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Headword: *dioklh=s
Adler number: delta,1155
Translated headword: Diokles, Diocles
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Athenian or Phliasian,[1] an ancient comic poet,[2] contemporary with Sannyrion[3] and Philyllius.[4] His plays [are] Sea, Bees, Dreams, Bacchae, Thyestes (2 versions).
They say that this man also invented the music made with saucers, pottery vessels, which he used to hit with a wooden stick.[5]
This Sea is a courtesan's name, as Athenaeus says.[6]
Greek Original:
*dioklh=s, *)aqhnai=os h)\ *flia/sios, a)rxai=os kwmiko/s, su/gxronos *sannuri/wni kai\ *filulli/w|. dra/mata au)tou= *qa/latta, *me/littai, *)/oneiroi, *ba/kxai, *que/sths b#. tou=ton de/ fasin eu(rei=n kai\ th\n e)n toi=s o)cuba/fois a(rmoni/an e)n o)straki/nois a)ggei/ois, a(/per e)/krouen e)n culifi/w|. to\ de\ *qa/latta e(tai/ras o)/noma/ e)stin, w(s *)aqh/naio/s fhsin.
Notes:
c.400 BC; OCD4 s.v. Diocles(2); PCG 5.18ff.
[1] i.e., in the latter case, from Phleious in the NE Peloponnese (cf. pi 2230, pi 3239, tau 631).
[2] Or (clumsily expressed): a poet of Old Comedy.
[3] sigma 93.
[4] phi 457.
[5] cf. alpha 3977, xi 98, omicron 421.
[6] Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 13.567C (13.21 Kaibel).
Keywords: biography; chronology; comedy; dreams; gender and sexuality; geography; meter and music; mythology; trade and manufacture; women
Translated by: David Whitehead on 12 May 2003@07:36:40.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth on 29 May 2003@00:07:24.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 15 October 2003@06:39:47.
David Whitehead (x-refs) on 21 April 2004@04:20:52.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@08:33:27.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaking) on 12 July 2012@04:35:33.
David Whitehead on 3 August 2014@05:21:09.
David Whitehead on 14 January 2015@10:53:19.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 24 January 2021@22:30:43.

Headword: *katadikasa/menos
Adler number: kappa,530
Translated headword: having secured a condemnation
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Meaning [he] having won [sc. in court] and caused someone to be condemned. Isaeus in the [speech] Against Diokles, for outrageous assault [sc. uses the word].[1]
Greek Original:
*katadikasa/menos: a)nti\ tou= nikh/sas kai\ katadikasqh=nai/ tina poih/sas. *)isai=os e)n tw=| kata\ *diokle/ous u(/brews.
Notes:
= Harpokration (and Photius) s.v.
[1] Isaeus fr. 22 Sauppe. (And LSJ s.v. katadika/zw cites other instances of the middle voice in this sense: Isaeus 4.9, 10.24.)
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; law; rhetoric
Translated by: David Whitehead on 29 November 2000@07:41:06.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth on 26 March 2002@15:32:58.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 17 September 2002@08:52:26.
David Whitehead (expanded notes; tweaks) on 11 July 2011@04:45:27.

Headword: *katw|kodo/mhsen
Adler number: kappa,1110
Translated headword: built in
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Isaeus [uses this word] to mean he/she/it shut up in a building and killed.
Greek Original:
*katw|kodo/mhsen: *)isai=os a)nti\ tou= kate/kleisen ei)s oi)/khma kai\ a)pe/kteine.
Notes:
Isaeus fr. 23 Sauppe, from the lost speech Against Diokles.
Harpokration s.v. gives this reference in full, and there is no good case for thinking that it was meant to be Isaeus 8.41. See D. Whitehead, "Harpocrationiana", Eikasmos 8 (1997) 157-164, at 160-1.
Keywords: architecture; biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; rhetoric; science and technology
Translated by: David Whitehead on 30 November 2000@05:29:24.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 10 September 2003@21:26:52.
David Whitehead (added keyword; cosmetics) on 11 September 2003@03:04:46.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 11 July 2011@05:28:40.
David Whitehead on 11 February 2013@06:38:16.

Headword: *tripth=ra
Adler number: tau,1004
Translated headword: tripter
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Isaeus in the speech Against Diokles [sc. uses the word].[1] A tripter is a flat cask, like a wine-press, as Nikandros says.[2] One might assign it that meaning in the present instance, from the orator, for the word signifies many other things.[3]
Greek Original:
*tripth=ra: *)isai=os e)n tw=| [kata\] *diokle/ous. tripth/r e)sti piqa/knh, e)kpe/talos, oi(=a ta\ e)pilh/nia, w(s *ni/kandro/s fhsi. e)pi\ tou/tou d' a)\n ta/ttoito nu=n para\ tw=| r(h/tori. polla\ ga\r kai\ a)/lla shmai/nei tou)/noma.
Notes:
Abridged from Harpokration s.v. The headword is accusative case.
[1] Isaeus fr. 24 Sauppe.
[2] FGrH 343 F4.
[3] See LSJ s.v.
Keywords: daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; food; historiography; rhetoric; trade and manufacture
Translated by: David Whitehead on 21 December 2000@08:23:36.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule, keyword, status) on 12 November 2004@13:09:39.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 14 November 2004@04:54:28.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks) on 14 July 2011@05:25:44.

Headword: *turanni/wn
Adler number: tau,1184
Translated headword: Tyrannio, Tyrannion
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Son of Epicratides and Lindia, an Alexandrian woman; of Amisos.[1] He was surnamed Corymbus. He lived in the time of Pompey the Great and earlier; a pupil of (among others) Hestiaeus of Amisos,[2] who in fact gave him the name Tyrannio (because he ran down his fellow-pupils); previously he was called Theophrastus. Then he studied with Dionysius the Thracian in Rhodes.[3] As a sophist he was a rival to Demetrius of Erythrae.[4] He was taken to Rome, having been taken captive by Lucullus when he fought the war against Mithridates the king of Pontus. In Rome he gained distinction and wealth and purchased more than 30,000 books. He died in old age, paralysed by gout, in the 118th Olympiad, in the 3rd year of the Olympiad.[5]
Greek Original:
*turanni/wn, *)epikrati/dou kai\ *lindi/as *)alecandri/nhs, *)amishno/s. e)xrhma/tize de\ *koru/mbou, gegonw\s e)pi\ *pomphi/+ou tou= mega/lou kai\ pro/teron, maqhth\s a)/llwn te kai\ *(estiai/ou tou= *)amishnou=, u(f' ou(= kai\ *turanni/wn w)noma/sqh, w(s katatre/xwn tw=n o(mosxo/lwn, pro/teron kalou/menos *qeo/frastos. ei)=ta dih/kouse kai\ *dionusi/ou tou= *qra|ko\s e)n *(ro/dw|. a)ntesofi/steuse de\ *dhmhtri/w| tw=| *)eruqrai/w|: h)/xqh de\ ei)s *(rw/mhn, lhfqei\s ai)xma/lwtos u(po\ *loukou/llou, o(/te katepole/mhse *miqrida/thn, to\n *po/ntou basileu/santa. diapreph\s de\ geno/menos e)n *(rw/mh| kai\ plou/sios e)kth/sato kai\ bibli/wn u(pe\r ta\s trei=s muria/das. e)teleu/thse de\ ghraio/s, u(po\ poda/gras paraluqei/s, o)lumpia/di rih#, e)n tw=| g# e)/tei th=s o)lumpia/dos.
Notes:
Early C1 BC. See generally RE Tyrannion(2); OCD4 Tyrannio(1); and cf. sigma 643 (end).
[1] See alpha 1599.
[2] Otherwise unattested.
[3] [delta 1172] Dionysius.
[4] RE Demetrios(105).
[5] So the transmitted numerals, but unacceptably as regards the Olympiad number: the result would be 306 BC. Adler prints this paradosis but does refer in her critical apparatus to several suggestions for emending it; the orthodox one (Bernhardy, Usener) has 188th, i.e. 26 BC.
Reference:
W. Haas, Die Fragmente der Grammatiker Tyrannion und Diokles (SGLG 3, Berlin 1977)
Keywords: biography; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; medicine; military affairs; women
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 26 March 1999@11:45:21.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 11 September 2002@04:24:41.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 2 April 2008@07:47:43.
David Whitehead (another note and keyword) on 16 January 2014@06:51:36.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; expanded n.5) on 24 March 2014@10:41:50.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 2 August 2014@11:26:25.

Headword: *turanni/wn
Adler number: tau,1185
Translated headword: Tyrannio, Tyrannion
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The younger; of Phoenicia; his father was Artemidorus. A pupil of the older Tyrannio;[1] this is why he was named Tyrannio (previously he had been called Diocles). He too was taken prisoner, during the war between Antony and Caesar,[2] and was bought by one Dymas, who was a freedman of Caesar. Then he was given to Terentia, Cicero's wife. He was freed by her, and was a sophist in Rome. He wrote about 65 books, including the following: On Homeric Prosody; On the Parts of Speech, in which he says that proper names are indivisible, and that appelatives can form the bases for derivatives, while participles cannot; On the Roman Dialect, that the Roman dialect is derived from Greek and not indigenous;[3] The Disagreement of Modern Poets with Homer; Exegesis of Tyrannio's Division of the Parts of Speech; Textual Criticism of Homer; Orthography.
Greek Original:
*turanni/wn, o( new/teros, *foi/nic, patro\s *)artemidw/rou, maqhth\s *turanni/wnos tou= presbute/rou: dio\ kai\ w)noma/sqh *turanni/wn, pro/teron kalou/menos *dioklh=s. ai)xma/lwtos de\ geno/menos kai\ au)to\s e)pi\ tou= pole/mou *)antwni/ou kai\ *kai/saros u(po/ tinos *du/mantos w)nh/qh, tou= *kai/saros o)/ntos a)peleuqe/rou, ei)=ta e)dwrh/qh *terenti/a| th=| tou= *kike/rwnos gunaiki/. e)leuqerwqei\s de\ u(p' au)th=s e)sofi/steusen e)n *(rw/mh|. kai\ e)/graye bibli/a pro\s h# kai\ c#, w(=n kai\ tau=ta: *peri\ th=s *(omhrikh=s prosw|di/as, *peri\ tw=n merw=n tou= lo/gou, e)n w(=| le/gei, a)/toma me\n ei)=nai ta\ ku/ria o)no/mata, qematika\ de\ ta\ proshgorika/, a)qe/mata de\ ta\ metoxika/: *peri\ th=s *(rwmai+kh=s diale/ktou o(/ti e)sti\n e)k th=s *(ellhnikh=s, e)k tou= *)antige/nous o(/ti a)ntige/nhs h( *(rwmai+kh\ dia/lektos, *(/o ti diafwnou=sin oi( new/teroi poihtai\ pro\s *(/omhron, *)ech/ghsin tou= *turanni/wnos merismou=, *dio/rqwsin *(omhrikh/n, *)orqografi/an.
Notes:
C1 BC. See generally RE Tyrannion(3); OCD4 Tyrannio(2).
[1] [tau 1184] Tyrannio.
[2] 'Caesar' will be Octavian -- but the chronology does not seem to fit. Adler notes that Bernhardy doubted the transmitted name 'Antony', and she mentions A. Daub's suggestion that we should read 'Pompey'.
[3] The text is corrupt; I have translated the reconstruction in fr. 63 Haas.
Reference:
W. Haas, Die Fragmente der Grammatiker Tyrannion und Diokles (SGLG 3, Berlin 1977)
Keywords: biography; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; geography; military affairs; poetry; women
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 26 March 1999@11:43:02.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 11 September 2002@04:30:10.
David Whitehead (another note; more keywords; cosmetics) on 2 April 2008@07:42:06.
David Whitehead (withdrew this note) on 2 April 2008@07:49:17.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 16 January 2014@06:56:09.
David Whitehead (another note) on 24 March 2014@11:24:25.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 2 August 2014@11:27:08.

Headword: *culufi/wn
Adler number: xi,98
Translated headword: xylophone
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
As in reference to soft twigs, when we bend and release them.[1] [Note] that Diocles of Athens first invented music made with clay saucers, with earthenware pots, which he struck with a twig.[2]
Greek Original:
*culufi/wn: oi(=on e)pi\ tw=n a(palw=n culufi/wn, o(/tan ka/myantes a)fw=men au)ta/: o(/ti *dioklh=s o( *)aqhnai=os prw=tos eu(=re th\n e)n toi=s o)cuba/fois a(rmoni/an e)n o)straki/nois a)ggei/ois, a(/per e)/krouen e)n culufi/w|.
Notes:
Although "xylophone" is an irrestible translation for this percussion instrument, the resonating part of a xylyphion, as described here, was not actually wood at all. See generally West (below) 128, with 127.
[1] From gamma 468.
[2] From delta 1155. (There too the actual idiom, an odd one, is "in" a twig.)
References:
M.L. West, Ancient Greek Music (Oxford 1992).
OCD4 Diocles(2).
Keywords: biography; botany; chronology; geography; meter and music; science and technology; trade and manufacture
Translated by: James L. P. Butrica ✝ on 18 February 2000@12:43:30.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword and notes; cosmetics) on 11 January 2001@11:20:23.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics; raised status) on 16 September 2007@10:26:54.
David Whitehead on 19 June 2013@05:23:17.
David Whitehead on 5 August 2014@06:12:24.
David Whitehead on 30 December 2014@10:36:48.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 24 January 2021@22:32:28.

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