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Headword: Μύωψ
Adler number: mu,1430
Translated headword: horse-fly; goad, spur
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the gadfly.[1]
A kind of fly which irritates cattle.[2]
The word occurs in Callimachus in Hecale, "a horse-fly certain [with] cattle"; [meaning] a horse-fly scaring away and pursuing the cattle.[3]
Also called a μύωψ is the horse's spur, the iron thing which they wear on the foot and goad horses.
Polybius [writes]: "but he applied the spurs from both sides [sc. of his horse] and drove on triumphant."[4]
Also in the Epigrams: "Lysidice [sc. dedicates] to you, o Cyprian,[5] her horse-training spur, the golden goad she wore on her well-greaved leg."[6] And elsewhere: "[sc. he dedicates] his ox-guiding, sharp-ironed, threatening goad."[7] And elsewhere: "[sc. he dedicates] the bloodied points of his horse-driving goad."[8]
Greek Original:
Μύωψ: ὁ οἶστρος. μυῖά τις ἐρεθίζουσα τὰς βοῦς. λέγεται παρὰ Καλλιμάχῳ ἐν Ἑκάλῃ, βοῦς σῶος μύωψ: τοὺς βοῦς σοβῶν καὶ διώκων μύωψ. λέγεται Μύωψ καὶ ἡ μάστιξ τοῦ ἵππου, τὸ σιδήριον, ὃ ἐπὶ τοῦ ποδὸς φοροῦσι κεντοῦντες τοὺς ἵππους. Πολύβιος: ὁ δὲ προσθεὶς τοὺς μύωπας ἐξ ἀμφοτέροιν τοῖν μεροῖν ἤλαυνε κατακράτος. καὶ ἐν Ἐπιγράμμασι: Λυσιδίκη σοι, Κύπρι, τὸν ἱππαστῆρα μύωπα, χρύσεον εὐκνήμου κέντρον ἔθηκε ποδός. καὶ αὖθις: βουστρόφον ἀκροσίδαρον ἀπειλητῆρα μύωπα. καὶ αὖθις: κέντρα τ' ἐναιμόεντα διωξίπποιο μύωπος.
Notes:
The headword is a masculine noun in the nominative (and vocative) singular. It has three meanings according to LSJ s.v.: (1) a species of biting fly, probably from the genus Tabanus, that pesters livestock; (2) a spur; and (3) metaphorically, an incentive; cf. Chantraine s.v. (1).
[1] The first gloss is a masculine noun in the nominative singular; see LSJ s.v., which tentatively identifies it as Tabanus bovinus. Also see the scholia to Homer, Odyssey 22.299 (web address 1); Hesychius mu2017; Etymologicum Gudianum s.v.; omicroniota 180; and omicroniota 181. The μύωψ is distinguished from the οἶστρος at Aristotle, History of Animals 490a20 and 596b14. [In her critical apparatus, Adler notes that mss AGF omit this gloss and that ms M inserts it above the passage.]
[2] Same glossing of the headword in Photius' Lexicon (mu641 Theodoridis), Hesychius mu2017, and the Synagoge; cf. Lexica Segueriana 305.16, ps.-Zonaras 1380.3, and Etymologicum Magnum 596.21 (Kallierges). Adler also cites Etymologicum Genuinum.
[3] A garbling of a phrase in Callimachus, Hecale fr. 301 Pfeiffer (accusative case there), with comment from the scholia there.
[4] Polybius fr. 61 Büttner-Wobst. An example of the headword's sense as a spur also occurs at Polybius 11.18.4 (web address 2): προσθέντα τοὺς μύωπας (having applied the spurs). [Adler notes that mss GM preferred the genitive plural ἀμφοτέρων τῶν μερῶν (from either of the sides) for the Suda's dual number; cf. Büttner-Wobst, p. 523.]
[5] Epithet of the goddess Aphrodite, born in the east, and traditionally linked to the island of Cyprus, where her most prominent cults were located; see OCD(4) s.v. Aphrodite, kappa 2738, and alpha 974 (end).
[6] Greek Anthology 5.202.1-2, Asclepiades' epigram to the hetaera Lysidice (Gow and Page, Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, p. 45; vol. II, pp. 120-1). [This and the next two excerpts from the Greek Anthology were omitted by ms. F (so Adler).]
[7] Greek Anthology 6.95.1, Antiphilus' epigram to the plowman Parmis (Gow and Page, The Garland of Philip, vol. I, pp. 100-1; vol. II, pp. 126-7).
[8] Greek Anthology 6.233.5, Maccius' epigram to Stratius, a horseman (Gow and Page, The Garland of Philip, vol. I, pp. 282-3; vol. II, pp. 314-6).
References:
P. Chantraine, Dictionnaire Étymologique de la Langue Grecque, Paris: Klincksieck, 1968-80
T. Büttner-Wobst, ed., Polybii Historiae, vol. IV, Teubner: Leipzig, 1904
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1965
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. II, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1965
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: The Garland of Philip and Some Contemporary Epigrams, vol. I, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: The Garland of Philip and Some Contemporary Epigrams, vol. II, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: agriculture; biography; clothing; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; gender and sexuality; historiography; history; imagery; military affairs; poetry; religion; trade and manufacture; women; zoology
Translated by: Ronald Allen on 11 August 2009@01:54:09.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 11 August 2009@03:53:46.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 29 May 2013@06:22:40.
David Whitehead on 9 August 2014@09:20:45.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 11 July 2015@15:11:28.
David Whitehead (coding) on 18 May 2016@11:26:35.

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