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Headword: Κύφωνες
Adler number: kappa,2800
Translated headword: pillories
Vetting Status: high
They were timbers placed on the tendons of the condemned, so that they might not find [...] rising up.[1] Aristophanes in Wealth [writes]: "o racks and pillories, will you not come to my aid?"[2] A pillory is a wooden binding which some call a 'collar' and others a 'woody'. Hence even a criminal person [is called] a pillory. It is also applied to all things that are difficult and destructive. Also 'pillorization' [is applied] to punishments. Archilochos [uses the term] to means evil and destructive. It is called a 'pillory' [κύφων ] from the fact that the captives are compelled to bend over [κύφειν ].
"But if someone be so bold and pay no heed to what is in the law, let him be bound to the pillory next to the town hall for 20 days, doused in honey, naked, and in milk, to that he may be dinner for bees and flies. And when the time has passed, that he be pushed off a cliff, wrapping him in a woman's robe."[3]
Greek Original:
Κύφωνες: ξύλα ἦσαν ἐπιτιθέμενα εἰς τοὺς τένοντας τῶν καταδίκων, ἵνα μὴ εὕρωσιν ἀνακύψαν. Ἀριστοφάνης Πλούτῳ: ὦ τύμπανα καὶ κύφωνες, οὐκ ἀρήξετε; κύφων δέ ἐστι δεσμὸς ξύλινος, ὃν οἱ μὲν κλοιόν, οἱ δὲ καλιὸν ὀνομάζουσιν. ἔνθεν καὶ ὁ πονηρὸς ἄνθρωπος κύφων. τάσσεται καὶ ἐπὶ πάντων δυσχερῶν καὶ ὀλεθρίων. καὶ κυφανισμὸς ἐπὶ τῶν τιμωριῶν. Ἀρχίλοχος δὲ ἀντὶ τοῦ κακὸς καὶ ὀλέθριος. εἴρηται κύφων παρὰ τὸ ἀναγκάζειν τοὺς δεσμίους κύφειν. ἐὰν δέ τις θρασυνόμενος τὰ ἐκ τοῦ νόμου παρ' οὐδὲν ποιήσηται, δεδέσθω ἐν κύφωνι πρὸς τῷ ἀρχείῳ ἡμερῶν κ#, ἐπιρρεόμενος μέλιτι γυμνὸς καὶ γάλακτι, ἵνα ᾖ μελίτταις καὶ μυίαις δεῖπνον. τοῦ δὲ χρόνου διελθόντος, κατὰ κρημνῶν ὠθεῖσθαι, στολὴν γυναικείαν περιβαλόντας.
[1] In place of ἀνακύψαν here the scholia to Aristophanes (see next note) read ἀνακῦψαι , producing better sense: "so that they might not find a way to rise up." From this and other references the "tendons" in question must be tendons of the upper body: the arm, perhaps, or the neck.
[2] Aristophanes, Wealth [Plutus] 476 (web address 1), preceded and followed by comments from the scholia there; cf. already kappa 2796.
[3] From Aelian fr. 42a Domingo-Forasté (39 Hercher), quoted more extensively and coherently at epsilon 2405. The text purports to be part of a law from the city of Lyktos (Lyttos) in Crete dealing with the banishment and punishment of Epicurean philosophers.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: botany; clothing; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; food; gender and sexuality; geography; history; imagery; law; medicine; philosophy; poetry; politics; women; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 9 March 2008@19:03:33.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (link, typo, status) on 9 March 2008@20:30:12.
David Whitehead (another x-ref; tweaks and cosmetics) on 10 March 2008@04:11:50.
Catharine Roth (updated reference, upgraded link) on 29 March 2012@01:25:35.
David Whitehead on 25 March 2013@10:30:41.


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