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Headword: Λώτ
Adler number: lambda,739
Translated headword: Lot
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
This man was a nephew of Abraham.
So the angels[1] departed for Sodom to wipe out the cities because of their sins. But Abraham supplicated [God] not to destroy the righteous with the impious, probably on account of Lot.[2] Now the angels, being in Sodom, received hospitality from Lot. Then the Sodomites were trying to drag them away for debauchery. When he offered his daughters instead, because of his hospitality to strangers, since [the men of Sodom] were not dissuaded, their sight was destroyed by the angels,[3] but Lot together with his daughters and with his wife was sent out. His wife, because she turned around, was changed into a pillar of salt. Now Lot was delivered to Segor[4] and was the partial cause for the salvation of the city, when the men disappeared, as Scripture[5] says, after the remaining four cities were destroyed and after a salt pan[6] was made to exist on the land at the same time. And on the mountain after he was made drunk he had sex with his daughters, and was the father of both Moab and Ammon.[7] Now when the sons of Israel were in Sattin[8] they committed fornication with the daughters of the Moabites; they served idols and worshiped Beelphegor,[9] and participated in sacrifices. But Moses incited against them those who had not sinned, and twenty-four thousand were killed. Phineas the priest seized an Israelite named Zambri,[10] who had been sexually involved with a Midianite named Chasbith,[11] ran them both through and caused the wrath of God to cease.[12]
Greek Original:
Λώτ: οὗτος ἀνεψιὸς ἦν Ἀβραάμ. ἀπῄεσαν οὖν οἱ ἄγγελοι εἰς Σόδομα ἀφανίσαι τὰς πόλεις διὰ τὰς ἁμαρτίας αὐτῶν. ὁ δὲ Ἀβραὰμ ἱκέτευσε δίκαιον μετὰ ἀσεβοῦς μὴ συναπολέσαι, τάχα διὰ τὸν Λώτ. οἱ δὲ ἄγγελοι ἐν Σοδόμοις γενόμενοι ξενίας ἔτυχον παρὰ τοῦ Λώτ. οἱ δὲ Σοδομῖται ἀποσπᾶν αὐτοὺς ἐπειρῶντο πρὸς διαφθοράν. τοῦ δὲ διὰ φιλοξενίαν ἀντιπροί̈σχοντος τὰς θυγατέρας, ὡς οὐκ ἐπείθοντο, οἱ μὲν ὑπὸ τῶν ἀγγέλων ἠφανίζοντο τὰς ὄψεις, ὁ δὲ ἅμα ταῖς θυγατράσι καὶ τῇ συμβίῳ ἐξεπέμπετο: ἥτις μεταστραφεῖσα μετεβλήθη ὡς στήλην ἁλός. ὁ δὲ Λὼτ εἰς Σηγὼρ διασωθεὶς τῇ τε πόλει παραίτιος ἐγένετο σωτηρίας, τῶν ἀνδρῶν ἀφανισθέντων, ὡς λόγος, τῶν δὲ λοιπῶν δ# διαφθαρεισῶν καὶ τῆς λίμνης ἅμα τῇ γῇ ἀνατραπείσης. κἀν τῷ ὄρει μεθυσθεὶς ταῖς θυγατράσι συνῆλθε τεκνοῖ τε τὸν Μωὰβ καὶ τὸν Ἄμμων. οἱ δὲ υἱοὶ Ἰσραὴλ ὄντες ἐν Σαττὶν ἐξεπόρνευσαν ταῖς θυγατράσι τῶν Μωαβιτῶν, εἰδωλολατρήσαντες καὶ προσκυνήσαντες τῷ Βεελφεγώρ, καὶ τῶν θυσιῶν μετέλαβον. Μωϋσῆς δὲ παρώξυνε κατ' αὐτῶν τοὺς οὐχ ἁμαρτόντας: καὶ ἀνῃρέθησαν δισμύριοι καὶ τετρακισχίλιοι. Φινεὲς δὲ ὁ ἱερεὺς καταλαβὼν Ἰσραηλίτην, ὄνομα Ζαμβρί, συμπεπλεγμένον Μαδιανίτιδι, ᾗ ὄνομα Χασβίθ, ἀμφοτέρους διέπειρε καὶ τὸν θυμὸν ἔπαυσε τοῦ θεοῦ.
Notes:
For Lot in the Suda see also under alpha 69, sigma 253, sigma 294.
[1] For the story of the visit of the angels to Abraham and the destruction of the cities of the plain, see Genesis 18-19. At the beginning of the story the Septuagint says "God appeared" to Abraham in 18.1 but in 18.2, 16, 22 they are referred to as "men." In 19.1 the two who go to destroy are called "angels." This parallels the Hebrew exactly, except that in 18.1 the Massoretic text has "LORD" instead of "God." Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 1.196, simply calls them "angels."
[2] Genesis 18.16-33.
[3] The biblical account mentions how the Sodomites, surrounding the house of Lot and demanding the angels, were struck blind so that they could not find the door to Lot's house.
[4] This spelling of the Hebrew צוֹעַר is the same as that in the LXX. Josephus, AJ 1.204, spells the name Ζωώρ .
[5] For λόγος referring to Scripture, see Lampe, Patristic Greek Lexicon, s.v., λόγος I.A.9.
[6] Greek λίμνη , which LSJ defines as "a pond of standing water." What we call the Dead Sea is not called a λίμνη in the 39 books of the Jewish Greek Bible, but the Salt Sea, ἡ θάλασσα τῶν ἁλῶν (e.g., Genesis 14.3), or "the sea east of the city of palms," ἡ θάλασσα ἡ πρὸς ἀνατολὰς φοινικῶνος (Ezekiel 47.18). However, in 1 Maccabees 11.35, we read ἡ τοῦ ἡλὸς λίμνη , which Brenton (The Septuagint Version) renders "salt pits" and Goldstein (1 Maccabees, 430, 433, and 406) "salt pans."
[7] Genesis 19.30-38.
[8] The LXX reads Σαττείν for the Hebrew שיטים Shittim.
[9] The Suda here follows the LXX; the Hebrew has בַּעַל פְּעוֹר Baal-Peor.. The second letter of Peor, ע ayin, is a guttural consonant. At times it was not transliterated into Greek, but at other times (usually at the beginning of words, see Blass, Debrunner, Funk, sect. 39) it was rendered by the Greek gamma as here.
[10] Spelling as in the LXX; Josephus has Ζαμβρίας . The Hebrew is זִמְרִי (Zimri).
[11] The Suda reads Χασβίθ ; the LXX at Numbers 25.15 reads Χοσβί ; Josephus, AJ 4.153, reads Χοσβία . The Hebrew is כְָּזְבִּי (Kosbi).
[12] For this story see Numbers 25.1-15; cf. phi 466.
References:
Josephus. H. St. J. Thackeray et al., trans. 10 vols. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1926-1965
The Septuagint Version of the Old Testament and Apocrypha. Lancelot C.L. Brenton, trans. 1854; rpt., London: Samuel Bagster and Sons Limited, n.d.
Blass F., A. Debrunner and Robert W. Funk. A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1961
Goldstein, Jonathan A. I Maccabees. Anchor Bible. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, 1976
Hull, E. "Dead Sea", A Dictionary of the Bible, James Hastings, ed. 1898; rpt., Peabody, Mass.: Hendricksen, 1998, 1:575-7
Lampe, G.W.H. A Patristic Greek Lexicon. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961
Keywords: biography; children; ethics; food; gender and sexuality; geography; history; religion; women
Translated by: Lee Fields on 22 May 2001@11:47:55.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (modified translation and notes; restorative cosmetics) on 22 November 2003@13:46:30.
Catharine Roth (modified the translation some more) on 22 November 2003@22:11:58.
Catharine Roth (replaced defunct links) on 22 November 2003@22:17:55.
David Whitehead (added initial note and another keyword; cosmetics) on 23 November 2003@09:44:06.
Raphael Finkel (Added Hebrew) on 11 August 2004@16:09:42.
Catharine Roth (removed links, added cross-reference and keyword) on 9 November 2011@01:14:35.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaking; raised status) on 22 April 2013@08:03:12.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 23 October 2014@00:43:03.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 23 October 2014@00:46:05.
David Whitehead (more codings) on 17 May 2016@04:38:16.

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