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Headword: Θυμός
Adler number: theta,573
Translated headword: wrath
Vetting Status: high
Appetite and wrath are desiderative faculties of the soul. But wrath and appetite are different. And one could ask: "how"?, "why"? Does not the wrathful person have an appetite for vexing in return the one who caused pain before? But what else? Does not reason also have an appetite for knowledge and theoretical matters? In addition, we say that appetite is so called both in a general and in a more specific way. Just as the disposition is both generally so called in reference to a state, and the disposition is also specifically so called which is opposed to the state, so too appetite is generally so called in reference to all the faculties of the soul, and the opposed disposition is also so called more specifically with respect to wrath.
But the one who defines wrath as "a desire for vexing in return" defined it not according to its nature but dialectically. For he did not show the essence of wrath but, in dividing, he defined that from which, in the essence of wrath, it has its being -- from which we could not define the attributes of wrath, just as when one says that anger is an effervescence of the blood around the heart produced by the desire for vexing in return. For thus he makes the attributes known. And this is so because a certain palpitation of the heart follows closely on those who become angry, and because heat arises around those parts, since the angry people turn red. And this is produced by the movement of the blood.
The affections of the soul, which belong to both parts, cannot be separated even conceptually.
For wrath exists in reason, in breathing, and in the living body. For example, reason entrusts the desire to the breathing, the breathing with the desire sets in motion the blood around the heart of the animal, just as it occurs with a king, a general, and an army. For the king entrusts the general with defending [us] from certain people, and the general sets in motion his soldiers, and these defend [us]. Now the wrath that exists in reason is not separable from the animal (for such a wrath is separable from any body). But the wrath which exists in breathing, even if it is not entirely separable, yet it is separable from an earthy body. And the third [kind of wrath], i.e. the seething of the blood around the heart, is inseparable from the living body.
Greek Original:
Θυμός: ἐπιθυμία καὶ θυμός ἐστιν ὀρεκτικαὶ δυνάμεις τῆς ψυχῆς. διαφέρει δὲ θυμὸς καὶ ἐπιθυμία. ζητήσειε δ' ἄν τις, τὸ πῶς; τί γάρ; οὐχὶ καὶ ὁ θυμούμενος ἐπιθυμεῖ τοῦ ἀντιλυπῆσαι τὸν προλυπήσαντα; τί δέ; οὐχὶ καὶ ὁ λόγος ἐπιθυμεῖ τῶν μαθημάτων καὶ τῶν θεωρημάτων; καὶ λέγομεν πρὸς τοῦτο, ὅτι ἐστὶν ἐπιθυμία καὶ κοινότερον λεγομένη καὶ ἰδικώτερον: ὥσπερ ἡ διάθεσις λέγεται καὶ κοινῶς ἐπὶ τῆς ἕξεως, λέγεται καὶ ἰδικῶς, ἡ ἀντιδιαστελλομένη πρὸς τὴν ἕξιν, οὕτω καὶ ἡ ἐπιθυμία λέγεται καὶ κοινῶς ἐπὶ πασῶν τῶν δυνάμεων τῆς ψυχῆς: λέγεται καὶ ἰδικώτερον ἡ ἀντιδιαστελλομένη πρὸς τὸν θυμόν. ὁ δὲ ὁριζόμενος τὸν θυμὸν ὄρεξιν ἀντιλυπήσεως, οὐ φυσικῶς, ἀλλὰ διαλεκτικῶς ὡρίσατο: οὐ γὰρ τὴν οὐσίαν τοῦ θυμοῦ ἐδήλωσεν, ἀλλ' ὅ τι ἐν τῇ οὐσίᾳ τοῦ θυμοῦ ἔχει τὸ εἶναι ἀποτεμὼν ὡρίσατο, ἐξ οὗ οὐδὲ τὰ παρακολουθοῦντα τοῦ θυμοῦ ὁρίσαιμεν ἄν, ὥσπερ ἐκ τοῦ λέγοντος τὴν ὀργὴν ζέσιν εἶναι τοῦ περικαρδίου αἵματος δι' ὄρεξιν ἀντιλυπήσεως. οὕτω γὰρ καὶ τὰ παρακολουθοῦντα γνώριμα ποιεῖ, ὅτι παλμός τις τῆς καρδίας παρακολουθεῖ τοῖς ὀργιζομένοις, καὶ ὅτι θερμότης γίνεται περὶ ἐκεῖνα τὰ μέρη: ὅτι ἐρυθαίνονται οἱ ὀργιζόμενοι. τοῦτο δὲ διὰ τὴν τοῦ αἵματος κίνησιν. ὅτι τὰ πάθη τῆς ψυχῆς, ὅσα τοῦ συναμφοτέρου, οὐδὲ ἐπινοίᾳ δύναται χωρισθῆναι. ἐπειδὴ ὁ θυμός ἐστιν ἐν τῷ λόγῳ καὶ ἐν τῷ πνεύματι καὶ ἐν τῷ ἐζωωμένῳ σώματι: οἷον τοῦ μὲν λόγου ἐπιτρέποντος τῷ πνεύματι τὴν ὄρεξιν, τοῦ δὲ πνεύματος τῇ ὀρέξει κινοῦντος τὸ περικάρδιον αἷμα τοῦ ζῴου, ὥσπερ ἔχει ἐπὶ βασιλέως καὶ στρατηγοῦ καὶ στρατοῦ. ὁ μὲν γὰρ βασιλεὺς ἐπιτρέπει τῷ στρατηγῷ ἀμύνασθαι τούσδε τινάς, ὁ δὲ στρατηγὸς κινεῖ τοὺς στρατιώτας, οἱ δὲ ἀμύνονται. ὁ μὲν οὖν ἐν τῷ λόγῳ οὐκ ἔστιν ἀχώριστος τοῦ ζῴου [οὗτος γὰρ χωριστὸς παντὸς σώματος]: ὁ δὲ ἐν τῷ πνεύματι, εἰ μὴ παντὸς χωριστός, ἀλλ' οὖν τοῦ γεώδους χωριστὸς σώματος. ὁ δὲ τρίτος, τουτέστιν ἡ ξέσις τοῦ περικαρδίου αἵματος, ἀχώριστός ἐστι τούτου τοῦ ἐζωωμένου σώματος.
John Philoponus, On Aristotle's de anima 6.11-19, 44.1-11, 63.26-28, 64.6-17.
For 'wrath' see also theta 574, theta 575. For the two definitions of θυμός , see Arisotle De anima 403a31.
Keywords: definition; ethics; imagery; medicine; military affairs; philosophy
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 23 November 1999@09:20:11.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 16 January 2003@08:47:46.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 3 November 2005@09:55:59.
David Whitehead on 7 January 2013@06:30:59.
David Whitehead (coding) on 28 April 2016@06:40:36.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 19 December 2018@17:56:26.
Catharine Roth (more tweaks) on 19 December 2018@18:20:05.
Catharine Roth (further tweaks) on 19 December 2018@23:33:47.
Catharine Roth (expanded note) on 19 December 2018@23:38:23.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 20 December 2018@00:31:51.


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