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Headword: *zwh/
Adler number: zeta,126
Translated headword: life, living, substance
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] protection, and survival of existent things.[1]
'Life' and 'being alive' have many meanings; that is, since there are many powers of the soul in virtue of which being alive is possible, lives [that exist] through those [powers] and [modes of] being alive are many, too. For example, [lives] in accordance with intellect, in accordance with perception, and so forth. That is why, if even one of them belongs to something, what partakes of it is said to be alive. Hence plants, in having a nutritive power, are alive, even though they do not have any of the other [powers], neither the perceptive nor that of moving in accordance with place, or any of the other [powers]. [...] Plants are said to be alive [zh=n], but they are not said to be animals [zw=|a]. For, just as we call 'runners' not those who take part in any kind of race, but those who strongly and more clearly participate in running, so too are called zw=|a ['animals'] not the things taking part in any kind of being alive and life, but those in which zh=n ["being alive"] and zwh/ ["life"] are clearer and more conspicuous.[2]
Greek Original:
*zwh/: parath/rhsis, kai\ monh\ tw=n o)/ntwn. o(/ti h( zwh\ kai\ to\ zh=n pollaxw=s le/getai, toute/sti pleio/nwn ou)sw=n yuxikw=n duna/mewn kaq' a(\s to\ zh=n e)ggi/netai, plei/ous kai\ ai( di' au)tw=n zwai\ kai\ to\ zh=n: oi(=on kata\ nou=n, kat' ai)/sqhsin, kata\ ta\ loipa/. dio\ ka)\n e(/n ti tou/twn u(pa/rxh| tini/, zh=n le/getai to\ mete/xon au)tou=. o(/qen kai\ ta\ futa\ qreptikh\n e)/xonta du/namin zh=| mhdemi/an tw=n a)/llwn e)/xonta, mh/te ai)sqhtikh\n mh/te th\n kata\ to/pon kinhtikh\n mh/te tw=n a)/llwn mhdemi/an. o(/ti zh=n me\n le/getai ta\ futa/, ou) zw=|a de\ ei)=nai. dio/ti w(/sper drome/as le/gomen ou) tou\s o(pwsou=n dro/mou mete/xontas, a)lla\ tou\s sfodrw=s kai\ trane/steron meteilhfo/tas tou= tre/xein, ou(/tw kai\ zw=|a le/gontai ou) ta\ o(pwsou=n mete/xonta tou= zh=n kai\ th=s zwh=s, a)ll' e)n oi(=s to\ zh=n kai\ h( zwh\ trano/teron kai\ perifane/stero/n e)stin.
[1] Artemidorus 3.60.
[2] Taken (with some omissions and variations) from John Philoponus, Commentary on Aristotle's De anima 233.29-234.7, 236.7-12.
Keywords: athletics; botany; daily life; definition; philosophy; zoology
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 15 January 2004@11:55:47.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword; augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 16 January 2004@03:17:29.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation, added a keyword) on 5 November 2012@01:59:35.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 30 November 2012@06:17:48.
David Whitehead (coding and other cosmetics) on 26 March 2016@09:43:14.


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