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Headword: Λῆμα
Adler number: lambda,441
Translated headword: will
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Worth and courage. Thought, glory.[1]
"For the child brings such will to light."[2]
And Aristophanes in Clouds [writes]: "he has a will which is not cowardly."[3] That is, daring. And elsewhere: "wild will."[4] That is, warlike thought. And elsewhere: "[she] has displayed another thought even more refined than the first!"[5] And elsewhere: "I will show myself courageous in will and watching sourly."[6] Meaning watching sharply.
Herodotus [writes]: "Artemisia went out with the army with will and courage, without any compulsion."[7]
[Aristophanes writes] regarding Euripides and Aeschylus: "both had courage which was not cowardly, minds not idle. One should expect Euripides on the one hand to say something refined and polished; and on the other Aeschylus, on the attack, to toss up great dust clouds of words, pulling up speeches root and branch."[8]
The [word] λῆμμα written with two mus [means] "propositions" in Aristotle, which is to say, "inquiry." Inquiry is the cause of answering, which is that from which comes a syllogism; which is also called λῆμμα. And [here is an example of] the proposition of a one-premise [syllogism]: for example, you breath; therefore, you are alive. For what is omitted is clear: whatever breaths lives. ἐνθυμήματα are also such things, [such as] "they are worthy of punishment, for they are temple-robbers." What is omitted is that "those who are temple-robbers are worthy of punishment."[9]
Greek Original:
Λῆμα: ἀξία καὶ ἀνδρεία. φρόνημα, κέρδος. τοιοῦτον γὰρ ὁ παῖς ὅδε λῆμα φαείνει. καὶ Ἀριστοφάνης Νεφέλαις: λῆμα μὲν πάρεστι τῷδέ γ' οὐκ ἄτολμον. τουτέστι τολμηρόν. καὶ αὖθις: λῆμα θούριον. τουτέστι φρόνημα πολεμικόν. καὶ αὖθις: ἕτερον αὖ τι λῆμα τοῦτο κομψότερον ἔτ', ἢ τὸ πρότερον ἀναπέφηνε. καὶ αὖθις: παρέξομ' αὐτὸν ἀνδρεῖον τὸ λῆμα καὶ βλέποντ' ὀρίγανον. ἀντὶ τοῦ βλέποντα δριμύ. Ἡρόδοτος: ἡ δὲ Ἀρτεμισία ὑπὸ λήματος καὶ ἀνδρηί̈ης ἐστρατεύετο, οὐδεμιῆς ἐούσης ἀναγκαίης. περὶ δὲ Εὐριπίδου καὶ Αἰσχύλου: λῆμα δ' οὐκ ἄτολμον ἀμφοῖν, οὐδ' ἀκίνητοι φρένες. προσδοκᾶν οὖν εἰκός ἐστι, τὸν μὲν Εὐριπίδην ἀστεῖόν τι λέξαι καὶ κατερρινημένον: Αἰσχύλον τὸν δ' ἀνασπῶντ' αὐτοπρέμνοις τοῖς λόγοις ἐμπεσόντα συσκεδᾶν πολλὰς ἀλινδήθρας ἐπῶν. τὸ δὲ διὰ τῶν δύο μμ γραφόμενον λῆμμα, αἱ προτάσεις παρὰ Ἀριστοτέλει, τουτέστιν ἡ ἐρώτησις. ἡ γὰρ ἐρώτησις αἰτία τῆς ἀποκρίσεως, ἥτις ἐστίν, ἐξ ἧς ὁ συλλογισμός: ἣν καὶ λῆμμα λέγουσι. καὶ μονολήμματος πρότασις: οἷον, ἀναπνεῖς: ζῇς ἄρα. πρόδηλον γὰρ τὸ παραλελειμμένον, τό, πᾶν τὸ ἀναπνέον ζῇ. τοιαῦτά εἰσι καὶ τὰ ἐνθυμήματα, οὗτοι κολάσεως ἄξιοι: ἱερόσυλοι γάρ. παρεῖται γὰρ τό, τοὺς ἱεροσύλους ἀξίους εἶναι κολάσεως.
Notes:
cf. kappa 445.
[1] Same glossing, variously, in other lexica (and scholia).
[2] Quotation not identified by Adler: Callimachus, Hecale fr. 345 Pfeiffer.
[3] Aristophanes, Clouds 457-8, with scholion.
[4] Aristophanes, Knights 757, with scholion; cf. theta 419.
[5] Aristophanes, Thesmophoriazusae 458-60.
[6] Aristophanes, Frogs 602-3, with scholion. Modern texts generally have "παρέξω 'μαυτὸν."
[7] Herodotus 7.99.1 (abbreviated).
[8] Aristophanes, Frogs 899-904; cf. alpha 1233, alpha 4234, alpha 4516, kappa 981. The lexicographer has inserted the names of Aeschylus and Euripides into the quotation.
[9] The discussion of λήμματα is taken from Alexander of Aphrodisias, Commentaries on Aristotle's Topics 23.21, 36.18-9, 574.12-15.
Keywords: children; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; historiography; history; law; military affairs; philosophy; poetry; politics; tragedy; women
Translated by: Matthew Farmer on 6 March 2008@15:53:17.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 7 March 2008@03:38:23.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 27 March 2011@09:04:23.
David Whitehead on 18 April 2013@04:21:07.
David Whitehead on 18 April 2013@04:25:26.
David Whitehead (another note) on 16 May 2016@11:14:21.

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