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Headword: *eu)ma/reia
Adler number: epsilon,3574
Translated headword: convenience
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] agreeability.[1]
Also a term for orderliness in Marcus [Aurelius] Antoninus.[2]
And in the Epigrams: "a slipper not long-robed."[3]
Greek Original:
*eu)ma/reia: h( eu)koli/a. le/getai de\ kai\ h( eu)kosmi/a para\ *ma/rkw| *)antwni/nw|. kai\ e)n *)epigra/mmasi: ou) baqu/peplos eu)/maris.
For the headword cf. epsilon 3573, epsilon 3575, epsilon 3577, and LSJ s.v.
[1] Glossed differently, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon (2499).
[2] Marcus Aurelius, Meditations 4.3.2 (web address 1).
[3] The quotation (Greek Anthology 7.413.3-4) is from the epigram on Hipparchia (cf. iota 517), wife of Krates (kappa 2341), both of whom were Cynic philosophers. The phrase does not contain the present headword but merely another word similar to it, eu)/maris, 'an Asiatic shoe or slipper' (LSJ s.v.); the word (again under epsilon 3577) appears to be non-Greek in origin (cf. LSJ; Gow and Page, vol. II, p. 88). Along with the two main sources of the Greek Anthology (Anthologia Palatina and Anthologia Planudea), the Suda transmits baqu/peplos, long-robed (cf. beta 36, LSJ s.v.); however, the entry should evidently read baqu/pelmos, thick-soled, as Salmasius [Claude de Saumaise, 1588-1653] observes in his critical apparatus to the Anthologia Palatina (Gow and Page, vol. I, p. 34 and note).
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vols. I-II, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1965
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: clothing; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; gender and sexuality; philosophy; poetry; trade and manufacture; women
Translated by: Ronald Allen on 14 October 2007@01:52:22.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 14 October 2007@03:42:19.
William Hutton on 24 February 2008@05:55:15.
David Whitehead on 7 November 2012@08:01:30.
David Whitehead (coding and other cosmetics) on 8 March 2016@06:54:56.
Catharine Roth (added a link) on 28 January 2018@17:47:53.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note) on 12 February 2018@01:49:17.

Headword: *)efi/ppwn o)no/mata
Adler number: epsilon,3931
Translated headword: names of mounted [units]
Vetting Status: high
An ile[1] of cavalry, 64 men. An epilarchia, 2 ilai of cavalry, 128 men. A tarantinarchia, 2 ilai[2] of cavalry, 256 men. A hipparchia, 2 tarantinoi of cavalry, 12 men.[3] An ephipparchia, 2 hipparchiai of cavalry, 124 men. A telos, 2 ephipparchiai of cavalry, 248 men. An epitagma, 2 tele of cavalry, 996 men.[4]
Greek Original:
*)efi/ppwn o)no/mata: i)/lh i(ppe/wn, a)/ndres cd#. e)pilarxi/a, b# i)=lai i(ppe/wn, a)ndrw=n rkh#. tarantinarxi/a, b# i)=lai i(ppe/wn, a)ndrw=n sn#2#. i(pparxi/a, b# tarantinoi\ i(ppe/wn, a)ndrw=n ib#. e)fipparxi/a, b# i(pparxi/ai i(ppe/wn, a)ndrw=n #22akd#. te/los, b# e)fipparxi/ai i(ppe/wn #22bmh#. e)pi/tagma, b# te/lh i(ppe/wn, a)ndrw=n #22q#4#2#.
For this material cf. Asclepiodotus 7; Aelian, Tactica 20.2; Arrian, Tactica 18.2-4.
[1] cf. iota 297, iota 311.
[2] 4, surely. In any event cf. tau 113.
[3] 512 Kuster (and tarantinarchiai rather than the transmitted tarantinoi).
[4] 496, surely.
Keywords: definition; mathematics; military affairs; rhetoric; zoology
Translated by: David Whitehead on 6 February 2008@09:08:19.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (set status) on 6 February 2008@11:37:46.
David Whitehead (added primary note) on 7 February 2008@03:10:52.
David Whitehead on 19 November 2012@07:42:05.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 19 December 2014@01:09:08.
David Whitehead on 21 March 2016@05:58:44.

Headword: *)/hra
Adler number: eta,448
Translated headword: loved
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning he/she/it] was desiring.[1] Hipparchia loved the discourses of Crates, not favoring any other matter. When she went into a symposium with Crates, she tested Theodoros the atheist by proposing a sophism like this: "that which if Theodoros did, he would not be said to do wrong, neither should Hipparchia be said to do wrong if she does it. Theodoros hitting himself does not do wrong, nor does Hipparchia do wrong hitting Theodoros." He did not reply to what she said, but pulled up her outer-garment.[2]
Greek Original:
*)/hra: e)pequ/mei. *(ipparxi/a h)/ra tw=n lo/gwn *kra/thtos, ou)deno\s a)/llou e)pistrefome/nh pra/gmatos. h(/tis e)s sumpo/sion e)lqou=sa su\n *kra/thti *qeo/dwron to\n a)/qeon h)/legcen so/fisma protei/nasa toiou=to: o(\ poiw=n *qeo/dwros ou)k a)\n a)dikei=n le/goito, ou)d' *(ipparxi/a poiou=sa tou=to a)dikei=n le/goito a)/n: *qeo/dwros tu/ptwn e(auto\n ou)k a)dikei=, ou)d' *(ipparxi/a *qeo/dwron tu/ptousa a)dikei=. o( de\ pro\s to\ lexqe\n ou)k a)ph/nthsen, a)nesu/rato d' au)th=s to\ r(hma/tion.
Abridged from Diogenes Laertius 6.96-97 (web address 1). For Hipparchia and her husband Crates, see iota 517 and kappa 2341. For Theodoros see theta 150.
[1] cf. eta 447, and epsilon 2887.
[2] So D.L., i.e. i(ma/tion rather than the Suda's r(hma/tion.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; clothing; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; philosophy; women
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 24 November 2006@19:52:52.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 26 November 2006@04:41:40.
David Whitehead (another x-ref; cosmetics) on 26 November 2006@07:32:27.
David Whitehead on 18 December 2012@08:16:13.
Catharine Roth (modified link) on 10 September 2018@02:02:09.

Headword: *(ipparxi/a
Adler number: iota,517
Translated headword: Hipparchia
Vetting Status: high
Sister of Metrokles the Cynic, from Maroneia,[1] Cynic philosopher, wife of Krates the Cynic, who was an Athenian, student of Bryson from Achaia, or as some say of Diogenes.[2] She wrote philosophical discussions and some essays and propositions addressed to Theodoros, the one called Atheist.[3] She flourished in the 111th Olympiad.[4]
Greek Original:
*(ipparxi/a, a)delfh\ *mhtrokle/ous tou= *kunikou=, *marwnei=tis, filo/sofos *kunikh/, gunh\ *kra/thtos tou= *kunikou=, o(\s h)=n *)aqhnai=os, *bru/swnos maqhth\s tou= *)axaiou= h)\ w(/s tines *dioge/nous. e)/graye filoso/fous u(poqe/seis kai/ tina e)pixeirh/mata kai\ prota/seis pro\s *qeo/dwron to\n e)piklhqe/nta *)/aqeon. h)/kmazen e)pi\ th=s ria# *)olumpia/dos.
[1] In Thrace.
[2] Krates: kappa 2341.
[3] Theodoros: theta 150. For Hipparchia's dispute with him see Diogenes Laertius 6.96-98 (translated at web address 1).
[4] 336-333 BCE.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; chronology; geography; philosophy; women
Translated by: Ross Scaife ✝ on 26 November 2002@19:47:45.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 27 November 2002@03:50:51.
David Whitehead (another note and keyword; tweaking) on 14 January 2013@04:23:08.
Catharine Roth (updated link) on 4 January 2020@22:39:41.

Headword: *kra/ths
Adler number: kappa,2341
Translated headword: Krates, Crates
Vetting Status: high
Son of Askondas, a Theban, a Cynic philosopher, a student of Diogenes and Bryson the Achaean. He liquidated his property and gave the money to a money-changer, telling him that if his sons were philosophers he should give it to the people, but if not, to the sons themselves.[1] He married Hipparchia of Maroneia and called their marriage "dog-coupling" (cynogamy).[2] He had a son by her, Pasikles. He flourished in the 113th Olympiad.[3] He was called "Door-opener" because he shamelessly entered anyone's house he wanted.[4]
This man, having abandoned his property [to be] sheep-pasturage, took to the altar and said, "Krates manumits Krates the Theban!"[5] He wrote philosophical works.
Krates said: "hunger stops passion; if not, time [does]; but if not even that can -- a halter."[6]
This man threw his property into the sea, as Philostratus the Lemnian says in his Life of Apollonius of Tyana.[7]
See also under 'Anaxagoras'.[8]
Greek Original:
*kra/ths, *)askw/ndou, *qhbai=os, filo/sofos *kuniko/s, maqhth\s *dioge/nous kai\ *bru/swnos tou= *)axaiou=: o(\s e)carguri/sas th\n ou)si/an de/dwke ta\ a)rgu/ria trapezi/th| ei)pw/n, ei) oi( pai=des au)tw=| filosofh/sousi, tw=| dh/mw| dou=nai, ei) de\ mh/, toi=s paisi\n au)toi=s. gh/mas de\ *(ipparxi/an th\n *marwnei=tin kunogami/an to\n ga/mon e)ka/lese. pai=da de\ e)/sxen e)c au)th=s *pasikle/a. h)=n de\ e)pi\ th=s rig# *)olumpia/dos. e)peklh/qh de\ *qurepanoi/kths dia\ to\ a)dew=s e)peisie/nai ei)s panto/s, ou(=per h)bou/leto, oi)=kon. ou(=tos katalipw\n th\n ou)si/an mhlo/boton, a)rqei\s e)pi\ tou= bwmou= ei)=pen: e)leuqeroi= *kra/thta *qhbai=on *kra/ths. e)/graye filo/sofa. o(/ti *kra/ths ei)=pen: e)/rwta pau/ei limo/s: ei) de\ mh/, xro/nos: a)\n de\ mhde\ tou/tw| du/nasai, bro/xos. ou(=tos katepo/ntwse th\n ou)si/an, w(s le/gei *filo/stratos o( *lh/mnios e)n tw=| bi/w| *)apollwni/ou tou= *tuane/ws. kai\ zh/tei e)n tw=| *)anacago/ras.
c.368/5 - 288/5 BCE. See generally OCD(4) s.v. Crates(2) and Cynics. The bulk of the present entry derives from Diogenes Laertius 6.85-88, with extra material from Philostratus and elsewhere.
[1] See D.L. 6.88 (citing Demetrius of Magnesia). The point was not to punish the sons but to recognize that, if philosophers, they would have no need of money.
[2] That is, the marriage of one cynic to another. For Hipparchia see iota 517.
[3] 328-325. The Suda actually says that Krates was "born" then, but for "flourished", h)/kmaze, see D.L. 6.87.
[4] cf. theta 606.
[5] cf. beta 492 (with the note there) and theta 19.
[6] For these two lines of iambic verse cf. D.L. 6.86.
[7] 1.13.
[8] alpha 1981.
Luis Navia. Classical Cynicism: A Critical Study. Greenwood Press, 1996 [pp.119-143]
L. Paquet. Les Cyniques grecs: Fragments et temoignages. Ottawa, 1988 [pp.103ff.]
Keywords: agriculture; biography; chronology; economics; ethics; gender and sexuality; geography; imagery; meter and music; philosophy; poetry; religion; women; zoology
Translated by: Alex Gottesman on 2 April 2000@19:39:05.
Vetted by:
Helma Dik on 2 April 2000@20:01:37.
Helma Dik (Minor changes in text. Perhaps add Pauly, OCD reffs in bibliography; Is dad called Ascondos or -das (cf Epaminondas)?) on 2 April 2000@20:10:04.
Helma Dik on 4 April 2000@11:58:54.
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes; added keywords; cosmetics) on 25 May 2001@11:13:07.
David Whitehead (added note) on 13 December 2001@03:23:10.
David Whitehead (added note) on 21 November 2002@06:51:23.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; more keywords; cosmetics) on 8 April 2008@03:25:57.
David Whitehead (more x-refs; more keywords) on 17 March 2013@06:23:22.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 4 August 2014@07:32:33.

Headword: *qeo/dwros
Adler number: theta,150
Translated headword: Theodorus, Theodoros
Vetting Status: high
Surnamed 'Atheist',[1] was a disciple of Zeno of Citium;[2] he also followed Bryson[3] and Pyrrhon 'the Ephectic'.[4] In holding the doctrine of indifference and transmitting it, he founded his own school, the one named Theodorean.[5] He wrote on many topics, these topics extending towards his own school, and some other themes.
This man said to Hipparchia, the wife of Crates:[6] '“this is she who left the shuttles of looms” and bears a threadbare cloak.'[7]
Greek Original:
*qeo/dwros, o( e)pi/klhn *)/aqeos, o(\s h)kroa/sato *zh/nwnos tou= *kitie/ws, dih/kouse de\ kai\ *bru/swnos kai\ *pu/rrwnos tou= *)efektikou=. a)diafori/an doca/zwn kai\ paradidou\s ai(/resin i)di/an eu(=ren, h(/tis *qeodw/reios e)klh/qh. ou(=tos e)/graye polla\ suntei/nonta ei)s th\n oi)kei/an ai(/resin, kai\ a)/lla tina. ou(=tos ei)=pe pro\s *(ipparxi/an, th\n gunai=ka *kra/thtos: au(/th e)sti\n h( ta\s pro\s i(stou\s e)klipou=sa kerki/das kai\ tri/bwna forou=sa.
The chronological indicators in this entry are mutually incompatible: some late fifth century BCE, others late fourth century. Either the Suda or its source has conflated two homonyms who should be kept distinct from each other (as they are in e.g. the Index nominum et rerum of R.D. Hicks' Loeb edition of the principal source used, Diogenes Laertius). One is the mathematician and geometer Theodorus of Cyrene (fl. late 5th century BCE), one of the characters in Plato's Theaetetus; a former disciple of the sophist Protagoras, and portrayed by Plato as an associate of Socrates and the teacher of Theaetetus; see generally OCD(4) Theodorus(2). The other, to whom most of the material applies, is the 'Cyrenaic' (Aristippean) philosopher Theodorus, mentioned briefly in OCD(4) under Cyrenaics.
[1] See Diogenes Laertius 2.86, 2.97. Theodorus appears to have written a book On the Gods, where he positively denied their existence (see Giannantoni 1990, IV H 14-24). This was enough reason to be banished from Athens. For further data on Theodorus and his philosophical tenets, see Long (below), 636-639.
[2] The founder of Stoicism: see alphaiota 4420, zeta 78, zeta 79.
[3] Bryson of Heraclea, a Sophist of the early 4th century BCE. He was criticized by Aristotle for an allegedly fallacious quadrature of the circle (An.Post. 75b4; Soph.El. 171b16, 172a3). In Physics 185a14-17 Aristotle also stresses that it is the geometer’s concern to refute the quadrature by means of lunes, but not as Antiphon had. 'The circle’s quadrature' is the attempt 'to measure' a circle by means of the inscription of a polygon in a circumference. Antiphon’s method apparently consisted in inscribing polygons with an increasing number of sides. He seems to have thought that, in increasing indefinitely the number of sides, the circumference of the polygon might coincide with the circle’s circumference (see Simplicius, In Phys. 54, 12ff.= DK B13 and Heat [below], 221ff.). Both Bryson’s and Antiphon’s attempts are regarded as 'eristic' and not geometrical by Aristotle.
[4] Pyrrhon of Elis (c.365–275), the founder of Greek Skepticism, called 'the Ephectic' or 'practitioner of suspended judgement'. Sextus reports that the Skeptical persuasion is 'suspensive' (e)fektikh/) from the affective state (pa/qos) that is produced in the inquirer after the investigation (see Sextus Empiricus, PH 1.7; 2.9; see also pi 3241, note 2). He studied under Bryson’s direction (though it is not sure which) and with the Democritean Anaxarchus, with whom he traveled to India. There he met the gymnosophists and magi who appear to have influenced his philosophical doctrines. Pyrrho wrote nothing, although some of his basic thoughts can be reconstructed from the fragments of his disciple Timon of Phlius (320-230) and from the Skeptic philosopher Sextus Empiricus. On Pyrrho’s philosophical viewpoints see Bett (below).
[5] For the Theodorean school and way of life see alphaiota 286, n.9, and Diogenes Laertius 2.98.
[6] Crates of Thebes (368–288), Cynic philosopher (kappa 2341). When young he became a disciple of Diogenes the Cynic (412-324; on his philosophical positions see Diogenes Laertius 6.70-73), and expressed his detachment from wealth by throwing his money into the sea. He, like his teacher Diogenes, professed cosmopolitanism and followed his mentor’s prescriptions regarding free and public sex in his relations with Hipparchia (iota 517, and see also eta 448). He was a teacher of Zeno of Citium (see note above). Stoicism. On Crates and Cynicism see Long (below) 629-632.
[7] Diogenes Laertius 6.98. The core of the quotation -- actually a question ('is this...?') -- is Euripides, Bacchae 1236.
R. Bett, Pyrrho. His Antecedents and His Legacy (Oxford 2000)
G. Giannantoni (ed.) Socratis et Socraticorum Reliquiae (Naples 1990), 4 volumes
I.A. Heat, History of Mathematics (Oxford 1965)
A.A. Long, "The Socratic Legacy", in K. Algra, J. Barnes, J. Mansfeld, M. Schofield (eds.) The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy (Cambridge 1999) 617-641
Keywords: biography; history; mathematics; philosophy; religion; tragedy; women
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 16 October 2002@20:07:15.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 17 October 2002@03:56:56.
Catharine Roth (added keyword) on 29 September 2005@02:28:06.
David Whitehead (modified primary note; cosmetics) on 26 November 2006@08:12:40.
David Whitehead on 26 November 2006@08:13:28.
David Whitehead on 31 December 2012@06:57:58.
David Whitehead on 5 August 2014@06:57:06.
David Whitehead (coding and other cosmetics) on 27 April 2016@10:52:48.


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