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Headword: *)api/wn
Adler number: alpha,3215
Translated headword: Apion
Vetting Status: high
Son of Plistonicus;[1] nicknamed Mochthus ["Toil"]; of Egypt (but according to Heliconius, a Cretan). Grammarian. A pupil of Apollonius son of Archibius;[2] he also attended Euphranor's[3] lectures when he was an old man, more than 100 years old; he was a slave born in the house of Didymus the great.[4] He taught in the time of Caesar Tiberius and Claudius in Rome. He was the successor of the grammarian Theon,[5] and a contemporary of Dionysius of Halicarnassus.[6] He wrote a history organised by nation; and certain other works.[7]
Greek Original:
*)api/wn, o( *pleistoni/kou, o( e)piklhqei\s *mo/xqos, *ai)gu/ptios, kata\ de\ *(elikw/nion *krh/s, grammatiko\s, maqhth\s *)apollwni/ou tou= *)arxibi/ou. h)khko/ei de\ kai\ *eu)fra/noros ghraiou= kai\ u(pe\r r# e)/th gegono/tos, *didu/mou de\ tou= mega/lou qrepto/s. e)pai/deuse de\ e)pi\ *tiberi/ou *kai/saros kai\ *klaudi/ou e)n *(rw/mh|. h)=n de\ dia/doxos *qe/wnos tou= grammatikou= kai\ su/gxronos *dionusi/ou tou= *(alikarnase/ws. e)/grayen i(stori/an kat' e)/qnos kai\ a)/lla tina/.
Fl. C1 AD. See generally RE Apion(3); NP Apion; OCD4 Apion; FGrH 616. P.Oxy. 5202 (edited with commentary by A. Benaissa) is a copy of an honorific inscription for him, including a detailed c.v./eulogy.
[1] Posidonius, in other sources.
[2] The relationship to [alpha 3422] Apollonius is unclear.
[3] Otherwise unattested.
[4] [delta 872] Didymus.
[5] RE Theon(9).
[6] [delta 1174] Dionysius.
[7] e.g. Homeric glosses.
W.B. Henry and P.J. Parsons (eds.), The Oxyrhynchus Papyri vol. LXXIX (London 2014)
Keywords: biography; chronology; epic; geography; historiography; rhetoric
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 12 June 2000@11:39:26.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added keywords.) on 4 July 2000@02:34:40.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 20 August 2002@01:08:38.
David Whitehead (added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 20 August 2002@04:05:41.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 24 January 2014@05:41:51.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@08:36:43.
David Whitehead (augmented primary note, with bibliography) on 6 December 2014@08:51:43.

Headword: *diecodikou/s
Adler number: delta,930
Translated headword: detailed, discursive, elaborate
Vetting Status: high
Concerning dialectic Alexander of Aphrodisias says[1] that dialectic differs from rhetoric in that dialectic exercises its faculties with respect to every sort of subject matter and does not make its statements detailed/discursive/elaborate, but rather in question and response (for from this it takes its name), and that it reaches conclusions which are more universal and more common. Rhetoric, on the other hand, does not concern itself with every sort of subject matter in the fashion of dialectic (for the orator is chiefly concerned with politics)[2] and for the most part makes its argument in a detailed narrative manner and speaks rather about the particulars [of its subject]. And it shapes its speeches in accordance with circumstances[3] and fortunes and times and the persons and the places and such things as are appropriate to the particular circumstances: for political debates, panegyrics, and judicial trials concern such things.
So [the term] diecodikou/s stands for broader, more universal.
But [the term] diecw|dhko/s [means] that which is swelled up.[4]
Greek Original:
*diecodikou/s: peri\ dialektikh=s fhsin o( *)afrodisieu\s *)ale/candros, o(/ti diafe/rei h( dialektikh\ th=s r(htorikh=s tw=| th\n dialektikh\n peri\ pa=san u(/lhn th=| duna/mei xrh=sqai kai\ mh\ diecodikou\s poiei=sqai tou\s lo/gous, a)ll' e)n e)rwth/sei te kai\ a)pokri/sei [a)po\ ga\r tou/tou kai\ o(/lon to\ o)/noma au)th=|], kai\ kaqolikwte/ras kai\ koinote/ras ta\s a)pofa/seis poiei=sqai, th\n de\ r(htorikh\n mh/te peri\ pa=san u(/lhn o(moi/an ei)=nai th=| dialektikh=| [peri\ ga\r th\n politikh\n ma=llon o( r(h/twr], kai\ diecodikw=s ge w(s e)pi\ to\ plei=ston xrh=sqai lo/gw| kai\ peri\ tw=n kaqe/kasta ma=llon le/gein pro\s perista/seis kai\ tu/xas kai\ kairou\s kai\ ta\ pro/swpa kai\ tou\s to/pous kai\ ta\ toiau=ta tou\s lo/gous sxhmati/zei, a(/per e)n toi=s kaqe/kasta/ e)sti: peri\ toiou/twn ga\r ai(/ te sumboulai\ kai\ ta\ e)gkw/mia kai\ ai( di/kai. *diecodikou\s ou)=n a)nti\ tou= platute/rous, kaqolikwte/rous. *diecw|dhko\s de\ to\ diwgkwme/non.
The headword, extracted from the body of the entry, is the accusative masculine plural of the adjective diecodiko/s.
See also delta 931 (and rho 151, end).
[1] Commentaries on the Topics of Aristotle 5.7-16.
[2] Perhaps a reference to the distinction between qe/seis or quaestiones infinitae, pertaining to philosophers and dialecticians, and u(poqe/seis or quaestiones finitae, more closely related to practical (legal or political) problems involving precise persons and situations.
[3] The urgency of "shaping" the speech according to the Aristotelian perista/seis gained more and more emphasis in later rhetoric. The topic of "fortune, times etc." was carefully developed especially in encomiastic rhetoric (see the topoi of the praise-speech by Menander the Rhetor); but after the imperial age writers stressed the importance for the orator of relying on the peculiar qualities of person and situation (parakolouqou=nta tou= prosw/pou kai\ tou= pra/gmatos, in Latin adtributa personae et negotio), for the whole argumentation to be trustworthy in the eyes of the jury. A detailed account by Aelius Theon, Progymnasmata, 78-79. See also Cicero, De inventione 1.24ff.
[4] diecw|dhko/s and the headword had become homonyms by time of the Suda, although they would not have been so in the classical period.
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; philosophy; politics; rhetoric
Translated by: James Vradelis on 30 May 2005@17:48:54.
Vetted by:
Antonella Ippolito (augmented notes, set status) on 30 May 2005@22:15:46.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 31 May 2005@03:47:58.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 November 2005@07:45:11.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 9 July 2012@03:35:35.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 27 January 2014@03:59:50.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 28 January 2015@23:57:48.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 2 August 2016@17:33:24.

Headword: *dikai/arxos
Adler number: delta,1062
Translated headword: Dikaiarkhos, Dicaearchus
Vetting Status: high
Son of Pheidias, Sicilian, from the city of Messene.[1] Pupil[2] of Aristotle. Philosopher and rhetorician and geometrician. [He wrote] [3] Measurements of the Mountains in the Peloponnese[4]; Life of Hellas in 3 books.[5]
This man wrote the Constitution of the Spartans; and a law was enacted in Lakedaimon that each year the story should be read out in the archive of the Ephors and that the men of youthful age should listen. And this persisted for a long time.[6]
Greek Original:
*dikai/arxos, *feidi/ou, *sikeliw/ths, e)k po/lews *messh/nhs, *)aristote/lous a)kousth/s, filo/sofos kai\ r(h/twr kai\ gewme/trhs. *katametrh/seis tw=n e)n *peloponnh/sw| o)rw=n, *(ella/dos bi/on e)n bibli/ois g#. ou(=tos e)/graye th\n politei/an *spartiatw=n: kai\ no/mos e)te/qh e)n *lakedai/moni kaq' e(/kaston e)/tos a)naginw/skesqai to\n lo/gon ei)s to\ tw=n *)efo/rwn a)rxei=on, tou\s de\ th\n h(bhtikh\n e)/xontas h(liki/an a)kroa=sqai. kai\ tou=to e)kra/tei me/xri pollou=.
OCD(4) s.v. 'Dicaearchus' (p.447), by C.B.R. Pelling.
One of the giants of Hellenistic geography, perhaps the most immediately relevant predecessor to Eratosthenes (so Strabo, anyway).
[1] Modern Messina.
[2] Literally 'listener', 'hearer'. Dikaiarkhos' floruit is placed c.320-300 BC.
[3] Only a selection of his writings are specified here; for the full range see the bibliography cited below.
[4] Apart from Strabo, who mentions Dikaiarkhos by name about a dozen times, the main source for the mountain measuring (with reference to instruments) is Theon of Smyrna, On the Mathematical Knowledge Useful for Reading Plato, 3.3.
[5] This 'Life of Greece' was a history of world culture.
[6] Dicaearchus 2 Mirhady.
RE suppl. xi. 526-34.
Kleine Pauly, ii. 19-21.
D.C. Mirhady, "Dicaearchus of Messana: The Sources, Text and Translation," in W. Fortenbaugh and E. Schütrumpf (eds), Dicaearchus of Messana: Text, Translation, and Discussion, 2000, 1-142.
Keywords: biography; constitution; geography; history; law; mathematics; philosophy; rhetoric
Translated by: D. Graham J. Shipley on 18 April 2001@07:02:11.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, keywords) on 21 April 2001@23:38:32.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics; raised status) on 22 April 2001@06:11:30.
Ross Scaife ✝ (Added to notes, following an exchange with Neel Smith) on 22 April 2001@19:34:14.
Catharine Roth (added keyword) on 1 October 2005@16:28:16.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 18 November 2005@09:51:03.
David Mirhady (updated ref) on 2 September 2008@19:23:55.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 3 August 2014@05:04:06.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 2 January 2015@00:56:39.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 22 August 2016@19:38:18.

Headword: *)ec u(pogu/ou
Adler number: epsilon,1868
Translated headword: immediately
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] at once, without investigation, closely.[1]
"[Theon] was the offspring ultimately of Marcella, and immediately on his father's side of Ecdicius the rhetor."[2]
Greek Original:
*)ec u(pogu/ou: par' au)ta/, a)periske/ptws, e)k tou= su/neggus. gegonw\s a)po\ *marke/llhs to\ ge/nos a)ne/kaqen, to\ de\ e)c u(pogu/ou patro/qen a)po\ *)ekdiki/ou r(h/toros.
[1] Same or similar glossing in other lexica, and see also the scholia to Plato, Menexenus 235C, from where the headword, a prepositional phrase in the Greek, is presumably quoted.
[2] Damascius, Life of Isidore fr. 115 Zintzen; more fully at theta 209.
Keywords: biography; chronology; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; philosophy; rhetoric; women
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 11 February 2001@18:03:19.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 16 August 2001@08:27:49.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 31 December 2007@09:51:20.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords; cosmetics) on 25 September 2012@06:47:05.

Headword: *)epifa/nios
Adler number: epsilon,2744
Translated headword: Epiphanios, Epiphanius
Vetting Status: high
[Epiphanios] and Euprepios were both Alexandrian in origin and very expert in the rites accepted by the Alexandrians. Euprepios presided over the rites called Persian, but Epiphanios over those concerning Osiris; not only so, but also of the rites of the god celebrated as Aion. Though I could say who this god is, nevertheless I am not writing it in accordance with my present purpose. Epiphanios had a leadership role in these rites also. These men were not born into the time-honored style of life,[1] but overlapped with and met those who were; assisted by them, they then became sources of many blessings for their contemporaries, eloquent heralds especially of the ancient stories. Damascius [wrote this].
Greek Original:
*)epifa/nios kai\ *eu)pre/pios e)gene/sqhn *)alecandrei=s to\ ge/nos a)mfo/teroi kai\ tw=n para\ *)alecandreu=si teletw=n nomizome/nwn dahmone/statoi, tw=n me\n *persikw=n kaloume/nwn o( *eu)pre/pios e)ca/rxwn, tw=n de\ a)mfi\ to\n *)/osirin o( *)epifa/nios. ou) mo/non de/, a)lla\ kai\ tw=n tou= *ai)w=nos u(mnoume/nou qeoi=: o(\n e)/xwn ei)pei=n o(/stis e)sti/n, o(/mws ou) gra/fw kata/ ge th\n parou=san tau/thn o(rmh/n. o( de\ *)epifa/nios e)chgei=to kai\ tw=nde tw=n i(erw=n. ou(=toi me/ntoi oi( a)/ndres ou)k e)ge/nonto me\n e)pi\ th=s a)rxaioprepou=s politei/as, toi=s de\ genome/nois e)pibebh/kasi kai\ e)ne/tuxon, kai\ par' e)kei/nwn w)felhqe/ntes, e)/peita toi=s kaq' e(autou\s e)ge/nonto pollw=n a)gaqw=n h(gemo/nes, tw=n te a)/llwn kai\ palaiw=n dihgma/twn polu/fwnoi kh/rukes. *dama/skios.
Damascius, Life of Isidore fr. 100 Zintzen (51 Asmus, 41 Athanassiadi) cf. delta 10, epsilon 2233.
Athanassiadi rejects Zintzen's identification of this Epiphanios with the sophist of Petra (epsilon 2741); she says that this one was an Alexandrian astronomer, a pupil of Theon, the mathematician and father of Hypatia (upsilon 166).
[1] This suggests that they were born into Christian families, but later were converted to paganism.
Keywords: biography; Christianity; ethics; geography; philosophy; religion; science and technology
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 18 February 2004@01:36:08.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented note; cosmetics) on 18 February 2004@03:21:52.
Catharine Roth (modified translation on the basis of Athanassiadi's version, added note) on 20 February 2004@23:56:58.
Catharine Roth (augmented note) on 21 February 2004@22:28:38.
Catharine Roth (added keyword) on 11 October 2005@20:46:41.
David Whitehead on 22 October 2012@07:07:24.
Catharine Roth (another keyword) on 9 November 2017@01:13:44.

Headword: *)/eforos
Adler number: epsilon,3953
Translated headword: Ephoros, Ephorus
Vetting Status: high
of Kyme and Theopompos, son of Damasistratos, of Chios;[1] both students of Isocrates,[2] but from the start they were opposites of one another in terms both of character and of discourse. Ephoros, you see, was simple in character, and in the interpretation of history laid-back and lazy and devoid of intensity; Theopompos, meanwhile, was jaundiced and ill-tempered in character, but in expression he was rich and eloquent and full of force, a dogged pursuer of the truth in what he wrote. Isokrates, at any rate, said that Theopompos needed a rein, but Ephoros a spur.[3] Theopompus was exiled, became a suppliant of Ephesian Artemis, and wrote many letters to Alexander [sc. the Great] against the Chians,[4] and at the same time he also wrote many encomia of Alexander himself.[5] It is also said that he wrote a diatribe against him that is not preserved.
Greek Original:
*)/eforos *kumai=os kai\ *qeo/pompos *damasistra/tou, *xi=os, a)/mfw *)isokra/tous maqhtai/, a)p' e)nanti/wn to/ te h)=qos kai\ tou\s lo/gous o(rmw/menoi. o( me\n ga\r *)/eforos h)=n to\ h)=qos a(plou=s, th\n de\ e(rmhnei/an th=s i(stori/as u(/ptios kai\ nwqro\s kai\ mhdemi/an e)/xwn e)pi/tasin: o( de\ *qeo/pompos to\ h)=qos pikro\s kai\ kakoh/qhs, th=| de\ fra/sei polu\s kai\ sunexh\s kai\ fora=s mesto/s, filalh/qhs e)n oi(=s e)/grayen. o( gou=n *)isokra/ths to\n me\n e)/fh xalinou= dei=sqai, to\n de\ *)/eforon ke/ntrou. fuga\s de\ geno/menos o( *qeo/pompos i(ke/ths e)ge/neto th=s *)efesi/as *)arte/midos, e)pe/stelle/ te polla\ kata\ *xi/wn *)aleca/ndrw|, kai\ me/ntoi kai\ au)to\n *)ale/candron e)gkwmia/sas polla/. le/getai de\ kai\ yo/gon au)tou= gegrafe/nai, o(\s ou) fe/retai.
[1] For Ephoros (FGrH 70; OCD(4) 510) see already epsilon 3930; for Theopompos (FGrH 115; OCD(4) 1461-2 'Theopompus[3]') see theta 172.
[2] Isocrates: iota 652.
[3] A memorable aphorism much echoed (by Cicero, Quintilian, et al.) but not necessarily reliable in this context: Plato is reported to have said the same about Aristotle and Xenocrates (Diogenes Laertius 4.6), and Aristotle -- echoing Plato -- about Theophrastos and Kallisthenes (Diogenes Laertius 5.39). For arguments that the Plato/Aristotle/Xenocrates version is the original see D. Whitehead, "The rein and the spur", in N. Sekunda (ed.), Corolla Cosmo Rodewald (Gdansk 2007) 39-42.
[4] FGrH 115 F251-254.
[5] Cf. FGrH 155 F 255 (Theon, Progymnasmata 2).
On Ephoros: G.L. Barber, The Historian Ephorus (Cambridge 1935)
On Theopompos: M.A. Flower, Theopompus of Chios (Oxford 1994)
Keywords: biography; ethics; geography; historiography; history; politics; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: William Hutton on 4 December 2000@22:36:33.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes and bibliography; cosmetics) on 5 December 2000@06:06:12.
David Whitehead (augmented and modified notes; cosmetics) on 14 January 2004@04:44:05.
David Whitehead (tweaking and updating) on 19 November 2012@09:09:50.
David Whitehead (updated 2 refs) on 3 August 2014@09:13:27.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 21 March 2016@07:45:52.

Headword: *gumna/sios
Adler number: gamma,481
Translated headword: Gymnasius, Gymnasios
Vetting Status: high
Of Sidon. Sophist, in the time of the emperor Constantine. He wrote Declamations, and a commentary on Demosthenes and certain other works.
Greek Original:
*gumna/sios, *sidw/nios, sofisth\s, e)pi\ tw=n *kwnstanti/nou tou= basile/ws xro/nwn. e)/graye *mele/tas, kai\ ei)s *dhmosqe/nhn u(po/mnhma kai\ a)/lla tina/.
RE Gymnasios; PLRE I Gymnasius(1). He was father of [theta 208] Theon.
Keywords: biography; chronology; geography; rhetoric
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 23 June 2000@10:42:27.
Vetted by:
Malcolm Heath on 23 June 2000@14:19:56.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 13 June 2002@07:33:11.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 12 June 2012@03:32:29.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 16 April 2016@23:46:41.

Headword: *)olumpia/neios sofisth/s
Adler number: omicron,213
Translated headword: Olympianeian sophist
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning sc. an associate] of Olympianus.
Greek Original:
*)olumpia/neios sofisth/s: tou= *)olumpianou=.
'A cryptic entry', as Malcolm Heath (see below) puts it. The Olympianus referred to here is indeterminable; there is a sophist Olympianus attested in Libanius (Epistles 1489); also an author quoted in Stephanus of Byzantium s.vv. *dou/lwn po/lis, *tahnoi\, in the latter as the writer of a book entitled *)arabika\, Arabian Stories (although there are ms variations on the name: see Heath 133 n.19).
Apart from these, we also know of a bishop of Byzantium (187-198) by that name, another Olympianus as the addressee of a letter by Gregory of Nazianzus (Epistles 234); and the name is also attested in epigraphic sources. Finally, there is an Armenian collection of fables under Olympianus' name, probably a compilation of Aesopic fables.
Heath, M., 'Theon and the history of the progymnasmata', Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 43 (2002-3) 129-160
Keywords: biography; definition; rhetoric
Translated by: Ioannis Doukas on 14 May 2007@18:47:18.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 15 May 2007@03:23:08.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticules) on 15 May 2007@10:35:48.
David Whitehead on 25 June 2013@03:28:42.

Headword: *pano/lbios
Adler number: pi,204
Translated headword: Panolbios, Panolbius
Vetting Status: high
An epic poet. He wrote various things, including To Aitherios[1] after his illness, in epic meter; and To Erythrios and To Dorotheos, leader and companion; and To Aphthonios,[2] companion; and a funeral speech for Hypatia, daughter of Erythrios.[3]
Greek Original:
*pano/lbios, e)pw=n poihth/s. e)/graye dia/fora kai\ pro\s *ai)qe/rion meta\ th\n no/son di' e)pw=n: kai\ pro\s *)eru/qrion kai\ pro\s *dwro/qeon h(gemo/na kai\ ko/mhta: kai\ ei)s *)afqo/nion ko/mhta: kai\ e)pita/fion *(upati/as qugatro\s *)eruqri/ou.
[1] cf. alphaiota 116.
[2] cf. alpha 4630? From the different prepositions used, Cameron 506 infers that "Panolbios wrote invectives on or answers to Aetherius, Dorotheus, and Eruthrius, but a panegyric on Aphthonius"; but Baldwin demonstrates that the distinction between pro/s and ei)s was not maintained in the Suda.
[3] This is not the famous Hypatia of Alexandria, whose father the Suda records as Theon (upsilon 166).
Baldwin, Barry. "Book Titles in the Suda." Journal of Hellenic Studies 103 (1983): 136-7
Cameron, Alan. "Wandering Poets: A Literary Movement in Byzantine Egypt." Historia 14 (1965): 470-509
Keywords: biography; definition; epic; medicine; meter and music; poetry; women
Translated by: Alex Gottesman on 14 December 2002@10:11:35.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 14 December 2002@11:08:01.
Catharine Roth (augmented notes, added bibliography) on 7 May 2008@14:30:25.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 13 August 2013@07:24:04.

Headword: *pa/ppos
Adler number: pi,265
Translated headword: Pappos, Pappus
Vetting Status: high
Alexandrian, philosopher, born in the time of the elder emperor Theodosius,[1] when the philosopher Theon also flourished, the one who wrote about Ptolemy’s Canon.[2] His books [are] Description of the Inhabited World; Commentary on the 4 Books of the Great Syntaxis of Ptolemy; The Rivers in Libya; Dream-Interpretations.[3]
Greek Original:
*pa/ppos, *)alecandreu/s, filo/sofos, gegonw\s kata\ to\n presbu/teron *qeodo/sion to\n basile/a, o(/te kai\ *qe/wn o( filo/sofos h)/kmazen, o( gra/yas ei)s to\n *ptolemai/ou *kano/na. bibli/a de\ au)tou= *xwrografi/a oi)koumenikh\, *ei)s ta\ d# bibli/a th=s *ptolemai/ou mega/lhs sunta/cews u(po/mnhma, *potamou\s tou\s e)n *libu/h|, *)oneirokritika/.
[1] Theodosius I, born AD c.346, reigned 379–395 (see theta 144). Pappos may in fact have been older: he flourished c.320 according to OCD4 s.v.
[2] cf. theta 205.
[3] Parts of these survive, though the Description of the Inhabited World is lost.
Keywords: biography; chronology; dreams; geography; historiography; philosophy
Translated by: D. Graham J. Shipley on 14 July 2002@08:37:20.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation, added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 15 July 2002@04:30:06.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@08:17:01.
David Whitehead (cosmetics; raised status) on 14 August 2013@03:39:22.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 10 August 2014@04:02:21.
Catharine Roth (cross-reference) on 7 May 2021@01:02:21.

Headword: *peri/lecis
Adler number: pi,1196
Translated headword: circumlocution
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] periphrasis. It shows imperceptibly the number of parts rhetoric consists of; for first one must conceive, then explain that which was conceived; this is the remaining task of the discourse of explanation. And comprehension,[1] namely the perception and the art. For thus we define [it]; and with the art; as the rhetoric is the art of discoursing well upon problems.[2] And what [is] art? A system of trained comprehensions.[3]
Greek Original:
*peri/lecis: peri/frasis. lelhqo/tws de\ dei/knusin e)k po/swn sune/sthke r(htorei/a: dei= ga\r prw=ton noh=sai, ei)=ta e(rmhneu=sai to\ nohqe/n: o(/per e)sti\ loipo\n e)/rgon tou= th=s e)chgh/sews lo/gou. kai\ kata/lhyin, h)/goun th\n ai)/sqhsin kai\ th\n te/xnhn. ou(/tw ga\r o(rizo/meqa: ka)n th=| te/xnh|: oi(=on r(htorikh\ e)sti\ te/xnh tou= eu)= le/gein ta\ problh/mata. dia\ ti/ te/xnh; su/sthma e)gkatalh/yewn e)ggegumnasme/nwn.
This entry draws on the scholia to Aristophanes, Clouds 318 (where the headword occurs in the accusative case: web address 1).
[1] kappa 622 and kappa 623 (q.v.).
[2] LSJ s.v. pro/blhma A IV 4 (web address 2); also Aelius Theon, Progymnasmata 72.21-24; cf. pi 2340, pi 2342.
[3] This is a Stoic definition; read however e)k katalh/yewn instead of e)gkatalh/yewn; see Zeno fr.73 and Chrysippus frr.93-97; also in ps.-Zonaras s.v. te/xnh.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; philosophy; rhetoric
Translated by: Ioannis Doukas on 11 September 2007@18:14:06.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added cross-references) on 11 September 2007@22:24:40.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 12 September 2007@03:42:36.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 20 September 2013@23:43:28.
David Whitehead on 25 September 2013@08:04:39.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 3 August 2021@11:44:21.

Headword: *tribwniano/s
Adler number: tau,957
Translated headword: Tribonianos, Tribonianus, Tribonian
Vetting Status: high
From Side,[1] he too [was one] of the jurist-prefects, a learned man. He wrote in epic verse a commentary to Ptolemy's[2] Canon,[3] a Concord of the universal and harmonic arrangement, Regarding the ruling and the governing [sc. planets],[4] Regarding the houses of the planets, and why a house corresponds to each of them, Regarding the 24 metrical feet and the 28 rhythmical ones, a [sc. Latin] Translation of Homer's Catalogue of Ships,[5] a Macedonian Dialogue or on happiness, and a Life of Theodotus the philosopher[6] in three books, in prose a Consular [speech] to the emperor Justinian,[7] a Royal [speech] to the same, and Concerning the succession of months in epic verse.
Greek Original:
*tribwniano/s, *sidh/ths, a)po\ dikhgo/rwn tw=n u(pa/rxwn kai\ au)to/s, a)nh\r polumaqh/s. e)/grayen e)pikw=s u(po/mnhma ei)s to\n *ptolemai/ou *kano/na, *sumfwni/an tou= kosmikou= kai\ a(rmonikou= diaqe/matos, *ei)s to\n poleu/onta kai\ die/ponta, *ei)s tou\s tw=n planwme/nwn oi)/kous, kai\ dio\ e(ka/stw| oi)=kos o( dei=na, *ei)s tou\s kd# po/das tou\s metrikou\s kai\ tou\s kh# tou\s r(uqmikou/s, *meta/frasin tou= *(omhrikou= tw=n new=n katalo/gou, *dia/logon *makedo/nion h)\ peri\ eu)daimoni/as, kai\ *bi/on *qeodo/tou filoso/fou e)n bibli/ois trisi/n, *(upatiko\n kataloga/dhn ei)s *)ioustiniano\n au)tokra/tora, *basiliko\n ei)s to\n au)to/n, *peri\ mhnw=n e)nallagh=s, e)pikw=s.
On the jurist Tribonian see generally OCD(4) s.v., a summary of Honoré 1978 by its author. Here in the Suda there is a purported distinction between tau 951 ('Tribounian' [sic], quaestor under Justinian), tau 956 (Tribonian the Hellenised Macedonian), and the present entry. In fact they all concern the same individual. The present entry focuses on the literary (non-juristic) works attributed to him.
[1] In Pamphylia, present-day Antalya province, Turkey. Google Maps and Pleiades entry at web addresses 1 and 2.
[2] pi 3033.
[3] See the Livius entry at web address 3. Such a work is also attributed to the Egyptian philosopher Theon (theta 205; cf. pi 265).
[4] For the astrological terms poleu/w and die/pw, see Paulus Alexandrinus, Elementa 21 (*peri\ tou= poleu/ontos kai\ die/pontos); they refer to the planet that rules respectively the day and the hour of one's birth.
[5] Homer, Iliad 2.494-759 (web address 4).
[6] Bernhardy would emend the name to Theodosius.
[7] iota 446, and DIR entry at web address 5.
Honoré, T., Tribonian, London 1978
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4,
Web address 5
Keywords: biography; constitution; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; geography; history; law; meter and music; philosophy; poetry; rhetoric; science and technology
Translated by: Ioannis Doukas on 4 August 2008@20:41:19.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified primary note; more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 5 August 2008@03:47:41.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 15 January 2014@05:51:20.
David Whitehead (another note) on 24 March 2014@07:05:39.
David Whitehead on 5 August 2014@08:31:25.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 28 November 2014@14:30:48.
Catharine Roth (tweaked links) on 9 March 2021@01:06:01.

Headword: *qe/wn
Adler number: theta,203
Translated headword: Theon, Theo
Vetting Status: high
Of Alexandria. Stoic philosopher; lived under Augustus, along with Arius.[1] He wrote a commentary on Apollodorus' Introduction to the Science of Nature;[3] On the Arts of Rhetoric (3 books).
Greek Original:
*qe/wn, *)alecandreu/s, filo/sofos *stwi+ko/s, gegonw\s e)pi\ *au)gou/stou meta\ *)/areion. e)/graye th=s *)apollodw/rou *fusiologikh=s ei)sagwgh=s u(po/mnhma, *peri\ texnw=n r(htorikw=n bibli/a tri/a.
RE Theon(13).
[1] RE Areios(12); NP Areios(1); OCD4 Arius Didymus.
[3] Apollodorus of Seleuceia: RE Apollodoros (66); NP Apollodoros (12); OCD4 Apollodorus(8).
Keywords: biography; chronology; geography; philosophy; rhetoric
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 13 June 2001@15:42:26.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 13 September 2002@09:34:27.
David Whitehead on 13 September 2002@09:35:44.
David Whitehead on 1 January 2013@05:50:18.
David Whitehead (updated 2 refs) on 2 August 2014@10:55:52.

Headword: *qe/wn
Adler number: theta,204
Translated headword: Theon, Theo
Vetting Status: high
Of Smyrna, a philosopher.[1] Also [sc. attested is] Theon of Antioch (the one in Daphne),[2] a Stoic philosopher. He wrote a Defence of Socrates.[3]
Greek Original:
*qe/wn, *smurnai=os, filo/sofos. kai\ *qe/wn *)antioxei/as th=s e)n *da/fnh|, filo/sofos *stwi+ko/s. e)/grayen *)apologi/an *swkra/tous.
[1] C2 CE. See generally OCD(4) s.v. Theon(2).
[2] An awkward way of saying 'Daphne (the one in Antioch).' For this Daphne see OCD(4) s.v. 'Daphne, a park.'
[3] A genre inaugurated, of course, by Plato (pi 1707) and Xenophon (xi 47). For Socrates see generally sigma 829, sigma 830.
Keywords: biography; geography; philosophy
Translated by: David Whitehead on 5 October 2003@05:50:28.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (set status) on 10 January 2004@00:27:32.
David Whitehead (more x-refs) on 11 January 2004@05:12:29.
David Whitehead on 1 January 2013@05:52:51.
David Whitehead on 5 August 2014@07:00:49.

Headword: *qe/wn
Adler number: theta,205
Translated headword: Theon, Theo
Vetting Status: high
The man from the Mouseion,[1] an Egyptian, a philosopher, a contemporary of Pappos the philosopher who was also an Alexandrian.[2] Both of them happened to live during the reign of the elder Theodosius. He wrote works on mathematics and arithmetic, On Signs and Observation of Birds and the Sound of Crows, On the Rising of the Dog[-Star], On the Inundation of the Nile, [a commentary] on Ptolemy's Handy Table, and a commentary on the small astrolabe.[3]
Greek Original:
*qe/wn, o( e)k tou= *mousei/ou, *ai)gu/ptios, filo/sofos, su/gxronos de\ *pa/ppw| tw=| filoso/fw|, kai\ au)tw=| *)alecandrei=. e)tu/gxanon de\ a)mfo/teroi e)pi\ *qeodosi/ou basile/ws tou= presbute/rou. e)/graye maqhmatika/, a)riqmhtika/, *peri\ shmei/wn kai\ skoph=s o)rne/wn kai\ th=s kora/kwn fwnh=s, *peri\ th=s tou= kuno\s e)pitolh=s, *peri\ th=s tou= *nei/lou a)naba/sews, *ei)s to\n *ptolemai/ou pro/xeiron kano/na, kai\ *ei)s to\n mikro\n a)stro/labon u(po/mnhma.
C4 CE. See generally OCD(4) s.v. Theon(4); FGrH 651. MacTutor History of Mathematics at web address 1. For his daughter Hypatia see upsilon 166.
[1] In Alexandria (Strabo 17.1.8).
[2] Pappos: pi 265.
[3] i.e. a larger and a smaller commentary on the same work.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; chronology; geography; mathematics; science and technology; zoology
Translated by: David Whitehead on 3 May 2006@06:44:23.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (set status) on 4 May 2006@01:04:43.
David Whitehead (typo) on 4 May 2006@03:58:59.
David Whitehead (augmented primary note, thanks to CR) on 4 May 2006@04:05:21.
David Whitehead on 1 January 2013@05:53:36.
David Whitehead on 1 January 2013@05:54:58.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 6 January 2013@23:54:28.
David Whitehead on 5 August 2014@07:01:23.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 24 December 2017@01:29:52.
Catharine Roth (added a link) on 17 December 2021@22:57:53.

Headword: *qe/wn
Adler number: theta,206
Translated headword: Theon, Theo
Vetting Status: high
Of Alexandria. Sophist. He was surnamed Aelius. He wrote an Art (sc. of Rhetoric); On Progymnasmata; commentary on Xenophon, on Isocrates, on Demosthenes; Rhetorical Hypotheses; Questions on the Composition of Discourse; and numerous other works.
Greek Original:
*qe/wn, *)alecandreu/s, sofisth/s, o(\s e)xrhma/tisen *ai)/lios. e)/graye *te/xnhn, *peri\ progumnasma/twn, u(po/mnhma ei)s *cenofw=nta, ei)s to\n *)isokra/thn, ei)s *dhmosqe/nhn, *(rhtorika\s u(poqe/seis: kai\ *zhth/mata peri\ sunta/cews lo/gou, kai\ a)/lla plei/ona.
C1 AD. See generally RE Theon(5); OCD4 Theon(3); PIR2 A 270.
M. Patillon, Aelius Theon: Progymnasmata (Paris 1997)
Keywords: biography; geography; historiography; rhetoric
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 13 June 2001@15:46:29.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note; cosmetics) on 13 September 2002@09:38:41.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 1 January 2013@05:54:40.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 2 August 2014@10:56:59.

Headword: *qe/wn
Adler number: theta,207
Translated headword: Theon, Theo
Vetting Status: high
Surnamed Valerius. Sophist. [He wrote a] Commentary on Andocides.[1]
Greek Original:
*qe/wn, o( *ou)ale/rios xrhmati/sas, sofisth/s. u(po/mnhma ei)s *)andoki/dhn.
RE Theon(6).
[1] For Andocides see alpha 2148.
Keywords: biography; rhetoric
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 15 June 2001@14:23:21.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 13 September 2002@09:41:05.
David Whitehead on 1 January 2013@05:55:52.

Headword: *qe/wn
Adler number: theta,208
Translated headword: Theon, Theo
Vetting Status: high
Son of the sophist Gymnasius;[1] of Sidon. Sophist. He taught in his home city, and lived under the emperor Constantine; of consular rank, and a proconsul.
Greek Original:
*qe/wn, *gumnasi/ou tou= sofistou= pai=s, *sidw/nios, sofisth/s, paideu/sas kata\ th\n patri/da, geno/menos de\ u(po\ tou= basile/ws *kwnstanti/nou, kai\ a)po\ u(pa/twn, kai\ u(/parxos.
C4 AD. See generally RE Theon(7); PLRE I Theon(1).
[1] gamma 481: Gymnasius.
Keywords: biography; chronology; constitution; geography; history; politics; rhetoric
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 15 June 2001@14:25:46.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 13 September 2002@09:43:09.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 1 January 2013@05:56:53.

Headword: *qe/wn
Adler number: theta,209
Translated headword: Theon, Theo
Vetting Status: high
Sophist, specialising in rhetoric. He was the offspring ultimately of the holy Marcella,[1] and immediately on his father's side of Ecdicius, also a teacher of the art of rhetoric. This Theon was not particularly acute or quick-witted, but he was a devoted student and extraordinarily hard-working; hence he became very learned in a short time, gaining an extensive knowledge both of ancient and of modern history.
Greek Original:
*qe/wn, sofisth\s lo/gwn r(htorikw=n, gegonw\s a)po\ th=s i(era=s *marke/llhs to/ ge a)ne/kaqen, to\ de\ e)c u(pogu/ou patro/qen a)po\ *)ekdiki/ou, didaska/lou kai\ tou/tou te/xnhs r(htorikh=s. h)=n de\ ou(=tos o( *qe/wn ou) ma/la a)gxi/nous ou)de\ o)cu/s, filomaqh\s de\ kai\ filo/ponos ei)s u(perbolh/n. tau=ta/ toi kai\ e)gego/nei polumaqe/statos e)n o)li/gw| xro/nw|, pollh\n a)rxai/an i(stori/an, pollh\n de\ ne/an periballo/menos.
RE Theon(8); PLRE II Theon (4). Source of the present material: Damascius, Life of Isidore fr. 115 Zintzen.
[1] The wife of Porphyry (pi 2098); cf. epsilon 1868 ex hupoguou.
Keywords: biography; daily life; ethics; historiography; rhetoric; women
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 15 June 2001@14:29:00.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 13 September 2002@09:46:04.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 1 January 2013@06:00:06.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 7 January 2013@00:01:11.

Headword: *qew/neioi
Adler number: theta,211
Translated headword: Theonians, Theonites
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] those of[1] Theon.
Greek Original:
*qew/neioi: oi( tou= *qe/wnos.
This plural, attested only here (other lexica and grammars have the singular, but without comment), is presumably extracted from somewhere. See further, n.1.
[1] There is no basis for identifying this Theon (a very common name), and thus no means, either, of grasping the sense of this genitive: perhaps 'descendants' of; perhaps 'followers' of.
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology
Translated by: Ryan Stone on 19 February 2008@23:43:52.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (notes; more keywords) on 20 February 2008@04:25:49.
David Whitehead on 1 January 2013@06:06:42.

Headword: *(upati/a
Adler number: upsilon,166
Translated headword: Hypatia
Vetting Status: high
The daughter of Theon the geometer, the Alexandrian philosopher,[1] she was herself a philosopher and well-known to many. [She was] the wife of Isidore the philosopher.[2] She flourished in the reign of Arcadius.[3] She wrote a commentary on Diophantos,[4] the Astronomical Canon, and a commentary on the Conics of Apollonios. She was torn to pieces by the Alexandrians, and her body was violated and scattered over the whole city. She suffered this because of envy and her exceptional wisdom, especially in regard to astronomy. According to some, [this was the fault of] Cyril,[5] but according to others, [it resulted] from the inveterate insolence and rebelliousness of the Alexandrians. For they did this also to many of their own bishops: consider George and Proterios.[6]
Concerning Hypatia the philosopher, proof that the Alexandrians [were] rebellious. She was born and raised and educated in Alexandria. Having a nobler nature than her father's, she was not satisfied with his mathematical instruction, but she also embraced the rest of philosophy with diligence. Putting on the philosopher's cloak although a woman and advancing through the middle of the city, she explained publicly to those who wished to hear either Plato or Aristotle or any other of the philosophers. In addition to her teaching, attaining the height of practical virtue, becoming just and prudent, she remained a virgin. She was so very beautiful and attractive that one of those who attended her lectures fell in love with her. He was not able to contain his desire, but he informed her of his condition. Ignorant reports say that Hypatia relieved him of his disease by music; but truth proclaims that music failed to have any effect. She brought some of her female rags[7] and threw them before him, showing him the signs of her unclean origin, and said, "You love this, o youth, and there is nothing beautiful about it." His soul was turned away by shame and surprise at the unpleasant sight, and he was brought to his right mind. Such was Hypatia, both skillful and eloquent in words and prudent and civil in deeds. The rest of the city loved and honored her exceptionally, and those who were appointed at each time as rulers of the city at first attended her lectures, as also it used to happen at Athens. For if the reality had perished, yet the name of philosophy still seemed magnificent and admirable to those who held the highest offices in the community. So then once it happened that Cyril who was bishop of the opposing faction, passing by the house of Hypatia, saw that there was a great pushing and shoving against the doors, "of men and horses together,"[8] some approaching, some departing, and some standing by. When he asked what crowd this was and what the tumult at the house was, he heard from those who followed that the philosopher Hypatia was now speaking and that it was her house. When he learned this, his soul was bitten [with envy], so that he immediately plotted her death, a most unholy of all deaths. For as she came out as usual many close-packed ferocious men, truly despicable, fearing neither the eye of the gods nor the vengeance of men, killed the philosopher,[9] inflicting this very great pollution and shame on their homeland. And the emperor would have been angry at this, if Aidesios had not been bribed. He remitted the penalty for the murders, but drew this on himself and his family, and his offspring paid the price.
The memory of these [events] still preserved among the Alexandrians reduced very little the honor and zeal of the Alexandrians for Isidore: and although such a threat was impending, nevertheless each strove to keep company with him frequently and to hear the words which came from his wise mouth. As many as excelled in rhetorical or poetic pursuits also welcomed regular association with the philosopher. For even if he was ill-trained in such matters, yet through his philosophical acumen he contributed to these men some greater diligence in their own skills. For he discussed everything with precision and he criticized more judiciously than others the speeches and poems presented. Therefore also in the performance of some literary show he praised sparingly what was presented. His praise was very modest, nevertheless timely and appropriate. Hence all the audience, so to speak, used his judgment as a guide for who spoke better or worse. I know three critics of my time who are able to judge what is said [both with] and without meter. The same man's judgment is recognized for both poems and prose compositions. But I judge the same man to be a creator of both only if equal practice is devoted to both and equal eagerness. I do not say that Isidore was one of these, but was even far inferior to the three. The judges [were] Agapios, Severianus, Nomos. Nomos [is] a contemporary of ours.[10]
Greek Original:
*(upati/a: h( *qe/wnos tou= gewme/trou quga/thr, tou= *)alecandre/ws filoso/fou, kai\ au)th\ filo/sofos kai\ polloi=s gnw/rimos: gunh\ *)isidw/rou tou= filoso/fou. h)/kmasen e)pi\ th=s basilei/as *)arkadi/ou. e)/grayen u(po/mnhma ei)s *dio/fanton, to\n a)stronomiko\n *kano/na, ei)s ta\ *kwnika\ *)apollwni/ou u(po/mnhma. au(/th diespa/sqh para\ tw=n *)alecandre/wn, kai\ to\ sw=ma au)th=s e)nubrisqe\n kaq' o(/lhn th\n po/lin diespa/rh. tou=to de\ pe/ponqe dia\ fqo/non kai\ th\n u(perba/llousan sofi/an, kai\ ma/lista ei)s ta\ peri\ a)stronomi/an: w(s me/n tines u(po\ *kuri/llou, w(s de/ tines dia\ to\ e)/mfuton tw=n *)alecandre/wn qra/sos kai\ stasiw=des. polloi=s ga\r kai\ tw=n kat' au)tou\s e)pisko/pwn tou=to e)poi/hsan: to\n *gew/rgion sko/pei kai\ to\n *prote/rion. *peri\ *(upati/as th=s filoso/fou. a)po/deicis, w(s stasiw/deis oi( *)alecandrei=s. au(/th e)n *)alecandrei/a| kai\ e)gennh/qh kai\ a)netra/fh kai\ e)paideu/qh. th\n de\ fu/sin gennaiote/ra tou= patro\s ou)=sa ou)k h)rke/sqh toi=s dia\ tw=n maqhma/twn paideu/masin u(po\ tw=| patri/, a)lla\ kai\ filosofi/as h(/yato th=s a)/llhs ou)k a)gennw=s, periballome/nh de\ tri/bwna h( gunh\ kai\ dia\ me/sou tou= a)/steos poioume/nh ta\s proo/dous e)chgei=to dhmosi/a| toi=s a)kroa=sqai boulome/nois h)\ to\n *pla/twna h)\ to\n *)aristote/lhn h)\ a)/llou o(/tou dh\ tw=n filoso/fwn. pro\s de\ tw=| didaskalikw=| kai\ e)p' a)/kron a)naba=sa th=s praktikh=s a)reth=s, dikai/a te kai\ sw/frwn gegonui=a, diete/lei parqe/nos, ou(/tw sfo/dra kalh/ te ou)=sa kai\ eu)eidh/s, w(/ste kai\ e)rasqh=nai/ tina au)th=s tw=n prosfoitw/ntwn. o( de\ ou)x oi(=o/s te h)=n kratei=n tou= e)/rwtos, a)ll' ai)/sqhsin h)dh\ parei/xeto kai\ au)th=| tou= paqh/matos. oi( me\n ou)=n a)pai/deutoi lo/goi fasi/, dia\ mousikh=s au)to\n a)palla/cai th=s no/sou th\n *(upati/an: h( de\ a)lh/qeia diagge/llei pa/lai me\n diefqore/nai ta\ mousikh=s, au)th\n de\ proenegkame/nhn ti tw=n gunaikei/wn r(akw=n au)tou= ballome/nhn kai\ to\ su/mbolon e)pidei/casan th=s a)kaqa/rtou gene/sews, tou/tou me/ntoi, fa/nai, e)ra=|s, w)= neani/ske, kalou= de\ ou)deno/s, to\n de\ u(p' ai)sxu/nhs kai\ qa/mbous th=s a)sxh/monos e)pidei/cews diatraph=nai/ te th\n yuxh\n kai\ diateqh=nai swfrone/steron. ou(/tw de\ e)/xousan th\n *(upati/an, e)/n te toi=s lo/gois ou)=san e)ntrexh= kai\ dialektikh\n e)/n te toi=s e)/rgois e)/mfrona/ te kai\ politikh/n, h(/ te a)/llh po/lis ei)ko/tws h)spa/zeto/ te kai\ proseku/nei diafero/ntws, oi(/ te a)/rxon- tes a)ei\ proxeirizo/menoi th=s po/lews e)foi/twn prw=toi pro\s au)th/n, w(s kai\ *)aqh/nhsi diete/lei gino/menon. ei) ga\r kai\ to\ pra=gma a)po/lwlen, a)lla\ to/ ge o)/noma filosofi/as e)/ti megaloprepe/s te kai\ a)cia/gaston ei)=nai e)do/kei toi=s metaxeirizome/nois ta\ prw=ta th=s politei/as. h)/dh gou=n pote sune/bh to\n e)piskopou=nta th\n a)ntikeime/nhn ai(/resin *ku/rillon, pario/nta dia\ tou= oi)/kou th=s *(upati/as, i)dei=n polu\n w)qismo\n o)/nta pro\s tai=s qu/rais, e)pimi\c a)ndrw=n te kai\ i(/ppwn, tw=n me\n prosio/ntwn, tw=n de\ a)pio/ntwn, tw=n de\ kai\ prosistame/nwn. e)rwth/santa de\ o(/ ti ei)/h to\ plh=qos kai\ peri\ ou(= kata\ th\n oi)ki/an o( qo/rubos, a)kou=sai para\ tw=n e(pome/nwn, o(/ti prosagoreu/oito nu=n h( filo/sofos *(upati/a kai\ e)kei/nhs ei)=nai th\n oi)ki/an. maqo/nta dh\ ou(/tw dhxqh=nai th\n yuxh/n, w(/ste fo/non au)th=| taxe/ws e)pibouleu=sai, pa/ntwn fo/nwn a)nosiw/taton. proelqou/sh| ga\r kata\ to\ ei)wqo\s e)piqe/menoi polloi\ a)qro/oi qhriw/deis a)/nqrwpoi, w(s a)lhqw=s sxe/tlioi, ou)/te qew=n o)/pin ei)do/tes ou)/t' a)nqrw/pwn ne/mesin a)nairou=si th\n filo/sofon, a)/gos tou=to me/giston kai\ o)/neidos prostreya/menoi th=| patri/di. kai\ o( basileu\s h)gana/kthsen e)pi\ tou/tw|, ei) mh\ *ai)de/sios e)dwrodokh/qh. kai\ tw=n me\n sfage/wn a)fei/leto th\n poinh/n, e)f' e(auto\n de\ kai\ ge/nos to\ a)f' e(autou= tau/thn e)pespa/sato, kai\ e)ce/plhse di/khn o( tou/tou e)/kgonos. tou/twn de\ h( mnh/mh e)/ti sw|zome/nh toi=s *)alecandreu=si sune/stellen ei)s mikro\n komidh= th\n peri\ to\n *)isi/dwron tw=n *)alecandre/wn timh/n te kai\ spoudh/n: o(/te kai\ toiou/tou e)pikremame/nou de/ous, o(/mws e(/kastoi e)/speudon au)tw=| sunei=nai qama\ kai\ tw=n a)po\ tou= swfronou=ntos sto/matos i)o/ntwn a)kroa=sqai lo/gwn. e)pei\ kai\ o(/soi r(htorikw=n proi/+stanto diatribw=n h)\ poihtikw=n, h)spa/zonto th\n tou= filoso/fou suxnh\n o(mili/an. ei) ga\r kai\ a)na/gwgos h)=n ta\ toiau=ta, a)lla\ th=| ge a)/llh| filoso/fw| a)kribei/a| proseti/qei ti kai\ e)kei/nois e)pimele/steron ei)s ta\ sfe/tera au)tw=n texnu/dria. ta/ te ga\r a)/lla dihkri/bwto kai\ tw=n e)pideiknume/nwn lo/gwn te kai\ poihma/twn kri/sin e)poiei=to diafe/rousan tw=n a)/llwn. dio\ kai\ e)n toi=s e)pi/ tini logikh=| a)kroa/sei qea/trois o)li/ga me\n e)ph/|nei tou\s e)pideiknume/nous, kai\ pa/nu h(suxa/zonti tw=| e)pai/nw|: kairi/ws de\ o(/mws kai\ kata\ lo/gon. o(/qen a(/pan to\ qe/atron, w(s ei)pei=n, th=| e)kei/nou kri/sei gnw/moni diexrh=to tw=n a)/meinon h)\ xei=ron lego/ntwn. tw=n de\ e)p' e)mou= gegono/twn kritikou\s a)/ndras e)pi/stamai trei=s ta\ lego/mena kri/nein duname/nous a)/neu te me/trou: tou= ga\r au)tou= h( me\n kri/sis o(mologei=tai ou)=sa poihma/twn kai\ suggramma/twn. e)gw\ de\ kai\ dhmiourgo\n h(gou=mai to\n au)to\n e(kate/rwn: mo/non ei) gumnasi/a pro\s e(ka/teron i)/sh ge/noito kai\ dia\ proqumi/as th=s i)/shs. e(/na de\ tou/twn ou)/ fhmi to\n *)isi/dwron, a)lla\ kai\ pollw=| e)lattou=sqai tw=n triw=n. oi( de\ kritai\ *)aga/pios, *sebhriano/s, *no/mos. h(me/teros de\ h(likiw/ths o( *no/mos.
d. AD 415. See generally OCD(4) s.v.
Athanassiadi (see bibliography) includes parts of this entry at 43A-43C, 43E, and 106B.
This biography of Hypatia consists of fragments from Damascius' Life of Isidore and perhaps from Hesychius of Miletus. General information on Hypatia may be found at web address 1. On Cyril of Alexandria and his possible responsibility, see the Catholic Encyclopedia entry at web address 2.
[1] Theon: theta 205.
[2] Isidore: iota 631. This marriage is chronologically impossible. Photius (Bibliotheca 346b14) quotes Damascius as saying, "Isidore was very different from Hypatia, not only as a man is from a woman, but also as a true philosopher is from a geometrician" (o( *)isi/dwros polu\ diafe/rwn h)=n th=s *(upati/as, ou) mo/non oi(=a gunaiko\s a)nh/r, a)lla\ kai\ oi(=a geometrikh=s tw=| o)/nti filo/sofos). As Asmus points out, the Suda compiler misinterpreted this passage as if it referred to the two philosophers as man and wife.
[3] Flavius Arcadius, Eastern Roman emperor AD 383-408.
[4] On Diophantos, see the notes at delta 1219.
[5] Cyril, Bishop of Alexandria.
[6] Photius reports similar information from Philostorgius the Arian historian, who attributed Hypatia's murder to adherents of the Nicene party (homoousians): Bidez-Winkelmann p. 111.
[7] Menstrual cloths from Ancient Egypt are known from laundry lists. See Jaana Toivari-Viitala Women at Deir el-Medina p. 162 (information from Suzanne Onstine). See also kappa 1540, phi 823.
[8] cf. Homer, Iliad 21.16.
[9] Athanassiadi believes that the fragment found at upsilon 579 belongs here.
[10] cf. nu 477, sigma 180.
Asmus, J. R. "Zur Rekonstruktion von Damascius' Leben des Isidorus." BZ 18 (1909) 424-480
Belenkiy, Ari, "The Novatian 'Indifferent Canon' and Pascha in Alexandria in 414: Hypatia's Murder Case Reopened." Vigiliae Christianae 70 (2016) 373-400
Damascius, The Philosophical History, ed. & trans. P. Athanassiadi (Athens 1999)
Deakin, Michael, Hypatia of Alexandria: Mathematician and Martyr (2007)
Dzielska, Maria, Hypatia of Alexandria, F. Lyra, tr. (Cambridge MA, 1996)
Reedy, Jeremia, trans. "The Life of Hypatia from The Suda," Alexandria 2 (ed. David Fideler, Phanes Press 1993), pp. 57-58.
Rist, J.M., "Hypatia," Phoenix 19 (1965) 214-225
Watts, Edward J., Hypatia: The Life and Legend of an Ancient Philosopher (2017)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; Christianity; chronology; clothing; daily life; ethics; gender and sexuality; geography; history; mathematics; medicine; meter and music; philosophy; poetry; religion; rhetoric; science and technology; women
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 9 December 2002@00:44:11.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 9 December 2002@03:22:29.
Catharine Roth (modified translation with help from Athanassiadi's version; augmented notes) on 8 February 2003@01:05:50.
Patrick T. Rourke (Minor cosmetic issues) on 18 May 2003@22:52:31.
William Hutton (Cosmetics and minor changes in wording; added keywords, set status) on 19 May 2003@08:45:59.
William Hutton (Added bibliography item) on 19 May 2003@21:32:51.
Catharine Roth (added note) on 28 November 2004@23:28:10.
Catharine Roth (added keyword) on 29 September 2005@01:54:09.
Catharine Roth (added another keyword) on 1 October 2005@17:56:30.
David Whitehead (added x-ref to H's father; another keyword) on 4 May 2006@04:10:02.
Catharine Roth (added note 7, augmented bibliography) on 21 March 2008@21:50:30.
Catharine Roth (augmented note 7) on 21 March 2008@22:10:52.
Catharine Roth (added bibliography) on 20 May 2008@15:56:05.
Elizabeth Vandiver (minor cosmetics) on 25 August 2011@21:36:37.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics; raised status) on 20 November 2013@09:30:28.
David Whitehead on 5 August 2014@06:27:52.
Catharine Roth (augmented bibliography) on 23 April 2017@02:04:46.
Catharine Roth (added bibliographical item) on 1 November 2017@00:47:08.
Catharine Roth (removed defunct link) on 2 November 2017@10:51:22.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation at the instigation of Ari Belenkiy) on 8 December 2017@01:28:24.
Catharine Roth (modified notes, typo) on 25 January 2018@01:27:09.
Catharine Roth (expanded notes, added bibliography) on 22 July 2018@23:10:08.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 9 October 2020@23:25:53.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 1 November 2020@22:48:42.
Catharine Roth (added bibliography) on 21 November 2020@22:47:22.
Catharine Roth (cross-references) on 4 April 2023@15:47:35.


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