abarnis
Vetting Status: high
Name of a city.
Greek Original:
Abarnis: onoma poleôs.
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon (74), and cf. more generally the scholia to Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.932 (where the genitive case occurs), on which see further below.
Abarnis lay on the southern shore of the Propontis (Sea of Marmara), between Parion and Lampsakos; Barrington Atlas map 51 grid H4. According to Stephanus of Byzantium s.v. *)/abarnos (sic), Abarnos and Aparnis were also attested versions of its name.
A scholium to Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1.932 (repeated in more legible form in Etymologicum Magnum 2.11-28) provides an etymological explanation of the origin of the name in Aphrodite's refusal (a)parnh/sasqai) to recognize her offspring Priapos, who was born in the region.
Keywords: children; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; geography; mythology; religion; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:55:54.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified note) on 19 September 2000@03:59:17.
William Hutton (augmented note, added keywords, set status) on 24 August 2007@23:38:41.
David Whitehead (augmented and re-arranged note) on 19 December 2011@06:02:32.
Catharine Roth (coding, typo) on 5 August 2013@00:18:42.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 10 January 2015@22:46:51.

Headword: Abesalôm
Adler number: alpha,35
Translated headword: Abesalom, Absalom
Vetting Status: high
Proper name.[1]
[The man] who rose up against his own father David and was destroyed by him in the war.[2]
Greek Original:
Abesalôm: onoma kurion. hos tou idiou patros Dabid katexanestê kai anêirethê hup' autou en tôi polemôi.
[1] So too, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
[2] See generally 2 Samuel 15-18 LXX.
Keywords: biography; children; definition; ethics; history; military affairs; religion
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 26 August 1998@18:50:03.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added keywords.) on 30 July 2000@22:45:00.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 9 June 2003@07:27:13.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@07:34:26.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; another keyword) on 19 December 2011@06:57:32.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 August 2013@23:28:44.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:26:43.

Headword: Abraam
Adler number: alpha,69
Translated headword: Abraham
Vetting Status: high
The first among patriarchs; [it was he] in whom the Hebrew people took pride at first, before they rebelled against God, became estranged from Him, and shed upon themselves the blood of His Only-Begotten Son.[1] This man came out of the land of the Chaldeans, who devoted their entire lives to the stars and heavenly bodies. Trained, therefore, as was their ancestral custom, to observe the motions of the heavenly bodies[2] he surmised that the masterwork underlying this visible creation was not to be found in such objects, but had a Creator who set them in motion, gave harmony to their paths, and ordered the entire universe. Because of the greatness and beauty of the things He had made, Abraham, as it was likely, ceased devoting himself to gazing out into the heavens nor did he squander his passion in their pursuit. Instead, by surmounting the celestial vaults and transcending all the intelligible realm beyond the cosmos, Abraham no longer stood apart from the One sought, until finally the Creator for whom he yearned manifested Himself to Abraham in likenesses[3] and forms. And in this way the Unseen and Invisible revealed Himself. And [God] sent him forth from his own land as a wanderer and settled him in the land of the Canaanites. There he dwelled, now being in about his ninety-ninth year.[4] Until this time, he was childless; then [God] made him the father of the miraculous and blessed Isaac that he might have a first-born, only-begotten son[5] -- prefiguring the mystical image of the First-Born, Only-Begotten Son.[6] This was an exceedingly singular[7] honor bestowed upon Abraham, for the Creator favored him with the titles Servant, Beloved, and Father by flesh of the Only Begotten Son of Him who fashioned the entire universe.[8] Abraham invented sacred writing and devised the language of which Hebrew children had a command, as they were this man's disciples and descendants. Moreover, the Greek alphabet received its impetus from this script,[9] even if Greeks amused themselves by forming the letters differently. Proof of this is in the pronunciation of the first and preeminent letter "alpha" because it derives its name from the Hebrew "aleph" by way of the Blessed, First, and Eternal Name.[10] So too, the Greeks through Abraham came to possess books on dream interpretation. Witness to this is Joseph, the truly wondrous descendant of Abraham, who interpreted Pharoah's dreams as they were going to turn out in fact. In this, Philo, the Jewish philosopher, will be my confirmation via his work Life of the Statesman.[11] About Philo it is said "Philo platonizes and Plato philonizes."[12]
The practice of idolatry extended from Serug[13] to the time of Abraham's father Tharron.[14] Thus, when Abraham was 14 years old[15] and deemed worthy of divine knowledge, he upbraided his father, "Why do you lead the people astray for harmful gain (that is, with idols)? There is no other God but the One in heaven, the Creator of the entire universe." Yet seeing the people serving earthly things, he embarked on a tireless quest, seeking out with his pious heart the Truly Existing God.[16] But seeing that the sky is sometimes light and sometimes dark, he said to himself, "That is not God." Observing similarly the sun and the moon, the one obscured and eclipsed and the other waning and occluded, he said, "Those are not gods either." True, he was trained in astronomy by his father, but Abraham all the same was puzzled by the motions of the stars and scornful of them. But God appeared to him and said, "Go out of your land and leave your kinsmen."[17] Abraham took his father's idols, smashing some and incinerating others. Then he went away with his father out of the land of the Chaldeans. And they came to Haran,[18] where his father died. He left there, obeying the Lord's word, with his wife Sarah and his nephew Lot[19] and all their possessions, and came to the promised land Canaan, which the Canaanites had seized and settled in. When a famine arose, Abraham left the land of the Canaanites and went into Egypt, where Abimelech[20] the king took his wife Sarah. God struck terror into Abimelech and paralysed his limbs, saying "Give this man back his wife, because he is a prophet and will pray for you, and you will live. But if you do not give her back, know that you and your entire household will die." When Abraham got his wife back, undefiled, he prayed, and Abimelech and his household were cured of the paralysis.[21] After this the king, honoring Abraham and devoting himself to his sayings, became a pious and expert teacher to the Egyptians. The same Abraham, upon returning from war,[22] was considered worthy of blessing by Melchisedek, king of Salem, who brought bread and wine out to him. Melchisedek was a priest of the Most High, and Abraham gave to Him a tenth of all he had. Melchisedek was without father, mother, or lineage, like the Son of God.[23]
When Abram[24] lamented to God about his childlessness, God revealed to him through a dream that his descendants would be as numerous as the stars. And he believed God, and God reckoned it to him as righteousness.[25] Now Sarah, who was barren, gave Abraham permission to father a child with her maidservant, and she bore Ismael.[26] And when Abram was 99 years old, God appeared to him and altered his name to Abraham, for until then he had been called Abram. Similarly, Sarah became Sarrah with another "r".[27] And Abraham circumcised Ismael and all his descendants. Moreover, when the Lord was being shown the hospitality of Abraham's house, He promised Abraham that Sarrah would bear him a son. But Sarrah smiled; and the one who was begotten was called Isaac, by the Hebrew name that means "laughter with delight."[28]
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] *abramiai=os: [meaning] descendant of Abraham, or towering, revered.[29]
Greek Original:
Abraam: ho prôtos en patriarchais: eis hon apesemnuneto dêmos ho tôn Hebraiôn to proteron, prin ê theou aposkirtêsai kai genesthai toutou allotrioi kai to tou monogenous huiou autou haima eph' heautous epispasasthai. houtos ek men tês Chaldaiôn gês hupêrchen hormômenos, tôn peri ta meteôra kai tous asteras ton bion holon katanaliskontôn. askêtheis oun kata ton patrion nomon tas tôn epouraniôn asterôn kinêseis kai stochasamenos hôs ouk en toutois histatai to megalourgon tês phainomenês tautêsi ktiseôs, all' echei tina ton dêmiourgon ton kai kinounta kai dieuthunonta tên enarmonion tôn asterôn poreian kai tou kosmou pantos tên katastasin, kai dia tou megethous kai tês kallonês tôn ktismatôn ton genesiourgon autôn, hôs enên, theôrêsas ouk estê mechri toutôn, oude tên ephesin eis tauta katedapanêsen, alla tôn ouraniôn hapsidôn huperartheis kai pasan diabas tên noêtên te kai huperkosmion sumpêxin ouk apestê tou zêtoumenou, heôs hou ho pothoumenos heauton autôi ephanerôse tupois te kai morphômasin, hois heauton emphanizei ho aphanês kai aoratos. kai metanastên auton ek tês patridos labôn epi tên Chananitin katestêse, ton enenêkoston pou kai enaton êdê chronon parelkonta: kai apaida mechri tote tunchanonta gennêtora tou thaumasiou kai makaros kate- stêsen Isaak, hin' echoi monogenê huion kai prôtotokon, tou monogenous kai prôtotokou mustikên eikona prodiagraphonta: touto geras autôi kat' exaireton charisamenos, to doulon kai philon kai patera chrêmatisai tou monogenous huiou kata sarka, tou ton kosmon holon dêmiourgêsantos. houtos heure men hiera grammata kai glôssan emêchanêsato, hês Hebraiôn paides en epistêmêi etunchanon, hôs ontes toutou mathêtai kai apogonoi. ek toutou kai ta Hellênôn grammata tas aphormas elabon, kan allôs kai allôs heautous diapaizontes anagraphôsin Hellênes. kai toutou marturion hê tou Alpha phônê tou prôtou stoicheiou kai archontos, apo tou Aleph Hebraiou labontos tên epiklêsin tou makariou kai prôtou kai athanatou onomatos. ek toutou kai ta oneirôn biblia espheterisanto Hellênes. kai martus Iôsêph ho panthaumastos ho toutou apogonos, ho tou Pharaô ta enupnia hôs emellon apobêsesthai diêgoumenos. touto moi kai Philôn, ex Hebraiôn philosophos, en tôi tou Politikou biôi sunepimarturêsetai, Philôn, peri hou errêthê, Philôn platônizei, kai Platôn philônizei. hoti êrxato hê eidôlolatreia apo Serouch heôs tôn chronôn Tharra tou patros Abraam. hos Abraam huparchôn etôn id# kai theognôsias axiôtheis enouthetei ton patera autou, legôn: ti planais tous anthrôpous dia kerdos epizêmion [toutesti ta eidôla]; ouk estin allos theos ei mê ho en tois ouranois, ho kai panta ton kosmon dêmiourgêsas. horôn gar tous anthrôpous ktismatolatrountas diêrcheto diaponoumenos kai ton ontôs onta theon ekzêtôn ek philotheou kardias. horôn de ton ouranon pote men lampron, pote de skoteinon, elegen en heautôi: ouk estin houtos theos. homoiôs kai ton hêlion kai tên selênên, ton men apokruptomenon kai amauroumenon, tên de phthinousan kai apolêgousan, ephêsen: oud' houtoi eisi theoi. kai mentoi kai tên tôn asterôn kinêsin, ek tou patros gar epaideueto tên astronomian, kai aporôn eduscherainen. ôphthê de autôi ho theos kai legei autôi: exelthe ek tês gês sou kai ek tês sungeneias sou. kai labôn ta eidôla tou patros kai ta men klasas ta de empurisas anechôrêse meta tou patros ek gês Chaldaiôn: kai elthontos eis Charran, eteleutêsen ho patêr autou. kai exelthôn ekeithen en logôi Kuriou êlthe sun têi gunaiki Sarrai kai tôi anepsiôi Lôt meta pasês autôn tês aposkeuês eis tên opheilomenên gên Chanaan, hên hoi Chananaioi turannikôs aphelomenoi ôikêsan. limou de genomenou katalipôn tên Chananaiôn gên eis Aigupton apêiei, hou tên gunaika Sarran Abimelech hêrpasen ho basileus. touton ho theos ekdeimatôsas kai paresin tôn melôn epaxas, apodos, ephê, tên gunaika tôi anthrôpôi, hoti prophêtês esti kai proseuxetai peri sou kai zêseis. ei de mê apodôis, gnôthi hoti apothanêi su kai ta sa panta. kai houtôs apolabôn tên gunaika amianton kai proseuxamenos iathênai epoiêse tês pareseôs Abimelech kai ton oikon autou. ektote timôn auton ho basileus kai prosechôn tois hup' autou legomenois, didaskalos eusebeias kai polupeirias Aiguptiois egeneto. ho autos Abram hupostrephôn ek tou polemou tês eulogias tou Melchisedek katêxiôtai, tou basileôs Salêm, hos exênenken autôi artous kai oinon. ên de kai hiereus tou Hupsistou. kai edôken autôi Abram dekatên apo pantôn. ên de ho Melchisedek apatôr, amêtôr, agenealogêtos, aphômoiômenos tôi huiôi tou theou. tôi de Abram ateknian olophuromenôi kath' hupnous epideixas ho theos tous asteras kata to plêthos autôn esesthai hoi to sperma proedêlou. ho de episteuse tôi theôi, kai elogisthê autôi eis dikaiosunên. hê de Sarra steira ousa sunechôrêsen Abram apo tês paidiskês paidopoiêsasthai: kai ischei ton Ismaêl. enenêkonta de kai ennea etôn onti tôi Abram epiphaneis ho theos Abraam metônomasen: Abram gar prôên ônomazeto: homoiôs kai tên Saran Sarran, prostheis kai heteron r. kai perieteme ton Ismaêl kai pantas tous ex autou. Kurios de tôi Abraam epixenôtheis epêngeilato texesthai Sarran autôi paida. hê de emeidiase, kai Isaak to gennêthen prosêgoreuthê, pherônumôs tôi meth' hêdonês gelôti kata tên Hebraïda dialekton. kai Abramiaios: ho apogonos Abraam, ê gigantiaios, hieroprepês.
This long entry is derived in part directly from George the Monk, in part indirectly from Philo of Alexandria; see further in the notes below.
[1] cf. Matthew 27:25 (web address 1).
[2] The Suda's attention to Chaldean astrology derives from Philo, On Abraham, (Colson, Philo Vol VI: XV.69-70).
[3] Use of tu/pos here is twofold: 1) To assert that God's appearance to Abraham was indirect (echoing Philo, On Abraham, XVII.79-80); 2) To impart, as if a corollary of tu/pos in Romans 5:14, that God's manifestation to Abraham was a type or prefiguration of Christ.
[4] Abraham is 100 years old at Isaac's birth (Genesis 21:5); however, the Suda follows Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.191-93 (web address 2 below) in assuming Abraham's age as 99 at the time of God's promise.
[5] The Suda here omits Ishmael, born to Abraham by the Egyptian slave Hagar when he was 86 years old (Genesis 16:1-16). The Suda's omission tacitly acknowledges a covenantal and legal distinction clearly drawn in Genesis. In Isaac, God establishes an "everlasting covenant" for his progeny, whereas God blesses Ishmael and makes him "fruitful and exceedingly numerous" (Genesis 17:19-20). Isaac's filial status is made explicit by God in identifying him as Abraham's "only son" (Genesis 22:12) through whom "offspring shall be named" for Abraham, whereas Ishmael, although destined to father a nation, is identified by God as "the son of the slave woman" (Genesis 21:12-13). Ishmael is, however, mentioned later in the entry.
[6] Christological imagery links Isaac to the personage of Jesus (Matthew 1:1-2 at web address 3 below). See also delta 94, notes 1 and 14.
[7] The Suda underscores the magnitude of the honor with a hyperbolic kat' before e)cai/reton.
[8] The statement, rooted in a paternalistic-filial model that originates in Abraham and culminates in the figure of Christ, approximates the transcendental premise: Abraham is to Joseph as Isaac is to Christ.
[9] The Suda confuses Mosaic and Abrahamic lore. The 2nd century BCE Jewish writer Eupolemus claimed for Moses the invention and propagation of writing: "Moses was the first wise man, the first who imparted the alphabet to the Jews; the Phoenicians received it from the Jews, and the Greeks from the Phoenicians." The 2nd century BCE Egyptian Jewish writer Artapanus attributed hieroglyphics to Moses. According to the 2nd century BCE Samaritan writer Ps.-Eupolemus and Artapanus, astrology and astronomy originated with Abraham, who taught these disciplines and other tools of culture to the Jews, Phoenicians, and Egyptians. They, in turn, transmitted these arts to the Greeks. Philo in On Abraham stresses Abraham's expertise as a teacher. (Encyc. Judaica, Vol 6.964-65; Gruen, 146-51, 157, 294; Grant, 77; Philo, XI.52) At sigma 295, Seth is credited with the invention of the alphabet; Greek legend named Cadmus or Linus as the one who introduced the alphabet to Greece (gamma 416, kappa 21, kappa 22, lambda 568). See also phi 787.
[10] The reference recalls א aleph as the initial letter of ʾelohīm, the most frequent generic name for God in the OT, used about 2,500 times--but a distant second to the unspoken covenant name YHWH (Yahweh), which occurs some 6,800 times (Perdue, 685-86). Cf. alpha 1445.
[11] A reference to Philo's *bi/os politikou= o(/per e)sti peri\ *)iwsh/f (Colson, Philo Vol VI, 140ff.)
[12] Adapted from Jerome's On Illustrious Men (11): h)\ *pla/twn filwni/zei h)\ *fi/lwn platwni/zei ("Either Plato philonizes or Philo platonizes.") Cf. phi 448 and Photius, Bibliotheca 86b 25.
[13] Abraham's grandfather (Genesis 11:22). Seruch in the LXX, שרוג śerūḡ in Hebrew. See also sigma 253.
[14] Abraham's father (Genesis 11:24). Tharra (*qa/rra, *qarra/) or Tharrha (*qa/r)r(a) (Hatch, Concordance, Appendix 1, 71; Brenton, 13); in Hebrew תרח Teraḥ. From the Chronicon of George the Monk, 92.11-12; cf. Malalas 55.5-6.
[15] The Midrash sets Abraham's rejection of idolatry at age 13 (Encyc. Judaica, 4.244). From here to "teacher to the Egyptians," the Suda's source is the Chronicon of George the Monk, 93.16 - 95.17.
[16] On God as "He who is," see omicron 438, omega 105.
[17] cf. Philo, On Abraham XIV.62.
[18] The call in Genesis 12:1-5 brings Abraham from Haran (חרן) to Canaan (כנען). The Suda adheres to Philo, On Abraham, XIV. 67: metani/statai...a)po\ th=s *xaldai/wn gh=s...e)is th\n *xarrai/wn gh=n.
[19] Philo shows a)delfidou=s, as at On Abraham, XXXVII.212, rather than the Suda's potentially ambiguous a)neyio/s for nephew (see LSJ s.v. at web address 4).
[20] On Abimelech, see alpha 45.
[21] The affliction cured in Genesis 20:17-18 is unspecified for Abimelech, but clearly is sterility for the female members of his house. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.208 (web address 5) relates that a "dangerous distemper" (Whiston trans.) afflicted Abimelech. For other traditions, see EncycJudaica, 2.76.
[22] Genesis 14:14-18; the Suda's source is the Chronicon of George the Monk, 100.17-26; 101.5-7.
[23] See Hebrews 7:3 (web address 6). In the Suda, see mu 544, mu 545, mu 546.
[24] The Greek mainly uses Abraam (אברהם ʾAḇraham) to this point, but here Abram (אברם), his pre-covenant name (Genesis 17:5).
[25] Genesis 15:5-6. The statement "and he believed God and God reckoned it to him as righteousness" appears also in Romans 4:3 (web address 7), Galatians 3:6 (web address 8), and James 2:23 (web address 9). A more idiomatic and semantically precise translation of the Hebrew (והאמין בה' ויחשבה לו צדקה weheʾemīn bah' wayyaḥšeḇeha lō ṣedaqah) reads: "And because he put his trust in the Lord, He reckoned it to his merit" (Plaut, 146). This version takes into interpretive account the imperfective waw consecutive (consequential) (Kautzsch, 111.l).
[26] Ismael (Ishmael) appears in the Suda at iota 644, but with a gloss that belongs to Isaak.
[27] Genesis 17:15. Also as *sa/r)r(a or Sarrha (Brenton, 18). The Hebrew covenant name change is Sarai to Sarah (both meaning Princess).
[28] Isaac (יצחק yiṣḥaq) from the Hebrew meaning "he (Abraham) laughed" in Genesis 17:17, and puns Sarah's תצחק tiṣḥaq ("she laughed") in Genesis 18:12. (Kohlenberger, Vol 1, 37, 39; Anderson, 182) In the Suda, see iota 606 (mostly taken from this entry).
[29] This adjectival derivative of Abraham's name appears in 4 Maccabees 9:21 LXX. The gloss replicates, apart from word order, one in Photius; cf. Synagoge alpha17, Hesychius alpha181.
Anderson, A.W. Understanding the Old Testament. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1966
Attridge, H.W. "The Letter to the Hebrews" in The HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Brenton, L.C.L. The Septuagint with Apocrypha. Peabody: Henrickson, 1999 (reprint of 1851 edn.)
Colson F.H., Philo (Vol VI), Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1994
Encyclopaedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1973
Grant, M. From Alexander to Cleopatra: The Hellenistic World. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1982
Gruen, E.S. Heritage and Hellenism: The Reinvention of Jewish Tradition. Berkeley: University of California, 1998
Hatch, E., Redpath, H.A., and Muraoka, T. A Concordance to the Septuagint. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1998
Kautzsch, E. Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon, 1910
Keck, L.E. "The Letter of Paul to the Romans" in The HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV). New York: HarperCollins, 1993
Kohlenberger, J.R. The Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987
Perdue, L.G. "Names of God in the Old Testament" in Harper's Bible Dictionary. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985
Plaut, W.G. The Torah: Genesis, A Modern Commentary. New York: Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1972
Smyth, H.W. Greek Grammar. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1984
Whiston, W. The Works of Josephus. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1987 (reprint of 1736 edn.)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4,
Web address 5,
Web address 6,
Web address 7,
Web address 8,
Web address 9
Keywords: aetiology; biography; children; Christianity; chronology; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; dreams; food; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; history; law; medicine; religion; science and technology; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 20 August 1998@17:54:17.
Vetted by:
Craig Miller (Under editorial review as of this date) on 6 January 2002@08:24:02.
Craig Miller (Modified translation) on 24 January 2002@19:18:31.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@00:26:38.
Craig Miller (Notes added. Additional work pending.) on 25 January 2002@00:29:41.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@01:17:54.
Craig Miller (Added bibliography, keywords; changed status) on 25 January 2002@22:21:22.
Craig Miller (Cosmetics) on 25 January 2002@22:51:36.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@22:54:34.
Craig Miller on 25 January 2002@23:13:26.
Craig Miller on 4 June 2002@20:45:55.
Craig Miller on 19 June 2002@19:13:42.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew words; minor cosmetics.) on 31 October 2002@10:38:39.
Raphael Finkel (More Hebrew, cosmetics.) on 18 December 2002@10:58:21.
Craig Miller (Additional cosmetics) on 17 May 2003@19:07:49.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@08:20:23.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 November 2005@07:49:08.
Jennifer Benedict (added 15 links) on 25 March 2008@11:50:57.
Catharine Roth (references, cosmetics) on 10 April 2008@16:09:00.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 10 April 2008@20:15:09.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, pruned notes, added cross-references) on 11 April 2008@12:30:02.
Catharine Roth (adjusted note numbers; more tweaks) on 11 April 2008@14:18:11.
William Hutton (augmented n. 29) on 17 July 2009@17:14:18.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 December 2011@07:16:50.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links, other tweaks) on 22 December 2011@19:00:49.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note and links) on 11 November 2013@01:26:27.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:27:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 11 August 2014@00:14:27.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:33:55.
Catharine Roth (betacode typo) on 2 October 2018@02:07:40.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 21 March 2024@01:05:31.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 21 March 2024@01:21:48.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 27 March 2024@00:54:18.

Headword: Abudênon epiphorêma
Adler number: alpha,100
Translated headword: Abydene dessert
Vetting Status: high
Whenever something unpleasant happens as a result of someone having shown up at the wrong time, we are accustomed to call it an "Abydene dessert." This is because the people of Abydos,[1] whenever they entertain a fellow-citizen or a foreigner, bring their children around to be admired after the ointments and the crowns. Those in attendance are disturbed by both the nurses clamoring and the children screaming. Hence it has become customary to say the foregoing.[2]
Greek Original:
Abudênon epiphorêma: hotan akairôs tinos epiphanentos aêdia tis êi, eiôthamen legein Abudênon epiphorêma. dia to tous Abudênous, hotan tina tôn politôn ê xenôn hestiôsi, meta to muron kai tous stephanous ta paidia peripherein philêthêsomena. tôn te tithênôn thorubousôn tôn te paidiôn kekragotôn enochleisthai tous parontas. aph' hou eithistai legein to prokeimenon.
[1] A city on the Asiatic shore of the Hellespont: see alpha 101.
[2] See also Zenobius 1.4 and other paroemiographers. For a different explanation (involving taxes and harbor dues) see Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 14.641A [14.47 Kaibel], citing Aristeides, On Proverbs.
Keywords: aetiology; children; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; ethics; food; geography; imagery; proverbs; women
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 25 August 1998@19:00:52.
Vetted by:
Eric Nelson on 31 December 1999@22:59:16.
David Whitehead (modified translation; added note) on 11 January 2001@07:21:18.
David Whitehead (added another note) on 11 January 2001@07:58:10.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 November 2005@07:49:41.
Jennifer Benedict (title tags, cosmeticule) on 25 March 2008@23:59:40.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 21 December 2011@06:54:39.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@07:30:33.
David Whitehead (tweaked a ref) on 14 January 2015@03:15:50.
Catharine Roth (reduced headword translation) on 29 March 2024@23:37:49.

Headword: Agathon
Adler number: alpha,118
Translated headword: good
Vetting Status: high
In general [it is] something beneficial, but in particular what is either identical with or not different from benefit; hence, both virtue itself and what participates in it are called "good" in three ways: as the good (i) from which [being benefited] results, [and (ii) according to which being benefited results,] as [virtuous] action and virtue,[1] and (iii) by whom [being benefited results], as the virtuous person who participates in virtue. Or [they define it [2]] in this fashion: the good is the perfection in accordance with nature of a rational being qua rational. And virtue is a thing of this sort, so that virtuous action as well as virtuous people participate [in the good]. Joy, cheerfulness and the like are byproducts [of virtue]. Furthermore, of goods, some are in the soul, others external, and others neither in the soul nor external. The ones in the soul are virtues and actions in accordance with them. The external ones are a virtuous fatherland, a virtuous friend, and their happiness. Those which are neither external nor in the soul are someone's being for himself virtuous and happy. Furthermore, of goods, some are final, others instrumental, and others both final and instrumental. Thus a friend and the benefits added by him are instrumental goods. But confidence, prudence, freedom, enjoyment, cheerfulness, freedom from distress, and every action in accordance with virtue are final. [Virtues] are instrumental and final: they are instrumental goods insofar as they produce happiness, and final [goods] insofar as they complete it in such a way as to become parts of it; for example a friend and freedom and enjoyment.[3] Furthermore, of the goods in the soul, some are conditions, others dispositions, and others neither conditions nor dispositions. Virtues are dispositions, pursuits conditions, and activities neither conditions nor dispositions. In general good children and a good old age are minor goods,[4] but knowledge is a simple good. And virtues are always present, but joy and taking a stroll for example not always. Every good is profitable, advantageous, binding, useful, serviceable, fine, beneficial, just, and choiceworthy.
The good is that which is aimed at by all things.[5]
Thus the good is that on which all things depend but which itself depends on nothing.[6]
Greek Original:
Agathon: koinôs men to ti ophelos, idiôs de êtoi tauton ê ouch heteron ôpheleias: hothen autên te tên aretên kai to metechon autês agathon trichôs legesthai. hoion to agathon, aph' hou sumbainei, hôs tên praxin kai tên aretên. huph' hou de, hôs ton spoudaion ton metechonta tês aretês. ê houtôs: to agathon, to teleion kata phusin logikou, ê hôs logikou. toiouto d' einai tên aretên hôs metechonta tas te praxeis tas kat' aretên, kai to spoudaious einai. epigennêmata de tên te charan kai tên euphrosunên kai ta paraplêsia. eti tôn agathôn ta men einai peri psuchên, ta de ektos, ta de oute peri psuchên oute ektos. ta men peri psuchên aretas kai tas kata tautas praxeis: ta de ektos to te spoudaian echein patrida kai spoudaion philon kai tên toutôn eudaimonian. ta de ouk ektos oute peri psuchên to auton heautôi einai spoudaion kai eudaimona. eti tôn agathôn ta men einai telika, ta de poiêtika, ta de telika kai poiêtika. ton men oun philon kai tas hup' autou prosginomenas ôpheleias poiêtika einai agatha: tharsos de kai phronêma kai eleutherian kai terpsin kai euphrosunên kai alupian kai pasan tên kat' aretên praxin telika. poiêtika de kai telika, katho men poiousi tên eudaimonian, poiêtika estin agatha: katho de sumplêrousin autên, hôste merê autês genesthai, telika: hoion philos kai eleutheria kai terpsis. eti tôn peri psuchên agathôn ta men eisin hexeis, ta de diatheseis, ta de oute hexeis oute diatheseis. diatheseis men hai aretai, hexeis de ta epitêdeumata, oute de hexeis oute diatheseis hai energeiai. koinôs tôn agathôn mikra men estin euteknia kai eugêria. haploun de estin agathon epistêmê. kai aei men paronta hai aretai, ouk aei de hoion chara, peripatêsis. pan de agathon lusiteles einai kai sumpheron kai deon kai chrêsimon kai euchrêston kai kalon kai ôphelimon kai dikaion kai haireton. agathon de esti to pasin epheton. agathon oun estin, eis ho panta anêrtêtai, auto de eis mêden.
See also alpha 119, likewise a neuter singular.
This entry mostly reproduces Diogenes Laertius 7.94-98 (who supposedly is quoting an extract of Stoic ethics). The Suda text contains important omissions as well as different readings (the D.L. readings are, for the most part, much better).
[1] D.L. gives th\n pra=cin th\n kat' a)reth/n, "the action according to virtue" or simply "the virtuous action", as a gloss on a second sense in which virtue and what participates in it are called "good": that according to which being benefited results.
[2] D.L. has o(ri/zontai, "they define", which makes clear that a new definition is being given here.
[3] This puzzling list of examples does not occur in D.L.
[4] The text given by Suda is misleading; D.L. gives a)gaqw=n mikta/, "mixed goods", instead of a)gaqw=n mikra/, "little goods".
[5] cf. Aristotle, Topica 1094a2-3, with Alexander of Aphrodisias's commentary 93.8.
[6] Plotinus, Enneads 1.7.1, 21-22 (identified by Henry [below] 157 n.2, as noted in Adler's addenda).
J. Annas, The Morality of Happiness (Oxford: Oxford University Press) 1993
Henry, P. "Suidas, Le Larousse et le Littré de l'antiquité grecque." Les Études classiques (1937): 155-62
Keywords: children; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; philosophy
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 26 May 2000@18:40:04.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, modified translation, added keyword, sets status) on 6 June 2001@00:38:37.
William Hutton (Added betacoding) on 6 June 2001@00:44:50.
David Whitehead (added notes; cosmetics) on 16 January 2003@05:49:31.
David Hitchcock (Modified translation, added notes) on 24 December 2004@06:46:10.
David Hitchcock on 24 December 2004@06:51:54.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 12 October 2005@08:00:23.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 November 2005@07:50:17.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmetics) on 26 March 2008@00:37:50.
Catharine Roth (added note 6; cosmetics) on 22 May 2008@15:01:13.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 22 December 2011@06:23:36.
David Whitehead (expanded n.6) on 17 January 2014@05:26:23.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 17 July 2023@01:20:41.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 17 July 2023@23:11:03.

Headword: Agapêton
Adler number: alpha,154
Translated headword: beloved, scarce
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] that which is loved or unique.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the related adverb] a)gaphtw/s ["scarcely"]. "So great was the foolishness among their leaders that they scarcely saw whether they would not be fighting with all who were taking part in the campaign."[2]
Greek Original:
Agapêton: to êgapêmenon ê to monogenes. kai houtô de ara polu to anoêton en tois hêgemosin autôn ên, hôste agapêtôs eidon, ei mê meta pantôn agôniountai tôn sunaramenôn tês stratias.
[1] Neuter singular of this adjective. (For the plural see alpha 153.) Same or similar material in other lexica (references at Photius alpha121 Theodoridos), and in the scholia to Homer, Iliad 6.401. The term is applied e.g. to an only child, who is especially loved on that account: see LSJ s.v. at web address 1.
[2] Quotation unidentifiable. (It illustrates sense 2 in LSJ s.v.; sense 1 is 'gladly, contentedly.')
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: children; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: William Hutton on 2 April 2000@22:10:59.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added notes and keywords) on 11 February 2001@09:17:24.
Jennifer Benedict (added link) on 26 March 2008@01:18:42.
David Whitehead (modified headword and tr; augmented notes and keywords) on 27 March 2008@08:25:42.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1; more keywords; tweaks) on 23 December 2011@06:35:04.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@08:21:09.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 4 April 2015@11:50:24.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 4 April 2015@23:32:47.

Headword: Agapios
Adler number: alpha,158
Translated headword: Agapios, Agapius
Vetting Status: high
This man was an Alexandrian by birth; raised from childhood amidst cultured discourse, he became a commentator on medical teachings and went to Byzantium where he established a very distinguished school. Relying on the magnitude of his talent and the favor of fortune, he became celebrated for his skill and amassed large amounts of money.
Greek Original:
Agapios: houtos ên Alexandreus men to genos: ek paidôn de logois entrapheis eleutheriois kai iatrikôn mathêmatôn exêgêtês gegonôs anelthôn es to Buzantion diatribên te sunepêxato mala diaprepê, phuseôs te megethei kai dexiotêti tuchês chrêsamenos, endoxos te epi têi technêi gegone kai chrêmata megala suneilochen.
Damascius, Life of Isidore fr. 330 Zintzen (298 Asmus, 107 Athanassiadi).
Keywords: biography; children; economics; ethics; geography; medicine; philosophy
Translated by: William Hutton on 9 April 2000@23:07:39.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 25 April 2002@09:01:29.
David Whitehead (typo) on 22 October 2003@02:57:05.
Catharine Roth (augmented note, added keyword) on 22 November 2005@11:33:21.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@06:58:53.

Headword: Agenês
Adler number: alpha,199
Translated headword: family-less
Vetting Status: high
Isaeus [sc. uses this word] to mean a)/pais["childless"].
Greek Original:
Agenês: Isaios anti tou apais.
Isaeus 2.1 (web address 1), cited from Harpokration s.v. In fact the transmitted texts of Isaeus have a)/pais; it is therefore likely that a)ge/nhs is an ancient variant which dropped out of the textual tradition.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: children; daily life; definition; rhetoric
Translated by: David Whitehead on 29 September 2000@06:43:03.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, added link and keywords, raised status.) on 30 October 2000@20:23:54.
Catharine Roth (Cosmetic.) on 25 January 2001@18:04:11.
David Whitehead (augmented note) on 17 September 2002@05:16:40.
Jennifer Benedict (betacode) on 26 March 2008@02:12:25.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 27 March 2008@08:48:14.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 20 July 2011@03:23:09.

Headword: Agnoei d' arachnê paidas hôs paideuetai
Adler number: alpha,277
Translated headword: a spider knows not how she educates her children.
Vetting Status: high
[A spider knows not how she educates her children.] For having nurtured them she has died at the hands of her dearest ones. [Sc. A proverbial saying] in reference to those who look after something against their own interest.
Greek Original:
Agnoei d' arachnê paidas hôs paideuetai. threpsasa gar tethnêke pros tôn philtatôn: epi tôn kath' heautôn ti pragmateuomenôn.
cf. Diogenianus 1.70 and other paroemiographers
Keywords: children; daily life; ethics; proverbs; zoology
Translated by: Roger Travis on 6 October 2000@13:05:58.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@05:56:55.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 November 2005@07:50:46.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 5 January 2012@05:07:34.

Headword: Agonia
Adler number: alpha,295
Translated headword: sterility
Vetting Status: high
Childlessness, barrenness.[1] Aelian [writes]: "the young generation was being destroyed, and there was also sterility both of the women and of the four-footed flock."[2]
Greek Original:
Agonia: ateknia, agennêsia. Ailianos: diephtheireto hê neolaia, kai ên agonia kai mentoi kai gunaikôn kai tês agelês tês tetrapodos.
[1] LSJ entry at web address 1. Also see alpha 332.
[2] Aelian fr. 52f Domingo-Forasté (49 Hercher), from the story of Pythagoras, tyrant of Ephesus (pi 3122); cf. nu 195, pi 2518.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; children; definition; food; gender and sexuality; geography; history; medicine; women; zoology
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 12 February 2001@01:15:50.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added keywords, raised status) on 12 February 2001@19:50:13.
David Whitehead (augmented note; added keywords) on 23 December 2002@11:40:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@08:49:23.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 7 January 2012@22:22:26.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 2) on 29 January 2012@22:13:26.

Headword: Agôgê
Adler number: alpha,321
Translated headword: deportment, carriage, upbringing
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] behaviour, manner; or conveyance. Also the driven load.[1]
Upbringing is also said to be the arrangement of one's manner through one's habits, as one speaks of upbringing of children; also the transference [of this]; in reference to which sense he who is defining origin in this way used the word agoge.[2]
Polybius [writes]: "the recruiting-officer also brought a Lakedaimonian man who had participated in the Lakonian upbringing and had a good measure of experience in military things."[3]
Greek Original:
Agôgê: anastrophê, tropos: ê hê komidê. kai to agomenon baros. Agôgê legetai kai hê dia tôn êthôn tou tropou kata- kosmêsis, hôs legetai paidôn agôgê: kai hê metabolê: eph' hou sêmainomenou ho horizomenos houtôs tên genesin kechrêtai tôi tês agôgês onomati. Polubios: êgage de ho xenologos kai Lakedaimonion andra tês Lakônikês agôgês meteschêkota kai tribên en tois polemikois echonta summetron.
[1] Same or similar material in other lexica; references at Photius alpha303 Theodoridis.
[2] From the Commentary on Aristotle's Topica by Alexander of Aphrodisias (423.20-424.2); it continues the material begun under alpha 320.
[3] Polybius 1.32.1 (abridged). On the public educational/disciplinary regime in Sparta, to which the term agoge came especially to apply, see generally OCD(4) s.v. (p.40).
Keywords: children; daily life; definition; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; philosophy
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 23 March 2001@06:56:11.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added note and keywords) on 23 March 2001@11:23:00.
David Whitehead (added keyword; restorative cosmetics) on 17 February 2003@07:40:03.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 6 October 2005@08:52:27.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@05:21:19.
David Whitehead on 19 August 2013@04:12:19.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@02:59:25.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 31 December 2018@01:30:55.

Headword: Agrious
Adler number: alpha,360
Translated headword: wild men
Vetting Status: high
Aeschines in the speech Against Timarchos calls men who are very agitated by the love of boys "wild men".[1] And Menander says a gambler is "wild" if he is too eager for gambling.[2]
The ancients used to call pederasts "wild" and kollopodioktes[3].
[Note] that the comic poets used to make fun of the Acharnians as wild and rough. See under drakharneu.[4]
Greek Original:
Agrious: Aischinês en tôi kata Timarchou tous sphodra eptoêmenous peri ta paidika houtôs ônomase. kai Menandros de agrion eipe kubeutên ton lian peri to kubeuein espoudakota. agrious kai kollopodiôktas ekaloun hoi palaioi tous paiderastas. hoti ekômôidounto hoi Acharneis hôs agrioi kai sklêroi: kai zêtei en tôi dracharneu.
The first two paragraphs of this entry come from Harpokration s.v. There, as again here, the headword noun is accusative plural.
See also alpha 359.
[1] Aeschines 1.52.
[2] Menander fr. 965 Kock, 705 Koerte, now 480 Kassel-Austin.
[3] Scholia to Aristophanes, Clouds 349; the meaning of the word is otherwise unknown.
[4] delta 1515.
Keywords: children; comedy; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; rhetoric
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:43:47.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 29 September 2000@07:21:59.
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; further cosmetics) on 13 February 2001@05:20:51.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 11 November 2005@06:36:51.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@04:20:14.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 8 January 2012@22:19:36.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 December 2014@10:44:14.

Headword: Ader
Adler number: alpha,449
Translated headword: Hadad, Ader, Aderos
Vetting Status: high
The offender, who rebelled against Solomon. He was a child, of the Edomite race, of royal descent. When Joab, David's general, had subdued Edom and in six months had killed all those who were of age and able to bear arms, this [Hadad] fled and came before Pharaoh, the king of Egypt. He was hospitable towards him and took him in and gave to him a house and a plot of land for sustenance and when [Hadad] came to his prime he loved him very much, so he gave him the sister of his own wife to wed, Thaphines by name, by whom he had a son who was raised amongst the sons of the king. When he heard in Egypt of the death of David and of that of Joab, he approached Pharaoh and asked to be released from him to go to his homeland. When the king asked him what lack there was or what hardships such that he was eager to leave him, he did not send him off at that point, but later, in the time when affairs were going badly for Solomon, on account of his aforementioned faults and transgressions and the anger of God for him over these same things, Hadad came by [the permission of] the Pharaoh into Edom. He ruled the Syrians and harassed the country of the Israelites, and he attacked Solomon.
Greek Original:
Ader: ho alitêrios, ho epanastas Solomônti. pais houtos ên, Idoumaios genos, ek basilikôn spermatôn. katastrepsamenou de tên Idoumaian Iôabou tou Dabid stratêgou kai pantas tous en akmêi kai pherein hopla dunamenous diaphtheirantos mêsin hex, phugôn houtos hêke pros Pharaô ton Aiguptou basilea. ho de philophronôs auton hupodexamenos oikon te autôi didôsi kai chôran eis diatrophên kai genomenon en hêlikiai lian êgapa, hôs kai tês autou gunaikos autôi dounai pros gamon tên adelphên, onoma Thaphinên, ex hês huios autôi genomenos tois tou basileôs paisi sunanetraphê. akousas oun ton Dabid thanaton en Aiguptôi kai ton Iôabou, proselthôn edeito tou Pharaô epitrepein autôi badizein eis tên patrida. tou de basileôs anakrinontos, tinos endeês ôn ê ti pathôn espoudake kataleipein auton, tote men ouk apheithê, husteron de kath' hon êdê kairon Solomôni ta pragmata kakôs eiche dia tas proeirêmenas aitias kai paranomias kai tên orgên tên ep' autois, tou theou sunchôrêsantos tôi Pharaôni ho Aderos hêken eis tên Idoumaian. hos tês Surias basileusas katetreche tên tôn Israêlitôn chôran, epitithetai de Solomôni.
Most of this entry is quoted directly from Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 8.200-204; see web address 1 below for the text on Perseus. Information about Hadad is also to be found in I Kings 11:14-23.
The Suda gives Ader as the headword but Josephus' Aderos in the gloss. The Septuagint gives this name as Ader and treats the word as an indeclinable while the Hebrew of the Nevi'im gives הדד Hadad.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; children; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; history; military affairs; religion; women
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 17 March 2001@19:37:29.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, set status) on 18 March 2001@14:05:59.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew) on 31 October 2002@11:06:10.
David Whitehead (modified translation; added keyword; cosmetics) on 17 February 2003@07:47:34.
Jennifer Benedict (updated Perseus link) on 12 March 2008@00:03:12.
David Whitehead (more keywords; minor tweaks) on 9 July 2008@04:51:52.
David Whitehead on 10 January 2012@06:49:47.
David Whitehead (coding) on 15 August 2015@07:04:07.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 2 October 2018@02:16:26.

Headword: Aei
Adler number: alpha,607
Translated headword: always
Vetting Status: high
Of this [there are] 11 meanings.[1]
"The wise man must always be the same, in sharp pains, in the loss of a child, or in serious illnesses". Such was Apollonius of Tyana.[2]
And [there is] a proverb: "for the dice of Zeus always fall well."[3]
Equivalent to: the dice of Zeus [fall] deservedly to the Eternal six.[4]
In reference to those who are fortunate deservedly and in everything. But some [say] in reference to those being deservedly punished.
Greek Original:
Aei: toutou ia# phônai. aei de chrê ton sophon einai homoion, en algêdosin oxeiais, en apobolêi teknou, en makrais nosois. hoios ên Apollônios ho Tuaneus. kai paroimia: aei gar eu piptousin hoi Dios kuboi. homoia axiôs têi Aei hex piptousin hoi Dios kuboi. epi tôn axiôs kai eis panta eudaimonountôn. hoi de epi tôn axiôs timôroumenôn.
See also alpha 606.
[1] Etym. Magn. 31.24 says 12.
[2] Marcus Aurelius, Meditations 1.8.1 -- but referring to his teacher Apollonius of Chalcedon, not to the one from Tyana (alpha 3420).
[3] Sophocles fr. 809; cf. Zenobius 2.44, Diogenianus 1.58; Tosi [see under alpha 378] no.116.
[4] So the transmitted text, but it should probably read 'triple six'; cf. omicroniota 106, tau 1005.
Keywords: biography; children; daily life; ethics; medicine; philosophy; proverbs; religion; tragedy
Translated by: Carl Widstrand on 2 February 2000@11:47:01.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (modified translation) on 26 January 2002@18:20:34.
Catharine Roth (corrected cross-reference) on 26 January 2002@18:22:47.
David Whitehead (modified and supplemented translation and notes; cosmetics) on 27 January 2002@06:16:18.
Catharine Roth (augmented note) on 30 January 2002@19:21:04.
David Whitehead (another x-ref and more keywords; cosmetics) on 16 August 2006@04:55:05.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 12 January 2012@08:00:56.
David Whitehead (expanded n.3) on 14 August 2012@08:51:36.
Ronald Allen (corrected cross-reference in n.2) on 5 November 2018@20:22:04.
David Whitehead (added n.4, at the prompting of Prof J C McKeown) on 20 September 2021@11:41:34.

Headword: Athemista
Adler number: alpha,714
Translated headword: lawless [things]
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] unjust [ones].[1]
Also [sc. attested is the masculine nominative singular] a)qe/mistos, [meaning] unlawful.[2]
Also said is a)/qesmos, [meaning] illegal.
"Piasos the Thessalian loved Larissa, his own daughter -- a love both illegal and unfortunate".[3]
Greek Original:
Athemista: adika. kai Athemistos, anomos. legetai de kai Athesmos, ho paranomos. êrasthê Piasos Thettalos Larissês tês heautou thugatros erôta athesmon te kai dustuchê.
See also alpha 715.
[1] Likewise or similarly in other lexica; references at Photius alpha455 Theodoridis. The headword, neuter plural, must be quoted from somewhere.
[2] Likewise or similarly in other lexica; references at Photius alpha456 Theodoridis.
[3] Aelian fr. 198 Domingo-Forasté, 195 Hercher (again at pi 1549). Strabo 13.3.4 provides more details: "it is at the Phryconian Larisa that Piasos is said to have been honoured; he, they say, was ruler of the Pelasgians and fell in love with his daughter Larisa, but when he had violated her he paid the penalty for the outrage: observing him leaning over a case of wine, they say, she seized him by the legs, raised him, and plunged him into the cask".
Keywords: biography; children; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; gender and sexuality; geography; law; mythology; women
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 15 February 2000@21:53:26.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 25 January 2001@05:50:10.
David Whitehead (augmented note) on 8 July 2004@03:28:08.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 11 November 2005@05:32:37.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; betacoding and other cosmetics) on 19 January 2012@05:59:36.
Catharine Roth (updated reference) on 4 February 2012@01:08:10.
David Whitehead on 19 August 2013@06:40:38.

Headword: Athurma
Adler number: alpha,767
Translated headword: plaything
Vetting Status: high
A children's toy.[1]
Josephus [writes]: "who was a plaything of the king and was exhibited to be teased and laughed at during the drinking sessions".[2]
And elsewhere: "it is not the part of men to linger with playthings of children".[3]
Also in the Epigrams: "they stripped it and hung it up by the road as a plaything for Pan".[4] Meaning as a delight.
Cratinus in Odysseuses: "a novel plaything had been introduced".[5]
Greek Original:
Athurma: paignion. Iôsêpos. hos ên tou basileôs athurma kai pros ta skômmata kai tous en tois potois gelôtas epedeiknuto. kai authis: ouk estin andrôn athurmasin emphilochôrein paidiôn. kai en Epigrammasi: Pani de min xessantes hodôi epi kalon athurma kat- thesan. anti tou agalma. Kratinos Odusseusi: neochmon parêchthai athurma.
The headword is a neuter noun related to alpha 768 and alpha 769.
[1] Same glossing in Photius (Lexicon alpha492 and alpha493 Theodoridis) and elsewhere.
[2] Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 12.212 (web address 1 below) on Tryphon.
[3] Quotation unidentifiable; a proverb?
[4] Greek Anthology 6.37.3 (on an oak bough). The author is unknown. On this epigram, in which herdsmen have fashioned something out of an oak branch and dedicated it to Pan, see Page (381-382) and another extract from it at rho 316. Page argues that the object was most likely a statue (ibid.).
[5] Cratinus fr.145 Kock, now 152 K.-A.
D.L. Page, ed., Further Greek Epigrams, (Cambridge 1981)
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; botany; children; comedy; daily life; definition; food; historiography; history; imagery; poetry; religion
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 6 November 2000@00:13:46.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 6 November 2000@05:22:34.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 23 May 2002@05:35:08.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 16 November 2005@07:55:17.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 13 December 2005@05:29:08.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 22 January 2012@06:26:34.
Catharine Roth (fixed link) on 25 January 2012@01:24:29.
David Whitehead on 19 August 2013@07:16:17.
David Whitehead on 23 December 2014@04:21:46.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 3 May 2015@23:20:46.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 3 October 2018@22:22:17.
Ronald Allen (expanded n.4, added bibliography, added cross-reference) on 11 July 2023@21:17:23.

Headword: Athurmion
Adler number: alpha,769
Translated headword: little toy
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning a] plaything.
Greek Original:
Athurmion: paignion.
The headword is a diminutive -- attested only here and, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon (765) -- of a)/qurma (alpha 767).
Keywords: children; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 21 December 1999@02:45:01.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 10 May 2002@06:24:11.
David Whitehead (tweaked note) on 22 January 2012@06:38:40.
David Whitehead on 3 May 2015@09:35:34.

Headword: Akakios
Adler number: alpha,783
Translated headword: Akakios, Acacius
Vetting Status: high
The patriarch of Constantinople, he was revered as no other. For he was the guardian of orphans, and it was evident to all that he managed the affairs of the orphans well and with pleasure. Moreoever, he became an acquaintance of the emperor Leo with whom he found immense favor. He [Leo] confided his affairs, both public and private, to this man first of all. When he assembled the senate, he invited this man as well and turned the beginning of every discussion over to him.
This Akakios realized the savagery of Leo Makelles[1] toward those who had offended him in some way and had accurately divined his character; but because this was something only those who flattered him had the opportunity to observe, he made a habit of marvelling at all that he did. Nevertheless he was readily able to rein [Leo] in and easily made him slacken his anger. He also brought about the salvation of many who ran afoul of him, and managed to have those sentenced to life-long exile recalled to their homeland.
After the death of Gennadios, patriarch of Constantinople, he was nominated to serve in that priesthood with the backing of Zenon. Since he was a natural leader and took all the churches under his direct control, he exercised a deliberate discrimination concerning those who were appointed to the churches. They in gratitude dedicated images of him in their prayer chambers. Thus, when images of him appeared in all the churches, some people began to think that he, in a pursuit of empty glory, had ordered their dedication, and no small confirmation of this suspicion was supplied by the mosaic image fashioned in the church by the harbor. For although the entire work had been completed in the time of Gennadios, in a conspicuous place in the temple they portrayed [Akakios] and after him the Savior saying to Gennadios 'destroy this temple', and over him 'after you I will raise him up.'[2] As a result of such images, then, Akakios, though he was generous and a capable leader, nevertheless seemed to all to be excessively ambitious.[3]
See concerning this man under Basiliskos.[4]
Greek Original:
Akakios: ho patriarchês Kônstantinoupoleôs, aidesimos ên hôs ouk allos tis. orphanotrophos gar gegonôs kai kalôs ta tôn orphanôn dioikôn pasin ephaineto kath' hêdonên. kai dê kai tôi basilei Leonti sunêthês gegonôs huperphuôs êreske kai toutôi prôtôi aei panta anekoinouto ta te koina kai ta idia. kai hote tên boulên êthroize, sunekalei kai touton kai tês skepseôs archên ex autou pasês etitheto. hos Akakios tên tou Leontos tou Makellê ômotêta sunidôn pros tous ti lupêsantas kai to êthos akribôs to ekeinou phôrasas, hoti tois epainousi monon huparchei eualôton, epetêdeue panta ta ekeinou thaumazein. toigaroun peithênion auton eichen hetoimôs ton te thumon autou rhaidiôs katestelle kai pollois proskekroukosi tên sôtêrian epragmateueto kai tous exorian aïdion echontas anekaleito pros tên patrida. houtos meta thanaton Gennadiou, patriarchou Kônstantinoupoleôs, spoudêi Zênônos hierasthai proeblêthê. hos ôn archikos kai pasas tas ekklêsias huph' heauton poiêsas pephrontismenôs tôn en autais keklêrômenôn epoieito tên kêdemonian, hoi eucharistountes en graphais anethêkan auton kata tous euktêrious oikous. epeiper oun athroon en pasais tais ekklêsiais edeichthêsan autou eikones, ôiêthêsan tines kenodoxounta tên anathesin prostetachenai ou mikran echontes tês huponoias pistôsin, tên ek psêphidôn graphên dêmiourgêtheisan en têi pros tôi neôriôi ekklêsiai. tou gar ergou pantos epi Gennadiou telesthentos eis ton epiphanê topon exetupôsan auton tou neô kai metaxu toude ton Sôtêra legonta tôi Gennadiôi, luson ton naon touton, kai epi tou, meta se egerô auton. ek tôn toioutôn oun eikonôn Akakios, ei kai eumetadotos ên kai prostatikos, alla doxomanês pasin edoxen huparchein. zêtei peri touton en tôi Basiliskos.
On Acacius or Akakios, see web address 1.
[1] Leo "the Butcher": see lambda 267 and biography (by Hugh Elton) at web address 2.
[2] cf. John 2.19.
[3] Valesius (Henri de Valois 1603-1676) attributed this entry to Malchus (on Theodore the Reader 167); now accepted as Malchus fr.2b Cresci.
[4] beta 164.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: architecture; art history; biography; children; Christianity; chronology; ethics; geography; historiography; history; law; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 1 June 2001@11:30:21.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added links) on 1 June 2001@18:44:50.
William Hutton (Modified translation) on 3 June 2001@11:10:35.
Catharine Roth (added note) on 28 February 2002@00:12:18.
Catharine Roth (augmented translation and notes) on 28 February 2002@13:38:30.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@11:17:30.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note, added cross-reference) on 20 May 2008@11:40:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 22 January 2012@08:28:19.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 31 January 2015@07:57:40.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note) on 3 May 2015@23:35:20.

Headword: Akraton
Adler number: alpha,963
Translated headword: untempered
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] clear, pure.
"A story comes from the Macedonians, which says that an eagle wandering along and stretching out its wings warded off from him both the untempered ray of the sun by hovering over him and, when it rained, the abundant rain."[1]
Greek Original:
Akraton: dieidê, akraiphnê. diarrei de logos ek Makedonôn, hos legei, aeton epiphoitônta kai tas pterugas hupoteinonta apostegein autou kai tên akraton aktina heauton apaiôrounta kai hote huoi, ton polun hueton.
The headword is masculine/feminine accusative singular of this adjective, presumably extracted from the quotation given (LSJ entry at web address 1).
cf. alpha 964, alpha 965, alpha 966.
[1] Aelian fr. 283 Domingo-Forasté (285 Hercher). Aelian tells the story of Ptolemy I Soter, 367/366-283/282, founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt [OCD(4) p.1234]. When his mother Arsinoe gave birth to the child, his father Lagus thought it was not his and exposed it on a bronze shield. The eagle intervened, as did the wolf with Romulus and Remus. See also alpha 965 and lambda 25.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; children; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; history; imagery; mythology; zoology
Translated by: Oliver Phillips ✝ on 12 July 2000@18:57:08.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 4 June 2002@10:59:55.
Catharine Roth (updated reference) on 7 September 2011@01:21:29.
David Whitehead (added primary note and more keywords) on 29 January 2012@08:50:15.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note) on 6 February 2012@01:38:23.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@03:55:10.
David Whitehead on 19 May 2015@02:57:15.

Headword: Akratos hêliou aktis
Adler number: alpha,965
Translated headword: untempered ray of the sun
Vetting Status: high
"The eagle, stretching out his wings and hovering so as to ward off the untempered ray of the sun."
Greek Original:
Akratos hêliou aktis: ton de aeton tas pterugas hupoteinonta kai heauton aiôrounta, hôs stegein tên akraton aktina tou hêliou.
Aelian fr. 283 Domingo-Forasté (285 Hercher): see already alpha 963 (and and again lambda 25) for Aelian's story of the eagle who protected the infant Ptolemy I Soter, exposed on a shield, from the sun.
Keywords: biography; children; history; mythology; zoology
Translated by: Oliver Phillips ✝ on 12 July 2000@18:55:25.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 4 June 2002@11:13:24.
Catharine Roth (updated reference) on 7 September 2011@01:20:26.
David Whitehead on 11 September 2011@04:20:05.
Catharine Roth (deleted link, removed a keyword) on 11 September 2011@14:47:11.
David Whitehead on 19 May 2015@02:56:44.

Headword: Alalkein
Adler number: alpha,1063
Translated headword: to ward off
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] to chase away, to keep away.
"Why do we grieve for dying sons? Not even gods have power to ward off Hades from their children".[1]
Greek Original:
Alalkein: apodiôxai, aposobêsai. ti phthimenois stonacheumen eph' huiasin; hênik' alalkein tôn paidôn aïdên oude theois dunamis.
The headword is an epic/poetic aorist infinitive (very probably quoted from Homer, Iliad 19.30). For the verb see generally LSJ s.v. a)/lalke; and cf. eta 191.
[1] Greek Anthology 7.8.7-8 (Antipater of Sidon), on the death of Orpheus; cf. Gow and Page, vol. I (14-15), vol. II (42), and this epigram's further extracts at beta 548, delta 1552, and sigma 1668. The text has a(ni/k) instead of the Suda lexicographer's h(ni/k); cf. Gow and Page, vol. I (15).
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge 1965)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge 1965)
Keywords: children; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; mythology; poetry; religion
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 7 November 2000@16:56:15.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added keywords; cosmetics) on 8 November 2000@03:49:31.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 6 October 2005@08:53:18.
Catharine Roth (augmented note with cross-reference, raised status) on 23 July 2006@19:03:40.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 2 February 2012@08:30:34.
David Whitehead (expanded primary note) on 26 May 2015@08:38:52.
Ronald Allen (expanded n.1, added bibliography, added cross-references, added keyword) on 13 February 2019@18:57:01.
Ronald Allen (typo n.1) on 15 February 2019@19:31:00.

Headword: Alaotokos
Adler number: alpha,1072
Translated headword: blind-bearing
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] one who produces blind [children].
Greek Original:
Alaotokos: ho tuphla gennôn.
The headword is attested only here and, according to Adler, the Ambrosian Lexicon (1162a).
For the first part of this compound cf. alpha 1071.
Keywords: children; definition; medicine
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 30 March 2000@11:49:24.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes; cosmetics) on 10 June 2002@07:57:59.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 16 November 2005@07:55:55.
David Whitehead (tweaked note) on 2 February 2012@09:33:34.
David Whitehead on 26 May 2015@10:27:11.

Headword: Alaste
Adler number: alpha,1079
Translated headword: inconsolable
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] unable to forget [grief].[1]
"My inconsolable child".[2]
Greek Original:
Alaste: anepilêste. teknon emon alaston.
Same entry in ps.-Zonaras.
[1] The headword (vocative case) occurs in Homer, Iliad 22.261, and the gloss is the one from the scholia thereto.
[2] Quotation unidentifiable in this precise form, but Adler cites for comparison Callimachus, Hymn 5.87 (another vocative: te/knon a)/laste).
Keywords: children; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; poetry
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 8 November 2000@00:24:44.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes and keywords) on 8 November 2000@07:02:19.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 10 June 2002@08:20:32.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks) on 2 February 2012@10:33:58.
David Whitehead on 26 May 2015@10:41:59.


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