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Headword: Ἡρώδης
Adler number: eta,544
Translated headword: Herodes, Herod, Herod the Great
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Herod], the first King of the Jews. He had three sons bearing his name and with a second name: Herod Antipas who beheaded the Precursor,[1] in whose time as well the Lord was crucified; Herod Philip, to whom his first wife Herodias bore a daughter Salome, the one who danced;[2] and Herod Agrippa who beheaded James the son of Zebedee.[3] It was to him that the crowd shouted: "this is the voice of God and not of a man," and he received punishment there and then. When he had put on a garment made from silver, he entered the theater and began speaking, seated on an upraised platform. With the sun's rays striking upon the garment, the luster glittering from the sunlight on the garment struck the eyes of those standing about. With the people being raised up by this, and as if they spoke a good omen by calling him God, the wretched king excited himself the more.[4] Immediately, however, an angel of the Lord struck him suddenly, and he leaped from his seat with his stomach in shreds. When James' accuser saw the apostle being led to his death, he repented and fell at his feet, saying: "forgive me, man of God, because I have repented of those things I said against you." The holy man immediately kissed him and said to him: "peace to you, child, peace to you and forgiveness of your sin." Then, with a loud voice, the accuser immediately proclaimed himself a Christian before all, so that he also carried off the prize of martyrdom. But the wretched Herod, the trophy won, suffering for some days and gushing worms from his body, pitifully ended his life in the same manner as his most sacrilegious father.[5] So, he obtained the reward of his daring against Christ and his age-mates[6] while still alive, and thus ended his life with a shameful fate.[7]
Greek Original:
Ἡρώδης, ὁ πρῶτος βασιλεὺς Ἰουδαίων. ἔσχεν υἱοὺς ὁμωνύμους αὐτῷ καὶ διωνύμους τρεῖς: Ἡρώδην Ἀντίπαν τὸν καὶ τὸν Πρόδρομον ἀποτεμόντα, ἐφ' οὗ καὶ ὁ Κύριος ἐσταυρώθη: καὶ Ἡρώδην Φίλιππον, ᾧ πρῶτον Ἡρωδιὰς συναφθεῖσα θυγατέρα Σαλώμην ἔσχε τὴν καὶ ὀρχησαμένην: καὶ Ἡρώδην Ἀγρίππαν τὸν καὶ Ἰάκωβον ἀνελόντα τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου. πρὸς ὃν τοῦ δήμου ἐπιφωνοῦντος τότε: φωνὴ θεοῦ καὶ οὐκ ἀνθρώπου, δίκην ἔδωκεν αὐτίκα. στολὴν γὰρ ἐξ ἀργύρου πεποιημένην περιθέμενος καὶ εἰς τὸ θέατρον ἐλθὼν καὶ ἐφ' ὑψηλοῦ βήματος καθίσας ἐδημηγόρει. τῆς δὲ ἡλιακῆς ἀκτῖνος προσπεσούσης τῷ ἐνδύματι λαμπηδὼν τῇ αὐγῇ τῆς ἐσθῆτος ἀνακραθεῖσα τὰς ὄψεις τῶν περιεστώτων κατήστραψε. καὶ αἰωρηθέντων ἐπὶ τούτῳ καὶ ὡς θεὸν αὐτὸν εὐφημησάντων ἐπαίρεται πλέον ὁ δείλαιος: ὃν εὐθὺς ἄγγελος Κυρίου ἐπάταξεν ἀθρόως, καὶ ἀνεπήδησε τῆς καθέδρας ἐκ τοῦ σπαράττεσθαι δεινῶς τὴν γαστέρα αὐτοῦ. τὸν δὲ Ἰάκωβον ἰδὼν ἀπαγόμενον τὴν ἐπὶ θάνατον ὁ κατήγορος αὐτοῦ καὶ μεταμεληθεὶς προσέπεσε τοῖς ποσὶ τοῦ ἀποστόλου λέγων: συγχώρησόν μοι, ἄνθρωπε τοῦ θεοῦ, ὅτι μεταμεμέλημαι ἐφ' οἷς ἐλάλησα κατὰ σοῦ. ὁ δὲ μακάριος παραυτίκα τοῦτον καταφιλήσας εἶπεν αὐτῷ: εἰρήνη σοι τέκνον, εἰρήνη σοι καὶ συγχώρησις τοῦ πταίσματος. ὁ δὲ μετὰ φωνῆς μεγάλης εὐθέως Χριστιανὸν ἑαυτὸν ἐπὶ πάντων ἀνηγόρευσεν, ὡς καὶ τὸ τοῦ μαρτυρίου βραβεῖον ἀπενέγκασθαι. ὁ δὲ ἄθλιος Ἡρώδης ἐπὶ ἡμέρας φθειρόμενος καὶ σκώληκας ἐκβράζων ἐλεεινῶς τὸν βίον κατέλυσεν ὡς καὶ ὁ δυσσεβέστατος αὐτοῦ πατήρ. κἀκεῖνος γὰρ τἀπίχειρα τῆς κατὰ Χριστοῦ καὶ τῶν ὁμηλίκων αὐτοῦ τόλμης ἔτι περιὼν τῷ βίῳ κομισάμενος αἰσχίστῳ μόρῳ τὸν βίον κατέστρεψεν.
Notes:
George the Monk, Chronicon [III.B, ed. C. de Boor, vol. I (Stuttgart, 1978)] 308.9 - 309.19.
[1] i.e. John the Baptist; cf. under alpha 985, iota 503.
[2] For Herodias, see eta 547; for Salome, sigma 65.
[3] Herod Agrippa was in fact the grandson of Herod. Agrippa's father was Aristobulus IV, son of Herod the Great and Mariamne I of the Hasmonaean family. James is not to be confused with the brother of Jesus, but is the Apostle James the Greater, whom tradition recognizes as the evangelizer of Spain with a tomb at Santiago de Compostella. See Catholic Encyclopedia entry at web address 1.
[4] Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 19.8.2.
[5] This passage presents a confused version of Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 2.9. Eusebius referred to Acts 12:1-2 ("About that time King Herod laid violent hands upon some who belonged to the church. He had James, the brother of John, killed with the sword" NRSV). He then elaborated by citing the seventh book of the lost Hypotyposes of Clement of Alexandria. The accuser of James "was so moved at seeing him testify as to confess that he also was himself a Christian. 'So they were both led away together,' [Clement] says, 'and on the way he asked for forgiveness for himself from James. And James looked at him for a moment and said, 'Peace be to you,' and kissed him. So both were beheaded at the same time.'" The version of George the Monk, quoted here, conflates the entire story with those of the deaths of both Herod the Great and Herod Agrippa as recounted by Josephus and Eusebius (Ecclesiastical History 2.10).
[6] The "holy innocents": Matthew 2.16-18.
[7] Herod Agrippa died at the age of 54.
Reference:
Eusebius, The Ecclesiastical History, ed. and English trans. by Kirsopp Lake, Loeb Classical Library, vol. I (Cambridge MA, 1965), pp. 127-29
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; Christianity; chronology; clothing; definition; ethics; historiography; history; medicine; religion; women
Translated by: John Arnold on 21 June 2000@18:55:04.
Vetted by:
John Arnold on 21 June 2000@18:57:22.
John Arnold on 17 October 2000@12:59:51.
John Arnold on 17 October 2000@13:02:10.
Catharine Roth (modified translation slightly, reset status) on 24 January 2002@16:25:14.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 25 January 2002@03:13:48.
Catharine Roth (modified translation and notes; reset status) on 28 January 2002@13:52:37.
David Whitehead on 17 June 2002@08:41:37.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 3 October 2005@09:44:09.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; another note (now n.1); more keywords; cosmetics) on 22 February 2007@08:04:18.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added italics) on 14 April 2007@23:46:41.
Catharine Roth (deleted defunct links, other cosmetics) on 11 January 2012@01:12:06.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics; raised status) on 20 December 2012@03:34:09.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 23 December 2012@23:59:09.

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