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Headword: Ὁρισμός
Adler number: omicron,565
Translated headword: definition
Vetting Status: high
[Note] that when the definitions are admitted, some [are admitted] on the basis of matter, others on the basis of form, others on the basis of both things. And the [definition that is] a principle of demonstration[1] is the [definition] on the basis of form, the [definition that is] a conclusion is the one on the basis of matter,[2] and the demonstration differing in arrangement is the [definition] on the basis of both things.[3] For example, someone wishing to define 'rage' has made use of the following argument: 'a raging person desires to vex in return the one who was originally responsible for his pain; in the one desiring to vex in return the blood around the heart boils over'. Then the conclusion [is]: 'so in the raging person the blood around the heart boils over'. Now the on-the-basis-of-matter definition of rage is the conclusion of this deduction and demonstration, but the one on the basis of form is a principle [of such a demonstration]. For the first premise is the one saying: 'a raging person desires to vex in return', and the second one is 'in the person desiring to vex in return the blood around the heart boils over'. But we conversely begin with the definition on the basis of both things: for we mention the boiling of blood around the heart, and then [what happens] due to the desire to vex in return. The perfect definition teaches not only the fact, but also the cause.[4]
Greek Original:
Ὁρισμός: ὅτι τῶν ὁρισμῶν λαμβανομένων τῶν μὲν ἐκ τῆς ὕλης, τῶν δὲ ἐκ τοῦ εἴδους, τῶν δὲ ἐκ τοῦ συναμφοτέρου, ὁ μέν ἐστιν ἀρχὴ ἀποδείξεως ὁ ἐκ τοῦ εἴδους, ὁ δὲ συμπέρασμα ὁ ἐκ τῆς ὕλης, ὁ δὲ ἀπόδειξις τῇ θέσει διαφέρουσα ὁ ἐκ τοῦ συναμφοτέρου. οἷον βουλόμενός τις ὁρίσασθαι τὸν θυμὸν κέχρηται συλλογισμῷ τοιούτῳ: ὁ θυμούμενος ὀρέγεται ἀντιλυπῆσαι τὸν ἄρξαντα τῆς λύπης: τοῦ ὀρεγομένου ἀντιλυπῆσαι ζεῖ τὸ περὶ καρδίαν αἷμα: εἶτα τὸ συμπέρασμα: τοῦ θυμουμένου ἄρα ζεῖ τὸ περὶ καρδίαν αἷμα. τούτου οὖν τοῦ συλλογισμοῦ καὶ τῆς ἀποδείξεως ὁ μὲν ἐκ τῆς ὕλης ὁρισμὸς τοῦ θυμοῦ συμπέρασμά ἐστιν, ὁ δὲ ἐκ τοῦ εἴδους ἀρχή: ἔστι γὰρ ἡ πρώτη πρότασις ἡ λέγουσα, ὁ θυμούμενος ὀρέγεται ἀντιλυπήσεως, ἡ δευτέρα δὲ τοῦ ὀρεγομένου ἀντιλυπήσεως ζεῖ τὸ περὶ καρδίαν αἷμα, ἐν μέντοι τῷ ὁρισμῷ τῷ ἐκ τοῦ συναμφοτέρου ἀνάπαλιν ἀρχόμεθα: ζέσις γὰρ φαμὲν τοῦ περικαρδίου αἵματος, εἶτα δι' ὄρεξιν ἀντιλυπήσεως. ὁ δὲ τέλειος ὁρισμὸς οὐ μόνον τὸ ὅτι, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὴν αἰτίαν διδάσκει.
Until the final sentence (for which see n.4 below) this entry follows John Philoponus, Commentary on Aristotle's de anima 231.6-7 and 14-28; cf. generally Aristotle, Posterior Analytics 75b30-32 and 94a11-14.
[1] Aristotle, An. Post. 75b31.
[2] Aristotle, An. Post. 75b32.
[3] Aristotle, An. Post. 75b32.
[4] People with experience (ἔμπειροι ), Aristotle says, know the fact (τὸ ὅτι ), i.e. that things are so, while those who really know something know the "why" (τὸ διότι ), i.e. the cause (see Metaphysics 981a28-30).
Keywords: definition; ethics; imagery; medicine; philosophy
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 4 December 2003@18:20:01.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented and modified primary note; cosmetics) on 5 December 2003@04:24:14.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaking) on 10 July 2013@03:21:18.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 1 February 2015@23:16:56.


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