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Headword: Χρῶμα
Adler number: chi,539
Translated headword: color
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Whenever the crystalline of the eye is colored by the agency of certain affection, it seems to us that the air and the other visible things have been colored with the same color. [...] He says that the visible, what by itself exists in the domain of the visible, is color, and says that surface is what is visible by itself.[1] Surface is visible by itself, although no such as [something] is by itself on account of definition. For [the expression] 'by itself' is double [in its meaning]: either it is that which is taken in the definition of the subject, such as 'animal' and 'rational' in the definition of man (for these belong by themselves to man), or that whose subject is taken in the definition, such as number in the definition of odd and even,[2] and nose in the definition of snubness.[3] In effect, these belong by themselves to the definition. Now, it is not thus that he says that surface is visible by itself, but insofar as it contains in itself the cause of being visible. And this is color, for the color existing in surface is what is visible, and its sights perceive [...] the color existing in volume. For even though it seems to us that we see the transparencies of stones through the whole volume, we are deceived with regard to our sights. For sights or [rather] the activities of colors, because of being transparent, pass over the stones through their volume. And we perceive the stones through the color existing in their surface. This is why it also seems to us to have seen the color existing in volume.
The Pisidian [writes]: "it is impossible that these things are colored for the sake of gratitude; all the arguments of truth are simple."[4]
On color, search in the [entry] 'gray'.[5]
Greek Original:
Χρῶμα: ὅτι ὁπηνίκα τὸ κρυσταλλοειδὲς τοῦ ὀφθαλμοῦ ἀπό τινος πάθους χρωματισθῇ, δοκοῦμεν τῷ αὐτῷ χρώματι καὶ τὸν ἀέρα καὶ τὰ ἄλλα ὁρατὰ κεχρῶσθαι. Χρῶμα δέ φησιν ὁρατὸν τὸ ἐπὶ τοῦ καθ' αὑτὸ ὑπάρχον ὁρατοῦ: καθ' αὑτὸ δὲ ὁρατόν φησι τὴν ἐπιφάνειαν. καθ' αὑτὸ δὲ ὁρατὸν ἡ ἐπιφάνεια, οὐχ οὕτως, ὡς τῷ ὁρισμῷ καθ' αὑτό: διττὸν γὰρ τὸ καθ' αὑτό. ἢ ὅπερ ἐν τῷ ὁρισμῷ τοῦ ὑποκειμένου παραλαμβάνεται, ὡς τὸ ζῷον, καὶ τὸ λογικὸν ἐν τῷ ὁρισμῷ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου [ταῦτα γὰρ καθ' αὑτὸ ὑπάρχει τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ]: ἢ οὗ ἐν τῷ ὁρισμῷ τὸ ὑποκείμενον παραλαμβάνεται, ὡς ἐν τῷ ὁρισμῷ τοῦ ἀρτίου ἢ τοῦ περιττοῦ ὁ ἀριθμός: καὶ ἐν τῷ ὁρισμῷ τῆς σιμότητος ἡ ῥίς. ταῦτα γὰρ καθ' αὑτὸ ὑπάρχουσι τῷ ὁρισμῷ. οὐχ οὕτως οὖν φησι καθ' αὑτὸ ὁρατὸν τὴν ἐπιφάνειαν, ἀλλ' ὡς ἔχουσαν ἐν ἑαυτῇ τὸ αἴτιον τοῦ ὁρατὸν εἶναι. τοῦτο δέ ἐστι τὸ χρῶμα: τὸ γὰρ ἐν τῇ ἐπιφανείᾳ χρῶμα τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ ὁρατόν, καὶ τούτου αἱ ὄψεις ἀντιλαμβάνονται, ... τοῦ ἐν βάθει χρώματος: τοὺς γὰρ διαφανεῖς τῶν λίθων εἰ καὶ δοκοῦμεν ὁρᾶν δι' ὅλου τοῦ βάθους κεχρωσμένους, τὰς ὄψεις ἀπατώμεθα. τῷ μὲν γὰρ διαφανεῖς εἶναι τοὺς λίθους διαβαίνουσι διὰ τοῦ βάθους αἱ ὄψεις ἢ τῶν χρωμάτων αἱ ἐνέργειαι. διὰ τοῦ χρώματος δὲ τοῦ ἐν τῇ ἐπιφανείᾳ τῶν λίθων ἀντιλαμβανόμεθα: καὶ διὰ τοῦτο δοκοῦμεν καὶ τὸ ἐν βάθει χρῶμα ἑωρακέναι. καὶ Πισίδης: οὐκ ἔστι ταῦτα πρὸς χάριν κεχρωσμένα: ἁπλοῖ δὲ πάντες τῆς ἀληθείας λόγοι. ζήτει περὶ χρώματος ἐν τῷ φαιόν.
Notes:
The first and principal section of this entry is taken (with slight variations) from John Philoponus, On Aristotle's de anima 293.2-3 and 320.6-26.
For the headword see already chi 538.
[1] See Aristotle, de anima 418a29-30.
[2] cf. Aristotle, Posterior Analytics 84a12 ff.
[3] cf. Aristotle, Metaphysics 1030b17-19, 1037a31, 1064a25.
[4] George of Pisidia, Persian Expedition 3.37.
[5] phi 179; see also phi 178.
Keywords: definition; imagery; mathematics; medicine; philosophy; poetry; science and technology
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 10 May 2003@16:07:49.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 11 May 2003@05:56:10.
Ross Scaife ✝ (fixed typo, upped status) on 14 November 2003@15:34:32.
Catharine Roth (added keyword) on 29 September 2005@11:22:16.
David Whitehead on 13 November 2013@09:47:40.
David Whitehead (tweaked a note) on 5 February 2014@08:23:30.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 26 November 2014@19:33:10.

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