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Headword: Agatharchos
Adler number: alpha,109
Translated headword: Agatharkhos, Agatharchos, Agatharchus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A proper name. He was an outstanding painter from nature, the son of Eudemos, of Samian stock.
Greek Original:
Agatharchos: onoma kurion. ên de zôgraphos epiphanês, Eudêmou huios, to de genos Samios.
Notes:
After the initial gloss, this entry derives from Harpokration s.v., commenting on Demosthenes 21.147 (web address 1).
The other primary sources on A. (translated in Pollitt, below) are Plutarch, Life of Pericles 13.2 (web address 2); Plutarch, Life of Alcibiades 16.4 (web address 3); Vitruvius, On Architecture 7, praef. 1l (web address 4).
According to tradition, A. was the first painter to make a theatrical skene (for Aeschylus).
References:
OCD(4) s.v. (p.35)
J.J. Pollitt, The Art of Ancient Greece (Cambridge 1990) 145-6 (with 188)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4
Keywords: art history; biography; definition; geography; rhetoric; science and technology; stagecraft; tragedy
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 1 October 1999@23:24:55.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headwords and note; augmented bibliography) on 9 February 2001@09:13:41.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 19 December 2003@08:05:39.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added keyword) on 28 September 2005@20:10:00.
Jennifer Benedict (added links) on 26 March 2008@00:23:53.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 19 July 2011@09:47:47.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links, other cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@18:47:22.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:18:59.

Headword: Agalma
Adler number: alpha,131
Translated headword: decoration, delight, ornament, statue
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Anything in which someone takes delight.[1]
"And he [A] gives silver, so that he [B] might complete the statue with the utmost artisanry, adding the size and prescribing the nature of the stone."[2]
Greek Original:
Agalma: pan eph' hôi tis agalletai. kai didôsin argurion, hina ekponêsêi to agalma akras technês, prostheis to megethos kai proseipôn tês lithou tên phusin.
Notes:
See also alpha 132, alpha 133, alpha 135, alpha 136.
[1] Again under alpha 133. Also in Photius, other lexica, and various scholia (e.g. to Homer, Odyssey 8.509, and Aristophanes, Wasps 303).
[2] Aelian fr. 65b Domingo-Forasté (part of 62 Hercher), on an unscrupulous (but unnamed) sculptor.
Keywords: art history; comedy; definition; economics; epic; ethics; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: William Hutton on 22 June 2000@01:06:06.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@09:59:18.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 18 February 2011@06:57:00.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords; tweaks) on 23 December 2011@03:46:34.
Catharine Roth (updated reference in note 2) on 28 January 2012@19:11:34.

Headword: Agalma Athênas
Adler number: alpha,132
Translated headword: statue of Athena
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Look under "Athena's"[1]; and see "statue, desolating abomination" under "Antiochos".[2] And see "statue of Apollo" under "Apollo's statue".[3] And see "statue of Dionysus" under "Auxentios".[4]
Greek Original:
Agalma Athênas: zêtei en tôi Athênas: kai zêtei agalma bdelugma tês erêmôseôs en tôi Antiochos: kai zêtei agalma Apollônos en tôi Apollônos agalma: kai zêtei agalma Dionusou en tôi Auxentios.
Notes:
This entry, more of a set of cross references than anything else, appears as a marginal gloss in two of the better manuscripts, Adler's A (= Parisinus 2625) and M (= Marcianus 448).
[1] alpha 727.
[2] alpha 2693, where the text actually reads "idol (ei)/dwlon), abomination of desolation". For the meaning of the phrase see Dan. 11.31.
[3] alpha 3425.
[4] alpha 4450.
Keywords: art history; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 12 January 1999@12:36:32.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (removed keyword; cosmetics; raised status) on 9 February 2001@10:08:20.
Jennifer Benedict (betacoding) on 26 March 2008@00:54:35.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@03:51:13.

Headword: Agalmata
Adler number: alpha,133
Translated headword: delights, ornaments, statues
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the likenesses of the gods, and anything that is decorative in some way. Homer [writes]: "but it is stored away as a delight for the king."[1] And Hesiod calls a necklace an "ornament";[2] but Pindar uses this term for the decoration on a tomb,[3] and Euripides uses it for the adornments for corpses.[4]
Also something in which someone takes delight.[5]
Also [sc. a term for] image, wooden statue, delight, beauty, ornament, source of pride, palm leaves,[6] [human] statues, [honorific?] inscriptions.
Paintings and [human] statues are also called agalmata.[7]
agalmation [is] the diminutive form.
Greek Original:
Agalmata: ta tôn theôn mimêmata, kai panta ta kosmou tinos metechonta. Homêros: basilêï de keitai agalma. kai Hêsiodos ton hormon agalma kalei: Pindaros de tên epi taphou stêlên houtô kalei, Euripidês ton epi nekrois kosmon. kai eph' hôi tis agalletai. kai to eidôlon, bretas, charma, kallonê, kosmos, kauchêma, thalloi, andriantes, epigraphai. Agalmata de kai tas graphas kai tous andriantas legousin. Agalmation de hupokoristikôs.
Notes:
The (neuter) headword is the plural of alpha 131 (and cf. alpha 132). It is perhaps, though not necessarily, quoted from somewhere.
[1] Homer, Iliad 4.144 (web address 1), on an ivory cheek-piece for a horse.
[2] This fragment of Hesiod (142 Merkelbach-West, 233 Rzach) is not known from any other source. It may pertain to the story of Europa in the Catalogue of Women.
[3] Pindar, Nemean Odes 10.125 (67 Bowra): web address 2.
[4] Euripides, Alcestis 613: web address 3.
[5] Already at alpha 131.
[6] Used as prizes for victors in competition.
[7] Same material in Photius (Lexicon alpha92 Theodoridis) and elsewhere; cf. Kassel-Austin, PCG II p.365 (on Antiphanes fr.102).
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3
Keywords: art history; athletics; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; mythology; poetry; religion; trade and manufacture; tragedy
Translated by: William Hutton on 12 January 1999@12:39:04.
Vetted by:
Ross Scaife ✝ (cosmetics) on 29 June 2000@22:39:50.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 17 February 2003@05:54:38.
Jennifer Benedict (cleaned up links) on 26 March 2008@01:00:28.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 23 December 2011@04:07:43.
David Whitehead (expanded n.7) on 16 August 2013@07:56:54.
David Whitehead (expanded n.7; another keyword) on 22 December 2014@04:58:33.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 6 November 2016@12:23:04.

Headword: Agalmatopoioi
Adler number: alpha,135
Translated headword: statue-makers, sculptors
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
That is, craftsmen; these [are] in the strict sense Lysippus, Polycleitus, Pheidias.[1]
Greek Original:
Agalmatopoioi: toutesti cheirourgoi: houtoi akribeis Lusippos, Polukleitos, Pheidias.
Notes:
The headword, a nominative plural, is presumably quoted from somewhere; perhaps Herodotus 2.46.2, but it may just be an internal cross-reference to chi 266.
[1] Or meaning these three are outstandingly precise (as, apparently, at chi 266).
See web address 1, web address 2, and web address 3 for information on these three sculptors of the C5 and (Lysippus) C4 BC.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3
Keywords: art history; biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: William Hutton on 9 February 2000@02:47:56.
Vetted by:
William Hutton on 26 June 2000@09:07:25.
Ross Scaife ✝ on 26 June 2000@09:42:10.
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented note) on 16 July 2001@08:47:30.
Jennifer Benedict (cosmeticule) on 26 March 2008@01:01:13.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 27 March 2008@07:43:05.
David Whitehead (typo) on 23 December 2011@03:54:40.
William Hutton (updated links) on 18 August 2013@02:32:18.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note) on 19 August 2013@00:40:55.

Headword: Aglaophôn
Adler number: alpha,267
Translated headword: Aglaophon
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A proper name.
Greek Original:
Aglaophôn: onoma kurion.
Note:
Pausanias (10.27.4, see web address 1) quotes an epigram of Simonides, naming Aglaophon as the father of the painter Polygnotos. See also pi 1948.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: art history; biography; definition; poetry
Translated by: Roger Travis on 4 October 2000@12:50:21.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Added headword, raised status) on 18 June 2001@01:48:13.
Catharine Roth (added note and link) on 19 June 2001@21:25:11.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; cosmetics) on 10 February 2003@09:26:43.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@08:27:44.

Headword: Agousan
Adler number: alpha,316
Translated headword: having the weight of, weighing
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Being equal in weight.
"So having prepared a golden Victory, having the weight of 10,000 gold coins, he sent ambassadors to Rome to convey it to the people."[1]
Greek Original:
Agousan: isostathmousan. dioper kataskeuasas Nikên chrusên, agousan holkên chrusiôn muriôn, exapesteile presbeutas eis tên Rhômên tous tautên komiountas tôi dêmôi.
Notes:
The headword, presumably extracted from the quotation given, is the present active participle, feminine accusative singular, of the verb a)/gw. (For this sense of it, see LSJ s.v., VI.)
[1] Diodorus Siculus 33.28a; cf. epsilon 3786, lambda 865.
Keywords: art history; biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; religion; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 11 June 1999@11:10:56.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified headword, added keywords, set status.) on 23 October 2000@22:06:44.
David Whitehead (augmented note) on 29 April 2002@07:33:34.
David Whitehead (expanded primary note; more keywords; cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@04:49:35.

Headword: Adam
Adler number: alpha,425
Translated headword: Adam
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The first human, he who was shaped by the hand of God and formed in the image and likeness of the Creator and Founder; he was also deemed worthy of a dwelling in Paradise. He could justly be called the first wise man, since he was the first likeness created and an image wrought by God, and also because he had a full share of all the graces that exist. And all the senses of the body and the soul he possessed in a pure and unadulterated state. For rays of a certain sort, so to speak, flashed from the soul of that man, rays teeming with divine thoughts and energies, and they coursed through all nature, accurately and unerringly anticipating the particular virtue of each thing. Those who judged him were not men, who often make judgments in an erroneous fashion, but the God of everything, who makes every decision and judgment correctly, and, before his mind was stirred to action, by the soul, which labors over such things and gives birth to ideas. And as Scripture says: "God made all the domesticated and wild animals and the things that crawl and the winged things, and he brought them before Adam to see what he would call them, and whatever Adam called them, that was their name."[1] And what is more perfectly clear than this statement and this testimony? What more sublime than this wisdom and this discrimination? He gave names to nature itself, as though prescribing the essence of each animal, without practice, without prior consideration, with no preparatory effort at the things which people take pains to learn. And although many, nay, innumerable species were brought before him no one has managed to change the name even of some insignificant animal, nor did anyone manage to attain even a fraction of his great wisdom and discrimination. Instead all humans scattered across the entire earth continue following his pronouncements unaltered. And the first-born one's surpassing judgment in all things did not stop there, but also extended to the varieties of seeds and plants and the uses of roots and herbs. And whatever in the way of prevention and treatment nature assigned to each of the living things he determined and made clear. He, the first to see woman, spoke about her not as with a human mouth. As though he were echoing some divine pronouncement he uttered incisively that celebrated and awe-inspiring saying: "this now is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh. She will be called woman, because she was taken out of her man."[2] He, moreover, is the one who assesses each thing and establishes rules, precise standards, and incontestable boundaries for all. His are the crafts and letters, his are rational and non-rational sciences, his are prophethoods, priesthoods, purifications and laws both written and unwritten; his are all discoveries and doctrines and whatever needs and regimens are essential for life. He is the first representation of mankind, the image summoned from God; all image-making among men starts out from him as a model, though more and more they sink to a level inferior to his blessed and God-like image, which had no starting point upon which one who molded or painted images after him might depend; to such an extent that the Abomination, the Apostate, the deceiving Devil toppled him from his original foundation and position and caused him to be borne headfirst into pit-like and unlit places which reach all the way down to the joyless recesses of Hades. And from this point human nature became caricatured and falsified and was stamped with the shapings and designs of the Tyrant. From this source that bastard wisdom had its beginnings, for divine wisdom had made its escape and had flown up toward heaven, whence it had previously started out. Whence the Imposter expropriated the name of God and dealt it out it in many directions, giving himself different names, such as "Kronos" and "Zeus", and -- the most wicked thing of all -- the Criminal even had the gall to drag down the blessed and ineffable nature [of God] and associate it with names that were female and unworthy of respect, such as those "Rheas" and "Aphrodites" and "Athenas" and thousands of others, and into strange forms and shapes of illogical things which the Creator of Evil and the Hatcher of Heresy invented and carved out. Hence the wretched tales of the Egyptians about Osiris and Typhon and Isis, and the chicanery of the Persian Magi, and the gymnosophistry and impertinent fantasies of the Brahmans, the fabled sayings of the Skythians and the orgies of the Thracians and the flutes and Corybantes of the Phyrgians. Hence the deceitful and damaging astrology of the Chaldaeans. Hence poetry, the midwife of lies, the pretentious diction of Greek storytelling. Hence Orpheus and Homer and that portrayer of improper begettings, Hesiod. Hence the reputation of Thales and the glorious Pythagoras and Socrates the wise and Plato, the much-ballyhooed pride of the Academy of the Athenians. Hence the Parmenideses and the Protagorases and the Zenos. Hence the Stoas, and the Areopaguses and the Epicureans. Hence the dirges and breast-beatings of the tragedians and the jestings and raillery of the comics. Hence the dishonest divinations of Loxias the liar[3] and the remaining shenanigans and omen-mongering of Greek sophistication. And lest I prolong my essay by getting caught up in rotten and malodorous myths, the Imposter, having taken the burden of the entirety of creation on himself, and having taken man under his control as though he were a slave, went through all that is below heaven and patrolled the earth and kept watch over everything like a hen on her eggs, as he himself says in his lying fashion. He thought that it was necessary to set his throne above the clouds of heaven and to be equal to the Highest One. But the only begotten Son of God, the primordial Word, took pity on mankind since it had been deceived by the serpent, removed himself from the lap of the Father and became flesh by the Holy Spirit and by the Holy Virgin and Mother of God, Mary. He defeated his rival through the hallowed cross and through his suffering and went down to the lowest reaches of the earth and from there dragged back the fallen first-formed one, restoring the primordial beauty to his image and the original worth to his nature. And at that point the entire regime and conformity of the Tyrant vanished, as the light of piousness beamed more brightly than the rays of the sun on the entirety of creation. From this light the godly wisdom once again shone through and gave voice to the tongues of the fishermen and made the unwise teachers of the wise. From this came the birth of thunder, as follows: "In the beginning was the word."[4] It flashed forth from heavenly clouds and thundered and brought light to the entire inhabited world. And through this light Paul is carried to the Third Heaven and sees the unseeable and hears the unspoken sayings and speeds across the entire earth like a bird bringing the Gospel of Jesus in mid air. Thence Peter named Christ the son of the living God, and he is entrusted with the keys of the kingdom of the heavens, so that he may open the entrance to the divine palace for those who believe and lock it against those who do not. Thence flocks of martyrs cast down idols and hasten readily toward their death, displaying their wounds as crowns and their blood as robes of purple, beautiful in victory. The first-formed one should be considered the one who directs this writing, in my opinion and judgment at any rate, as a river the spring and the sea, and roots and branches and shoots, and as the one who originates all human nature, the beginning offerings and the first-fruits.
From Adam until the flood: 2242 years; from the flood until the building of the tower [sc. of Babel], 525 years; from the building of the tower until Abraham, 425. From Abraham until the Exodus of the sons of Israel from Egypt, 430. From the Exodus until the building of the Temple of Solomon, 757 years. From the building of the temple until the captivity of Israel, 425. Altogether 4880 years.[5] From the captivity until king Alexander [sc. the Great], 318. From Alexander until Christ our God, 303. Altogether 5500 years.[6] From Christ until Constantine the Great, 318. From Constantine until Michael son of Theophilos, 555. The whole span altogether 6375 years.[7] From Michael to Romanos son of Constantine Porphyrogennetos ... years.[8] From Porphyrogennetos to the death of John Tzimiskes ... years.[9]
Also [sc. attested is the adjective] Adamiaios, [meaning he who is descended] from Adam.
Greek Original:
Adam: ho prôtos anthrôpos, ho cheiri theou plastheis kai kata tên eikona kai homoiôsin morphôtheis tou dêmiourgou te kai ktisantos, ho kai timêtheis tên eis paradeison oikêsin. houtos dikaiôs an prôtos kaloito sophos hôs prôtoktiston agalma kai eikôn ousa theographos, hôs tôn charitôn holôn huparchôn anapleôs kai panta kathara kai akibdêla peripherôn ta psuchês te kai sômatos aisthêtêria. marmarugai gar tines, hôs eipein, ek tês ekeinou psuchês apastraptousai kai theiôn ennoiôn te kai energeiôn plêthousai kata pasan eisetrechon phusin eustochôs kai anamartêtôs to oikeion hekastês pleonektêma phthanousai. hos ou para anthrôpôn edokimasthê tôn tas kriseis pollakis episphalôs poioumenôn, alla para tou tôn holôn theou tou pasan gnôsin kai krisin orthôs poioumenou kai pro tou tas ennoias kinêthênai para tês ôdinousês ta toiauta psuchês kai apotiktousês noêmata. kai hêi phêsin hê graphê: epoiêsen ho theos panta ta ktênê kai ta thêria kai ta herpeta kai peteina kai êgagen auta pros ton Adam idein, ti kalesei auta. kai ho ekalesen Adam, touto onoma autôi. ti tês phônês tautês kai marturias aridêloteron; ti tês sophias tautês kai diagnôseôs hupsêloteron; ekalesen onomata tên phusin autên kai tên hupostasin hekastou zôiou hôsper hupographomenos, ou meletêsas, ou proskepsamenos, ouden ti propeponthôs tôn hosa metamanthanousin anthrôpoi. kai pollôn kai anarithmôn geneôn paradramousôn ouk ischusen oudeis hupallaxai kan tou tuchontos zôiou to onoma, oude tês ekeinou draxasthai megalonoias kai diagnôseôs. mallon men oun menousin hapantes hoi kata pasan esparmenoi tên gên anthrôpoi tois ekeinou stoichountes ametathetois thespismasi. kai oude mechri toutôn estê tou prôtogonou anthrôpou to huperballon en pasin axiôma, alla kai spermatôn kai phutôn diaphoras rhizôn te kai botanôn dunameis, kai hosa eis antilêpsin kai therapeian hê phusis hekastôi prosarmottei tôn zôiôn, diekrine te kai esaphêsen. houtos kai tên gunaika prôtos idôn ouch hôsper ek stomatos anthrôpinou peri tautês ephthenxato, all' hôs ek tinos theias omphês enêchoumenos eustochôs to poluumnêton ekeino kai thaumaston apephoibase logion: touto nun ostoun ek tôn osteôn mou kai sarx ek tês sarkos mou. hautê klêthêsetai gunê, hoti ek tou andros autês elêphthê. houtos toinun estin ho dokimasas hekasta kai pasi kanonas kai stathmas akribeis kai horous anantirrêtous enarmo- samenos. toutou technai kai grammata, toutou epistêmai logikai te kai alogoi, toutou prophêteiai, hierourgiai kai katharismoi kai nomoi graptoi te kai agraphoi, toutou panta heurêmata kai didagmata, kai hosai kata ton bion anankaiai chreiai te kai diaitai. houtos estin ho prôtos andrias, to theoklêton agalma, aph' houper apeuthunontai pasai anthrôpôn agalmatourgiai, kan pros to hêtton mallon kai mallon ekpiptôsin ekeinou tou makariou kai theoeidous apeikasmatos mêdemian echontos aphormên, hês an epilaboito ho met' ekeinon diaplattomenos ê zôigraphoumenos, heôs ho palamnaios kai apostatês kai planos diabolos touton exekulisen ek tês oikeias hidruseôs te kai staseôs kai kata tou pranous eiase pheresthai pros barathrôdeis tinas kai alampeis chôrous kai mechri tôn ameidêtôn tou haidou keuthmônôn engizontas. kanteuthen êrxato phusis hê tôn anthrôpôn paracharattesthai kai diakibdêleuesthai kai tupousthai tois tou turannou morphômasi te kai schêmasin. enteuthen hê nothos sophia tas aphormas elabe, tês theias drapeteusasês kai pros ouranon anaptasês, hothen to proteron ên aphormêsasa. hothen ho planos to tou theou spheterisamenos onoma eis polla katemerise, Kronous te kai Zênas kai Poseidônas heauton metakalôn: kai to dê pantôn anosiôtaton, eis onomata thêlea te kai asemna tên makarian kai arrêton sunkataspasai phusin ho alitêrios katetolmêsen, eis te tas Rheas ekeinas kai Aphroditas kai Athênas kai eis allas murias kai allokotous alogôn ideas te kai morphas, has ho kakias dêmiourgos kai tên apostasian nosêsas epechrôse te kai diecharaxen. enteuthen Aiguptiôn ta peri Osirin kai Tuphôna kai Isin mochthêra diêgêmata kai Persôn magika manganeumata kai Brachmanôn gumnosophistiai kai akairoi phantasiai kai hê thaumazomenê Skuthôn rhêsis kai ta Thraikôn orgia kai hoi Phrugôn auloi kai Korubantes. enteuthen hê Chaldaiôn astronomia hê sphalera te kai poluôdunos. enteuthen hê tou pseudous locheutria poiêsis, hê tôn Hellênikôn lêrêmatôn semnomuthia. enteuthen Orpheus te kai Homêros kai ho tôn athemitôn gonôn zôigraphos Hêsiodos. enteuthen hê Thalêtos doxa kai ho kleinos Puthagoras kai ho sophos Sôkratês kai Platôn, to tês Athênaiôn Akadêmias poluthrulêton semnologêma. enteuthen hoi Parmenidai kai Prôtagorai kai Zênônes. enteuthen hai Stoai kai hoi Areioi pagoi kai Epikoureioi. enteuthen hoi tragôidôn thrênoi kai kopetoi kai ta kômikôn paignia kai tôthasmata. enteuthen ta dolera tou Loxiou kai pseudêgorou thespismata kai hê loipê tôn Hellênikôn kompseumatôn ereschelia kai terateia. kai hina mê makron apoteinô ton logon eis saprous te kai odôdotas muthous enascholoumenos, pasan eis heauton tên ktisin ho planos emphortisamenos kai labôn hupo cheira ton anthrôpon hôs andrapodon kai dierchomenos tên hup' ouranon kai peripatôn tên gên kai hôs ôa panta katechôn, hôs autos pou phêsin alazoneuomenos, ôieto dein ton heautou thronon thêsein epanô tôn nephelôn tou ouranou kai esesthai homoios tôi Hupsistôi. all' ho tou theou monogenês huios kai logos ho proaiônios oikteiras ton anthrôpon hôs êpatêmenon hupo tou drakontos ek tôn tou patros kolpôn heauton ekenôse kai sarkôtheis ek pneumatos hagiou kai ek tês hagias parthenou kai theotokou Marias, kai dia tou timiou staurou kai tou pathous autou katabalôn ton antipalon kai katabas eis ta katôtata merê tês gês ekeithen heilkuse ton parapesonta prôtoplaston, apodous têi eikoni to prôton kallos kai têi phusei to archaion axiôma. kanteuthen êphanistai pasa hê tou turannou dunasteia kai summorphia tou tês eusebeias phôtos diaugasantos pasêi têi ktisei tôn hêliakôn marmarugôn têlaugesteron. ek toutou tou phôtos hê kata theon sophia palin dielampse kai glôssas halieôn estomôse kai tôn sophôn didaskalous tous asophous eirgasato enteuthen ho tês brontês gonos, to: en archêi ên ho logos, ex ouraniôn nephelôn apastrapsas ebrontêse, kai pasan tên oikoumenên elamprune. kak toutou tou phôtos Paulos eis triton ouranon anapheretai kai theatai ta atheata kai tôn arrêtôn hupakouei logiôn kai diatrechei pasan tên gên hôs ptênos kai aerios ton Iêsoun euangelizomenos. enteuthen ho Petros ton Christon huion theou tou zôntos ônomase kai tas kleis tês tôn ouranôn pisteuetai basileias, hina anoigêi men tois pistois, apokleiêi de tois apistois tôn theiôn anaktorôn tên eisodon. enteuthen agelai marturôn kataballousin eidôla kai trechousin hetoimoi pros ton thanaton, hôs stephanous tas plêgas kai hôs porphuras ta heautôn haimata peripherontes hoi kallinikoi. estô goun ho prôtoplastos archêgos toude tou grammatos, kata ge ton emon horon kai logon, hôs potamos pêgê te kai thalatta kai rhiza kai kladoi kai horpêkes kai pasês huparchôn tês anthrôpinês phuseôs aparchê kai prôtoleion. hoti apo Adam heôs tou kataklusmou etê #22bsmb#. apo de tou kataklusmou heôs tês purgopoiïas etê phke#. apo de tês purgopoiïas heôs tou Abraam uke#. apo de tou Abraam heôs tês exodou tôn huiôn Israêl ex Aiguptou ul#. apo de tês exodou heôs tês oikodomês tou Solomônteiou naou etê psnz#. apo de tês oikodomês tou naou heôs tês aichmalôsias tou Israêl uke#. homou etê #22dôp#. apo de tês aichmalôsias heôs Alexandrou basileôs tiê#. apo de Alexandrou heôs Christou tou theou hêmôn tg#. homou etê #22eph#. apo de Christou heôs tou megalou Kônstantinou tiê#. apo de Kônstantinou mechri Michaêl huiou Theophilou phne#. homou ta panta etê #22#2toe#. apo de Michaêl heôs Rhômanou huiou Kônstantinou tou Porphurogennêtou etê ... apo de tou Porphurogennêtou heôs tês teleutês Iôannou tou Tzimiskê etê ... kai Adamiaios, apo Adam.
Notes:
The great bulk of this entry -- 104 lines out of 117 in the printed edition -- is a tour de force of polemic by an unidentifiable scholar quite outside the type of neutral reticence which characterises most of the contributors to the Suda (although Küster suggests a comparison with the entry on Job at iota 471). His self-styled "essay" (logos), unparalleled in this form and content elsewhere, is a tirade on two levels: explicitly, against the great men of pagan culture(s), and also implicitly, in that its determination to enhance the significance of Adam to extraordinary levels rests in part upon an almost Pelagian exculpation of him from the taint of original sin.
[1] A paraphrase of Genesis 1.20 and 2.19.
[2] Genesis 2.23; the wordplay between "man" and "wo-man" in English, is also present in the original Hebrew איש ʾīš and אישה ʾīššah, but not in the Greek.
[3] i.e. Apollo (lambda 673).
[4] John 1.1.
[5] The actual sum of the numbers given up to this point is 4804 (dwd) instead of the 4880 (dwp) of the mss.
[6] The actual sum of all the numbers given so far is 5432; adding merely the last two numbers to the previous summation yields 5528.
[7] 6373, counting from the last summation. The actual total of all individual numbers is 6305. (Up to this point the chronology is taken from George the Monk, Chronicon 804.1-20; and cf. generally phi 45. The two time-spans which now follow are odd, in that the chronology stops being linear.)
[8] Romanus (II) died in 963.
[9] John died in 976.
Keywords: art history; biography; botany; Christianity; chronology; comedy; epic; ethics; food; gender and sexuality; historiography; imagery; law; mythology; philosophy; poetry; proverbs; religion; tragedy; women; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 23 April 2001@15:37:44.
Vetted by:
Patrick T. Rourke (Cleaned up encoding issue) on 8 April 2002@12:19:19.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 8 April 2002@14:00:09.
Catharine Roth (raised status) on 5 May 2002@12:51:12.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew words.) on 31 October 2002@10:41:09.
David Whitehead (modified last paragraph of translation; corrected error in footnote numeration; cosmetics) on 10 June 2003@04:32:32.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 7 October 2005@07:34:57.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 9 January 2012@10:28:35.
David Whitehead on 9 January 2012@10:58:50.
David Whitehead (added primary note) on 11 January 2012@11:10:07.
David Whitehead (my typo) on 11 January 2012@11:26:30.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 6 January 2013@23:16:27.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 17 January 2014@06:41:18.
Raphael Finkel (Converted Romanization of Hebrew to ISO 259.) on 7 August 2014@14:30:26.
Catharine Roth (cross-reference) on 28 January 2019@15:16:53.

Headword: Adaion
Adler number: alpha,431
Translated headword: unfired, Adaios, Adaeus
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] unburnt.[1]
Also [sc. attested is] Adaios, a proper name.[2]
Greek Original:
Adaion: akauston. kai Adaios: onoma kurion.
Notes:
Same material, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon (484, 414).
[1] The primary headword, evidently quoted from somewhere, is masculine accusative singular or neuter nominative/accusative singular of this adjective. The glossing interprets it as if derived from dai/w, "burn" (delta 112); however, the only entry in LSJ for a)dai=os (web address 1 below) connects it with a)/dhn, "sufficiently", and translates it as "producing surfeit", citing Sophron 137.
[2] The individual in question is probably the C4 BCE Macedonian general of this name, nicknamed Rooster. See principally Theopompus FGrH 115 F249 (quoted by Athenaeus), with N.G.L. Hammond & G.T. Griffith, A History of Macedonia 2 (Oxford 1979) 441. But for another possibility see under alpha 594.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: William Hutton on 6 November 2000@13:43:37.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 13 February 2001@08:15:32.
David Whitehead (augmented note 2; added keyword; cosmetics) on 10 June 2003@08:03:05.
David Whitehead (augmented n.1; modified keywords; cosmetics) on 9 July 2008@05:07:58.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 10 January 2012@05:22:37.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 17 December 2013@21:57:25.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 28 March 2015@15:20:18.
David Whitehead (x-ref; cosmetics) on 14 April 2015@11:10:15.

Headword: Aeidelon
Adler number: alpha,613
Translated headword: dark, obscure, invisible
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] unseen.[1]
Also [sc. attested is] a)eide/s ["deformed/unsightly"], [meaning something] painful.[2]
Also [sc. attested is] a)eide/steron ["more/rather shapeless"], [meaning] formless.
"[Craftsmen] who take the formless and rather shapeless copper and stretch and fashion it into shape."[3]
Greek Original:
Aeidelon: aoraton. kai Aeides, lupêron. kai Aeidesteron, amorphon. ton chalkon amorphon paralabontes kai aeidesteron eis morphên enteinousi kai kataschêmatizousi.
Notes:
[1] Similarly in other lexica. This primary headword itself is masculine accusative singular or neuter nominative/accusative singular of the poetic adjective a)ei/delos. It has perhaps been extracted from somewhere in this form; alternatively it has been generated by Hesiod's use of this adjective (noted in lexica, where a neuter plural is quoted: fr. 67b) to mean unseen.
[2] Neuter singular. Same lemma and gloss transmitted at Photius alpha406 Theodoridis, though the former should be a)hde/s.
[3] Damascius, quoted from delta 436.
Keywords: art history; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; poetry; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Carl Widstrand on 12 January 2000@18:30:22.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 8 May 2002@07:35:07.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; augmented notes and keywords; betacoding and other cosmetics) on 16 August 2006@04:43:33.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 12 January 2012@08:33:22.
David Whitehead (expanded n.2) on 19 August 2013@06:21:57.
David Whitehead on 30 April 2015@09:25:26.

Headword: Aei tois erôsin sunesmen
Adler number: alpha,643
Translated headword: always we associate with love(r)s
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Aristophanes [sc. says this] about birds.[1] Because lovers give noble birds to please their beloveds. And the nuthatch or some other sort of bird appears fortunate for lovers.[2] "I, o Leukippe, [am] a fortunate nuthatch."[3]
The [bird] now, I think, called a sitaris.
Greek Original:
Aei tois erôsin sunesmen: Aristophanês peri ornithôn. dia to tous erastas ornithas eugeneis charizesthai tois erômenois. kai hê sittê de kai ei ti toiouton orneon dexia pros tous erôtas phainetai. egô men, ô Leukippê, dexia sittê. hê nun oimai legomenê sitaris.
Notes:
[1] Aristophanes, Birds 704 (without 'always': web address 1 below). The scholia there supply the material which now follows; see further below, n.3.
[2] So on vase-paintings: see Dunbar [below] 447. (For this sense of dexios, with particular reference to birds, see LSJ s.v., II.)
[3] Poetae Lyrici Graeci 3.695. (The scholiast's version is somewhat different, e.g. the addressee is male: Leukippos.)
Reference:
Aristophanes, Birds, edited with introduction and commentary by Nan Dunbar (Oxford 1995)
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: art history; comedy; gender and sexuality; poetry; women; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 18 March 2001@16:13:29.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes; added keyword) on 19 March 2001@05:20:48.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 15 August 2006@04:51:02.
Jennifer Benedict (updated link) on 16 March 2008@03:32:50.
David Whitehead (modified aspects of tr; expanded n.2; tweaks and cosmetics) on 12 January 2012@11:02:24.
David Whitehead (tweaked and expanded notes) on 1 May 2015@04:01:00.

Headword: Athênas agalma doru kratei
Adler number: alpha,727
Translated headword: Athena's statue holds a spear
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Because of the steadfastness and masculinity [sc. of such an attribute]; likewise also a shield, from her turning-away every treachery through her wisdom; for [wisdom] is [close] to intelligence. And they gave her a helmet because of her being the invisible[1] summit of wisdom; also an olive-tree, as being of the purest essence; for the olive-tree [is] the stuff of a man. And they gave her a Gorgon on her breast because of the swiftness of her intelligence.[2]
Greek Original:
Athênas agalma doru kratei: dia to statheron kai andreion: homoiôs kai aspida para to pasan epiboulên dia tês sophias apôtheisthai: hê autê gar esti tôi nôi. kai perikephalaian didoasin autêi dia to einai tês sophias to akrotaton atheaton: kai elaian, hôs katharôtatês ousias ousês: phôtos gar hulê hê elaia. kai gorgonên didoasin epi tou stêthous autêi dia to tachu tou nou.
Notes:
ps.-Codinus, Patria Constantinopoleos 2.3 (Preger, Scriptores originum Constantinopolitanarum 152).
See already alpha 132.
[1] Or: secret.
[2] cf. gamma 394, gamma 395.
Keywords: art history; botany; clothing; imagery; military affairs; mythology; religion; women
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 3 February 2000@00:22:31.
Vetted by:
Edmund P. Cueva on 14 March 2000@06:34:55.
Edmund P. Cueva on 14 March 2000@06:36:23.
David Whitehead (added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 20 May 2002@03:54:47.
David Whitehead (added note) on 11 July 2003@06:50:02.
David Whitehead (tweaks to tr; updated ref) on 19 January 2012@07:30:04.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 8 August 2013@16:29:33.
Catharine Roth on 9 August 2013@01:02:17.
David Whitehead on 1 May 2015@09:46:55.

Headword: Akakios
Adler number: alpha,783
Translated headword: Akakios, Acacius
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The patriarch of Constantinople, he was revered as no other. For he was the guardian of orphans, and it was evident to all that he managed the affairs of the orphans well and with pleasure. Moreoever, he became an acquaintance of the emperor Leo with whom he found immense favor. He [Leo] confided his affairs, both public and private, to this man first of all. When he assembled the senate, he invited this man as well and turned the beginning of every discussion over to him.
This Akakios realized the savagery of Leo Makelles[1] toward those who had offended him in some way and had accurately divined his character; but because this was something only those who flattered him had the opportunity to observe, he made a habit of marvelling at all that he did. Nevertheless he was readily able to rein [Leo] in and easily made him slacken his anger. He also brought about the salvation of many who ran afoul of him, and managed to have those sentenced to life-long exile recalled to their homeland.
After the death of Gennadios, patriarch of Constantinople, he was nominated to serve in that priesthood with the backing of Zenon. Since he was a natural leader and took all the churches under his direct control, he exercised a deliberate discrimination concerning those who were appointed to the churches. They in gratitude dedicated images of him in their prayer chambers. Thus, when images of him appeared in all the churches, some people began to think that he, in a pursuit of empty glory, had ordered their dedication, and no small confirmation of this suspicion was supplied by the mosaic image fashioned in the church by the harbor. For although the entire work had been completed in the time of Gennadios, in a conspicuous place in the temple they portrayed [Akakios] and after him the Savior saying to Gennadios 'destroy this temple', and over him 'after you I will raise him up.'[2] As a result of such images, then, Akakios, though he was generous and a capable leader, nevertheless seemed to all to be excessively ambitious.[3]
See concerning this man under Basiliskos.[4]
Greek Original:
Akakios: ho patriarchês Kônstantinoupoleôs, aidesimos ên hôs ouk allos tis. orphanotrophos gar gegonôs kai kalôs ta tôn orphanôn dioikôn pasin ephaineto kath' hêdonên. kai dê kai tôi basilei Leonti sunêthês gegonôs huperphuôs êreske kai toutôi prôtôi aei panta anekoinouto ta te koina kai ta idia. kai hote tên boulên êthroize, sunekalei kai touton kai tês skepseôs archên ex autou pasês etitheto. hos Akakios tên tou Leontos tou Makellê ômotêta sunidôn pros tous ti lupêsantas kai to êthos akribôs to ekeinou phôrasas, hoti tois epainousi monon huparchei eualôton, epetêdeue panta ta ekeinou thaumazein. toigaroun peithênion auton eichen hetoimôs ton te thumon autou rhaidiôs katestelle kai pollois proskekroukosi tên sôtêrian epragmateueto kai tous exorian aïdion echontas anekaleito pros tên patrida. houtos meta thanaton Gennadiou, patriarchou Kônstantinoupoleôs, spoudêi Zênônos hierasthai proeblêthê. hos ôn archikos kai pasas tas ekklêsias huph' heauton poiêsas pephrontismenôs tôn en autais keklêrômenôn epoieito tên kêdemonian, hoi eucharistountes en graphais anethêkan auton kata tous euktêrious oikous. epeiper oun athroon en pasais tais ekklêsiais edeichthêsan autou eikones, ôiêthêsan tines kenodoxounta tên anathesin prostetachenai ou mikran echontes tês huponoias pistôsin, tên ek psêphidôn graphên dêmiourgêtheisan en têi pros tôi neôriôi ekklêsiai. tou gar ergou pantos epi Gennadiou telesthentos eis ton epiphanê topon exetupôsan auton tou neô kai metaxu toude ton Sôtêra legonta tôi Gennadiôi, luson ton naon touton, kai epi tou, meta se egerô auton. ek tôn toioutôn oun eikonôn Akakios, ei kai eumetadotos ên kai prostatikos, alla doxomanês pasin edoxen huparchein. zêtei peri touton en tôi Basiliskos.
Notes:
On Acacius or Akakios, see web address 1.
[1] Leo "the Butcher": see lambda 267 and biography (by Hugh Elton) at web address 2.
[2] cf. John 2.19.
[3] Valesius (Henri de Valois 1603-1676) attributed this entry to Malchus (on Theodore the Reader 167); now accepted as Malchus fr.2b Cresci.
[4] beta 164.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: architecture; art history; biography; children; Christianity; chronology; ethics; geography; historiography; history; law; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 1 June 2001@11:30:21.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added links) on 1 June 2001@18:44:50.
William Hutton (Modified translation) on 3 June 2001@11:10:35.
Catharine Roth (added note) on 28 February 2002@00:12:18.
Catharine Roth (augmented translation and notes) on 28 February 2002@13:38:30.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@11:17:30.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note, added cross-reference) on 20 May 2008@11:40:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 22 January 2012@08:28:19.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 31 January 2015@07:57:40.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note) on 3 May 2015@23:35:20.

Headword: Akrôtêrion
Adler number: alpha,1031
Translated headword: extremity
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[no gloss]
Greek Original:
Akrôtêrion.
Notes:
Comparable entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon (1061).
The neuter noun is used in various contexts: top of a mountain, promontory of land, ornament of ship's stern-post, ornament on the angle of the pediment of a building; (in the plural) extremities of the limbs (hands, feet, fingers, toes). See LSJ entry at web address 1.
cf. alpha 1030.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: architecture; art history; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; medicine; military affairs
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 16 February 2001@21:20:37.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, set status) on 22 February 2001@23:28:29.
David Whitehead (x-ref) on 3 January 2005@11:03:23.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 19 May 2015@23:36:28.
David Whitehead (another note and keyword) on 23 May 2015@10:57:44.

Headword: Akulêïa
Adler number: alpha,1043
Translated headword: Aquileia
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A populous city of Italy, lying on [= by] the sea.
Also [sc. attested are] 'Aquileians', [meaning] the citizens [of it].[1]
Greek Original:
Akulêïa: polis Italias poluanthrôpos, prokeimenê en thalattêi. kai Akulêïsioi, hoi politai.
Notes:
OCD(4) p.129; Barrington Atlas map 19 grid F4. (NB: the present gloss makes it clear that this is not the smaller Aquileia in Germany: ib. map 12 grid D4.) See also alpha 938.
Aquileia has a strategic location at the head of the Adriatic Sea, controlling roads over the Alps. Gauls occupied the site in 186 BC. The Romans ejected them and founded a Latin colony in 181 BC (Livy 39.22, 54; 40.34). Aquileia was a large military, commercial, and industrial city under the empire. The amber trade was especially important (Strabo 4.207f.; 5.214). A Christian church council was held there in 381 with Ambrose presiding. Attila sacked the city in 452 but did not destroy it. Aquileia's bishop became a patriarch in the 6th century and the patriarchate continued influential through the middle ages. Information on councils held at Aquileia may be found on the Catholic Encyclopedia web site (web address 1). Excavations of the basilica have revealed remarkable 4th-century floor mosaics (see UNESCO World Heritage Site page at web address 2).
[2] Stephanus of Byzantium s.v. gives the ethnikon as *\Akulh/ios, but the Suda's form is the norm in (e.g.) Herodian's History.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: architecture; art history; Christianity; definition; geography; historiography; history; religion; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 2 July 2000@17:17:08.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added bibliography; cosmetics) on 18 February 2001@11:09:12.
Catharine Roth (Modified links.) on 23 February 2001@20:28:14.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, keyword) on 11 October 2005@21:50:50.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 12 October 2005@03:00:38.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 20 November 2005@10:43:24.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 21 February 2006@17:43:45.
Catharine Roth (modified links) on 1 February 2012@19:03:49.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@04:06:49.
David Whitehead (another note and keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 24 May 2015@04:08:41.

Headword: Alabastothêkas
Adler number: alpha,1050
Translated headword: perfume-bottle boxes, scent-bottle boxes
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Demosthenes calls boxes of scent-bottles [this].[1] In common parlance they call them murothekai ["unguent-boxes"]. Alabastoi are flasks of which one cannot take hold because of [their] smoothness.[2]
Aristophanes [writes]: "into the scent-bottle one ladle of peace". As if he was saying one spoonful.[3]
Greek Original:
Alabastothêkas: tas thêkas tôn alabastôn Dêmosthenês legei. en têi sunêtheiai murothêkas kalousin. alabastoi de eisi lêkuthoi, hôn ouk esti labesthai dia leiotêta. Aristophanês: es ton alabaston kuathon eirênês hena. hôsei elege kochliarion hen.
Notes:
The first part of this entry comes from Harpokration s.v., but Photius and the Suda convert his nominative plural headword into an accusative plural.
[1] Demosthenes 19.237 (web address 1).
[2] See alpha 1051.
[3] Aristophanes, Acharnians 1053 (web address 2), with scholion. The "ladle" (kuathos, kappa 2574) was a standard Attic measure.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: art history; comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; rhetoric; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 3 July 2000@18:19:41.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword; cosmetics) on 1 October 2000@09:49:22.
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 6 June 2002@09:05:45.
Catharine Roth (adjusted links) on 9 August 2007@15:08:01.
David Whitehead (expanded primary note; x-ref; more keywords; tweaks) on 2 February 2012@05:38:00.
Catharine Roth (upgraded links) on 2 February 2012@18:26:22.
Catharine Roth (tweaked links) on 20 October 2013@19:38:21.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 24 May 2015@10:59:08.

Headword: Alabastron
Adler number: alpha,1051

Timeout after 20 seconds; further results omitted.