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Headword: *)apollw/nios
Adler number: alpha,3419
Translated headword: Apollonios, Apollonius
Vetting Status: high
An Alexandrian, writer of epic poems; spent some time on Rhodes; son of Silleus;[1] a student of Kallimachos;[2] contemporary with Eratosthenes,[3] Euphorion,[4] and Timarchos, in the reign of Ptolemy known as The Benefactor [Euergetes],[5] and Eratosthenes' successor in the Directorship [prostasia] of the Library in Alexandria.[6]
Greek Original:
*)apollw/nios, *)alecandreu\s, e)pw=n poihth\s, diatri/yas e)n *(ro/dw|, ui(o\s *sille/ws, maqhth\s *kallima/xou, su/gxronos *)eratosqe/nous kai\ *eu)fori/wnos kai\ *tima/rxou, e)pi\ *ptolemai/ou tou= *eu)erge/tou e)piklhqe/ntos, kai\ dia/doxos *)eratosqe/nous geno/menos e)n th=| prostasi/a| th=s e)n *)alecandrei/a| biblioqh/khs.
See generally Richard Hunter in OCD(4) s.v. Apollonius(1)Rhodius (pp.121-2), esp. the opening section ('Life').
This translation is the work of Peter Green, and appears also on page 5 of his commentary on the Argonautika: Apollonios Rhodios, Argonautika. Trans. Peter Green. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.
[1] Cf. sigma 412.
[2] See generally kappa 227.
[3] See generally epsilon 2898.
[4] See generally epsilon 3801.
[5] 246-221 BCE.
[6] Here the Suda is probably mistaken: other testimonia indicate that Apollonios was Eratosthenes' predecessor as Director of the Library, rather than his successor. The Suda or its source seems to have confused Apollonios the poet with a later character, "Apollonios the Compiler", named in P.Oxy. 1241, col. ii. See further R. Pfeiffer, History of Classical Scholarship (Oxford 1968) 154.
Keywords: biography; chronology; epic; geography; poetry
Translated by: Peter Green on 20 November 1998@14:42:02.
Vetted by:
Samuel Huskey (Added keyword, web addresses) on 17 July 2000@22:19:30.
David Whitehead (added notes and keyword; cosmetics) on 21 August 2002@06:30:25.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 18 March 2004@08:10:30.
David Whitehead (corrected error (mine) in note-numbering) on 19 January 2005@09:55:19.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 3 April 2012@07:38:30.
Catharine Roth (deleted links) on 5 October 2013@00:12:13.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@08:10:52.

Headword: *)aristw/numos
Adler number: alpha,3936
Translated headword: Aristonymos, Aristonymus
Vetting Status: high
A comic poet.[1] [One] of his plays is the Shivering Sun, as Athenaeus [notes] in Deipnosophists.[2]
[He lived] while Ptolemy Philadelphos was ruling, and [during] Philopator after him;[3] and he managed the library of the king after Apollonius[4], when he was 62. Having been prepared to consider fleeing to Eumenes,[5] he was guarded in prison for some time. He was released and died of strangury,[6] having lived for 77 years. His writings [were] very many.
Greek Original:
*)aristw/numos, kwmiko/s. tw=n drama/twn au)tou= e)stin *(/hlios r(igw=n, w(s *)aqh/naios e)n *deipnosofistai=s. basileu/ontos *ptolemai/ou tou= *filade/lfou, kai\ tou= met' au)to\n tou= *filopa/toros: kai\ proe/sth th=s tou= basile/ws biblioqh/khs meta\ *)apollw/nion, e)/tos a)/gwn cb#. diaskeuasqei\s de\ w(s bouleuo/menos pro\s *eu)menh= fugei=n, e)fula/xqh e)n ei(rkth=| xro/non tina/. h)fei/qh de\ kai\ u(po\ straggouri/as teleuta=|, e)/th bebiwkw\s oz#. suggra/mmata de\ au)tou= pa/nu polla/.
[1] An Athenian contemporarary of Aristophanes. See generally OCD(4) s.v. (p.157); Kassel-Austin, PCG II pp.571-574.
[2] Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 7.285E (7.23 Kaibel) and 7.287C-D (7.28 Kaibel).
[3] Ptolemy II Philadelphus ruled 285(282)-246; Ptolemy IV Philopator was his successor-but-one, ruling 221-205. Perhaps, therefore, Ptolemy III Euergetes was meant. In any case the entry has now, manifestly, left its initial subject and turned to someone else: a Hellenistic scholar and librarian. See next note.
[4] Although the actual successor of Apollonius (of Rhodes) in this post was Eratosthenes (epsilon 2989), the Suda erroneously thought that it was Aristophanes of Byzantium (R. Pfeiffer, History of Classical Scholarship (Oxford 1968) 154, 171-2; and cf. alpha 3419); so Aristophanes (alpha 3933) is the unnamed subject of this material.
[5] King Eumenes II of Pergamum. (Note that Pfeiffer op.cit. 172 n.3 proposes emending diaskeuasqei/s here to diaskefqei/s: "observed as planning to fly, he was imprisoned".
[6] See generally sigma 1162, sigma 1163.
Keywords: biography; chronology; history; medicine; philosophy
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 31 July 2001@19:56:17.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 1 August 2001@06:16:22.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 25 August 2002@04:37:47.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 10 November 2005@09:21:07.
David Whitehead (another note; cosmetics) on 4 March 2011@03:30:04.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 12 April 2012@06:12:27.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 31 July 2014@03:40:17.
David Whitehead on 22 December 2014@05:56:29.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 14 January 2015@00:08:05.

Headword: *(armostai/
Adler number: alpha,3979
Translated headword: harmosts
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] those appointed from a king/emperor to peoples.[1]
"The Faliscans paid heed to none of the natives as harmost, suspecting them all."[2]
Harmosts then were those sent out by [the] Lakedaimonians to rule their subject cities.[3]
Greek Original:
*(armostai/: oi( a)po\ basile/ws stello/menoi ei)s e)/qnh. oi( de\ *fali/skoi ou)deni\ prosei=xon tw=n e)pixwri/wn a(rmosth=| pa/ntas u(forw/menoi. *(armostai\ ou)=n oi( u(po\ *lakedaimoni/wn ei)s ta\s u(phko/ous po/leis a)/rxontes e)kpempo/menoi.
[1] This rather lame gloss occurs only here and in the parallel entry in ps.-Zonaras.
[2] Quotation (transmitted, in Adler's view, via the Excerpta Constantini Porphyrogeniti) unidentifiable -- but for the Faliscans [phi 52] of central Italy, under Roman control by the mid C3 BCE, cf. sigma 988 and see generally OCD(4) s.v. (p.566).
[3] Abridged from Harpokration s.v., who cites Eratosthenes (FGrH 241 F24) and Demosthenes (18.96); cf. epsilon 2584. It was the Lakedaimonians (Spartans) of the late C5 BCE, as far as is known, who coined the word (which literally means "fixer"). See generally OCD(4) s.v. (pp.645-6).
Keywords: constitution; definition; historiography; history; military affairs; politics; rhetoric
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 10 August 2001@20:34:10.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes; cosmetics) on 12 August 2001@06:04:21.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks) on 4 March 2011@06:04:14.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 30 June 2011@09:29:20.
David Whitehead on 21 March 2014@04:19:10.
David Whitehead (updated OCD refs) on 31 July 2014@03:48:37.
David Whitehead on 31 August 2015@07:18:57.

Headword: *deka/zesqai
Adler number: delta,174
Translated headword: to be bribed in tens
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] to take bribes.[1]
Also [sc. attested in the active voice] 'to bribe in tens' [deka/zein]: to corrupt with money or gifts.
Aelian [writes]: "he corrupted many of the nomads, having bribed them in tens into treachery".[2]
Also[3] [sc. attested is the participle] '[he] bribing in tens' [deka/zwn], clear in its meaning. This is how the term came about.[4] Lykos is a hero who has the shape of the beast [sc. of a wolf]. A stone monument to him stands near the jurycourts in Athens; at this [monument], bribers used to gather, forming themselves into groups of ten. This gave rise to the proverb: Lykos's Company of Ten. So from the Company of Ten came [the terms] bribing in tens and to be bribed in tens.
Greek Original:
*deka/zesqai: dwrodokei=sqai. kai\ *deka/zein, diafqei/rein xrh/masin, h)\ dw/rois. *ai)liano/s: pollou\s die/fqeire noma/dwn deka/sas ei)s prodosi/an. kai\ *deka/zwn, to\ shmaino/menon dh=lon. e)poih/qh de\ to\ o)/noma e)nteu=qen. *lu/kos me/n e)stin h(/rws morfh\n e)/xwn tou= qhri/ou. pro\s de\ toi=s e)n *)aqh/nais a)nesth/lwtai dikasthri/ois: pro\s o(\n oi( dwrodokou=ntes kata\ i# gino/menoi a)nestre/fonto. e)/nqa kai\ h( paroimi/a: lu/kou deka/s. e)c ou)=n th=s deka/dos to\ deka/zein kai\ deka/zesqai.
[1] See already delta 173, and cf. in brief delta 187 epsilon 205.
[2] Aelian fr. 142 Domingo-Forasté (139 Hercher).
[3] The source now becomes Harpokration s.v., commenting on Isocrates 8.50 (web address 1).
[4] Harpokration ascribes this explanation to the learned hellenistic scholar Eratosthenes. (Harvey [76-118 at 88-89] briefly discusses it.) See also eta 271, lambda 820.
F.D. Harvey, "Dona ferentes: some aspects of bribery in Greek politics", in CRUX: studies presented to G.E.M. de Ste.Croix on his 75th birthday (Exeter 1985)
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: aetiology; architecture; art history; biography; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; geography; history; law; mythology; religion; rhetoric; zoology
Translated by: David Whitehead on 18 October 2000@03:56:13.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 5 September 2002@13:20:54.
David Whitehead (added x-ref) on 13 May 2003@09:37:46.
William Hutton (modified translation, added link and keywords, cosmetics, set status) on 17 July 2003@04:26:33.
Catharine Roth (added cross-references) on 2 August 2005@21:21:28.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 4 July 2011@08:43:09.
Catharine Roth (updated reference, upgraded link) on 9 June 2013@01:46:15.
David Whitehead on 8 October 2015@08:31:06.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 24 June 2020@01:01:32.

Headword: *dikai/arxos
Adler number: delta,1062
Translated headword: Dikaiarkhos, Dicaearchus
Vetting Status: high
Son of Pheidias, Sicilian, from the city of Messene.[1] Pupil[2] of Aristotle. Philosopher and rhetorician and geometrician. [He wrote] [3] Measurements of the Mountains in the Peloponnese[4]; Life of Hellas in 3 books.[5]
This man wrote the Constitution of the Spartans; and a law was enacted in Lakedaimon that each year the story should be read out in the archive of the Ephors and that the men of youthful age should listen. And this persisted for a long time.[6]
Greek Original:
*dikai/arxos, *feidi/ou, *sikeliw/ths, e)k po/lews *messh/nhs, *)aristote/lous a)kousth/s, filo/sofos kai\ r(h/twr kai\ gewme/trhs. *katametrh/seis tw=n e)n *peloponnh/sw| o)rw=n, *(ella/dos bi/on e)n bibli/ois g#. ou(=tos e)/graye th\n politei/an *spartiatw=n: kai\ no/mos e)te/qh e)n *lakedai/moni kaq' e(/kaston e)/tos a)naginw/skesqai to\n lo/gon ei)s to\ tw=n *)efo/rwn a)rxei=on, tou\s de\ th\n h(bhtikh\n e)/xontas h(liki/an a)kroa=sqai. kai\ tou=to e)kra/tei me/xri pollou=.
OCD(4) s.v. 'Dicaearchus' (p.447), by C.B.R. Pelling.
One of the giants of Hellenistic geography, perhaps the most immediately relevant predecessor to Eratosthenes (so Strabo, anyway).
[1] Modern Messina.
[2] Literally 'listener', 'hearer'. Dikaiarkhos' floruit is placed c.320-300 BC.
[3] Only a selection of his writings are specified here; for the full range see the bibliography cited below.
[4] Apart from Strabo, who mentions Dikaiarkhos by name about a dozen times, the main source for the mountain measuring (with reference to instruments) is Theon of Smyrna, On the Mathematical Knowledge Useful for Reading Plato, 3.3.
[5] This 'Life of Greece' was a history of world culture.
[6] Dicaearchus 2 Mirhady.
RE suppl. xi. 526-34.
Kleine Pauly, ii. 19-21.
D.C. Mirhady, "Dicaearchus of Messana: The Sources, Text and Translation," in W. Fortenbaugh and E. Schütrumpf (eds), Dicaearchus of Messana: Text, Translation, and Discussion, 2000, 1-142.
Keywords: biography; constitution; geography; history; law; mathematics; philosophy; rhetoric
Translated by: D. Graham J. Shipley on 18 April 2001@07:02:11.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, keywords) on 21 April 2001@23:38:32.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics; raised status) on 22 April 2001@06:11:30.
Ross Scaife ✝ (Added to notes, following an exchange with Neel Smith) on 22 April 2001@19:34:14.
Catharine Roth (added keyword) on 1 October 2005@16:28:16.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 18 November 2005@09:51:03.
David Mirhady (updated ref) on 2 September 2008@19:23:55.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 3 August 2014@05:04:06.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 2 January 2015@00:56:39.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 22 August 2016@19:38:18.

Headword: *)eratosqe/nhs
Adler number: epsilon,2898
Translated headword: Eratosthenes
Vetting Status: high
Son of Aglaus (others say Ambrosius); of Cyrene. A pupil of the philosopher Ariston of Chios, the grammarian Lysanias of Cyrene, and Callimachus the poet.[1] Ptolemy III summoned him from Athens, and he lived until Ptolemy V. Because he came second in every branch of learning to those who had reached the highest level, he was nicknamed 'platforms'.[2] Others called him a second or new Plato, or the 'pentathlete'.[3] He was born in the 126th Olympiad,[4] and died aged 80, giving up food because of his declining eye-sight. He left a distinguished pupil, Aristophanes of Byzantium,[5] whose pupil Aristarchus was in turn.[6] His pupils were Mnaseas, Menander and Aristis. He wrote philosophical works, poems and histories; Astronomy, or Catasterisms; On the Philosophical Sects; On Freedom from Pain; many dialogues; and numerous grammatical works.
Greek Original:
*)eratosqe/nhs, *)aglaou=, oi( de\ *)ambrosi/ou: *kurhnai=os, maqhth\s filoso/fou *)ari/stwnos *xi/ou, grammatikou= de\ *lusani/ou tou= *kurhnai/ou kai\ *kallima/xou tou= poihtou=. metepe/mfqh de\ e)c *)aqhnw=n u(po\ tou= tri/tou *ptolemai/ou kai\ die/triye me/xri tou= pe/mptou. dia\ de\ to\ deutereu/ein e)n panti\ ei)/dei paidei/as toi=s a)/krois e)ggi/sasi ta\ bh/mata e)peklh/qh. oi( de\ kai\ deu/teron h)\ ne/on *pla/twna, a)/lloi *pe/ntaqlon e)ka/lesan. e)te/xqh de\ rk#2# o)lumpia/di kai\ e)teleu/thsen p# e)tw=n gegonw/s, a)posxo/menos trofh=s dia\ to\ a)mbluw/ttein, maqhth\n e)pi/shmon katalipw\n *)aristofa/nhn to\n *buza/ntion: ou(= pa/lin *)ari/starxos maqhth/s. maqhtai\ de\ au)tou= *mnase/as kai\ *me/nandros kai\ *)/aristis. e)/graye de\ filo/sofa kai\ poih/mata kai\ i(stori/as, *)astronomi/an h)\ *katasthrigmou/s, *peri\ tw=n kata\ filosofi/an ai(re/sewn, *peri\ a)lupi/as, dialo/gous pollou\s kai\ grammatika\ suxna/.
See generally RE Eratosthenes(4); OCD3 (bibliographically updated in OCD4) Eratosthenes; FGrH 241, where T1 is the present entry. Entry in the History of Mathematics archive from St. Andrews at web address 1.
[1] kappa 227: Callimachus.
[2] So the transmitted text, bh/mata, but it is a mistake for bh=ta (the letter which comes second in the alphabet: thus, no.2, silver medallist, runner-up). The emendation was first advocated by Meursius (Jan de Meurs, 1579-1639) and, insofar as it is not self-recommending, is corroborated by a phrase applied to Eratosthenes in an epitome of one of ancient geographers; see Pfeiffer 170 n.3.
[3] For "pentathlete" in this depreciatory sense Pfeiffer 170 n.3 adduces [Plato], Lovers 135E-136A. See also, more nuanced, the opinion of [Longinus], On the Sublime 34, on Hyperides.
[4] 276-273 BC.
[5] alpha 3933: Aristophanes.
[6] alpha 3892: Aristarchus.
P.M. Fraser Ptolemaic Alexandria (Oxford 1972) 456-8, 525-39
R. Pfeiffer A History of Classical Scholarship (Oxford 1968) 152-70
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; food; geography; historiography; medicine; philosophy; poetry; science and technology
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 11 February 2001@10:22:30.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes and keyword; cosmetics) on 28 May 2001@11:28:59.
Catharine Roth (added coding) on 16 November 2003@18:26:12.
David Whitehead (tweaked primary note) on 25 October 2012@05:51:34.
David Whitehead (additions to two notes) on 5 February 2016@07:26:57.
Catharine Roth (added a link) on 19 November 2017@19:39:57.

Headword: o(/s
Adler number: eta,100
Translated headword: quoth he
Vetting Status: high
The followers of Eratosthenes [said this was used] instead of e)/fh d' o(/s ["he said"].[1] For this reason they put a rough breathing on the last [syllable]; for o(/s is used as an article.[2] And h)= [is used] instead of e)/fh: "But we will wait, said Glaucon."[3] And h)=n d' e)gw/ [is used] instead of e)/fhn de\ e)gw/ ["I said"]. Likewise Hermippus in Birth of Athena [writes] h)si/n instead of fhsi/n: "Zeus says, 'I give many [women] their name.'"[4] And Aristarchus says that h)= d' o(/s [is used] instead of e)/fh d' o(/s ["he said"], and h)=n d' e)gw/ instead of e)/fhn d' e)gw/. He said that h)= was one of the archaic word-forms, and that Homer did not use it freely, nor make analogical forms from it: [he used it only] when it indicated the end of a speech, as in "He spoke, and [he nodded] with his dark eyebrows," and "He spoke, and [he shot an arrow] at Antinoos ..."[5] But [Aristarchus said] that those after Homer used it indiscriminately.[6]
Greek Original:
*)=h d' o(/s: oi( me\n peri\ *)eratosqe/nhn a)nti\ tou= e)/fh de\ o(/s. dio\ kai\ dasu/nousi th\n e)sxa/thn: e)nteta/xqai ga\r a)/rqron to\ o(/s. kai\ h)=, a)nti\ tou= e)/fh: a)lla\ perimenou=men, h)= d' o(\s o( *glau/kwn. kai\ h)=n d' e)gw/, a)nti\ tou= e)/fhn de\ e)gw/. paro\ dh\ kai\ *(/ermippos e)n *)aqhna=s gonai=s h)si\n a)nti\ tou= fhsi/n: o( *zeu\s didw/nw polla/s, fhsi/, tou)/noma. *)ari/starxos de\ to\ me\n h)= d' o(\s a)nti\ tou= e)/fh de\ o(/s. to\ de\ h)=n de\ e)gw/, e)/fhn d' e)gw/. to\ de\ h)= tw=n a)rxai/wn e)/fh ei)=nai leceidi/wn, *(/omhron d' ou) kata\ pa/nta xrh=sqai au)tw=|, ou)de\ sxhmati/zein a)p' au)tou= to\ a)na/logon me/n, w(s o(/tan lo/gou teleuth\n shmai/nh|: h)=| kai\ kuane/h|sin e)p' o)fru/si. kai/, h)=, kai\ e)p' *)antino/w|. tou\s de\ meq' *(/omhron a)diafo/rws au)to\ ta/ssein.
Same material in Photius (Lexicon eta51); similarly elsewhere. See also eta 101.
[The SOL headword, mistakenly, gives only the second element of the phrase.]
[1] Eratosthenes [the great Alexandrian scholar: epsilon 2898] fr. 52 Strecker.
[2] The term a)/rqron includes more than what we call the definite article; here it would be an anaphoric pronoun. As it differs from contemporary Attic usage, it shows that this is a fossilized archaic phrase.
[3] Plato, Republic 1.327C: again, the addition of a subject noun indicates the fossilization of this phrase.
[4] Hermippus [epsilon 3044] fr.1 Kock (2. K.-A.).
[5] Homer, Iliad 1.528 and Odyssey 22.8.
[6] The observant Aristarchus (alpha 3892) was right, of course. The only form used in Homer is the third person singular imperfect h)=, which comes from *hkt (cf. Latin ai(i)o and ad-agium. The other forms, h)=n, h)si/, h)mi/ were formed from h)= by analogy with forms of fhmi/. Cf. eta 1, eta 101, eta 322, eta 371, eta 582.
P. Chantraine, Grammaire homérique (Paris 1973) I.291
Keywords: comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; religion; women
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 16 November 2003@19:15:23.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation at one point; augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 17 November 2003@03:17:42.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 11 March 2008@21:29:52.
David Whitehead (added primary note; tweaking) on 5 December 2012@09:35:48.
David Whitehead on 5 December 2012@09:36:54.
David Whitehead (another note) on 17 December 2012@03:08:43.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 30 January 2015@23:43:14.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticules) on 29 July 2018@02:13:02.

Headword: *(/ipparxos
Adler number: iota,521
Translated headword: Hipparchus, Hipparchos
Vetting Status: high
From Nicaea,[1] a philosopher, lived at the time of the consuls.[2]
He wrote On the Phaenomena of Aratus,[3] On the Arrangement of the Fixed Stars and the Catasterisms,[4] On the Monthly Motion of the Moon in Latitude, and (?)Against Eratosthenes.[5]
Greek Original:
*(/ipparxos, *nikaeu/s, filo/sofos, gegonw\s e)pi\ tw=n u(pa/twn. e)/graye peri\ tw=n *)ara/tou *fainome/nwn, *peri\ th=s tw=n a)planw=n sunta/cews kai\ tou= katasthrigmou=, *peri\ th=s kata\ pla/tos mhniai/as th=s selh/nhs kinh/sews, kai\ ei)s ta\s a)ri/stous.
Second half of the second century BCE. (His recorded observations are datable to the years 147-127.) See generally OCD(4) s.v. Hipparchus(3); also web address 1 and web address 2.
Although the frequency and respect with which Ptolemy refers to his work in the Almagest attest to his importance in the history of astronomy, his precise contributions are hard to determine. His careful observations supplemented his use of Babylonian sources, and made possible the discovery for which, perhaps, he is best known: the discovery of the precession of the equinoxes, that is, the recognition that the sun's position at the time of the equinoxes changes, over time, in relation to the background of the zodiacal constellations.
[1] In Bithynia. This reference to his birthplace is confirmed by later coins from Nicaea that bear his name and image. Because much of his professional life was apparently spent in Rhodes, he is often identified as Hipparchus of Rhodes.
[2] Textually corrupt, as Adler notes. (Such a dating would be unparalleled in the Suda.)
[3] (For Aratus see alpha 3745.) This is the only work that survives; Manitius' edition (below) includes a German translation.
[4] The last word translates katasthri/smou, rather than the text's katasthrigmou, following Toomer. Hipparchus' star catalogue provided raw materials for Ptolemy's, despite their differences.
[5] (For Eratosthenes see epsilon 2898.) This title is known from Strabo (1.1.12; 2.1.41) to belong to a work on geography; it surely lies behind the garbled ei)s ta\s a)ri/stous of the text. [DW: other suggested possibilities, noted by Adler, are ei)s ta\s a)sterismou/s and ei)s ta\s a)steri/skous.]
G.J. Toomer. "Hipparchus." Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Supplement I. 1978, 207-224
C. Manitius, ed. Hipparchi in Arati et Eudoxi Phaenomena Commentaria. Leipzig, 1894
D.R. Dicks. The Geographical Fragments of Hipparchus. 1960
G. Grasshoff. The History of Ptolemy's Star Catalogue. 1990
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; chronology; geography; mathematics; philosophy; science and technology
Translated by: Mary Pendergraft on 22 August 2000@16:34:09.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented and rearranged notes; added keywords; cosmetics) on 7 August 2002@08:10:35.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, new keyword) on 29 September 2005@02:11:27.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 14 January 2013@04:33:32.
Catharine Roth (reduced links, tweaked note) on 29 August 2013@22:31:06.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; expanded n.5) on 1 April 2014@09:32:11.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 4 August 2014@03:51:36.

Headword: *ko/rxoros
Adler number: kappa,2133
Translated headword: blue pimpernel
Vetting Status: high
A worthless wild herb.[1] Hence the proverb "and a blue pimpernel among herbs". [2] Some render the korchoros as a certain fish, like the dolphin-fish,[3] and as a cheap dish. But the proverb is spoken of the unworthy and base, who lay claim to an honour greater than what they are due.
Greek Original:
*ko/rxoros: a)/grion la/xanon eu)tele/s. dio\ kai\ h( paroimi/a: kai\ ko/rxoros e)n laxa/nois. e)/nioi i)xqu\n poio\n to\n ko/rxoron a)podido/asin, w(s to\n i(/ppouron, kai\ w(s eu)tele\s e)/desma. le/getai de\ e)pi\ tw=n a)naci/wn h( paroimi/a kai\ tapeinw=n, metapoioume/nwn de\ timh=s h)\ kaq' e(autou\s mei/zonos.
Same entry in Photius, Lexicon kappa996 Theodoridis; similar ones elsewhere (see Th.'s references, and notes below).
[1] Also glossed in Hesychius kappa3736 (s.v. ko/rxoron) as "a wild herb". We know this is the blue pimpernel through Dioscurides Pedanius, De Materia Medica 2.178, where it is used as an alternative name for a)nagalli\s h( kuanh=, Anagallis caerulea.
[2] Zenobius 4.57, Diogenianus 5.36a (repeated in Apostolius 9.100); scholia on Aristophanes, Wasps 239a, 239b (web address 1); scholia on Nicander, Theriaca 626a; often in the variant ko/rkoros. Mangled in kappa 1404 as a reference to galleys (ke/rkouros).
LSJ s.v. ko/rxoros suggests the equivalent "a tailor among kings". Zenobius gives the wording used by the Suda: "the Peloponnesians call 'blue pimpernel' a certain wild herb, of the worthless sort; hence the proverb." Diogenianus actually explains it: "[proverb] concerning those who are worthless, but think of themselves as great. For the blue pimpernel is a kind of worthless plant."
[3] Better known now as mahi-mahi: Coryphaena hippurus. This interpretation of the word comes from the scholia to Aristophanes, Wasps 239a (see above): "against Lycophron, who said the korkoros is a little fish; but he is deceived, as Eratosthenes says, for it a wild and worthless herb". The word is not present in our attested corpus of Lycophron. Hesychius (above) also glosses the word as "fat".
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: botany; comedy; daily life; definition; ethics; food; proverbs; zoology
Translated by: Nick Nicholas on 5 November 2008@19:39:18.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, link, more keywords) on 6 November 2008@01:14:48.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 6 November 2008@03:26:39.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 13 March 2013@07:43:36.
David Whitehead (coding) on 2 May 2016@05:32:20.

Headword: *ku/rbeis
Adler number: kappa,2745
Translated headword: kyrbeis, kurbeis, crested stelae, crested tablets
Vetting Status: high
Those containing [sc. lists of] the festivals of the gods; being a sort of secret sources,[1] in which the matters of the gods were to be hidden away. Asclepiades[2] [says] that [the term comes] from Kurbes,[3] who 'defined the [?]natures [of the gods?]', as Phanias the Ephesian[4] says. By him these [matters] were validated in writing. Eratosthenes[5] says they were three-cornered. Aristophanes[6] says they are like the 'axles', except that the axles contained the laws but the kyrbeis the [?]natures.[7] Of both types the construction is like this: a kind of large slab the height of a man, fitted with rectangular pieces of wood, having flat sides and full of writing; and having pivots on both ends, so that they can be moved and turned by readers.
And [there is] a proverb: 'kyrbeis of evils'. [Kyrbeis] are four-angled tablets among the Athenians, on which they used to write the laws, as well as prescribe the punishments of the wrong-doers. The proverb thus applied to the very evil.[8]
So [they are called] 'crested stelae' from their extending to a crest on top. Or from the Corybantes.[9] For Apollodorus says they are their invention.[10]
Greek Original:
*ku/rbeis: ai( ta\s tw=n qew=n e(orta\s e)/xousai: kru/bie/s tines ou)=sai, e)n ai(=s ta\ tw=n qew=n a)pokrupto/mena e)/dei ei)=nai. *)asklhpia/dhs, o(/ti a)po\ *ku/rbews tou= ta\s ou)si/as o(ri/santos, w(/s fhsi *fani/as o( *)efe/sios. a)po\ tou/tou tau=ta kurwqh=nai toi=s gra/mmasin. *)eratosqe/nhs de\ trigw/nous au)ta/s fhsin ei)=nai: *)aristofa/nhs de\ o(moi/as ei)=nai/ fhsi toi=s a)/cosi, plh\n o(/ti oi( me\n a)/cones no/mous, ai( de\ ku/rbeis ou)si/as ei)=xon. a)mfote/rwn de\ to\ kataskeu/asma toiou=ton: plinqi/on ti me/ga, a)ndro/mhkes, h(rmosme/na e)/xon tetra/gwna cu/la, ta\s pleura\s platei/as e)/xonta kai\ gramma/twn plh/reis: e(kate/rwqen de\ knw/dakas, w(/ste kinei=sqai kai\ metastre/fesqai u(po\ tw=n a)naginwsko/ntwn. kai\ paroimi/a: *ku/rbeis kakw=n. sani/des ei)si\ par' *)aqhnai/ois tetra/gwnoi, e)n ai(=s tou\s no/mous e)/grafon, kai\ ta\s kata\ tw=n a)dikou/ntwn timwri/as e)poi/oun. e)pi\ toi/nun tw=n sfo/dra ponhrw=n h( paroimi/a. *ku/rbeis ou)=n para\ to\ kekorufw=sqai ei)s u(/yos a)natetame/na. h)\ a)po\ tw=n *koruba/ntwn. e)kei/nwn ga\r eu(/rhma fhsi\ kai\ *)apollo/dwros.
For the headword see already kappa 2744, which concerns these objects and gives significant references. The first paragraph of the present entry is an expanded version of Aristophanes of Byzantium fr.76 Nauck.
[1] The Suda gives an otherwise unattested Greek word kru/bies, which the lexicographer took to be related to a stem indicating something secret or hidden (as in English 'cryptic'). The Latin translation in the Gaisford-Bernhardy edition evades the matter by leaving the word in Greek.
[2] For Asclepiades (of Tragilus, C4 BCE: OCD(4) s.v. 'Asclepiades(1)') see alpha 3407 and (esp.) alpha 4173, gamma 132, delta 1598. His writings survive only in fragments.
[3] Asclepiades seems to have regarded this otherwise unknown Kurbes or Kurbeus as the eponymous originator of this sort of stele.
[4] So the transmitted text, but this is actually fr.22 (Wehrli) of Pha(i)nias the Eresian, a pupil of Aristotle: see generally phi 73.
[5] A third/second century BCE scholar and historian, preserved only in fragments: see generally epsilon 2898.
[6] More accurately, the scholia on Aristophanes, Birds 1354 (resumed in para.3 below). For the 'axles' see alpha 2833.
[7] Here, for the second time in four lines, the noun ou)si/as is transmitted, but (as Adler notes, following Kuster) by a change of a single letter it can become qusi/as 'sacrifices'.
[8] Likewise in Zenobius (4.77), a compiler of proverbs in the second century CE, and doubtless the Suda's source here.
[9] In mythology the Corybantes accompanied Dionysus from infancy on and were known for their orgiastic dancing: see generally kappa 2114 (and cf. kappa 2115, kappa 2116); OCD(4) s.v..
[10] The Hellenistic scholar and historian Apollodorus of Athens, another writer surviving only in fragments; this one is FGrH 244 F107. See generally OCD(4) s.v. 'Apollodorus(6)'.
Thomas Gaisford, Suidae lexicon, rev. by Gottfried Bernhardy, 2 vols. Halle, 1843
Keywords: comedy; constitution; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography; law; mythology; proverbs; religion; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Oliver Phillips ✝ on 26 December 2002@17:09:22.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 27 December 2002@12:14:51.
Catharine Roth on 27 December 2002@12:19:18.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 30 December 2002@04:34:40.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 11 November 2005@08:01:31.
David Whitehead (another note; tweaking) on 22 March 2013@08:17:31.
David Whitehead (more tweaking) on 2 April 2014@07:54:05.
David Whitehead on 4 August 2014@07:58:12.
David Whitehead (typo) on 2 May 2016@13:07:08.
David Whitehead on 10 September 2016@06:40:07.
David Whitehead (note typo) on 16 February 2021@10:13:40.

Headword: *ku/ttaros
Adler number: kappa,2786
Translated headword: cell
Vetting Status: high
The covering of the acorn,[1] where the acorn sits.[2]
The receptacle of the acorn, or the blossom-end of the pomegranate, or the receptacle and perforation in the honecombs of bees.[3]
Or the highest part of the sky; for they say that the sky is concave, just like the shell of an egg. The most concave and the most recessed.[4]
Greek Original:
*ku/ttaros: to\ pw=ma th=s bala/nou, o(/pou e)gka/qhtai h( ba/lanos. h( th=s bala/nou pueli/s, h)\ to\ proeca/nqhma th=s r(oia=s, h)\ h( e)n toi=s khri/ois tw=n melittw=n pueli\s kai\ kata/trhsis. h)\ to\ u(yhlo/taton tou= ou)ranou=: le/gousi ga\r koi=lon ei)=nai to\n ou)rano/n, w(/sper tou= w)|ou= th\n lepi/da. to\ koilo/taton kai\ muxai/taton.
This entry seems to consist of information gathered in order to explain three Aristophanic passages where forms of the headword occur: Wasps 1111 (web address 1), Thesmophoriazusae 519 (web address 2), and Peace 199 (web address 3). The scholia to all three provide a mixture of information some of which is more appropriate to either of the other two contexts. The same word is glossed (from much the same sources) in the next entry, kappa 2787.
[1] cf. the scholia to Thesmophoriazusae 519; Hesychius kappa4747, epsilon7647. Here and throughout, the word used for acorn, ba/lanos, can also refer to the glans of the penis, and one is never completely sure either here or in the other sources which one is meant.
[2] A scholion to Peace 199 says that Eratosthenes ascribes the view to Lycophron that the headword refers to the thing where ai( fhgoi/ ('oaks' or 'acorns') sit, only to dispute that in favor of the notion that that they are the cells of wasps.
[3] = Photius kappa1267 Theodoridis (see also kappa1268, kappa1269, kappa1270); cf. Pollux 7.147, Hesychius kappa4747. Concerning 'the blossom-end of the pomegranate', Hesychius kappa4745 ascribes this definition to the word ku/tinoi (cf. Photius kappa1271). Perhaps some confusion has arisen with a another definition for the current headword ascribed to Theophrastos: that it refers to the first-bloom (proa/nqhsis) of the pine (Historia Plantarum 3.3.8; see kappa 2787).
[4] This part of the definition applies most directly to Peace 199.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3
Keywords: agriculture; botany; comedy; definition; economics; food; gender and sexuality; imagery; medicine; poetry; science and technology; stagecraft; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 7 March 2008@06:34:21.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (x-ref; tweaks and cosmetics) on 7 March 2008@06:56:31.
William Hutton (augmented notes) on 7 March 2008@07:21:09.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 25 March 2013@09:45:21.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 20 March 2020@01:23:40.

Headword: *lei/betai toi=s dakru/ois
Adler number: lambda,357
Translated headword: is soaked with tears
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] becomes wet through.[1] Aristophanes [writes]:[2] "the son of Hippodamos[3] is soaked when he sees [it]". This Hippodamos was settled in Piraeus and presented his house to the people. [Aristophanes] is saying [this] bitterly against Kleon, [meaning] you for your part are self-serving and gain advantage, but the man who is best disposed to the city is soaked through with his tears, seeing you harvesting the city’s fruits disgracefully.[4]
Greek Original:
*lei/betai toi=s dakru/ois: dia/broxos gi/netai. *)aristofa/nhs: o( d' *(ippoda/mou lei/betai qew/menos. ou(=tos o( *(ippo/damos e)n *peiraiei= katw/|kei kai\ th\n oi)ki/an dhmosi/an a)nh=ke. pikrw=s ou)=n le/gei pro\s *kle/wna, o(/ti su\ me\n sfeteri/zh| kai\ kerdai/neis, o( de\ eu)nou/statos th=| po/lei katalei/betai toi=s dakru/ois o(rw=n se karpou/menon ta\ th=s po/lews a)naci/ws.
[1] For the headword phrase see n.4 below. (For its verb cf. lambda 358) For 'wet through' cf. delta 512, epsilon 765.
[2] Aristophanes, Knights 327 (web address 1), followed by comment from the scholia there.
[3] Son of Hippodamos: this is Archeptolemos of the Attic deme Agryle, prosecuted as one of the Four Hundred after their oligarchic regime at Athens in 411–410 BCE ([Plutarch], Lives of the Ten Orators 833A, 834A, etc.; Lysias 12.67. Whether his father was Hippodamos of Miletos, the well-known town planner, is open to question, though this is commonly assumed -- see e.g. LGPN ii s.v. Archeptolemos(3) -- since Hippodamos of Miletos did plan the Piraeus (see iota 555). If it is a correct assumption, then either Hippodamos or his son must have been granted Athenian citizenship. It is equally possible that the story that Hippodamos presented a house to the Athenians is an invention, or rests on a misunderstanding of his connection with the layout of the Piraeus.
[4] The phrase the Suda comments upon is a paraphrase of Knights 327 (toi=s dakru/ois replacing the metrically equivalent qew/menos of the original), quoted in part here. In the play the words are spoken by the Chorus to Kleon (kappa 1731): "haven't you shown shamelessness from the start, that which alone protects orators? Trusting in it, you milk the prosperous among our foreign friends (xenoi), being first (among the citizens), and Hippodamos' son is soaked when he sees [it]".
On Hippodamos, see most recently G. Shipley, ‘“Little boxes on the hillside”: Greek town planning, Hippodamos, and polis ideology’, in M.H. Hansen (ed.), The Imaginary Polis (Copenhagen, 2005).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: architecture; biography; comedy; definition; ethics; geography; history; politics
Translated by: D. Graham J. Shipley on 4 February 2005@05:33:34.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (some changes and additions to notes; added a keyword; cosmetics) on 4 February 2005@08:18:32.
David Whitehead (moreb keywords; tweaking) on 16 April 2013@07:16:14.
Catharine Roth (added a link) on 27 April 2020@21:42:43.

Headword: *lu/kou deka/s
Adler number: lambda,820
Translated headword: Lykos' ten-company, Lycus' ten-company
Vetting Status: high
A proverbial phrase. [Used] because Lykos the hero had a shrine near the jurycourts [sc. in Athens], where the blackmailers would lie in wait. Three obols a day was set apart for him.[1]
Greek Original:
*lu/kou deka/s: paroimiw=des. e)pei\ *lu/kos o( h(/rws i(/druto para\ toi=s dikasthri/ois, e)/nqa prosh/dreuon oi( sukofa/ntai. a)fw/risto de\ au)tw=| triw/bolon th=s h(me/ras.
Likewise in Photius lambda457 Theodoridis (from Pausanias the Atticist) and similarly in Zenobius 5.2 and other paroemiographers. Better, however, is Photius lambda456 Theodoridis, quoting Eratosthenes (via Harpokration delta13 Keaney); see under delta 174.
See also eta 271.
[1] Meaning unclear; presumably connected with tau 998, but see rather the note above.
Keywords: architecture; daily life; economics; ethics; history; law; proverbs; religion
Translated by: David Whitehead on 2 August 2005@03:16:41.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (set status) on 2 August 2005@21:21:58.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; added a keyword) on 3 August 2005@02:10:19.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 23 April 2013@09:56:13.

Headword: *(/wsper oi( nikhfo/roi periageiro/menoi
Adler number: omega,241
Translated headword: like the victors going around collecting
Vetting Status: high
This was a custom: for they say that the athletes who were victorious did not receive prizes, but going around whatever one wished ...
Greek Original:
*(/wsper oi( nikhfo/roi periageiro/menoi: e)/qos kai\ tou=to: fasi\ ga\r tou\s nikw=ntas tw=n a)qlhtw=n a)=qla me\n mh\ lamba/nein, perii/+ontas de\ o(/ti tis bou/letai.
For the headword phrase, see Plato, Republic 10.621D (web address 1); and more fully at pi 1054.
cf. Eratosthenes fr.20, quoted in a scholion on Euripides, Hecuba 573.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: athletics; ethics; philosophy; tragedy
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 12 September 2005@22:18:36.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (x-ref; cosmetics) on 13 September 2005@03:53:17.
David Whitehead on 3 November 2013@08:07:31.

Headword: *(/omhros
Adler number: omicron,251
Translated headword: Homer
Vetting Status: high
[A] [Homer] the poet, [son] of Meles the river in Smyrna[1] and of the nymph Kritheis; others say, of Apollo and the Muse Calliope; the historian Charax[2] says of Maion[3] or Metius and Eumetis, his mother; according to others, of Telemachus the son of Odysseus and of Polycaste the daughter of Nestor. The order of his genealogy according to the historian Charax is as follows: Aethuse the Thracian was the mother of Linus,[4] the father of Pierus, the father of Oeagrus,[5] the father of Orpheus,[6] the father of Dres, the father of Euklees, the father of Idmonides, the father of Philoterpes, the father of Euphemus, the father of Epiphrades, the father of Melanopus, the father of Apelles,[7] the father of Maion; he came at the same time as the Amazons to Smyrna, married Eumetis the daughter of Euepes the son of Mnesigenes, and fathered Homer.
In the same way there is also doubt about his homeland, because of the belief to which the greatness of his nature gave rise that he was not wholly mortal. Different people have claimed that he came from Smyrna, Chios, Colophon, Ios, Cyme, Troy (from the region of Cenchreae), Lydia, Athens, Egypt, Ithaca, Cyprus, Knossos, Salamis, Mycenae, Thessaly, Italy, Lucania, Gryne, Rome and Rhodes.[8]
His real name was Melesigenes, since his mother gave birth to him beside the river Meles, according to the account of his genealogy given in Smyrna. He was called Homer because when a war broke out between Smyrna and Colophon he was given as a hostage (homeros),[9] or because when the people of Smyrna were deliberating he spoke under divine inspiration and gave advice to their assembly about the war. And he lived 57 years before the institution of the first Olympiad; but Porphyry in the History of Philosophy says 132 years before. This was instituted 407 years after the capture of Troy. Some record that Homer was born only 160 years after the capture of Troy; but the aforesaid Porphyry says 275 years after.[10] In Chios he married Aresiphone the daughter of Gnostor of Cyme, and had two sons and a daughter, who was married to Stasinus of Cyprus.[11] The sons were Eriphon and Theolaus.[12]
His undisputed poems are the Iliad and Odyssey. He did not write the Iliad at one time or consecutively, as it now stands.[13] He himself wrote and performed individual rhapsodies as he travelled round the cities for his livelihood, and left them behind; later they were put together and organised by numerous hands, especially Pisistratus the Athenians' tyrant.[14] Certain other poems are also attributed to him: Amazonia; Little Iliad; Nostoi; Epicichlides; Ethiepactos (or Iambi); Battle of the Frogs; Battle of the Mice and Frogs; Battle of the Spiders; Battle of the Cranes; Cerameis; The Expulsion of Amphiaraus; Paegnia; The Capture of Sicily; epithalamia; Cycle; hymns; Cypria.[15]
He died at an advanced age and was buried in Ios. He was blind from childhood; but the truth is that he was not a slave of desire or ruled by his eyes, and that is how the story of his being blind arose.[16] Inscribed on his tomb was the elegy, composed by the people of Ios some time later: 'Here the earth covers the sacred head, divine Homer, who marshalled heroic men.'
[B] Dioscorides says in Customs in Homer that the poet saw that moderation is the first and most appropriate virtue of the young, and is also fitting, and a chorus-master of what is good; and since too he aimed to implant it from the beginning onwards, so that they would devote their leisure and their efforts to fine deeds and do good to each other and share with one another, he gave to all of them a simple and self-sufficient way of life. He reasoned that desires and pleasures are strongest, first and indeed innate, when they are concerned with eating and drinking; those who abide by a simple regime are well-disciplined and self-controlled in all the rest of their life. So he has attributed a plain lifestyle to them all, the same alike for kings and for commoners; he says: "Then she drew up a polished table for him, and the trusted house-keeper brought bread and put it by him; and the carver lifted platters of meat, and placed them by him."[17] Now this meat, too, was roasted, and was for the most part beef. Except for this he never places before them anything, either at feasts or weddings or any other gathering. And yet he often portrays Agamemnon entertaining the chiefs; and Menelaus celebrates the wedding of Hermione and his son and daughter, with Telemachus present as his guest as well: "He took in his hands and set before them the roasted ox-chine that had been served to him as his portion."[18] And Nestor sacrifices oxen to Poseidon by the sea-shore through the sons who were his nearest and dearest, although he was a king and had many subjects, giving them these instructions: "Come, let one of you go to the plain for a heifer."[19] Alcinous, too, feasting the extremely decadent Phaeacians and entertaining Odysseus, shows him the way his garden and house are furnished, and then sets before him the same kind of meal. Even the suitors, though they were arrogant and devoted to pleasure, are not portrayed eating fish or birds or honey-cakes. Homer makes every effort to eliminate the tricks of haute cuisine.
[C] About the poet Homer:[20]
(i) Homer, being blind,[21] travelled about.
(ii) He came to the shepherd Glaucus, who took him to his own master. The latter, recognising his talent and wide experience, persuaded him to stay there and take charge of his children. Homer did so, and composed Cercopes and the Battle of Mice and Frogs and the Battle of the Starlings and Heptapacion and Epicichlides, and all his other paegnia, in Belissus in Chios.[22]
(iii) Then he went to Samos, and found a woman sacrificing to the Child-Rearer,[23] and he uttered these lines: "Hear my prayer, Child-Rearer, and grant that this woman renounce the love and bed of young men, and let her take pleasure in grey-templed old men whose 'tails'[24] have lost their vigour, but whose spirit[25] is undiminished." When he came to the place where the phratry[26] was feasting they lit a fire, and Homer said: "The crown of a man is his children, of a city its towers; horses are a fine thing[27] on the plain, ships on the sea; money increases a household; majestic kings seated in the market-place are a fine thing for others to see, but when a fire is burning a house is a more majestic sight."
(iv) This same Homer, when he was about to sail and the sailors welcomed him, embarked on the boat and spoke these lines: "Hear, mighty Poseidon, earthshaker,... ruler of golden[28] Helicon and its broad dancing-places, grant a fair wind and a homecoming with no grief to the sailors, who are the ship's escorts and rulers; and grant that when I come to the foot of high-cliffed Mimas[29] I may encounter respectful and holy men; and may I be avenged on the man who deceived me and angered Zeus god of guests and the hospitable table."
(v) The same man, meeting some people who were about to sail to Chios, asked them to take him on board; they did not accept him, and he spoke these lines: "Sailors who travel the seas, resembling a hateful fate, like timorous diving-birds, living an unenviable life, respect majesty of Zeus god of guests, who rules on high; for terrible is the wrath of Zeus that follows when one offends." When the same man was resting for the night under a pine-tree, a fruit fell on him (what some people call a top, and others a cone);[30] and he said this: "Another pine shall bear better fruit, on the heights of windy Ida with its many valleys; there shall be the best iron[31] for men upon the earth, when the Cebriones hold the land."
(vi) The same man, dining with Glaucus, with the dogs standing round and barking and eating, said this: "Glaucus, guardian of mortals,[32] I shall set this word in your mind: first give the dogs their dinner at the gate of the courtyard; for that is better. For it is the dog that first hears a man's approach or a wild beast coming to your fence." Glaucus was astonished when he heard that.
(vii) Some potters saw him when they were lighting their kiln to fire a pot; they called out to him, having heard that he was a wise man, and asked him to sing to them, promising to give him the pot. Homer sang them these lines (which are called The Kiln):[33] "If you will give me a reward for my song, o potters, come, good earth, and hold out your hand over the kiln; may the cups dry out well and all the holy things, and be well fired; and let them gain a dream of value, selling in large numbers in the market-place and in the streets, and bring a good profit, to us also, so as to sing them. But if you turn to shamelessness and are liars, then I convoke the destroyers of kilns to shatter them,[34] Smasher and Inextinguishable and Shatterer and Subduer, who brings many ills on this craft. Start on the furnace and houses, and may the whole kiln be shaken as the potters wail loudly. As the horse's jaw grinds so let the kiln grind, turning all the pottery inside it into tiny pieces. Here, too, daughter of the Sun, Circe with many spells, cast cruel spells, and harm them and their works. Here let Chiron bring many Centaurs, those that escaped Heracles' hands and those that perished; let them give these things a terrible beating, let the kiln collapse; and let these people watch the mischief with groans. And I shall rejoice at the sight of their unfortunate craft. And if anyone stoops to peer in, let his whole face be burned, so that all know they should do right."
Spending the winter in Samos, he visited the houses of the most distinguished people and was paid something for singing these lines (which are called Eiresione).[35] Some of the children of the local people acted as his guides and were always with him. "We have reached the house of a man of great power, a man who shouts loudly, a man who roars loudly, always prosperous. Open yourselves up, doors. For great Wealth comes in, and with Wealth flourishing Joy and kind Peace. May all the storage jars be full, may there always be bread with dinner. Now fair-faced barley flavoured with sesame ... Your son's wife will get down from her chair to sing, and swift-footed mules will bring her to this house. May she weave cloth as she treads on beds. With a nod ??? every year; it will be the swallow. It stands at your portals with a light foot. But come, quickly destroy with Apollo's ???. And if you give something; but if not, we will not stay: we have not come here to live with you." This song was sung for a long time by children in Samos.
He went to Ios, and on the way he began to be ill; when he disembarked he rested on the beach for a number of days. Some fisher boys put in and got out of their boat; they came to him and said, "Come, strangers, and listen to us; see if you can understand what we say to you." One of the bystanders told them to speak, and they said: "What we caught, we left behind; what we didn't catch, we have with us." (Others say that they spoke in verse: "Whate'er we caught we left behind; what we caught not, that we have.") The bystanders were not able to understand what had been said, and the boys explained that while they were fishing they had not been able to catch anything, but when they were sitting on the land they looked for lice; and they killed the lice they caught, but the ones they could not catch they were bringing home with them. When Homer heard this, he spoke these lines: "From the blood of fathers like yourselves you are sprung, not from those with rich lands or countless flocks of sheep." It so happened that Homer died of this sickness in Ios -- not, as some have supposed because he did not understand what the children had said, but because of his illness.[36] He was buried in Ios on the shore, and the people of Ios put up this inscription: "Here the earth covers the sacred head, divine Homer, who marshalled heroic men."
His poetry became widely known, and was universally admired.
Greek Original:
*(/omhros o( poihth/s, *me/lhtos tou= e)n *smu/rnh| potamou= kai\ *kriqhi/+dos nu/mfhs, w(s de\ a)/lloi *)apo/llwnos kai\ *kallio/phs th=s *mou/shs: w(s de\ *xa/rac o( i(storiko\s *mai/onos h)\ *mhti/ou kai\ *eu)mh/tidos mhtro/s: kata\ de\ a)/llous *thlema/xou tou= *)odusse/ws kai\ *poluka/sths th=s *ne/storos. e)/sti de\ h( tou= ge/nous ta/cis kata\ to\n i(storiko\n *xa/raka au(/th: *ai)qou/shs *qra/|sshs *li/nos, tou= de\ *pi/eros, tou= de\ *oi)/agros, tou= de\ *)orfeu/s, tou= de\ *drh/s, tou= de\ *eu)kle/hs, tou= de\ *)idmoni/dhs, tou= de\ *filoterph/s, tou= de\ *eu)/fhmos, tou= d' *)epifra/dhs, tou= de\ *mela/nwpos, tou= de\ *)apellh=s, tou= de\ *mai/wn, o(\s h)=lqen a(/ma tai=s *)amazo/sin e)n *smu/rnh| kai\ gh/mas *eu)/mhtin th\n *eu)e/pous tou= *mnhsige/nous e)poi/hsen *(/omhron. o(moi/ws de\ kai\ th\n patri/da a)mfi/bolos dia\ to\ a)pisthqh=nai o(/lws ei)=nai qnhto\n tw=| mege/qei th=s fu/sews. oi( me\n ga\r e)/fasan gene/sqai *smurnai=on, oi( de\ *xi=on, oi( de\ *kolofw/nion, oi( de\ *)ih/thn, oi( de\ *kumai=on, oi( de\ e)k *troi/as a)po\ xwri/ou *kegxrew=n, oi( de\ *ludo/n, oi( de\ *)aqhnai=on, oi( de\ *ai)gu/ption, oi( de\ *)iqakh/sion, oi( de\ *ku/prion, oi( de\ *knw/ssion, oi( de\ *salami/nion, oi( de\ *mukhnai=on, oi( de\ *qettalo/n, oi( de\ *)italiw/thn, oi( de\ *leukano/n, oi( de\ *gru/nion, oi( de\ *(rwmai=on, oi( de\ *(ro/dion. kai\ proshgoreu/eto me\n kuri/ws *melhsige/nhs: kai\ ga\r e)te/xqh para\ tw=| *me/lhti potamw=| kata\ tou\s *smurnai=on au)to\n genealogou=ntas. e)klh/qh de\ *(/omhros dia\ to\ pole/mou e)nistame/nou *smurnai/ois pro\s *kolofwni/ous o(/mhron doqh=nai, h)\ o(/ti bouleuome/nwn *smurnai/wn daimoni/a| tini\ e)nergei/a fqe/gcasqai kai\ sumbouleu=sai e)kklhsia/zousi peri\ tou= pole/mou. kai\ ge/gone de\ pro\ tou= teqh=nai th\n prw/thn o)lumpia/da pro\ e)niautw=n nz#: *porfu/rios de\ e)n th=| *filoso/fw| i(stori/a| pro\ rlb# fhsi/n. e)te/qh de\ au(/th meta\ th\n *troi/as a(/lwsin e)niautoi=s u(/steron uz#. tine\s de\ meta\ rc# e)niautou\s mo/nous th=s *)ili/ou a(lw/sews tete/xqai i(storou=sin *(/omhron: o( de\ r(hqei\s *porfu/rios meta\ soe#. gh/mas d' e)n *xi/w| *)arhsifo/nhn th\n *gnw/toros tou= *kumai/ou qugate/ra e)/sxen ui(ei=s du/o kai\ qugate/ra, h(\n e)/ghme *stasi=nos o( *ku/prios: oi( de\ ui(ei=s *)eri/fwn kai\ *qeo/laos. poih/mata de\ au)tou= a)namfi/lekta *)ilia\s kai\ *)odu/sseia. e)/graye de\ th\n *)ilia/da ou)x a(/ma ou)de\ kata\ to\ sunexe/s, kaqa/per su/gkeitai, a)ll' au)to\s me\n e(ka/sthn r(ayw|di/an gra/yas kai\ e)pideica/menos tw=| perinostei=n ta\s po/leis trofh=s e(/neken a)pe/lipen. u(/steron de\ sunete/qh kai\ suneta/xqh u(po\ pollw=n kai\ ma/lista u(po\ *peisistra/tou tou= tw=n *)aqhnai/wn tura/nnou. a)nafe/retai de\ ei)s au)to\n kai\ a)/lla tina\ poih/mata: *)amazoni/a, *)ilia\s mikra/, *no/stoi, *)epikixli/des, *)hqie/paktos h)/toi *)/iamboi, *batraxomaxi/a, *muobatraxomaxi/a, *)araxnomaxi/a, *geranomaxi/a, *keramei=s, *)amfiara/ou e)ce/lasis, pai/gnia, *sikeli/as a(/lwsis, e)piqala/mia, *ku/klos, u(/mnoi, *ku/pria. ghraio\s de\ teleuth/sas e)n th=| nh/sw| th=| *)/iw| te/qaptai, tuflo\s e)k pai/dwn gegonw/s: to\ de\ a)lhqe/s, o(/ti ou)x h(tth/qh e)piqumi/as h(\ dia\ tw=n o)fqalmw=n a)/rxetai, kai\ para\ tou=to i(storh/qh tuflo/s. e)pige/graptai de\ e)n tw=| ta/fw| au)tou= to/de to\ e)legei=on, o(\ u(po\ tw=n *)ihtw=n e)poih/qh xro/nw|: e)nqa/de th\n i(era\n kefalh\n kata\ gai=a kalu/ptei a)ndrw=n h(rw/wn kosmh/tora qei=on *(/omhron. o(/ti *dioskori/dhs e)n toi=s par' *(omh/rw| no/mois fhsi/n, w(s o( poihth\s o(rw=n th\n swfrosu/nhn oi)keiota/thn a)reth\n ou)=san kai\ prw/thn toi=s ne/ois, e)/ti de\ a(rmo/ttousan kai\ kalw=n xorhgo\n ou)=san, boulo/menos pa/lin e)mfu=sai au)th\n a)p' a)rxh=s kai\ e)fech=s, i(/na th\n sxolh\n kai\ to\n zh=lon e)n toi=s kaloi=s e)/rgois a)nali/skwsi kai\ w)=sin eu)ergetikoi\ kai\ koinoi\ pro\s a)llh/lous, eu)telh= kateskeu/ase pa=si to\n bi/on kai\ au)ta/rkh, logizo/menos ta\s e)piqumi/as kai\ ta\s h(dona\s i)sxurota/tas gi/nesqai kai\ prw/tas e)/ti te kai\ e)mfu/tous ou)/sas peri\ e)dwdh\n kai\ po/sin, tou\s de\ diamemenhko/tas e)n tai=s eu)telei/ais eu)ta/ktous kai\ peri\ to\n a)/llon bi/on ginome/nous e)gkratei=s. e)f' w(=| kai\ a(plh=n a)pode/- dwke th\n di/aitan pa=si kai\ th\n au)th\n o(moi/ws basileu=si/ te kai\ i)diw/tais, le/gwn: para\ de\ cesth\n e)ta/nusse tra/pezan, si=ton d' ai)doi/h tami/h pare/qhke fe/rousa, daitro\s de\ kreiw=n pi/nakas pare/qhken a)ei/ras, kai\ tou/twn o)ptw=n kai\ w(s e)pitopolu\ boei/wn. para\ de\ tau=ta ou)/te e)n e(ortai=s ou)/te e)n ga/mois ou)/te e)n a)/llh| suno/dw| parati/qhsin ou)de/n, kai/toi polla/kis to\n *)agame/mnona poih/sas deipni/zonta tou\s a)ri/stous. *mene/lao/s te th=s *(ermio/nhs ga/mous poiei=tai kai\ tou= ui(ou= kai\ th=s qugatro/s, kai\ tou= *thlema/xou pro\s au)to\n paragenome/nou, nw=ta boo\s pare/qhken a)ei/ras o)/pt', e)n xersi\n e(lw/n, ta\ r(a\ oi( ge/ra pare/qesan au)tw=|. ou) ga\r qri=a kai\ ka/ndulon kai\ a)/mhtas meli/phkta/ te toi=s basileu=sin e)cai/reta parati/qhsin *(/omhros, a)lla\ a)f' w(=n eu)= e(/cein e)/mellon to\ sw=ma kai\ th\n yuxh/n. kai\ *ai)/anta meta\ th\n monomaxi/an nw/toisi ge/rairen o( *)agame/mnwn, kai\ tw=| *ne/stori ghraiw=| o)/nti kre/as o)pto\n boo\s di/dwsi, kai\ *)alki/nw| de\ trufero\n h(|rhme/nw| bi/on, spouda/zwn h(ma=s a)posth=sai tw=n a)ta/ktwn e)piqumiw=n. kai\ *ne/stora de\ poiei=, para\ th=| qala/ssh| tw=| *poseidw=ni kexarisme/nhn tina\ qusi/an e)pitelou=nta kai\ pollou\s e)/xonta, ta/de parakeleuo/menon: a)ll' a)/g', o( me\n pedi/ond' e)pi\ bou=n i)/tw, kai\ ta\ e(ch=s. kai\ *)alki/nous de\ tou\s truferwta/tous e(stiw=n *fai/akas kai\ to\n *)odusse/a ceni/zwn, e)pideiknu/menos au)tw=| th\n tou= kh/pou kataskeuh\n kai\ th=s oi)ki/as kai\ to\n au(tou= bi/on, toiau/tas parati/qetai trape/zas. kai\ tou\s mnhsth=ras, u(brista\s o)/ntas kai\ pro\s h(dona\s a)neime/nous, ou)/te i)xqu/as e)sqi/ontas poiei\ ou)/te o)/rniqas ou)/te meli/phkta, perielw\n panti\ sqe/nei ta\s mageirika\s magganei/as. peri\ *(omh/rou tou= poihtou=. o(/ti *(/omhros phro\s w)\n ta\s o)/yeis perieno/stei kai\ a)fi/keto ei)s *glau=kon poime/na. o( de\ pro\s to\n i)/dion despo/thn au)to\n h)/gagen. o( de\ i)dw\n au)to\n decio\n kai\ pollw=n e)/mpeiron pei/qei au)to\n au)to/qi me/nein kai\ tw=n pai/dwn e)pime/leian poiei=sqai. o( de\ e)/prasse tau=ta kai\ tou\s *ke/rkwpas kai\ th\n *muobatraxomaxi/an kai\ *yaromaxi/an kai\ *(eptapa/ktion kai\ *)epikixli/das kai\ a)/lla o(/sa pai/gnia/ e)stin *(omh/rw| e)poi/hse para\ tw=| *xi/w| e)n *bolissw=|. ei)=ta a)fi/keto ei)s *sa/mon kai\ eu(=re gunai=ka *kourotro/fw| qu/ousan kai\ le/gei ta\ e)/ph ta/de: klu=qi/ moi eu)xome/nw|, *kourotro/fe: do\s de\ gunai=ka th/nde ne/wn me\n a)panh/nasqai filo/thta kai\ eu)nh/n, h( d' e)piterpe/sqw poliokrota/foisi ge/rousin, w(=n ou)rai\ me\n a)ph/mbluntai, qumo\s de\ menoina=|. e)pei\ de\ h(=ken ei)s th\n frh/tran, e)/nqa e)dai/nunto, pu=r a)ne/kausan. o( de\ *(/omhros ei)=pen: a)ndro\s me\n pai=des ste/fanos, pu/rgoi de\ po/lhos, i(/ppoi d' e)n pedi/w| ko/smos, nh=es d' e)n qala/ssais: xrh/mata au)/cei oi)=kon, a)ta\r geraroi\ basilh=es h(/menoi ei)n a)gorh=|, ko/smos t' a)/lloisin o(ra=sqai. ai)qome/nou de\ puro\s gerarw/teros oi)=kos i)de/sqai. o( au)to\s *(/omhros me/llwn plei=n kai\ tw=n nautw=n decame/nwn au)to\n, e)mba\s ei)s th\n nau=n e)/fh ta\ e)/ph tau=ta: klu=qi, *posei/daon megalosqene/s, e)nnosi/gaie, eu)ruxo/rou mede/wn h)de\ canqou= *(elikw=nos: do\s d' ou)=ron kalo\n kai\ a)ph/mona no/ston a)re/sqai nau/tais, oi(\ nho\s pompoi\ h)d' a)rxoi\ e)/asi. do\s d' e)s u(pw/reian u(yikrh/mnoio *mi/mantos ai)doi/wn metelqo/nta brotw=n o(si/wn te kurh=sai: fw=ta/ te tisai/mhn, o(\s e)mo\n no/on h)peropeu/sas w)du/sato *zh=na ce/nion ceni/hn te tra/pezan. o( au)to\s e)pituxw/n tisi me/llousi plei=n ei)s *xi=on e)dei=to au)tw=n a)nalabei=n au)to/n. oi( de\ ou)k e)de/canto au)to/n, kai\ le/gei ta\ e)/ph ta/de: nau=tai pontopo/roi, stugerh=| e)nali/gkioi ai)/sh|, ptwka/sin ai)qui/h|sin i)o\n du/szhlon e)/xontes, ai)dei=sqe ceni/oio *dio\s se/bas u(yime/dontos: deinh\ ga\r meto/pisqen o)/pis [ceni/ou] *dio/s, o(/s k' a)li/thtai. tw=| au)tw=| a)napauome/nw| th\n nu/kta u(po\ pi/tun e)pipi/ptei karpo/s, o(\n metece/teroi stro/bilon, oi( de\ kw=non kalou=si: kai\ le/gei ta/de: a)/llh ti/s sou peu/kh a)mei/nona karpo\n a)nh/soi *)/idhs e)n korufh=|si poluptu/xou h)nemoe/sshs, e)/nqa si/dhros a)/ristos e)pixqoni/oisi brotoi=sin e)/ssetai, eu)=t' a)/n min *kebrh/nioi a)/ndres e)/xwsin. o( au)to\s deipnw=n meta\ *glau/kou, kai\ tw=n kunw=n e(stw/twn kai\ u(laktou/ntwn, kai\ deipnhsa/ntwn, le/gei ta/de: *glau=ke brotw=n e)pio/pta, e)/pos ti/ toi e)n fresi\ qh/sw: prw=ton me\n kusi\ dei=pnon e)p' au)lei/h|si qu/rh|si dou=nai. tw\s ga\r a)/meinon: o( ga\r kai\ pro/sqen a)kou/ei a)ndro\s e)perxome/nou kai\ e)s e(/rkea qhro\s i)o/ntos. tau=ta a)kou/sas o( *glau=kos e)qau/mase. to\n au)to\n i)do/ntes kerame/es ka/minon e)gka/ontes kera/mou leptou= prosekale/santo au)to/n, pepusme/noi o(/ti sofo\s ei)/h, kai\ e)ke/leuon sfi/sin a)ei=sai, fa/menoi dw/sein au)tw=| tou= kera/mou. o( de\ *(/omhros a)/|dei au)toi=s ta\ e)/ph tau=ta, a(\ kalei=tai *ka/minos: ei) me\n dw/sete misqo\n a)oidh=s, w)= keramh=es, deu=r', a)gaqh\ gai/h, kai\ u(pe/rsxeqe xei=ra kami/nou, eu)= de\ maranqei=en ko/tuloi kai\ pa/nta ma/l' i(ra/, fruxqh=nai/ te kalw=s kai\ timh=s o)/nar e(le/sqai, polla\ me\n ei)n a)gorh=| pwleu/mena, polla\ d' a)guiai=s, polla\ de\ kerdh=nai, h(mi=n de\ dh\ w(/s sfin a)ei=sai. h)\n d' e)p' a)naidei/hn strefqe/ntes yeu/dh a)/rhsqe, sugkale/w d' h)/peita kami/nwn dhlhth=ras suntri=yai, *sma/rago/n te kai\ *)/asbeston h)de\ *saba/kthn *)wmo/damo/n q', o(\s th=|de te/xnh| kaka\ polla\ pori/zei. stei=lai purai/qousan kai\ dw/mata: su\n de\ ka/minos pa=sa kukhqei/h, kerame/wn me/ga kwkusa/ntwn. w(s gna/qos i(ppei/h bru/kei, bru/koi de\ ka/minos, pa/nta e)/ntosqen au)th=s keramh/i+a lepta\ poou=sa. deu=ro kai\ *)heli/oio qu/gater, polufa/rmake *ki/rkh, a)/gria fa/rmaka ba/lle, ka/kou d' au)tou/s te kai\ e)/rga: deu=ro de\ kai\ *xei/rwn a)ge/tw pole/as *kentau/rous, oi(/ q' *(hraklh=os xei=ras fu/gon oi(/ t' a)po/lonto. tu/ptoien ta/de e)/rga kakw=s, pi/ptoi de\ ka/minos: au)toi\ d' oi)mw/zontes o(rw/|ato e)/rga ponhra/. ghqh/sw d' o(ro/wn au)tw=n kakodai/mona te/xnhn. o(\s de/ x' u(perku/yoi, peri\ tou/tou pa=n to\ pro/swpon flexqh=|, o(/pws pa/ntes e)pi/stwntai ai)/sima r(e/zein. o( au)to\s paraxeima/zwn e)n th=| *sa/mw| kai\ prosporeuo/menos pro\s ta\s oi)ki/as tw=n e)pifanesta/twn, e)la/mbane/ ti, a)ei/dwn ta\ e)/pea tau=ta, a(\ kalei=tai *ei)resiw/nh, w(dh/goun de\ au)to\n kai\ sumparh=san a)ei\ tw=n pai/dwn tine\s tw=n e)gxwri/wn. dw=ma prosetrapo/mesqa a)ndro\s me/ga duname/noio, o(\s me/ga me\n a)utei=, me/ga de\ bre/mei, o)/lbios a)ei/. au)ta\r a)nakli/nesqe qu/rai: plou=tos ga\r e)/peisi polu/s, su\n plou/tw| de\ kai\ eu)frosu/nh teqalui=a ei)rh/nh t' a)gaqh/: o(/ssa d' a)/ggea, mesta\ me\n ei)/h, kurkai/h d' a)ei\ kata\ do/rpou e(/rpeo ma=za. nu=n me\n kriqai/hn eu)w/pida shsamo/essan. tou= paido\s de\ gunh\ kata\ di/fraka bh/setai u(mnei=n, h(mi/onoi d' au)/cousi kratai/podes e)s to/de dw=ma. au)th\ d' u(/fain' i(sto\n e)pi\ le/ktra bebhkui=a, neu/mati toi eu)mai\ e)niau/sios, e)/stai xelidw/n. e(/sthke proqu/rois yilh\ po/das: a)lla\ fe/r' ai)=ya pe/rsai tw=| *)apo/llwnos guia/tidos. kai/: ei) me/n ti dw/seis: ei) de\ mh/, ou)x e(sth/comen: ou) ga\r sunoikh/sontes e)nqa/d' h)/lqomen. h)/|deto tau=ta e)pi\ polu\n xro/non para\ tw=n pai/dwn e)n th=| *sa/mw|. a)ph/rxeto de\ ei)s *)/ion kai\ kata\ th\n o(do\n h)/rcato malakw=s e)/xein kai\ e)celqw\n e)k tou= ploi/ou a)nepau/eto e)pi\ th=s kumatwgh=s e)pi\ plei/ous h(me/ras. kate/plwsan de\ pai=des a(liei=s kai\ e)kba/ntes e)k tou= a)kati/ou, proselqo/ntes pro\s au)to\n ei)=pon: a)/ge, w)= ce/noi, e)pakou/sate h(me/wn, a)\n a)/ra du/nhsqe a)nagnw=nai, a(/ss' a)\n u(mi=n ei)/pwmen. kai/ tis tw=n pareo/ntwn e)ke/leue le/gein. oi( de\ ei)=pan: h(mei=s, a(/ss' a)\n ei(/lomen, kateli/pomen: a(\ de\ mh\ ei(/lomen, fe/romen. oi( de\ fasi\ me/trw| ei)pei=n au)tou/s: a(/ss' e(/lomen, leipo/mesqa: a(\ d' ou)x e(/lomen, fero/mesqa. ou) duname/nwn de\ tw=n paro/ntwn gnw=nai ta\ lexqe/nta, dihgh/santo oi( pai=des, o(/ti a(lieu/ontes ou)de\n e)du/nanto e(lei=n, kaqh/menoi de\ e)n th=| gh=| e)fqeiri/zonto: kai\ o(/sous me\n e)/labon tw=n fqeirw=n a)nh/|roun, o(/sous de\ mh\ e)du/nanto, ei)s oi)=kon a)pefe/ronto. o( de\ *(/omhros a)kou/sas tau=ta e)/lege ta\ e)/ph ta/de: toi/wn ga\r pate/rwn e)c ai(/matos e)kgega/asqe, ou)/te baquklh/rwn ou)/te a)/speta mh=la nemo/ntwn. e)k de\ th=s a)sqenei/as tau/ths sune/bh to\n *(/omhron teleuth=sai e)n th=| *)/iw|, ou) para\ to\ mh\ gnw=nai to\ para\ tw=n pai/dwn lexqe/n, kaqa/per oi)/ontai/ tines, a)lla\ th=| malaki/a|. kai\ e)ta/fh e)n th=| *)/iw| e)p' a)kth=s, kai\ e)pe/grayan oi( *)ih=tai e)pi/gramma: e)nqa/de th\n i(erh\n kefalh\n kata\ gai=a kalu/ptei a)ndrw=n h(rw/wn kosmh/tora qei=on *(/omhron. h( de\ poi/hsis e)kpe/ptwke kai\ e)qauma/zeto u(po\ pa/ntwn.
This enormous entry is made up of three sections:
(A) a "life" of Homer, found only here and attributed to Hesychius of Miletus (eta 611), thus known as the Vita Hesychii (Wilamowitz 32-34). Like the Life of Homer falsely attributed to Plutarch (Vita Pseudoplutarchea = Vit. Ps-Plut., Wilamowitz 21-25) and the other lives, it is full of invention and assertions from local histories, probably fictional, but may contain germs of genuine tradition. See Lefkowitz and Schadewaldt.
(B) an extract on moderation in pleasures such as dining, from Athenaeus, Deipnosophists, apparently using the original of a section known to us only from its epitome (8E-9C). See Heath (2000). The source and implications of the false attribution to Dioscurides are discussed by Heath pp. 576-77, notes 11, 12.
(C) a selection of "Homeric" epigrams (see Evelyn-White 466-77 and Markwald), apparently loosely drawn from sections 17-23 and 29-36 of the "Life" known as Vita Herodotea (Wilamowitz 3-21; translated by Lefkowitz 139-155) because of a (false) attribution to Herodotus (see under omicron 252), but probably written towards the end of the Hellenistic age. Markwald (281) shows that the epigrams themselves, in archaic language and references, belong to Homer's century and the following. The text is inferior to the mss of ps.-Herodotus and is therefore usually restored from the latter (see Wilamowitz 3). This section is here divided in translation, for comparison, into sections corresponding to the §§ in its source, with significant omissions marked "…." (The epigrams in the text are given Evelyn-White's numbers, with those of Markwald, who omits 9, 16, 17, marked M when different.)
(i) a sentence based on §§14-15, the expulsion of Homer from Cyme;
(ii) based on §§ 21, 24;
(iii) based on §§29-31, with Epp. 12 (=11M), 13 (=12M);
(iv) §17 with Ep. 6;
(v) §§18-19 with Epp. 8, 10 (=9M);
(vi) §§22, with Ep. 11 (=10M);
(vii) §§32-36 with Epp. 14 (=13M), 15 (=14M), 16, 17.
[1] [mu 487] Meles (RE 'Meles[2]' 15.492-94, and Supp. 9.4 with bibl.). The more usual story is given a few sentences later, that his mother Kritheis named him Melesigenes from the river. Meles also figures in the list of kings of Phrygia.
[2] Charax FGrH 103 F62.
[3] [mu 337] Maionidas. In normal Greek the name Maion means "Maeonian" and refers to that people who, after the fall of Troy, occupied the regions of Anatolia south-east of Troy later controlled by the Phrygians and Lydians. References to the Amazons (interpreted in Greek myth to mean 'women with one breast', to shoot the bow more conveniently) as masters of Cyme may refer to the invasions of the Hittites or other such Anatolian peoples. In the "third book" of Aristotle's Poetics (fr. 76 Rose), Maion is described as a king of the Lydians ruling Smyrna at the time, who married Kritheis and adopted Homer before being expelled by the Aeolians (Vita ps.-Plut. 3). Maion is, however, also a Greek name attested in the Iliad and elsewhere. Ephorus' Life gives Homer's father Maion a Greek ancestry and brothers (cf. n. 7). [R.D.]
[4] [lambda 568] Linus.
[5] [omicroniota 6] Oeagrus.
[6] [omicron 654] Orpheus.
[7] Melanopus and Apelles also appear in the genealogy given for [eta 583] Hesiod, making Homer and Hesiod cousins, cf. Vita ps.-Plut. 2.
[8] On ancient discussions of Homer's native land see Allen (1924) 11-41; Heath (1998). For the biographical tradition see also Lefkowitz 12-24.
[9] It is more probable that Homer owed his name to being sent (or volunteering) to be a hostage for Smyrna or Cyme to Colophon, perhaps already an ally or subject state of Lydia (Xenophanes fr. 3 Lesher [1992] p. 61). Few details are known of the wars between Colophon, its exiles in Smyrna and the Aeolian cities, or between the Greek cities and inland nations such as the Lydians, seeking ports on the Aegean, although Mimnermus (mu 1077) wrote of them. Curiously the same word meant 'blind' in the Aeolian cities associated with Homer. This ambiguity would be resolved if it was applied there to hostages returned to their homes after being blinded in retribution for a violation of the hostage agreement. Ctesias (FGrH IIIC, 688 F9: p.456.10-14), as reported by Photius (Bibl. 72.36b, cf. 63.22a), reports such a blinding. The Persians took the Lydian king Croesus' son as a hostage and blinded him in retribution for Croesus' violation of the agreement with them. The word phro/s, used of blind Homer, usually (but not always) means 'maimed, blinded' (see note 21). See Vita Romana 31.22-32.6 Wilamowitz for legends of how he was blinded by a vision of either Achilles or Helen. Claros near Colophon was the site of an oracle of Apollo (H.W. Parke, The Oracles of Apollo in Asia Minor, 1989, 112ff.), that at least in post-classical times issued its oracles in hexameter verse. Diodorus Siculus 4.66 wrote that Homer 'took many verses from Manto (the legendary founder of this oracle)…. to ornament his poems.' Some scholars argue that Homer learned his metrical craft here. According to Ephorus, the verb related to the noun means 'to guide the blind' (but see omicron 244, omicron 245, omicron 246).[R.D.]
[10] Porphyry fr. 201 Smith. Eratosthenes' date for the fall of Troy was 1184; the first Olympiad was traditionally dated to 776. Hence Porphyry's dating places Homer's floruit c. 908/9 BC; the other datings mentioned place him c. 1024 or c. 833. On ancient datings of Homer see Mosshammer 193-7, 211-3.
[11] On the relationship of Stasinus to the Cypria see G.L. Huxley, Greek Epic Poetry (1969) 123ff., esp. 129, and OCD(4) 511-12 (cf. Davies 27-29, T1-4, 7, 8, 9, 11). Homer's daughter is also given the name Aresiphone (or Arsiphone in Tzetzes, Chil. 13. 636, who names Homer's wife as Eurydice).
[12] Little is known of these sons. Theolaus is rejected as a name by Wilamowitz 33-34 note. The other son is named Seriphon by Tzetzes, and Euryphon at tau 354, where we learn that Terpander was sometimes called Homer's great-grandson. Tzetzes mentions the possibility of a second Homer, the son of Euryphon (Vit. Hes. p. 49. 19-20 Wilamowitz). A certain Parthenius of Chios [pi 665] is also said to have been a descendant, but see note there. [R.D.]
[13] The idea that the Iliad and Odyssey were composed of different oral "lays" by one or more rhapsodes (interpreted as 'stitchers of lays') of various levels of originality has a long history ("The Homeric Question"). It is discussed in any work on Homer, e.g. Wade-Gery. Although few would deny that there is at least one episode (the "lay" of Dolon, Book 10) stitched into the Iliad without much alteration, the general view today is that Homer existed and composed the Iliad and most or all of the Odyssey, incorporating phrases, characters and whole episodes from an oral tradition into his own compositions (see, for example, Edwards). Scholars search for the creative hand and originality of a single poet called Homer, in much the same way as they study the sources and originality, say, of Shakespeare. [R.D.]
[14] On the legend of the 'Pisistratean recension' see Ritook.
[15] Probably none of these works (or those listed further on, see note 22) is by Homer. See Huxley. A number of "Homeric" Hymns survive, originating over a long period of time; they are often edited and translated (e.g.Evelyn-White [1914] 285-463, M. Crudden [2001], A.N. Athanassakis [1976]). The earliest is Hymn 3, to Delian Apollo (web address 1), probably contemporary with Homer, to whom it may contain a reference at line 170 (web address 2; cf. Dyer). The fragments of the other writings mentioned here and known from elsewhere are collected in Davies, and, with translation, in Evelyn-White (see Table of Contents).
[16] The tone of this rejection of Homer's blindness is similar to that of the rejection of the legend of his death (see note 36). The comment ignores the idea, already voiced, that Homer was blinded, or went blind (notes 9, 21), as a hostage in Colophon. So also Proclus' crusty rejection (Vit. Procli p.27.8-10 Wilamowitz), "Those who showed him as blind seem blinded in their wits, for he saw so many things as no man ever." For the opposite point of view see P. Bergounioux, La Cécité d'Homère (1998), who uses the blinded writer as a metaphor for the internalization of remembered experience and reading necessary for all creative writing. [R.D.]
[17] Odyssey 7.174-5, with 1.141.
[18] Odyssey 4.65-6.
[19] Odyssey 3.421.
[20] For the subdivisions (i, ii, etc.) see introduction to notes, above. They are designed to help those who wish to compare this entry with the ps.-Herodotean "Life" (translated by Lefkowitz), on which it is based, but with which it disagrees in chronology and wording.
[21] The phrase here on its own, phro\s w)\n, implies blindness (so at pi 1538, epsilon 2209, delta 340 on the self-blinding of Oedipus, scholia to Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus 510). The word, however, may refer to any physical or mental handicap, and, when used of blindness, usually specifies the eyes (alpha 4610, epsilon 544, epsilon 545, kappa 1921). It is often used of maiming in war or by torture (alpha 1842 and epsilon 78, alpha 2015 = Theophylact Simocatta, Histories 5.5.6-9, alpha 4610), but equally of natural handicaps or in a sense where the cause of the handicap is unclear (pi 1537, iota 348, epsilon 1610, kappa 2670, omicron 1008). [R.D.]
[22] Homer is said to have established a 'school' here, from which his pupils, the Homeridae (omicron 248), carried his work (and their own) to festivals throughout the Greek world. See Dyer. For the list of 'works' composed on Chios see note 15.
[23] This epigram is also cited by Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 13.592A [13.61 Kaibel]. As the Herodotean Life makes clear (§§29-30), Homer arrives on Samos during the Ionian festival Apaturia (alpha 2940, OCD(4) 114-15), celebrated by phratries (note 26), and encounters women sacrificing to the Kourotrophos at the triple crossroad or fork. The day of admission to the phratry at the festival was known as *kourew=tis. When the priestess tells him to leave, he composes the epigram. Kourotrophos, as nourisher of children in their growing years (kappa 2192, kappa 2193), is probably not here Hecate (cf. Hesiod, Theogony 450, with West's note ad loc.; scholia to Aristophanes, Wasps 824), although she is the goddess of the triple crossroad (then as now a symbol of woman's power), or Hera (LfgrE fasc.14.1512-13; T.H. Price, Kourotrophos (1978) pp.152f., 192), although her temple the Heraion was the major one on Samos. J.V. O'Brien has shown that Hera is seldom identified as a protector of children (The Transformation of Hera, 1993, 66ff.). Markwald argues that the name refers to Aphrodite, cf. Venus Apaturia , and compares Plato Comicus fr. 174.7 Kock (now 188.7 Kassel-Austin), Lucian, DMeretr. 5.1, and Greek Anthology 6.318. If he is correct, Aphrodite is hardly the protector of four-year-old boys, but the generator of puberty as sexual maturity, using kou=ros in what was perhaps its original sense. In this case, as Markwald shows, she would also be capable of restoring to old men their sexual vigor and give the epigram its wit as prayer. [R.D.]
[24] It is almost certain that ou)rai/ is the correct reading, for it implies a witty etymological pun on the name of the festival as apat-ouria, 'seducing the penis', appropriate either to Aphrodite, or, more probably, Hera as seducer of Zeus (Iliad 14. 153-360, cf. O'Brien 175-79; see note 23 above). But on this disputed reading and meaning see Markwald, pp. 197, 201-3.; LfgrE fasc. 18.876 under ou)rh/ D(ubia). The sexual meaning is found in Sophocles fr. 1078 TGF vol.4, Eupolis fr. 471 PCG vol.5; and nw/qouros, *)apo)mu/zouris, a)pouri/a (if not *)apatouri/a). [R.D.]
[25] In ancient Greek speculations about the inner mechanisms of desire, emotion and thought, qu/mos (thymos, 'spirit') usually represents the producer of "hot" desires that lead to action (B. Snell, The Discovery of the Mind, 1946 and reprints, is the simplest introduction, although many of his examples are outdated). Its eager activity is here opposed to the old men's unresponsive bodies. [R.D.]
[26] A brotherhood, the unit of the four ancient Ionian tribes in which men celebrated the Apaturia (note 23) [phi 693, phi 694, cf. gamma 146, gamma 147]. With the reformation by Cleisthenes of the structure of Athenian citizenship into 10 (later more) tribes, made up of demes, the phratry remained the point where men registered their sons as citizens either at four years or at puberty.
[27] The word ko/smos is used twice here (and implied once) and translated 'a fine thing'. It not only refers to order and organization (see kappa 2146, where a fleeing army lacks it, and omicron 860) but is applied to the ornaments and coverings that give a woman, a house, etc., a schema or organized appearance. Thus, in the epigram, horses being cared for on a plain, ships on the sea, and stately kings seated in the marketplace provide their environment with its sense of civilized order established by man, and, in that sense, its beauty. See article and bibliography in LfgrE fasc. 14.1500-02; cf. LSJ. In the Suda the word is used both of the ordered cosmos (kappa 2147, kappa 2148, pi 149, gamma 134) and in definitions of pieces of jewellery (e.g. delta 252 necklace, epsilon 1419 ear-rings, tau 257 tiara). [R.D.]
[28] The unintelligible epithet "golden" applied to Helicon, the sacred hill and spring beside the temples of Delphi, has been corrected to "very holy" (za/qeon, literally 'infused with the power of a god', cf. ps.-Theocritus, Idylls 25.209) by Ruhnken. Wilamowitz, arguing that Apollo, not Poseidon, was ruler of Helicon and its dancing-places, posits a missing line of verse before "ruler of very holy Helicon." [R.D.]
[29] Mimas is the mountain range on the mainland, north of Erythrae (nowadays Boz Dag, not to be confused with other higher mountains of the same name in western Turkey), across the Straits of Chios from the NE coast of the island. It comes into view for travellers from Samos to Chios as they come through the Straits and near their destination. The writer, if he imagines that Chios lies at "the foot of the mountain", betrays ignorance of the region. Markwald (181) assumes, however, that the poet intends, oddly enough, to land on the mainland under the mountain (presumably at Erythrae) before crossing the Straits to Chios. [R.D.]
[30] The famous pine forests of Mount Ida behind Troy were sacred to Cybele (kappa 2586) and, in Vergil's Aeneid, provide Aeneas' ships that Cybele transforms into nymphs (9.80-122, 10.219-55). Attalus I of Pergamum saw a giant pine 67m. high and 7m. in circumference on a crest of Ida (Strabo 13.1.44). Markwald (173ff.) has an excellent discussion of this pine and of the ancient terms used here to distinguish the pine cones of Pinus pinea, which contain edible fruit, i.e. pine nuts used in cakes, from the inedible cones of other species. [R.D.]
[31] The reading a)/ristos 'best' is supplied in the minor mss of the Suda to supply the gap in A. It is better to take the reading in Vit. Her., *)/arhos 'of Ares'. This epigram and two lines on Marmor Parium §11 (OCD4 p.901; F. Jacoby, Marmor Parium (1904) 6, 56-61; cf. FGrH 239 Comm. 675f.) are our only written sources for the iron mines discovered by archaeologists near Cyme's colony Cebrene on the river of that name (RE 11. 105-06, cf. 7A. 571 [no. 65], 556, 553 [map no. 65]), in the region of Mt. Ida of Troy. Traces of ironworks have been found in Smyrna (R.M. Cook, JHS 67, 1947, 42). See further R.J. Forbes, Bergbau, Steinbruchtaetigkeit und Huettenwesen (=Archaeologia Homerica K, 1967, 29-33) and Markwald 182 and note 11. [R.D.]
[32] Or 'flocks' (reading botw=n for brotw=n).
[33] This epigram is credited to Hesiod in the edition of his fragments by R. Merkelbach and M.L. West (fr. 302).
[34] These are mock-heroic names for invented lubber fiends. With a different reading the Vita Her. adds at the beginning of the list *Su/ntriy, 'Crusher'.
[35] [epsiloniota 184, pi 1304, alpha 217, delta 589] Eiresione. For the difficult questions raised by this ancient folk 'Bettellied', begging song, see Markwald's chapter, 245-75, For the evidence for this ritual see Wilamowitz 56-57.
[36] The Herodotean life here, in the same tone as it adopts to dismiss Homer's blindness (note 16), sets aside the legend that Homer died in frustration when he could not answer the boys' riddle. Not coincidentally, the Greek name for a riddle as a type of allegory in rhetoric is gri=fos, 'a fisherman's net' [gamma 457, gamma 458]. [R.D.]
T.W. Allen, Homer: the Origins and the Transmission (Oxford 1924)
Mario Baier, Neun Leben des Homer (Hamburg 2013); German translation, with commentary, of these Lives
Davies = Epicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, ed. M. Davies (1988)
R.R. Dyer "The blind bard of Chios" Classical Philology 70 (1975) 119-121
M.W. Edwards Homer, poet of the Iliad (1987)
H.G. Evelyn-White Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns and Homerica (Loeb Classical Library 1914)
M. Heath "Was Homer a Roman?" PLLS 10 (1998) 23-56
M. Heath "Do heroes eat fish? Athenaeus on the Homeric lifestyle" in Athenaeus and his World: Reading Greek Culture in the Roman Empire, ed. D. Brand and J. Wilkins (Exeter, 2000) 342-352
M. Lefkowitz The Lives of the Greek Poets (London 1981) 12-24, 139-155
LfgrE = Lexikon des frühgriechischen Epos (Goettingen, in fascicules since 1955, ongoing)
G. Markwald Die Homerischen Epigramme, sprachliche und inhaltliche Untersuchungen (1986), with a list of earlier editions, 302-04
A.A. Mosshammer The Chronicles of Eusebius and Greek Chronographic Tradition (Lewisburg 1979)
Poetarum epicorum Graecorum testimonia et fragmenta, ed. A. Bernabé (1996)
Z. Ritook "The Pisistratus tradition and the canonization of Homer" Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 34 (1993) 39-53
W. Schadewaldt, Legende von Homer dem fahrenden Sänger (1959, written in 1940)
H.T. Wade-Gery The poet of the Iliad (1952)
R. Weber "De Dioscuridis *Peri\ tw=n par' *(Omh/rw| no/mwn libello" Leipziger Studien zur classischen Philologie 11 (1888) 87-197
Wilamowitz = Vitae Homeri et Hesiodi, ed. U. de Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (Berlin, 1929)
Keywords: biography; botany; children; chronology; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; food; geography; history; imagery; mythology; poetry; women; zoology
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 9 November 1998@19:54:09.
Vetted by:
Robert Dyer (Some small cosmetics to translation and notes, additions to bibliography) on 23 October 2001@07:50:24.
Robert Dyer (Cosmetic organization of translation into its three sections, with subsections of (c) for ready comparison with Lefkowitz and a synopsis. Addition of a number of notes, several signed by editor, to avoid attributing any speculation to the writer, and minor corrections to omissions, etc., in the translation. Additions to bibliography and keywords. Further notes, not yet posted, are under discussion between the editor and the writer.) on 23 January 2002@07:24:58.
Robert Dyer (Completed this morning's vetting. The Notes still not provided are: 9, 21-27) on 23 January 2002@09:10:43.
David Whitehead (restorative cosmetics at end of tr) on 18 July 2003@03:57:19.
Robert Dyer (added notes 9, 21-27, altered intro to notes at translator's request, many minor corrections) on 24 March 2006@09:45:40.
Catharine Roth (italics and other cosmetics) on 5 June 2011@22:38:26.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics; raised status) on 25 June 2013@06:48:31.
David Whitehead (added an item of bibliography) on 13 September 2013@06:39:01.
David Whitehead (updated some refs; tweaks and cosmetics) on 2 August 2014@10:06:32.
Catharine Roth (coding and other cosmetics) on 4 November 2014@22:54:53.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 5 November 2014@09:36:18.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 15 December 2014@16:21:47.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 2 January 2015@04:40:10.
David Whitehead (expanded a ref) on 16 January 2015@03:41:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 24 January 2015@00:34:33.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 21 March 2015@00:06:44.
Ronald Allen (typo in translation) on 16 October 2020@13:55:39.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticules) on 12 January 2021@01:08:44.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 12 January 2021@01:14:51.
Catharine Roth (coding, typo) on 13 January 2021@01:03:19.

Headword: *filo/xoros
Adler number: phi,441
Translated headword: Philochoros, Philokhoros, Philochorus
Vetting Status: high
Son of Kyknos, Athenian, prophet and diviner; he had as his wife Archestrate. The birth of Philochoros took place in the times of Eratosthenes, as one may realize from the fact that he was a young man to (?)Eratosthenes' old man.[1] He died after being ambushed by Antigonos,[2] because he had been attacked for inclining towards the kingdom of Ptolemy.[3] He wrote 17 books of an Atthis;[4] it contains the Athenians' deeds and kings and archons, as far as Antiochos the last, the one surnamed Theos.[5] It is in response to Demon.[6] [In all, he wrote] On the Art of Prophecy; On Sacrifices (one book); On the Tetrapolis;[7] Foundation of Salamis; Attic Inscriptions; On the Festivals at Athens (17 books);[8] On those who have been [sc. eponymous] archons at Athens[9] from Sokratides as far as Apollodoros;[10] Olympiads (in 2 books);[11] Atthis in Reply to that of Demon; Summary of the same Atthis; Summary of Dionysios' treatment 'On Sacred Matters';[12] On Sophokles' Stories (5 books); On Euripides; On Alkman;[13] On The Mysteries at Athens; Collection of Heroines or Pythagorean Women; Delian Matters (2 books); On Discoveries; On Purifications; On Contracts.[14]
Greek Original:
*filo/xoros, *ku/knou, *)aqhnai=os, ma/ntis kai\ i(erosko/pos: gunh\ de\ h)=n au)tw=| *)arxestra/th. kata\ de\ tou\s xro/nous ge/gonen o( *filo/xoros *)eratosqe/nous, w(s e)pibalei=n presbu/th| ne/on o)/nta *)eratosqe/nei. e)teleu/thse de\ e)nedreuqei\s u(po\ *)antigo/nou, o(/ti dieblh/qh proskeklike/nai th=| *ptolemai/ou basilei/a|. e)/grayen *)atqi/dos bibli/a iz#: perie/xei de\ ta\s *)aqhnai/wn pra/ceis kai\ basilei=s kai\ a)/rxontas, e(/ws *)antio/xou tou= teleutai/ou tou= prosagoreuqe/ntos qeou=: e)/sti de\ pro\s *dh/mwna: *peri\ mantikh=s d#, *peri\ qusiw=n a#, *peri\ th=s *tetrapo/lews, *salami=nos kti/sin, *)epigra/mmata *)attika/, *peri\ tw=n *)aqh/nhsin a)gw/nwn, bibli/a iz#, *peri\ tw=n *)aqh/nhsin a)rca/ntwn a)po\ *swkrati/dou kai\ me/xri *)apollo/dwron, *)olumpia/das e)n bibli/ois b#, *pro\s th\n *dh/mwnos *)atqi/da, *)epitomh\n th=s i)di/as *)atqi/dos, *)epitomh\n th=s *dionusi/ou pragmatei/as peri\ i(erw=n, *peri\ tw=n *sofokle/ous mu/qwn bibli/a e#, *peri\ *eu)ripi/dou, *peri\ *)alkma=nos, *peri\ musthri/wn tw=n *)aqh/nhsi, *sunagwgh\n h(rwi/+dwn h)/toi *puqagorei/wn gunaikw=n, *dhliaka\ bibli/a b#, *peri\ eu(rhma/twn, *peri\ kaqarmw=n, *peri\ sumbo/lwn.
Philochoros (c.340-c.260 BC) was the last of the so-called Atthidographers, writers of a history of Athens; see further below, n.4. Over two hundred fragments of his works survive (FGrH 328). See generally Phillip Harding in OCD4 Philochorus.
This is the only biography of an Attidographer in the Suda.
[1] Eratosthenes of Cyrene (c.285-194), scientist and head of the Alexandrian library: epsilon 2898. But in fact Philochoros was the elder, by far. This second mention of Eratosthenes in the sentence, several scholars have suspected, has displaced another name.
[2] Antigonos II Gonatas, ruler of Macedonia (reigned c.277-239). The striking verb for what he did to Ph. here, 'ambushed', presumably means arrested (and put to death).
[3] Ptolemy II Philadelphos, king of Egypt (283/2-246), who assisted the southern Greeks in the so-called Chremonidean War against the Macedonians in the 260s.
[4] Atthis: later generic name for a body of 5th-3rd-century historiography of Athens and Attica, of which Philochoros was the most renowned exponent. It was usually arranged annalistically, by archon-years.
[5] This is Antiochos II Theos, the Seleukid king of Asia who ruled 261-246; so the lexicographer's 'as far as' means as far as the beginning of Theos's reign. (Note, nevertheless, that 'the last is odd, given that there were further kings of this name. Jacoby regarded the whole phrase as textually corrupt.)
[6] Demon (floruit c 300 BC) wrote an Atthis (FGrH 327). For a possible fragment of him, Jacoby's F22, see under epsilon 3391.
[7] The (Marathonian) Tetrapolis was an ancient federation of four towns in Attica.
[8] This figure of 17 suspiciously repeats the one for the Atthis (above); Jaocoby removed it.
[9] Here the Suda uses the aorist participle a)/rcantes rather than the more usual present, a)/rxontes, which, acting as a noun, became a technical term for the holders of the highest civic office at Athens; 'archons' in English.
[10] Sokratides was eponymous archon of Athens in 374/3. Apollodoros is the name of several eponymous archons, of whom those of 350/49 and 319/18 are possible subjects for Philochoros.
[11] Olympiads, a four-yearly cycle beginning in (trad.) 776 BC; thus a work on chronology, presumably.
[12] This Dionysios is FGrH 357, attested only here.
[13] An early Spartan poet: see generally alpha 1289.
[14] Though this dossier purports to be complete, other works are mentioned elsewhere, e.g. On Festivals, from which Harpokration quotes. Jacoby lists 27 in all.
F. Jacoby, Atthis (1949)
P.E. Harding, Androtion and the Atthis (1994) 32-34 and passim
Keywords: biography; chronology; geography; historiography; history; philosophy; poetry; politics; religion; tragedy; women
Translated by: D. Graham J. Shipley on 25 October 2002@03:18:37.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (supplemented translation; augmented and modified notes; added keywords; cosmetics) on 26 October 2002@10:45:38.
David Whitehead (augmented n.6; more keywords) on 23 January 2008@09:17:38.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics; raised status) on 12 December 2013@04:27:30.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 7 August 2014@03:26:38.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 3 November 2014@00:40:08.
Catharine Roth (tweaked betacode) on 3 November 2014@00:42:08.
Catharine Roth (more coding) on 18 January 2015@22:25:00.
David Whitehead (tweaks to tr; corrected one note, expanded others, added others) on 9 June 2016@04:04:00.

Headword: *pe/ntaqlos
Adler number: pi,971
Translated headword: pentathlete
Vetting Status: high
Democritus of Abdera [used to be called this], because he studied physics, ethics, mathematics and general knowledge, and had wide experience of arts and crafts.[1] The saying "speech [is] the insult of Hermes" is his.[2]
Greek Original:
*pe/ntaqlos: o( *dhmo/kritos o( *)abdhri/ths. h)/skhto ga\r ta\ fusika/, ta\ h)qika/, maqhmatika\ kai\ tou\s e)gkukli/ous lo/gous, kai\ peri\ texnw=n pa=san ei)=xen e)mpeiri/an. tou/tou e)sti\ kai\ to/, lo/gos *(ermou= ai)ki/h.
From Diogenes Laertius 9.37.
[1] For Democritus see generally delta 447, delta 448. For other, similar applications of the term pentathlete see [Longinus], On the Sublime 34.1 (on Hyperides, upsilon 294), and epsilon 2898 (Eratosthenes). (For a real pentathlete see phi 144.)
[2] In D.L. the phrase is quite different: "speech [is] the shadow of action", lo/gos e)/rgou skih/. The Suda's unparalleled lo/gos *(Ermou= ai)ki/h is thus surely an error, but perhaps not a mindless one; the notion may also be reflected in the exchange between Prometheus and Hermes in (?)Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 961-970.
Keywords: athletics; biography; ethics; geography; imagery; mathematics; mythology; philosophy; religion; rhetoric; tragedy
Translated by: David Whitehead on 10 October 2001@07:58:37.
Vetted by:
Ross Scaife ✝ (added note 2 as speculation) on 10 October 2001@08:55:26.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 10 October 2001@09:31:00.
David Whitehead (augmented note 1; cosmetics) on 3 May 2004@11:14:14.
Catharine Roth (added keyword) on 29 September 2005@02:19:10.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 18 November 2005@10:20:35.
David Whitehead on 4 September 2011@09:14:00.
David Whitehead on 19 September 2013@07:06:23.
David Whitehead (expanded notes; more keywords) on 13 April 2014@07:16:04.
David Whitehead on 13 April 2014@10:43:34.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 13 April 2014@17:27:03.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticules) on 9 July 2016@19:01:13.

Headword: *pepai/nei
Adler number: pi,994
Translated headword: becomes soft
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning he/she/it] becomes mild.
Greek Original:
*pepai/nei: prau/+nei.
Same entry in the Synagoge, Lexica Segueriana 336.12 and Photius, Lexicon pi595 Theodoridis; and cf. already Hesychius pi1424 and pi1433. The headword must be quoted from somewhere; there are numerous possibilities. For this verb, with a range of literal and figurative applications, see generally LSJ s.v.
Glossing, here, with prau/+nei emphasizes the meaning of becoming soft or mild over that of making or becoming ripe. Contrast pi 1356, which uses pepai/nei along with melani/zei ("blackens") to define perka/zei; again the same entry is found in Photius and elsewhere. Like perka/zw, pepai/nw is often used to describe grapes or figs: Xenophon, Oeconomicus 19.19 (grapes); Theophrastus, Causes of Plants 3.16.3 (grapes); Eratosthenes, Constellations 1.41d.16 = Aristotle fr. 343 (figs); and Hesychius omicron658 (figs).
pepai/nw is also common in medical texts, where it is used to describe tumors (e.g. Rufus, De renum et vesicae morbis 11.1) or an illness reaching its crisis (e.g. Hippocrates, De diaeta in morbis acutis 11; Coa praesagia 148).
Keywords: botany; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; medicine
Translated by: Fred Jenkins on 18 September 2011@18:15:57.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 September 2011@04:25:09.
David Whitehead on 19 September 2011@04:26:10.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 September 2013@08:20:54.
David Whitehead (coding and other cosmetics) on 22 May 2016@08:59:05.

Headword: *pole/mwn
Adler number: pi,1888
Translated headword: Polemon, Polemo
Vetting Status: high
Son of (?)Euegetes,[1] of Ilion,[2] from a village called Glykeia, but was enrolled as a citizen at Athens;[3] for this reason he was given the title "Helladikos";[4] the so-called Periegete, a historian. He was born [or: lived] in the reign of Ptolemy (V) Epiphanes.[5] According to Asklepiades of Myrleia[6] he was a contemporary of Aristophanes the grammarian[7] and also attended the lectures of Panaetius of Rhodes.[8] He wrote a Description of Ilion in 3 books, Foundations of the cities in Phokis and about their kinship with the Athenians, Foundations of the cities in the Black Sea, About the cities in Lakedaimon; and very many others; among them even a Universal Description, otherwise known as Geography.
Greek Original:
*pole/mwn, *eu)hge/tou, *)ilieu/s, kw/mhs *glukei/as o)/noma, *)aqh/nhsi de\ politografhqei/s: dio\ e)pegra/feto *(elladiko/s: o( klhqei\s *perihghth/s, i(storiko/s. ge/gone de\ kata\ *ptolemai=on to\n *)epifanh=. kata\ de\ *)asklhpia/dhn to\n *murleano\n sunexro/nisen *)aristofa/nei tw=| grammatikw=| kai\ dih/kouse kai\ tou= *(rodi/ou *panaiti/ou. e)/graye *perih/ghsin *)ili/ou e)n bibli/ois g#, *kti/seis tw=n e)n *fwki/di po/lewn kai\ peri\ th=s pro\s *)aqhnai/ous suggenei/as au)tw=n, *kti/seis tw=n e)n *po/ntw| po/lewn, *peri\ tw=n e)n *lakedai/moni po/lewn: kai\ a)/lla plei=sta: e)n oi(=s kai\ *kosmikh\n perih/ghsin h)/toi *gewgrafi/an.
First quarter of the C2 BCE; see further in the notes below.
V. brief summary in OCD4 Polemon(3); for more detail see the works cited in the Bibliography below.
Pfeiffer calls P. 'an immensely learned antiquary', Habicht '[t]he most famous periegetic writer'. He also had a taste for scholarly polemic, against e.g. Eratosthenes (epsilon 2898) and Timaios (tau 602). Lamentably, none of his many works -- the present biographer mentions only a sample -- survives complete.
[1] This patronymic is called into question by one of the entries in a catalogue of proxenoi of Delphi between 197/6 and 149/8 BCE (Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum #585); under 177/6 'Polemon Milesiou Ilieus' is listed. Some regard him as a relative of our P. If, instead, they are identical (as the larger consensus holds), one or the other patronymic must be wrong.
[2] OCD(4) Ilium, founded on or very near the site of Troy
[3] M.J. Osborne, Naturalization in Athens, vols. 3-4 (Brussels 1983) 99 #T112. The contextual material surrounding some of the "fragments" of P. suggests that he had other honorific citizenships too.
[4] The term means Greek or Hellenic (see LSJ s.v.), so this reasoning as it stands is less than pellucid. But note the indications elsewhere (Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 11.479F [= 11.59 Kaibel] and 13.606B-C [= 13.84 Kaibel]) that 'Helladikos' was in fact the title of one of the more compendious of P.'s works.
[5] As king of Egypt: 210-180 BCE. See further in the next three notes.
[6] See generally FGrH 697; OCD4 Asclepiades(4). In the present instance it is unclear whether he is being cited for information that conflicts with the preceding sentence, or simply for an alternative type of dating-fix.
[7] a.k.a. Aristophanes of Byzantium (alpha 3933), c.257-180 BCE. This would fit with the preceding sentence if gegone there means 'lived', but see the next note.
[8] If this is "the" Panaetius (pi 184), c.185-109 BCE, Asklepiades' two data seem incompatible with one another. For the chronology to make sense, this teacher would have to be pi 183 -- if he existed.
Until P. appears in one of the (post-Jacoby) fascicles of Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker vol.IV, he is available only in two nineteenth-century editions:
Ludwig Preller, Polemonis periegetae fragmenta (Leipzig 1838, reprinted Amsterdam 1964).
Carl Mueller, Fragmenta historicorum graecorum III (Paris 1849) 108-148. [This is the (plain) text on the TLG]
Small additions were made in H.J. Mette, 'Die 'kleinen' griechischen Historiker heute', Lustrum 21 (1978) 5-43, at 49-41.
See also (e.g.):
R. Pfeiffer, History of Classical Scholarship from the Beginnings to the end of the Hellenistic Age (Oxford 1968) 246-251.
C. Habicht, Pausanias' Guide to Ancient Greece (Berkeley & Los Angeles 1985) 3 and appendix 2.
W.E. Hutton, Describing Greece. Language and Literature in the Periegesis of Pausanias (Cambridge 2005)
Mariachiara Angelucci, 'Polemon's contribution to the periegetic literature of the II century BC', Hormos 3 (2011) 326-341 (on line)
Keywords: biography; chronology; geography; historiography; philosophy
Translated by: William Hutton on 2 April 2000@00:38:43.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented headword; added notes, bibliography, keyword) on 31 March 2001@04:32:38.
William Hutton (Augmented bibliography) on 31 March 2001@08:59:34.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; tweaks and cosmetics) on 7 October 2013@08:39:04.
David Whitehead (updated 2 refs) on 10 August 2014@06:04:26.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 17 August 2014@10:58:31.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 15 January 2015@21:54:08.
David Whitehead (name correction, prompted by Prof John D Morgan) on 31 May 2015@04:00:39.
David Whitehead (tweaks to tr; augmented notes and bibliography) on 11 July 2017@05:09:10.

Headword: *pulew=nos
Adler number: pi,3166
Translated headword: of a gate, of a gateway
Vetting Status: high
[pulew=nos means the same as] tou= pulw=nos.
Greek Original:
*pulew=nos: tou= pulw=nos.
The headword (also in the Ambrosian Lexicon, according to Adler) is a less common variant of the gloss; both are in the genitive singular. The poetic headword form is variously attested: Eratosthenes fr.10.1 Powell, in poems by Gregory of Nazianzus, and frequently in Nonnus, Dionysiaca.
Keywords: dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; philosophy; poetry
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 4 October 2013@01:13:31.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 4 October 2013@03:58:32.
David Whitehead on 23 October 2013@10:01:16.
David Whitehead (coding) on 25 May 2016@05:11:49.

Headword: *(riano/s
Adler number: rho,158
Translated headword: Rhianos, Rhianus
Vetting Status: high
also [sc. known as] the Cretan, since he was from Bene (Bene [is] a city of Crete);[1] but some have reported that he was from Ceraea,[2] others from Ithome in Messene.[3] This man was orginally the warden of the palaestra and a slave; subsequently he was educated and became a grammarian, contemporary with Eratosthenes.[4] He wrote in verse: poems; Heraclead (in 4 books[5]).
Greek Original:
*(riano/s, o( kai\ *krh/s, w)\n *bhnai=os [*bh/nh de\ po/lis *krh/ths]: tine\s de\ *kerai/+thn, a)/lloi de\ *)iqw/mhs th=s *messh/nhs au)to\n i(sto/rhsan. ou(=tos de\ h)=n th=s palai/stras pro/teron fu/lac kai\ dou=los, u(/steron de\ pai- deuqei\s e)ge/neto grammatiko/s, su/gxronos *)eratosqe/nous. e)/grayen e)mme/trws poih/mata, *(hrakleia/da e)n bibli/ois d#.
C3 BC. RE Rhianos; OCD4 Rhianus; FGrH 265.
[1] Bene: beta 260.
[2] Also in Crete; cf. Polybius 4.53.6.
[3] Ithome: iota 243. (This improbable theory was doubtless generated by R.'s authorship of a Messeniaka.)
[4] Eratosthenes: epsilon 2898.
[5] So the transmitted numeral, but it should be 14.
R. Pfeiffer A History of Classical Scholarship (Oxford 1968) 148-9
Keywords: athletics; biography; chronology; daily life; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; geography; historiography; mythology; poetry
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 8 September 2003@17:07:08.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (cosmetics, added keywords, set status) on 8 September 2003@17:17:24.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; added a keyword) on 9 September 2003@03:18:34.
David Whitehead (more notes; another keyword; cosmetics; raised status) on 25 August 2011@09:03:50.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 28 October 2013@08:11:47.
David Whitehead (another note) on 6 April 2014@05:55:13.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 2 August 2014@10:40:59.

Headword: *(ru/kou kriqopompi/a
Adler number: rho,290
Translated headword: Rhykos' barley-consignment
Vetting Status: high
Eratosthenes in his ninth [book][1] says that this king became a captive, and after returning to his own [land][2] he despatched barley to the city of Athens.
Greek Original:
*(ru/kou kriqopompi/a: *)eratosqe/nhs e)n tw=| e)na/tw| fhsi\ basile/a tou=ton ai)xma/lwton geno/menon, ei)=ta u(postre/yanta ei)s e(auto/n, th=| po/lei *)aqhnai/wn kriqh\n e)kpe/myai.
The headword phrase is Comica adespota fr. 290 Kock, now 419 K.-A..
[1] FGrH 241 F25. Hesychius' version [rho430] gives the name as Rhoikos and makes him king of Amathous (alpha 1473) in Cyprus.
[2] The transmitted text says 'returning to himself', but this is easily corrected (with Jacoby).
Keywords: agriculture; biography; botany; comedy; food; geography; historiography; history
Translated by: David Whitehead on 18 December 2002@09:46:06.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth on 22 December 2002@18:32:03.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 16 June 2004@04:24:55.
David Whitehead (adjusted note numbers) on 7 April 2010@08:38:02.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 25 August 2011@05:46:40.
David Whitehead on 30 October 2013@06:46:51.
David Whitehead on 28 December 2014@07:10:38.
David Whitehead on 25 May 2016@07:39:13.

Headword: *si/bulla *xaldai/a
Adler number: sigma,361
Translated headword: Chaldaean Sibyl
Vetting Status: high
She is called Hebrew by some, also Persian, and she is called by the proper name Sambethe from the race of the most blessed Noah; she prophesied about those things said with regard to Alexander [sc. the Great] of Macedon; Nikanor, who wrote a Life of Alexander, mentions her;[1] she also prophesied countless things about the lord Christ and his advent. But the other [Sibyls] agree with her, except that there are 24 books of hers, covering every race and region. As for the fact that her verses are unfinished and unmetrical, the fault is not that of the prophetess but of the shorthand-writers, unable to keep up with the rush of her speech or else uneducated and illiterate; for her remembrance of what she had said faded along with the inspiration. And on account of this the verses appear incomplete and the train of thought clumsy -- even if this happened by divine management, so that her oracles would not be understood by the unworthy masses.
[Note] that there were Sibyls in different places and times and they numbered ten.[2] First then was the Chaldaean Sibyl, also [known as] Persian, who was called Sambethe by name. Second was the Libyan. Third was the Delphian, the one born in Delphi. Fourth was the Italian, born in Italian Kimmeria. Fifth was the Erythraian, who prophesied about the Trojan war. Sixth was the Samian, whose proper name was Phyto; Eratosthenes wrote about her.[3] Seventh was the Cumaean, also [called] Amalthia and also Hierophile. Eighth was the Hellespontian, born in the village of Marmissos near the town of Gergition -- which were once in the territory of the Troad -- in the time of Solon and Cyrus. Ninth was the Phrygian. Tenth was the Tiburtine, Abounaia by name. They say that the Cumaean brought nine books of her own oracles to Tarquinus Priscus, then the king of the Romans; and when he did not approve, she burned two books. [Note] that Sibylla is a Roman word, interpreted as "prophetess", or rather "seer"; hence female seers were called by this one name. Sibyls, therefore, as many have written, were born in different times and places and numbered ten.
Greek Original:
*si/bulla *xaldai/a, h( kai\ pro/s tinwn *(ebrai/a o)nomazome/nh, h( kai\ *persi/s, h( kuri/w| o)no/mati kaloume/nh *sambh/qh, e)k tou= ge/nous tou= makariwta/tou *nw=e: h( tw=n kata\ *)ale/candron to\n *makedo/na legome/nwn proeirhkui=a: h(=s mnhmoneu/ei *nika/nwr o( to\n *)aleca/ndrou bi/on i(storh/sas: h( peri\ tou= despo/tou *xristou= muri/a proqespi/sasa kai\ th=s au)tou= parousi/as. a)lla\ kai\ ai( loipai\ suna/|dousin au)th=|, plh\n o(/ti tau/ths ei)si\ bibli/a kd#, peri\ panto\s e)/qnous kai\ xw/ras perie/xonta. o(/ti de\ oi( sti/xoi au)th=s a)telei=s eu(ri/skontai kai\ a)/metroi, ou) th=s profh/tido/s e)stin h( ai)ti/a, a)lla\ tw=n taxugra/fwn, ou) sumfqasa/ntwn th=| r(u/mh| tou= lo/gou h)\ kai\ a)paideu/twn genome/nwn kai\ a)pei/rwn grammatikw=n: a(/ma ga\r th=| e)pipnoi/a| e)pe/pauto h( tw=n lexqe/ntwn mnh/mh. kai\ dia\ tou=to eu(ri/skontai kai\ oi( sti/xoi a)telei=s kai\ dia/noia ska/zousa, ei)/te kai\ kat' oi)konomi/an qeou= tou=to ge/gonen, w(s mh\ ginw/skointo u(po\ tw=n pollw=n kai\ a)naci/wn oi( xrhsmoi\ au)th=s. o(/ti *si/bullai gego/nasin e)n diafo/rois to/pois kai\ xro/nois to\n a)riqmo\n de/ka. prw/th ou)=n h( *xaldai/a h( kai\ *persi/s, h( kuri/w| o)no/mati kaloume/nh *sambh/qh. deute/ra h( *li/bussa. tri/th *delfi/s, h( e)n *delfoi=s texqei=sa. teta/rth *)italikh/, h( e)n *kimmeri/a| th=s *)itali/as. pe/mpth *)eruqrai/a, h( peri\ tou= *trwi+kou= proeirhkui=a pole/mou. e(/kth *sami/a, h( kuri/w| o)no/mati kaloume/nh *futw/: peri\ h(=s e)/grayen *)eratosqe/nhs. e(bdo/mh h( *kumai/a, h( kai\ *)amalqi/a, h( kai\ *(ierofi/lh. o)gdo/h *(ellhsponti/a, texqei=sa e)n kw/mh| *marmissw=|, peri\ th\n poli/xnhn *gergi/tion, ai(\ th=s e)nori/as pote\ *trw|a/dos e)tu/gxanon, e)n kairoi=s *so/lwnos kai\ *ku/rou. e)na/th *frugi/a. deka/th h( *tigourti/a, o)no/mati *)abounai/a. fasi\ de\ w(s h( *kumai/a e)nne/a bibli/a xrhsmw=n i)di/wn proseko/mise *tarkuni/w| *pri/skw| tw=| thnikau=ta basileu/onti tw=n *(rwmai/wn: kai\ tou/tou mh\ proshkame/nou, e)/kause bibli/a b#. o(/ti *si/bulla *(rwmai+kh\ le/cis e)sti/n, e(rmhneuome/nh profh=tis, h)/goun ma/ntis: o(/qen e(ni\ o)no/mati ai( qh/leiai ma/ntides w)noma/sqhsan. *si/bullai toi/nun, w(s polloi\ e)/grayan, gego/nasin e)n diafo/rois to/pois kai\ xro/nois to\n a)riqmo\n i#.
For the block of Suda entries (mainly from Hesychius of Miletus) on Sibyls see sigma 254 though sigma 362; and generally OCD4 1360-61.
[1] FGrH 146 F1.
[2] This seems to be a modified version of Varro's list of the Sibyls.
[3] FGrH 241 F26b.
Keywords: biography; Christianity; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; history; meter and music; religion; women
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 18 February 2000@23:25:51.
Vetted by:
William Hutton on 19 February 2000@10:33:25.
David Whitehead (modified translation; added notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 16 January 2001@06:34:44.
David Whitehead (added keywords; restorative cosmetics) on 3 October 2002@09:58:47.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 4 May 2011@05:37:52.
David Whitehead on 24 December 2013@04:54:43.
David Whitehead on 9 August 2014@10:35:22.
David Whitehead (coding) on 25 May 2016@10:45:12.

Headword: *qhla/zein
Adler number: theta,331
Translated headword: to suckle
Vetting Status: high
We take the word in the active [sense], in reference to children who are suckling, but Lysias uses [it] in the passive [sense] in reference to a woman producing milk.[1]
Greek Original:
*qhla/zein: e)nerghtikw=s h(mei=s a)ntilambano/meqa tou= r(h/matos, e)pi\ tw=n paidi/wn tw=n qhlazo/ntwn, *lusi/as de\ paqhtikw=s ke/xrhtai e)pi\ gunaiko\s parexou/shs ga/la.
Same entry in ps.-Zonaras (1044).
Both usages are well attested, and the grammarians differ on which is normal. See, for instance Pollux 2.163; the Anti-atticist s.v. qhla/zei (Lexica Segueriana 99.13); scholion to Lucian, The Soloecist 4; and Photius, Lexicon theta156.
[1] Lysias 1.9 (web address 1), needlessly queried by Adler: the form used is not the infinitive (as is the headword), but the imperfect indicative active third-person singular e)qh/lazen.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: children; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; food; rhetoric; women
Translated by: Ryan Stone on 22 February 2008@19:27:10.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (tweaked translation, augmented notes, added link and keywords set status) on 23 February 2008@09:43:24.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 24 February 2008@04:12:27.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 22 March 2011@10:29:27.
David Whitehead on 3 January 2013@06:15:36.
David Whitehead (coding) on 28 April 2016@04:05:02.

Headword: *(umei=s, w)= *megarei=s, ou)/te tri/toi ou)/te te/tartoi
Adler number: upsilon,108
Translated headword: you o Megarians are neither third nor fourth
Vetting Status: high
It is a proverbial part of an oracle, thus; "a Thessalian horse, a Spartan woman, and men who drink the water of fine Arethoussa;[1] but there are better still than them -- those who dwell between Tiryns[2] and Arcadia rich in flocks: the linen-cuirassed Argives, spurs of war. But you, Aigians,[3] are neither third nor fourth nor twelfth, neither in in repute nor in number."[4] Mnaseas[5] recounts that when the Aigians of Achaea conquered the Aetolians in a sea-battle and captured a fifty-oared ship of theirs, they dedicated a tenth of the spoils at Pytho,[6] and they enquired who were the best of Greeks; and the Pythia answered them in the words stated above.[7] Ion too recounts that the oracle was given to the Aigians.[8] Some, however, think that it was given to the Megarians and they say "you, o Megarians, [are] neither third nor fourth". Thus too Callimachus in his little Epigrams: "and of the poor nymph, as of Megarians, neither word nor number".[9]
Greek Original:
*(umei=s, w)= *megarei=s, ou)/te tri/toi ou)/te te/tartoi: xrhsmou= komma/tio/n e)sti paroimiazo/menon ou(/tws: i(/ppon *qessalikh\n *lakedaimoni/an te gunai=ka, a)/ndras d', oi(\ pi/nousin u(/dwr kalh=s *)areqou/shs. a)ll' e)/ti kai\ tw=n ei)si\n a)mei/nones, oi(/ te meshgu\ *ti/runqos nai/ousi kai\ *)arkadi/hs polumh/lou, *)argei=oi linoqw/rhkes, ke/ntra ptole/moio. u(mei=s d', *ai)gie/es, ou)/te tri/toi ou)/te te/tartoi ou)/te duwde/katoi, ou)/t' e)n lo/gw| ou)/t' e)n a)riqmw=|. i(storei= de\ *mnase/as, o(/ti *ai)giei=s oi( e)n *)axai/a| katanaumaxh/santes *ai)twlou\s kai\ labo/ntes penthko/ntoron au)tw=n, deka/thn *puqoi= a)natiqe/ntes, h)rw/twn ti/nes ei)=en krei/ttous tw=n *(ellh/nwn: h( de\ *puqi/a e)/xrhsen au)toi=s ta\ prokei/mena. kai\ *)/iwn de\ *ai)gieu=si doqh=nai to\n xrhsmo\n i(storei=. tine\s de\ oi)/ontai *megareu=sin ei)rh=sqai au)to\n kai\ profe/rontai, u(mei=s d', w)= *megarei=s, ou)/te tri/toi ou)/te te/tartoi. w(s kai\ *kalli/maxos e)pi\ toi=s *)epigrammati/ois: th=s de\ talai/nhs nu/mfhs, w(s *megare/wn, ou) lo/gos ou)d' a)riqmo/s.
Entry also in Photius (upsilon47 Theodoridis), taken to come from Pausanias the Atticist (upsilon5); cf. also the scholia to Theocritus, Idylls 14.48; and proverbial in Zenobius 1.48 and elsewhere. For the oracle see already alphaiota 45.
[1] See alpha 3821; cf. Strabo, who quotes the oracle and places Arethoussa, a fountain, in Chalcis (Euboea).
[2] tau 653; Google maps location at web address 1.
[3] alphaiota 55; Google maps location at web address 2.
[4] cf. Greek Anthology 14.73.
[5] Of Patrai; a student of Eratosthenes, according to epsilon 2898. Quoted in zeta 17, pi 2212, pi 3136, sigma 12. For his fragments see Cappelletto (below).
[6] i.e. the oracle at Delphi; pi 3137 etc.
[7] Mnaseas FHG fr.50 (3.157ff).
[8] Ion [iota 487] fr.17 FHG (2.51) = PMG 743 Page -- but the name may be an error here (so Bernhardy).
[9] Callimachus, Epigrammata 25.5-6 Pfeiffer.
Cappelletto, P. (ed.), I frammenti di Mnasea: Introduzione testo e commento, Milan 2003
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: clothing; daily life; definition; ethics; food; geography; historiography; history; imagery; military affairs; poetry; proverbs; religion; women; zoology
Translated by: Ioannis Doukas on 20 July 2009@10:31:34.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 July 2009@03:32:59.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 9 August 2011@09:02:04.
David Whitehead on 20 November 2013@05:25:13.
David Whitehead (coding and other cosmetics) on 29 May 2016@10:51:16.


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