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Headword: αἰτιατικῇ
Adler number: psi,157
Translated headword: leads souls, summons souls
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Used] with an accusative. [Meaning he/she/it] encourages, delights;[1] or brings up souls. Aristophanes in Birds [writes]: "by the [land of] the Shadow-feet there is a swamp, where Socrates leads souls."[2]
Concerning ψυχαγωγία ['evocation of souls'].[3] "They make certain magic spells against the dead; for when they come to the place from which it is possible to lead the souls which the petitioners desire, they arrive where those to be summoned have died. And they do not find the place immediately, but track it down in this manner. Taking a black sheep, holding it either by one of its horns or by the forefeet, and standing it on the other feet, they lead it around. It follows quite obediently where it is dragged. But when it arrives where he or she was brought down, there the sheep throws itself down. And when this happens, then putting the sheep out of the way and hiding it, with some various ceremonies and chants they are led around and walk around [the place] and they listen to those who speak and enquire the causes for which they are angered."
"Antoninus the emperor of the Romans also summoned souls [to ask] about his father Commodus."[4]
Polybios says, "These men delayed concerning these matters, summoning their powers."[5] Meaning encouraging.
Greek Original:
Ψυχαγωγεῖ: αἰτιατικῇ. παραμυθεῖται, τέρπει: ἢ ψυχὰς ἀνάγει. Ἀριστοφάνης Ὄρνισι: πρὸς δὲ τοῖς Σκιάποσι λίμνη ἐστίν, οὗ ψυχαγωγεῖ Σωκράτης. Περὶ ψυχαγωγίας. γοητείας τινὰς ποιοῦσιν ἐς τοὺς νεκρούς: ἐπὰν γὰρ ἐς τὰ χωρία ἀφίκωνται ὅθεν ἄγειν ἔστι τὰς ψυχάς, ἃς ποθοῦσιν οἱ δεόμενοι, ἀφικνοῦνται ἔνθα τεθνᾶσιν οἱ ψυχαγωγούμενοι: καὶ οὐχ εὑρίσκουσι παραχρῆμα τὸν χῶρον, ἀλλὰ ἀνιχνεύουσι τὸν τρόπον τοῦτον. πρόβατον μέλαν παραλαβόντες, εἶτα τοῦ κέρατος τοῦ ἑτέρου λαβόμενοι ἢ τῶν ποδῶν τῶν προσθίων καὶ ἐπὶ τοῖς ποσὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις στήσαντες περιάγουσι: τὸ δὲ ἕπεται τῇ ἕλξει, καὶ μάλα εὐπειθῶς. ὅταν δὲ ἀφίκηται ἔνθα ἐκεῖνος ἢ ἐκείνη κατ- ηνέχθη, ἐνταῦθα τὸ πρόβατον ἑαυτὸ ἔρριψε: καὶ τούτου γενομένου, εἶτα τὸ πρόβατον ἐκποδὼν ποιήσαντες καὶ κατακρύψαντες σὺν καί τισι ποικίλαις ἱερουργίαις καὶ ἐπῳδαῖς περιηγοῦνται καὶ περιέρχονται αὐτὰ καὶ ἀκούουσι λεγόντων καὶ τὰς αἰτίας, δι' ἃς μηνίουσι, πυνθάνονται. ἐψυχαγώγησε δὲ καὶ Ἀντωνῖνος ὁ Ῥωμαίων βασιλεὺς περὶ Κομόδου τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ. φησὶ Πολύβιος, οὗτοι μὲν περὶ ταῦτα διέτριβον, ψυχαγωγοῦντες τὰς δυνάμεις. ἀντὶ τοῦ παραμυθούμενοι.
Notes:
The SOL headword here, mistakenly, is the first word of the entry itself. The true headword, ψυχαγωγεῖ , is presumably extracted from the Aristophanic quotation given. For this verb cf. epsilon 4077.
[1] Likewise or similarly in other lexica.
[2] Aristophanes, Birds 1553-5 (web address 1). For the 'Shadow-feet' see sigma 600, sigma 601. For Socrates, see sigma 829.
[3] The material which follows is perhaps from Aelian (so Adler; Bernhardy, more cautiously, suggested a writer 'from the [Second] sophistic era').
[4] Tentatively attributed by Adler to John of Antioch, who also noted Kuster's suggestion that the names be reversed: Commodus asks about his father 'Antoninus' (actually Marcus Aurelius). But see now C. Theodoridis in his Photius edition (vol.II p.XC), attributing the passage to Cassius Dio (77.15.4: vol.III p.392.7-9 Boissevain = Excerpta de virtutibus II p.395.21-24). In this context 'Antoninus' is Caracalla, and modern editors supply 'and' between the mentions of his father (sc. Septimius Severus) and Commodus.
[5] Polybius fr. 89 Büttner-Wobst.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; history; imagery; religion; zoology
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 12 January 2006@01:43:34.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 12 January 2006@03:10:15.
David Whitehead (another x-ref; another keyword; tweaks) on 23 April 2010@04:54:26.
David Whitehead (expanded and modified n.4) on 11 October 2011@07:24:42.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 11 October 2011@23:51:57.
David Whitehead (another note; tweaking) on 7 November 2013@03:20:29.
David Whitehead (expanded primary note) on 8 November 2013@02:59:54.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 4 December 2014@10:50:29.
Ronald Allen (cosmeticule n.5) on 22 October 2018@17:32:06.

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