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Headword: Abasanistos
Adler number: alpha,21
Translated headword: untested
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning someone/something] unexercised or unexamined, unscrutinized. The word comes from the test of the goldsmith's stone, on which they scrutinize gold.[1] Aelian in his On Providence used the word 'untested' to mean 'without pain'.[2]
Greek Original:
Abasanistos: agumnastos ê anexetastos, adokimastos. eirêtai de apo tês basanou tês chrusochoïkês lithou, en hêi dokimazousi to chrusion. echrêsato de Ailianos en tôi peri pronoias tôi abasanistos anti tou aneu odunês.
= Synagoge alpha4 (Lexica Segueriana 3.14); Photius, Lexicon alpha30 Theodoridis; perhaps ultimately derived in part from Phrynichus (Praeparatio rhetorica fr. 39 de Borries); cf. Hesychius alpha89 and a cluster of related entries: alpha 2276, Hesychius alpha4899, Synagoge alpha589, Photius alpha1845.
[1] *ba/sanos can mean both the touchstone itself and the testing process. See beta 139, and cf. beta 137.
[2] Aelian fr.9 Hercher (= 9 Domingo-Forasté). The version of the entry at Synagoge alpha4 includes the information that this is from the third book of the work in question.
Keywords: athletics; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; law; philosophy; rhetoric; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 22 August 1998@12:58:18.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 20 January 2001@11:28:32.
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes) on 21 January 2001@05:35:01.
William Hutton (tweaked translation, expanded notes, added keywords, set status) on 27 August 2007@05:12:39.
William Hutton (Updates references in footnotes.) on 11 November 2007@07:10:05.
William Hutton (typo) on 8 February 2008@02:59:18.
Jennifer Benedict (added keyword) on 23 March 2008@00:55:08.
David Whitehead (typos) on 19 December 2011@06:11:54.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:31:43.
David Whitehead (cosmetics; another keyword) on 2 April 2015@08:51:56.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 18 February 2024@01:52:52.

Headword: Agalmata
Adler number: alpha,133
Translated headword: delights, ornaments, statues
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] the likenesses of the gods, and anything that is decorative in some way. Homer [writes]: "but it is stored away as a delight for the king."[1] And Hesiod calls a necklace an "ornament";[2] but Pindar uses this term for the decoration on a tomb,[3] and Euripides uses it for the adornments for corpses.[4]
Also something in which someone takes delight.[5]
Also [sc. a term for] image, wooden statue, delight, beauty, ornament, source of pride, palm leaves,[6] [human] statues, [honorific?] inscriptions.
Paintings and [human] statues are also called agalmata.[7]
Agalmation [is] the diminutive form.
Greek Original:
Agalmata: ta tôn theôn mimêmata, kai panta ta kosmou tinos metechonta. Homêros: basilêï de keitai agalma. kai Hêsiodos ton hormon agalma kalei: Pindaros de tên epi taphou stêlên houtô kalei, Euripidês ton epi nekrois kosmon. kai eph' hôi tis agalletai. kai to eidôlon, bretas, charma, kallonê, kosmos, kauchêma, thalloi, andriantes, epigraphai. Agalmata de kai tas graphas kai tous andriantas legousin. Agalmation de hupokoristikôs.
The (neuter) headword is the plural of alpha 131 (and cf. alpha 132). It is perhaps, though not necessarily, quoted from somewhere.
[1] Homer, Iliad 4.144 (web address 1), on an ivory cheek-piece for a horse.
[2] This fragment of Hesiod (142 Merkelbach-West, 233 Rzach) is not known from any other source. It may pertain to the story of Europa in the Catalogue of Women.
[3] Pindar, Nemean Odes 10.125 (67 Bowra): web address 2.
[4] Euripides, Alcestis 613: web address 3.
[5] Already at alpha 131.
[6] Used as prizes for victors in competition.
[7] Same material in Photius (Lexicon alpha92 Theodoridis) and elsewhere; cf. Kassel-Austin, PCG II p.365 (on Antiphanes fr.102).
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3
Keywords: art history; athletics; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; mythology; poetry; religion; trade and manufacture; tragedy
Translated by: William Hutton on 12 January 1999@12:39:04.
Vetted by:
Ross Scaife ✝ (cosmetics) on 29 June 2000@22:39:50.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 17 February 2003@05:54:38.
Jennifer Benedict (cleaned up links) on 26 March 2008@01:00:28.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@04:07:43.
David Whitehead (expanded n.7) on 16 August 2013@07:56:54.
David Whitehead (expanded n.7; another keyword) on 22 December 2014@04:58:33.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 6 November 2016@12:23:04.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 25 May 2024@18:42:34.

Headword: Hagisteias
Adler number: alpha,242
Translated headword: rituals
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning those] of holiness, of cleansing, of service.
Greek Original:
Hagisteias: hagiôsunês, katharotêtos, latreias.
LSJ entry at web address 1; and cf. generally alpha 234.
Same material in other lexica (references at Photius alpha176 Theodoridis), and also in the scholia to Plato, Axiochus 371D, where the headword -- accusative plural, not genitive singular -- occurs.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; philosophy; religion
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg ✝ on 24 November 1998@14:18:45.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added headword translation, note, keywords, and link.) on 18 February 2001@20:06:16.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note and keyword) on 9 June 2003@09:51:41.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 4 January 2012@04:55:36.
David Whitehead on 18 August 2013@07:55:03.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 22 November 2020@00:51:21.

Headword: Ankurisma
Adler number: alpha,261
Translated headword: anchor-hold
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] a kind of wrestling-move. Also [sc. attested is the related participle] a)gkuri/sas, meaning [someone] wrestling down or taking down by the knee. An 'anchor-hold' is also a hunter's container of figs.[1] Aristophanes [writes]: "striking, anchoring, then turning his shoulder, you swallowed him up."[2] That is, you smote [him].
Greek Original:
Ankurisma: eidos palaismatos. kai Ankurisas, anti tou katapalaisas ê têi ankulêi katabalôn. esti de ankurisma kai skeuos agreutikon sukôn. Aristophanês: diabalôn, ankurisas, eit' apostrepsas ton ômon, auton ekolabêsas. toutesti prosekrousas.
[1] This meaning is not attested in LSJ (web address 1 below). Perhaps it stems from a misunderstanding of the Aristophanes passage about to be quoted, where in addition to applying the anchor-hold, Kleon is charged with squeezing treasury officials like ripe figs.
[2] Aristophanes, Knights 262-3 (web address 2), with comment from the scholia there.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: athletics; botany; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; food; history; imagery
Translated by: Roger Travis on 4 October 2000@12:34:39.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified headword and translation, added note and link to LSJ, added keywords, set status) on 18 June 2001@01:28:37.
David Whitehead (modified translation; added keyword; restorative and other cosmetics) on 4 May 2003@07:28:30.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 4 January 2012@09:01:44.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 9 April 2015@07:58:17.

Headword: Agos
Adler number: alpha,314
Translated headword: pollution, leader
Vetting Status: high
Pollution, or elbow.[1] What is honourable and worthy of reverence is also called agos; hence priesthoods [are called] all-holy [panageis], and a number of other things.[2]
Thucydides [writes]: "the Spartans sent envoys to Athens demanding the expulsion of the goddess's curse [agos]. It was that against Cylon, the ancient Athenian Olympic victor. [...] And they banished the accursed [enageis]."[3]
But agos when oxytone [means] leader.[4]
Greek Original:
Agos: miasma, ê ankôn. legetai de agos kai to timion kai axion sebasmatos, ex hou kai hai hiereiai panageis, kai alla tina. Thoukudidês: pempsantes hoi Lakedaimonioi presbeis ekeleuon tous Athênaious to agos elaunein tês theou. ên de to kata Kulôna ton Olumpionikên ton Athênaion ton palai. kai êlasan tous enageis. Agos de oxutonôs ho hêgemôn.
The opening material here is also in Photius and other lexica.
[1] The second gloss here is a mistake (perhaps by confusion with the following entry, where the same word, a)gkw/n, is translated 'embrace').
[2] An a)/gos is "any matter of religious awe": LSJ s.v.; see also pi 150.
[3] Thucydides 1.126.2-12 (web address 1), here so drastically abridged as to be misleading. (This banishment was part of the events of 632 BCE, now relevant two centuries later in the build-up to the Peloponnesian War. The original 'accursed' had returned -- and nobody was banished in 432.)
[4] From Philoponus, Differences. (For this epic/poetic noun see LSJ s.v.)
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: athletics; biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; history; politics; religion
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 7 July 1999@10:54:13.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Altered headword, cosmetics, raised status) on 21 October 2000@16:02:46.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 9 February 2003@08:40:55.
Catharine Roth (tweaked notes, added cross-reference and link) on 23 April 2008@15:19:18.
David Whitehead (expanded notes; more keywords; cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@04:34:35.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 6 January 2012@12:22:26.

Headword: Agôn
Adler number: alpha,327
Translated headword: contest, training, arena
Vetting Status: high
Training with a view to competitions.[1] [sc. Also attested is the accusative case] a)gw=na; and Homer [sc. uses this term for] the actual place where the competition takes place.[2] Thucydides in [book] 5 [writes]: "he came into the arena and garlanded the charioteer."[3]
Greek Original:
Agôn: hê pros tous agônas askêsis. Agôna: kai Homêros ton topon auton en hôi agônizontai. Thoukudidês pemptêi: proelthôn es ton agôna anedêse ton hêniochon.
Apart from the initial glossing (on which see next note), this material also occurs in Photius, Lexicon alpha316 Theodoridis.
[1] The word used for 'competitions' here is the (accusative) plural of the headword itself. The Suda seems therefore to be saying, indirectly, that the word denotes both competition and the training for it.
[2] i.e. the arena. Adler cites Homer, Iliad 23.273 for this; Theodoridis chooses Odyssey 8.260. For instances in other authors (including the one about to be quoted here) see LSJ s.v. a)gw/n I.2.
[3] Thucydides 5.50.4, on Lichas the Spartan.
Keywords: athletics; biography; botany; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; historiography; history
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 7 July 1999@11:00:05.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Altered headword, augmented notes.) on 24 October 2000@11:56:35.
William Hutton (Corrected my own error, raised status.) on 24 October 2000@11:57:26.
William Hutton on 24 October 2000@21:20:16.
David Whitehead (cosmetics in footnote 1) on 25 October 2000@03:07:38.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords) on 9 February 2003@09:01:04.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@06:26:01.
David Whitehead on 19 August 2013@04:21:37.

Headword: Agônarchai
Adler number: alpha,328
Translated headword: contest-judges
Vetting Status: high
Sophocles [writes]: "and lest any contest-judges or he who is my destroyer should give my arms to the Achaeans."[1]
Also [sc. attested is] a proverb: "a contest does not accept excuses."[2] It is applied to those who have not profited at all if they made excuses.
Also [sc. attested is] "a contest does not wait for a pretext."[3] The proverb [is used] in reference to those who are by nature lazy and neglectful; alternatively to those who do not believe the words of those making pretexts.
Greek Original:
Agônarchai: Sophoklês: kai tama teuchê mêt' agônarchai tines thêsous' Achaiois mêth' ho lumeôn emos. kai paroimia: Agôn ou dechetai skêpseis. tattetai epi tôn mêden oninamenôn ei skêpsainto. kai Agôn prophasin ouk anamenei. hê paroimia epi tôn phusei rhaithumôn kai amelôn: ê epi tôn mê prosiemenôn tous logous tôn prophasizomenôn.
[1] Sophocles, Ajax 572-3 (web address 1 below); again at lambda 839.
[2] (Also in the paroemiographers, e.g. Apostolius 1.25.) Possibly Contest, the divine personification of the agon (cf. Pausanias 5.26.3), though the apparently personifying language does not guarantee this. See further, next note.
[3] Used in Plato, Cratylus 421D (where a scholiast cited Aristophanes fr. 321 Kock as an earlier attestation of it) and Laws 751D. Also in the paroemiographers, e.g. Gregorius 1.11.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: athletics; comedy; daily life; ethics; philosophy; proverbs; religion; tragedy
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 18 March 2001@14:50:17.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented and modified notes; added keywords) on 19 March 2001@04:07:49.
Jennifer Benedict (Updated link to Perseus) on 11 March 2008@23:49:24.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 12 March 2008@04:23:38.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@06:29:38.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 7 January 2012@12:38:35.
David Whitehead (typo) on 16 June 2013@10:53:36.

Headword: Agônios
Adler number: alpha,332
Translated headword: competitor
Vetting Status: high
Someone in a competition.[1] Also [sc. attested is] the feminine a)gwni/a, [meaning] fear. But a)goni/a with a short 'o' [means] barrenness.[2]
Greek Original:
Agônios: ho en agôni. kai thêlukon Agônia, ho phobos. Agonia de dia tou o mikrou, hê steirôsis.
[1] Same material, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
[2] See already alpha 295.
Keywords: athletics; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; medicine
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 17 June 1999@10:14:24.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Altered headword, cosmetics, set status.) on 21 October 2000@16:13:08.
David Whitehead (restorative cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@08:16:10.
David Whitehead (notes; betacoding and other cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@06:45:19.
Catharine Roth (added note number) on 7 January 2012@19:59:41.
Catharine Roth (coding, more keywords) on 17 June 2023@21:28:51.

Headword: Agônioumenoi
Adler number: alpha,333
Translated headword: about to be contenders
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning they who are] about to enter contests.
"About to be contenders, they might not avert their enemies without a fight."[1]
Greek Original:
Agônioumenoi: eis agônas embalountes. tous polemious agônioumenoi apotrapointo amachei.
The headword is future participle, masculine nominative plural, of the verb a)gwni/zomai. It is perhaps extracted from the quotation given, though not demonstrably so, and there are plenty of alternatives (beginning with Thucydides, Xenophon and Plato).
[1] Quotation unidentifiable, but evidently from (or connected with) a war narrative. This brings out the point that the verb in question has military as well as athletic overtones.
Keywords: athletics; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; history; imagery; military affairs; philosophy
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 16 March 2001@10:31:06.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 17 March 2001@05:08:28.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 20 February 2011@09:20:32.
David Whitehead on 6 January 2012@06:46:52.
David Whitehead (augmented primary note; cosmetics) on 9 April 2015@09:20:03.

Headword: Agônisma
Adler number: alpha,336
Translated headword: achievement, prize
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] effort, diligence.[1]
"An achievement is there for him to take".[2]
Aristophanes [writes]: "personally, I would like to meet some ("wild beast" is left out) and take an achievement worthy of the journey."[3]
A prize.
Greek Original:
Agônisma: spoudên, epimeleian. agônisma tithetai sullabein auton. Aristophanês: egô d' euxaimên an entuchein tini [leipei thêriôi] labein t' agônism' axion ti tês hodou. epathlon.
[1] This glossing shows that the headword, a neuter noun, is in the accusative case, and thus extracted from somewhere other than the quotation about to be given (where it is nominative).
[2] Quotation (also in the Lexicon Vindobonense) unidentifiable.
[3] Aristophanes, Frogs 283-4 (web address 1 below). For the sense of a)gw/nisma here (both a struggle and its reward) Dover ad loc. compares Thucydides 7.59.2 (web address 2 below).
Aristophanes, Frogs, edited with introduction and commentary by K.J. Dover (Oxford 1993)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: athletics; biography; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; imagery; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 20 March 2001@15:31:38.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword; completed translation; modified and augmented notes) on 21 March 2001@03:27:33.
Jennifer Benedict (Added links) on 11 March 2008@23:57:53.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@06:57:04.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 29 March 2015@00:44:32.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 9 April 2015@09:33:56.

Headword: Agônothetês
Adler number: alpha,338
Translated headword: agonothete
Vetting Status: high
The man [engaged] in [organising] the theatrical [competitions]; but athlothete [is] the man [engaged] in [organising] the athletic [competitions].
Greek Original:
Agônothetês: ho en tois skênikois, Athlothetês de ho en tois gumnikois.
An interesting distinction, but uncorroborated outside lexicography.
Keywords: athletics; comedy; daily life; definition; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 7 July 1999@13:32:15.
Vetted by:
Elizabeth Vandiver on 14 December 1999@16:13:16.
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note and keywords) on 11 July 2003@10:10:27.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 28 September 2005@18:05:21.
David Whitehead on 6 January 2012@07:02:41.

Headword: Athênaios
Adler number: alpha,731
Translated headword: Athenaios, Athenaeus
Vetting Status: high
Of Naucratis.[1] Grammarian. Lived in the time of Marcus. He wrote a book with the title Deipnosophists, in which he records how many of the ancients had a reputation for munificence in giving banquets.[2]
Alexander the Great, after that naval victory over the Spartans and after he had fortified the Peiraeus, sacrificed a hecatomb and feasted all the Athenians.[3] And after his Olympic victory Alcibiades gave a feast for the whole festival.[4] Leophron did the same at the Olympic games.[5] And Empedocles of Acragas, being a Pythagorean and an abstainer from animal food, when he won an Olympic victory made an ox out of incense, myrrh and expensive perfumes and divided it among those who came to the festival. And Ion of Chios, when he won a victory in the tragic competition at Athens, gave every Athenian a jar of Chian [sc. wine].[6] And Tellias of Acragas, a hospitable man, when 500 horsemen were billeted with him during the winter, gave each of them a cloak and tunic.[7] [It is on record] that Charmus of Syracuse used to utter little verses and proverbs for every one of the dishes served at his banquets. Clearchus of Soli calls the poem Deipnology, others Opsology, Chrysippus Gastronomy, others The Life of Luxury [Hedypatheia].[8] [It is on record] that in Plato's symposium there were 28 diners.
Greek Original:
Athênaios, Naukratitês, grammatikos, gegonôs epi tôn chronôn Markou. egrapse biblion onoma Deipnosophistai: en hôi mnêmoneuei, hosoi tôn palaiôn megalopsuchôs edoxan hestian. ho megas Alexandros kakeinên nikêsas naumachian Lakedaimonious kai teichisas ton Peiraia kai hekatombên thusas pantas heistiasen Athênaious. kai Alkibiadês Olumpia nikêsas tên panêgurin hapasan heistiase. to auto kai Leophrôn Olumpiasi. kai Empedoklês ho Akragantinos, Puthagorikos ôn kai empsuchôn apechomenos, Olumpia nikêsas, ek libanôtou kai smurnês kai tôn polutelôn arômatôn boun anaplasas dieneime tois eis tên panêgurin apantêsasi. kai ho Chios Iôn tragôidian nikêsas Athênêsin hekastôi tôn Athênaiôn edôke Chion keramion. kai ho Akragantinos Tellias philoxenos ôn katalusasi pote ph# hippeusin hôrai cheimônos, edôken hekastôi chitôna kai himation. hoti Charmos ho Surakousios eis hekaston tôn en tois deipnois paratithemenôn stichidia kai paroimias elege. Klearchos de ho Soleus deipnologian kalei to poiêma, alloi opsologian, Chrusippos gastronomian, alloi hêdupatheian. hoti en tôi sumposiôi Platônos kê# êsan daitumones.
Fl. c. AD 200. See generally RE Athenaios(22); NP Athenaios(3); OCD4 Athenaeus(1); Olson (2006), vii.
[1] In Egypt (see nu 58).
[2] cf. delta 359, sigma 1397. What follows is excerpted from Athenaeus 1.3D-4A [1.5 Kaibel], 4E (epit.).
[3] Two of Athenaeus' examples (3D) have been run together here (and again at alpha 1123): the 'naval victory over the Spartans' refers to Conon's victory at Cnidus (394 BC).
[4] cf. alpha 1280 (end).
[5] Athenaeus says (3E) that Simonides wrote a victory ode commemorating this (PMG 515, and Olson, 2006, 15 n.34).
[6] cf. iota 487 (end) and chi 314. On "Chian" and other wines with specific (though not necessarily simple) city-connections see A. Dalby, "Topikos Oinos", in D. Harvey and J. Wilkins (eds.), The Rivals of Aristophanes (London 2000) 397-405.
[7] cf. tau 272.
[8] cf. chi 132. The poem in question was in fact by Archestratus of Gela; see discussion of the title (most probably Hedypatheia) in S. D. Olson and A. Sens (eds.), Archestratos of Gela: Greek Culture and Cuisine in the Fourth Century BCE(Oxford 2000) xxii-xxiv.
D. Braund and J. Wilkins, eds. Athenaeus and his World. Exeter, 2000
S.D. Olson, Athenaeus: The Learned Banqueters (Loeb Classical Library: 2006-)
Keywords: architecture; athletics; biography; chronology; clothing; economics; food; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; philosophy; proverbs; religion; tragedy
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 7 July 1999@14:13:15.
Vetted by:
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added transliteration to headword) on 14 August 2000@14:39:21.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 15 June 2001@06:09:35.
David Whitehead (augmented note 6) on 3 August 2001@10:02:27.
David Whitehead (augmented initial note; added bibliography; cosmetics) on 11 October 2002@03:28:29.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added italics; cosmetics) on 12 February 2005@22:01:08.
Aikaterini Oikonomopoulou (Augmented and corrected notes; added bibliography) on 21 February 2008@14:05:08.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 22 February 2008@04:03:13.
David Whitehead (tweaked bibliographical item) on 20 January 2012@04:12:30.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 19 January 2014@07:25:01.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@08:24:54.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 22 November 2014@22:08:06.
David Whitehead (expanded a ref) on 14 January 2015@03:48:39.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 May 2022@22:39:13.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 18 May 2023@01:58:35.

Headword: Athlêtas
Adler number: alpha,740
Translated headword: athletes
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] competitors, men in training.[1]
Aelian [uses the word].[2] "Consequently he not only prepared them to have these things, but he also created athletes in other [kinds of] injustice and filthiness. For what shameful or terrible thing was not present? And what good and wholesome thing was not absent?"[3]
Greek Original:
Athlêtas: agônistas, askêtas. Ailianos: toigaroun ou monon taut' echein autous pareskeuazen, alla kai tês allês adikias kai bdelurias athlêtas pareskeuazen. ti gar tôn aischrôn kai deinôn autois ou prosên; ê ti tôn kalôn kai spoudaiôn ouk apên;
[1] cf. generally alpha 741, alpha 4170. The present headword (+ gloss) is accusative plural, presumably extracted from the quotation given -- on which see next two notes.
[2] Perhaps in De natura animalium 4.1. Not, at any rate, in the quotation which now follows: see next note.
[3] Polybius 8.9.8-9, himself quoting Theopompus (FGrH 115 F225; cf. Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 6.260E = 6.77 Kaibel), on the hetairoi of Philip II of Macedon.
C. de Boor, "Suidas und die Konstantinsche Exzerptsammlung I." Byzantinische Zeitschrift 21 (1912) 418
Keywords: athletics; biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography; history; imagery
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 18 December 1999@09:41:39.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 25 January 2001@06:33:54.
David Whitehead on 25 January 2001@06:35:18.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 14 February 2001@04:22:30.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 12 May 2006@08:34:11.
Catharine Roth (tweaks, bibliography, keyword) on 27 December 2009@01:01:08.
David Whitehead (expanded n.2; tweaks) on 20 January 2012@04:52:36.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 21 January 2012@12:21:06.
David Whitehead (punctuation) on 22 January 2012@04:29:08.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 29 November 2014@21:56:45.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 30 November 2014@03:46:30.
David Whitehead (expanded a ref) on 14 January 2015@03:30:25.
David Whitehead (typo) on 14 January 2015@03:31:10.

Headword: Athlêtês
Adler number: alpha,741
Translated headword: athlete, champion
Vetting Status: high
The man trained thoroughly in [sc. winning] prizes.
"The Romans dispatched a man [who was] a champion of wars like[1] Hannibal".[2]
Greek Original:
Athlêtês: ho tous athlous exêskêkôs. hoi de Rhômaioi andra polemôn athlêtên hôs ton Anniban ekpempousin.
See also alpha 740 (and alpha 742).
[1] Or: against.
[2] Quotation unidentifiable. (Polybius and Diodorus have both been suggested.) For Hannibal, see generally alpha 2452.
Keywords: athletics; biography; definition; historiography; history; imagery; military affairs
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 20 December 1999@17:03:49.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 25 January 2001@06:54:36.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 12 May 2006@08:31:15.
David Whitehead (x-ref; more keywords; raised status) on 7 February 2011@10:25:37.
David Whitehead (more x-refs) on 20 January 2012@04:55:27.

Headword: Athlon
Adler number: alpha,742
Translated headword: prize
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] an object of competition, the honour, the recompense, the winning of the contest. Also [sc. attested is] a)=qlos, masculine, [meaning] both the deed and the object of competition and the reward. This differs from the neuter [in] that while the neuter properly indicates the prize, this [masculine indicates] the contest.
Greek Original:
Athlon: agônisma, hê timê, ho misthos, to tou agônos brabeion. kai Athlos arsenikôs, to ergon kai to agônisma kai to epathlon. diapherei de touto tou oudeterou, hoti to men oudeteron dêloi kuriôs to epathlon, touto de ton agôna.
Same material in other lexica (references at Photius alpha476 and alpha477 Theodoridis), and cf. also the scholia to Thucydides 1.6.5 (where the neuter plural occurs: web address 1).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: athletics; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 15 February 2000@22:01:30.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added keywords; cosmetics) on 25 January 2001@07:04:53.
David Whitehead (added note and another keyword; cosmetics) on 12 May 2006@08:28:59.
Catharine Roth (link, typo, status) on 20 August 2007@11:30:38.
David Whitehead (tweaked note; another keyword) on 20 January 2012@04:56:57.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 21 January 2012@12:23:51.
David Whitehead on 19 August 2013@06:49:45.
David Whitehead on 1 May 2015@10:56:15.

Headword: Akadêmia
Adler number: alpha,774
Translated headword: Academy
Vetting Status: high
A place of exercise in Athens, a wooded suburb in which Plato used to spend his time; named after Hekademos, a hero. It was formerly called the Hecademy, [spelled] with epsilon.[1]
Aristophanes in Clouds [writes]: "but going down into the Academy, you will run crowned with pale reeds under the sacred olives with a sound-minded age-mate, smelling of bindweed and quietude and the bright falling leaves, delighting in the season of spring, when the plane tree whispers to the elm."[2]
Greek Original:
Akadêmia: gumnasion en Athênais, proasteion alsôdes en hôi dietribe Platôn, apo Hekadêmou tinos hêrôos onomasthen. proteron de dia tou e Hekadêmia ekaleito. Aristophanês Nephelais: all' eis Hekadêmian katiôn, hupo tais moriais apothrexeis stephanôsamenos kalamôi leukôi meta sôphronos hêlikiôtou, milakos ozôn kai apragmosunês kai leukês phullobolousês, êros en hôrai chairôn, hopot' an platanos pteleai psithurizêi.
See also alpha 775, and generally OCD(4) pp.2 ('Academy') and 638 ('gymnasium').
[1] From Diogenes Laertius 3.7-8 (= schol. Demosth. 24.114); cf. epsilon 338. See also (e.g.) Pausanias 1.29.2, 1.30.1-3.
[2] Aristophanes, Clouds 1005-1008; cf. alpha 3682, mu 1058, mu 1248.
Baltes, Matthias. "Plato's School, the Academy," Hermathena 155 (1993) 3-26
Dancy, R.M. Two Studies in the Early Academy (SUNY Press, New York: 1991)
Dorandi, T. "Four Testimonia on the Academy," Classical Quarterly 38 (1988) 576-578
Keywords: aetiology; athletics; biography; botany; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; imagery; philosophy; religion
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 13 January 2000@00:44:18.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation, augmented notes and bibliography) on 19 September 2000@05:09:45.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 23 May 2002@05:48:43.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added italics) on 28 September 2005@18:15:54.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr) on 22 July 2009@03:35:24.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 22 January 2012@08:00:19.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@03:40:46.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 27 November 2016@22:39:55.

Headword: Akampias
Adler number: alpha,795
Translated headword: bendless, unbending
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] straight-coursed.
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] a)ka/mpios dro/mos ["bendless course"],[1] a long and straight walk.
Greek Original:
Akampias: ho euthudromos. kai Akampios dromos, ho makros kai di' eutheias peripatos.
Similar material in other lexica; references at Photius alpha709 and alpha710 Theodoridis. From the vocabulary of racing, whether equestrian or on foot. See LSJ s.v.
[1] cf. kappa 292 for the opposite.
Keywords: athletics; daily life; definition; proverbs
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 16 February 2000@11:26:40.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 24 May 2002@06:57:35.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetic) on 13 July 2006@06:13:53.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 23 January 2012@05:12:01.
David Whitehead on 23 January 2012@05:12:17.
David Whitehead on 19 August 2013@07:25:54.

Headword: Akoniti
Adler number: alpha,923
Translated headword: dustless
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] away from dust.[1]
Without struggle and fight; or comfortably, from a metaphor of athletes who win so comfortably that they do not even get dusty.[2]
Greek Original:
Akoniti: chôris koneôs. aneu agônos kai machês: ê eumarôs, apo metaphoras tôn athlêtôn tôn houtôs eumarôs periginomenôn hôste mêde konisasthai.
As LSJ s.v. shows, already in the C5 BCE we find attested the metaphorical usage (Thucydides 4.73.2) alongside the literal one (Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum 36B.20, of an Olympic boxing victory).
See further alpha 924, and under lambda 688.
[1] Similar glossing in Hesychius s.v., where Latte cites Demosthenes 18.200 (a)konitei/ in modern editions).
[2] Same or similar glossing in Photius and elsewhere.
Keywords: athletics; definition; historiography; imagery; military affairs; rhetoric
Translated by: David Whitehead on 15 February 2001@03:19:01.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 4 June 2002@09:51:20.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; cosmetics) on 23 July 2003@08:27:02.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 18 October 2005@05:41:05.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 26 January 2012@08:19:56.
David Whitehead on 13 May 2015@10:40:11.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 13 May 2015@23:30:02.

Headword: Akoniton
Adler number: alpha,924
Translated headword: aconite
Vetting Status: high
A kind of plant [sc. which is also a] drug.[1]
"But by drinking aconite he escaped this [sc. charge] a)koniti/."[2] That is, without trouble.[3]
Greek Original:
Akoniton: eidos botanês pharmakou. alla piôn akoniton hupekphuge tout' akoniti. toutesti chôris kopou.
Same entry in ps.-Zonaras.
[1] Same glossing, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon (1039).
[2] Diogenes Laertius 5.8: the third line of a short poem of his own (= Greek Anthology 7.107.3) on the supposed suicide of Aristotle (ib. 5.6, and see under alpha 3929).
[3] For a)koniti/, "dustless", see alpha 923.
Keywords: athletics; biography; botany; definition; ethics; imagery; law; medicine; philosophy; poetry
Translated by: David Whitehead on 16 February 2001@03:08:13.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Raised status) on 22 February 2001@23:23:47.
David Whitehead (x-ref; cosmetics) on 21 June 2004@08:33:55.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords; cosmetics) on 26 January 2012@08:24:44.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 31 January 2012@00:59:34.
David Whitehead on 13 May 2015@10:41:48.

Headword: Akontistus
Adler number: alpha,927
Translated headword: javelin-hurling
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] javelin-throwing.
Greek Original:
Akontistus: hê akontisis.
Same entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon. Hesychius has the accusative case a)kontistu/n (glossed with a)kontismo/n) and, as Latte notes there, it is extracted from Homer, Iliad 23.622.
cf. generally alpha 926.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; military affairs
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 21 March 2001@18:58:01.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 4 June 2002@07:55:54.
David Whitehead (more notes; tweaks and cosmetics) on 27 January 2012@04:43:48.
David Whitehead on 13 May 2015@10:45:17.

Headword: Akrocheirizesthai
Adler number: alpha,1023
Translated headword: to struggle at arms length
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] to box or wrestle[1] against another man without close engagement, or to practice with another wholly with the extremities of the hands.[2]
Also [sc. attested is the athlete] Akrokhersites, so named because by seizing the fingertips of his opponent he would break them off and not let go before ascertaining that the man had given in. There was also Leontiskos, a Messenian out of Sicily, who competed in a similar way; this man used to wrestle.[3]
Also [sc. attested is the term] a)kroxeiri/s, [meaning] the top of the hand.[4]
Greek Original:
Akrocheirizesthai: pukteuein ê pankratiazein pros heteron aneu sumplokês, ê holôs akrais tais chersi met' allou gumnazesthai. kai Akrochersitês houtô kaloumenos. lambanomenos gar akrôn tôn cheirôn tou antagônistou ekla kai ou proteron êphiei, prin aisthoito apagoreusantos. ên de kai Leontiskos, Messênios ek Sikelias, paraplêsiôs agônizomenos: houtos de epalaie. kai Akrocheiris, to akron tês cheiros.
[1] More exactly, to engage in the pankration, a no-holds-barred combination of boxing and wrestling (pi 11).
[2] Same material in other lexica, including Timaeus' Platonic Lexicon; also in the scholia to [Plato], Alcibiades 1 107E, from where the headword is evidently quoted.
[3] Abbreviated from Pausanias 6.4.1-3. The actual name of this "Akrokhersites" was Sostratos (of Sikyon); cf. sigma 866. Leontiskos has his own Suda entry at lambda 258, where it is stated - going beyond what Pausanias actually warrants - that he too was known as Akrokhersites.
[4] Attested only here and, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
Keywords: athletics; biography; definition; geography; medicine; philosophy
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 7 March 2000@02:24:26.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added notes; cosmetics) on 26 January 2001@08:26:48.
David Whitehead (augmented note) on 13 July 2001@10:17:53.
David Whitehead (augmented notes) on 4 November 2001@06:47:55.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 1 February 2012@08:11:46.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 21 December 2014@23:32:46.
David Whitehead on 22 December 2014@03:15:51.

Headword: Aktia
Adler number: alpha,1037
Translated headword: Aktia, Actia
Vetting Status: high
An ancient [sc. athletic] contest, as Callimachus makes clear in his [treatise] On contests.
Greek Original:
Aktia: agôn palaios, hôs Kallimachos en tôi peri tôn Agônôn dêlon poiei.
Abridged, here and in other lexica, from Harpokration s.v., an entry generated in the first instance by Hyperides fr. 155 Jensen (contextless); hence it can presumably be inferred that Athens had one.
The Callimachus reference is fr. 403 Pfeiffer.
Keywords: athletics; definition; history; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 13 April 2000@01:10:00.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics; added note) on 1 October 2000@09:40:55.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks; raised status) on 24 June 2011@09:40:16.

Headword: Alektruona athlêtên Tanagraion
Adler number: alpha,1117
Translated headword: a cock [and ] an athlete from Tanagra
Vetting Status: high
"These sing nobly."[1] "He sends it to be a votive offering and a delight to Asklepios, as if the bird were an attendant or servant in the temple, that man of Aspendos".[2]
And [there is] a saying: "he claimed I had a cock's stomach. 'For you will quickly digest the money', [said he]."[3]
Look, concerning their spurs, under ai)=re plh=ktron ["raise a spur"].[4]
Greek Original:
Alektruona athlêtên Tanagraion: aidontai de eugeneis houtoi. aphiêsi tôi Asklêpiôi anathêma te kai athurma einai, hoionei theraponta kai oiketên peripolounta tôi neôi ton ornin, ho Aspendios ekeinos. kai paroimia: alektruonos m' ephaske koilian echein. tachu gar kathepseis t' argurion. zêtei peri plêktrôn autôn en tôi aire plêktron.
[1] Aelian fr. 101a Domingo-Forasté (part of 98 Hercher): cf. tau 69.
[2] Aelian fr. 101f Domingo-Forasté (another part of 98 Hercher).
[3] Aristophanes, Wasps 794-5 (web address 1).
[4] alphaiota 284.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: athletics; comedy; daily life; geography; meter and music; proverbs; religion; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 5 April 2000@11:13:35.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Modified translation, added notes.) on 1 December 2000@12:40:36.
Catharine Roth (Added link.) on 1 December 2000@12:43:59.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 26 January 2001@11:03:03.
David Whitehead (restorative and other cosmetics) on 12 June 2002@05:21:54.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 3 February 2012@06:17:51.
Catharine Roth (updated references, upgraded link) on 8 February 2012@01:28:43.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note) on 7 October 2013@00:01:26.
David Whitehead on 29 May 2015@11:07:08.

Headword: Alexandros ho Mamaias
Adler number: alpha,1124
Translated headword: Alexander Mamaias, Alexander son of Mamaia
Vetting Status: high
Ruling with his mother he administered everything under her; it was she who took care of the empire in every respect. So she persuaded him to judge trials for the most part, so that he would be occupied with those things and have no opportunity to get into trouble. He was born with a natural disposition both meek and tame and inclined towards benevolence. So into his fourteenth year of ruling the kingdom he ruled without bloodshed, despite the fact that certain people had fallen foul of major accusations, so that after the death of Marcus[1] the empire was astonished by Alexander. He even censured his mother and was altogether vexed seeing her being materialistic and storing up many [profits] from capricious dealing. But he was forced by her to do many things; for his mother ruled exceedingly over him. She carried on with deeds shameful and unbecoming to rulers, and secretly summoned teachers in every discipline; he then said farewell to both wrestling-schools and gymnasia and scared away the teachers. To such an extent did things drift that everything changed, from the stage and the public theatres to the greatest offices of state. Because of this they hated him.
Greek Original:
Alexandros ho Mamaias: sun têi mêtri arxas hup' ekeinêi panta diôikei, hêtis pantachothen ephrourei tên archên. dikazein te oun auton epeithen epi pleiston, hôs an en toutois ascholoumenos mê echoi kairon es to epitêdeuein ti tôn hamartêmatôn. hupêrche de autôi kai phusikon êthos praon kai hêmeron es te to philanthrôpon panu epirrepes. es tessareskaidekaton oun etos arxas tês basileias, anaimôti êrxe, kaitoi tinôn megistais aitiais hupopesontôn, hôs meta tên Markou teleutên tên basileian thaumazein Alexandrou. êitiato de kai tên mêtera kai panu êschallen horôn autên ousan philochrêmaton kai polla ex epêreiôn thêsaurizousan. polla de hup' autês ênankazeto prattein: êrche gar autou huperballontôs hê mêtêr. hêtis apêge tôn aischrôn kai aprepôn tois basileusin ergôn, didaskalous te pasês paideias lathra metepempeto: ho de palaistrais te kai gumnasiois echaire kai tous didaskalous apesobei. es tosouton de exôkeilen, hôs dê panta ta apo tês skênês kai tôn dêmosiôn theatrôn metagagein epi tas archas tas megistas. dia touto emusattonto auton.
"Alexander Mamaias" (again in brief at mu 123) is the emperor M. Aurelius Severus Alexander; ruled 222-235. The present entry derives from John of Antioch, frs. 140 and (from "She carried on...") 138 FHG (= now frs. 219 and 218 Roberto). See generally OCD(4) pp.212-13; and De Imperatoribus Romanis entry (Herbert Benario) at web address 1.
[1] His cousin and predecessor M. Aurelius Antoninus Elagabalus (ruled 218-222).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: athletics; biography; chronology; ethics; historiography; history; law; politics; women
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 9 May 2000@19:28:05.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword; added notes and keyword; cosmetics) on 31 August 2001@05:08:26.
Catharine Roth (added link) on 31 August 2001@11:56:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 2 August 2006@08:31:31.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks) on 3 February 2012@07:03:03.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@04:16:37.
Catharine Roth (coding, tweak) on 28 November 2014@00:39:09.
David Whitehead (updated more refs) on 29 January 2015@03:13:05.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note) on 29 May 2015@00:03:19.

Headword: Aleiptai
Adler number: alpha,1157
Translated headword: anointers, masseurs, trainers
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] those working for the [sc. athletics] contests.
The Theologian [writes]: "trainers of excellence".[1]
Also [sc. attested is the singular] a)lei/pths, [meaning] the contest-director.[2]
Greek Original:
Aleiptai: hoi pros tous agônas epaskountes. ho Theologos: aleiptai tês aretês. kai Aleiptês, ho agônothetês.
Likewise in the Synagoge.
[1] Gregory of Nazianus PG 36,500c.
[2] Likewise, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
Keywords: athletics; Christianity; definition; ethics; imagery; religion
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 25 April 2000@19:46:52.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 28 January 2001@07:07:45.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 12 June 2002@07:51:28.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 5 February 2012@06:40:20.
David Whitehead on 30 May 2015@08:13:00.


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